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1

Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

C. Yuangklang

2011-01-01

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Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

2009-05-15

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CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS  

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Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

Wahono Sumaryono

2011-11-01

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Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

Ganiyu, Oboh.

2006-01-15

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Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

6

Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

7

Efficient utilization of cassava pulp for succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122.  

Science.gov (United States)

A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 was efficiently utilized for succinate production from cassava pulp during batch separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) under simple anaerobic conditions. Succinate concentration of 41.46 ± 0.05 g/L with yield and productivity of 82.33 ± 0.14 g/100 g dry pulp and 0.84 ± 0.02 g/L/h was obtained. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), hydrolysis of 12 % (w/v) cassava pulp with an enzyme loading of 2 % AMG + 3 % Cel (v/w) at pH 6.5 was optimized at 39 °C. Succinate concentration of 80.86 ± 0.49 g/L with a yield of 70.34 ± 0.37 g/100 g dry pulp and a productivity of 0.84 ± 0.01 g/L/h was attained using E. coli KJ122. Fed-batch SSF significantly enhanced succinate concentration to 98.63 ± 0.12 g/L at yield and productivity of 71.64 ± 0.97 g/100 g dry pulp and 1.03 ± 0.01 g/L/h. This result indicated an efficient and economical succinate production from cassava pulp using SHF and SSF by the use of E. coli KJ122. PMID:25030337

Sawisit, Apichai; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

2015-01-01

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Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925  

OpenAIRE

Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for eth...

Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Prapassorn Rugthaworn; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Warunee Thanapase; Akihiko Kosugi; Takamitsu Arai; Yutaka Mori; Yoshinori Murata

2013-01-01

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Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

2011-04-15

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Biochemical studies on the fermentation of cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl. )  

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Some original observations have been made on the process of cassava fermentation to produce 'foofoo', a local nigerian diet. During the period of fermentation the pH of the fermenting liquor decreases from 6.1 to 3.4 at the end of the 6th day. The change in pH is uniform throughout the fermentation period. Decreases in dry weight of the fermenting cassava have been recorded; there is a very rapid decline during the third and fourth days of fermentation. Free reducing sugars decrease drastically within the first and second days. Total sugar concentration which is an indication of the starch content of the cassava also declines with fermentation time, and more so during the third and fourth days. Protein concentration in the liquor increases very rapidly during the first and second days of fermentation. It is believed that cassava protein is converted to microbial protein.

Oteng-Gyang, K.; Anuonye, C.C.

1987-01-01

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Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

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Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925  

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Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (°C and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 °C and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

2013-10-01

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Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

14

Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes  

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Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

1983-01-01

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Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava  

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The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

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Characterisation of the microflora of attiéké, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attiéké is a fermented cassava product consumed mainly in Cote d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to characterise the attiéké fermentation by examining products from 15 small-scale production sites at various stages of its preparation. For the preparation of attiéké, fresh cassava is grated to a pulp and inoculated with 10% of a spontaneous traditional inoculum. The inocula contained aerobic mesophiles at mean numbers of 8.2 x 10(7) cfu/g and lactic and acetic acids at mean concentrations of 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. The mean pH was 5.0. Lactic acid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in cassava pulp throughout fermentation with the mean numbers being 1.2 x 10(9) cfu/g after 15 h. The identification to the species level of microorganisms from one representative attiéké production of good quality showed that, at the start of fermentation, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was present in the highest numbers, accounting for 20% of all lactic acid bacteria. As the fermentation proceeded, this species was replaced by homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, present at 20% and 16%, respectively, and obligate heterofermentatives, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus confusus at 12% and 10%, respectively, of total lactic acid bacteria in the flora at the end of fermentation. High numbers of acid-sensitive microorganisms, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, were transferred to the pulp in the inocula, but acidification to a mean pH of 4.4 with mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.59% and 0.2%, respectively, prevented their growth and reduced their numbers to less than 10(2) cfu/g at the end of fermentation. The mean numbers of Candida tropicalis, the main yeast present, remained relatively constant at about 10(5) cfu/g throughout attiéké production. The mean numbers of aerobic mesophiles decreased to below 10(2) cfu/g as a result of the steaming process. The finished attiéké had a mean pH of 4.4 and mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively. PMID:16213052

Coulin, P; Farah, Z; Assanvo, J; Spillmann, H; Puhan, Z

2006-02-01

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Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi, de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp, de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5% da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente, quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%, a SCc (43,87 e 24,20% e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%. Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, neutral detergente fiber (NDF and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA in bovines fed diet with corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS, and sugar cane (SCS. The CMS, CHS and SCS were ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP. Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5% (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively than CS (45.50, 23.75%, CHS (43.87, 24.20% and SCS (40.76, 25.78%. For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

Roselene Nunes da Silveira

2002-01-01

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Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

P. Danvirutai

2010-01-01

19

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

2014-01-01

20

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

Alese M. Colehour

2014-07-01

21

Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips. Both cassava chip (CC and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresca e raspas por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM e de polpa fresca (PF foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p < 0.01 em proteínas (30,4% em RM e 13,5% in PF e conteúdo de gorduras (5,8% em RM e 3,0% in PF. Os subprodutos de mandioca fermentados por S. cerevisiae apresentaram baixos conteúdos de ácido hidrocianídrico (RM, 0,5 mg kg-1 e PF 47,3 mg kg-1. Houve aumento considerável de lisina nas raspas fermentadas (RMF. Valores aceitáveis de cor, textura e aroma das raspas de mandioca enriquecidas formam obtidos após 132 de bioprocessamento. Sugere-se que a RMF pode ser nutricionalmente melhorada para alimentação animal pelo uso de S. cerevisiae.

Krisada Boonnop

2009-10-01

22

Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis  

OpenAIRE

Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an ?-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either ...

Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Franc?oise; Bertrand, Jean-claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

1980-01-01

23

Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol  

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Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

P. Diakabana

2014-10-01

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Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8) and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The...

Danvirutai, P.; Reungsang, A.; Phowan, P.

2010-01-01

25

Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2010-01-01

26

Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

1987-06-01

27

Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

28

Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp  

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Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media described by potential references. Both complex and minimal media were developed when cultured at 35°C for 48 h. The isolates were tested for the presence of PHA accumulation by straining with 1% Nile blue A and observed under the fluorescence microscope at excitation wave length of 650 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM was used for comfirmation of PHA granules accumulation in bacterial cells. Alcaligenes eutrophus (TISTR 1095 and E. coli (TISTR 527 were used as the positive and negative control of PHAs-producing strain, respectively. This is the first report for the suitable media for detecting of PHAs-producing bacteria isolated from cassava pulp.

Sureelak Rodtong

2012-01-01

29

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

30

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

2010-08-15

31

Mechanical Semolining of Fermented Cassava Dough on Physicochemical and Sensory Characterises of Produced Attiéké  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available emolining for attiéké production is traditionally manufactured physically by hand in wooden device. The end cooked attiéké obtained is subjected to low sensory and physicochemical qualities. For avoiding its variability and enhancing high quality end product, influence of mechanical semolining of fermented cassava dough during attiéké manufactured is carried out in this study for cottage industry; industrial and household can all benefits. Experimentally 4500 g of cassava are being prepared into cassava mash which is mechanically semolined in triplicate. During the process, 25 angle tilts deviation of the machine (SI are being investigated. For each angle tilt experienced cassava dough is differently study according to the water content, inocula level adjunction and fermentation time. Samples were collected for total sugar content, cyanide content, starch content, total solid content, and grain size physical chemical and sensory analysis. As compared to traditional control, the semolina grain sizes (1.52±0.04 and 1.82±0.02 mm are attained from 26.3 to 31.6 angle tilt intervals. Consequently when cassava mash run about 52 % of the moister content, 10 or 12% amount of inocula loaded and 12 or 24 hrs of fermenting paste. Interestingly at these the optimal semolina size grain is 1.32±0.02 especially at 31° angle tilt deviation, and comparatively fitted to traditional grain sizes taken as a control. Singularly when cassava dough is left for fermenting 12 or 24 hours, the semolina grain size collapsed between 1.12±0.13 and 1.35±0.07 diameters. But when it loaded with 10 to 12% amount the semolina grain sizes get from 1.19 ± 0.06 to 1.27 ± 0.04. Finally the attiéké obtain after mechanical semolining is evaluated having very good sensory quality compared to the traditional attiéké control as regards grain sizes and homogeneity even for fresh or cooked semolina one. In conclusion, mechanical semolining is achieved in condition that cassava dough was loaded at 10% amount of inoculation and, left to ferment 12 hours. A final semolina end product could be obtained when cassava mash is moisten at 52% of solid content and semolined at 31° angle tilt deviation. Semolinor technology innovation in attiéké production could enhance attiéké texture and safety qualities so that household and industry can all benefits

Pierre Martial Thierry Akely

2014-08-01

32

Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during the fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby contribute to improve nutrition in native tribes in the region.

Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.

2007-01-01

33

Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

2009-10-15

34

Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

2011-06-01

35

Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi  

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Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

S. Mokemiabeka

2011-12-01

36

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

OpenAIRE

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 ...

Crispim, S. M.; Nascimento, A. M. A.; Costa, P. S.; Moreira, J. L. S.; Nunes, A. C.; Nicoli, J. R.; Lima, F. L.; Mota, V. T.; Nardi, R. M. D.

2013-01-01

37

Effect of Scent Leaf (Occimum viridis) on Cyanide Content of Fermented Cassava and the Sensory Quality of its Fufu Meal  

OpenAIRE

One kilogram of freshly harvested cassava samples were fermented with varying amounts (1.0, 2.0,3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g) of scent leaf (Occimum viridis), for one to five days. The effect of fermentation with theseamounts of the spice on the loss of cyanide present in cassava, and the organoleptic acceptability of theresulting fufu meal prepared from fermented product was investigated. It was observed that cassavafermentation with the spice enhanced detoxification by increasing cyanide loss during ...

Onyesom, I.

2010-01-01

38

Uji Nilai Nutrisi Kulit Ubi Kayu yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger (Nutrient Value Test of Cassava Tuber Skin Fermented by Aspergillus niger)  

OpenAIRE

Cassava tuber skin is a by-product of cassava chip industry, fermented by using mixed mineral (solid media) and Aspergillus niger. The objectives of this research was to know the increasing of nutrient value of cassava tuber skin toward the period of fermentation and several level of inoculums giving Aspergillus niger. The experiment was using completely randomized experimental of factorial design with 12 treatment and 3 replication with several level Aspergillus niger giving was: 0...

Mirwandhono, Edhy; Bachari, Irawati; Situmorang, Darwanto

2010-01-01

39

Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

2007-11-01

40

Use of Fermented Potato Pulp in Diets Fed to Lactating Sows  

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Full Text Available Fermented potato pulp is a by-product obtained from the potato-starch industry. There could be great economical and environmental advantages if it could be exploited for use as a new feed resource. This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary effect of adding 5% fermented potato pulp to diets fed to lactating sows on sow and litter performance, blood metabolites and hormones. On day 110 of gestation, 80 mixed parity sows (256.0±4.3 kg BW and 3.2±0.2 parity were moved into a farrowing room and allotted to one of two corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp in a completely random design experiment. Each treatment had 40 replicates and the sows were fed the dietary treatments until weaning following 28 days of lactation. Sow lactation weight loss tended to decrease (p = 0.09 and feed intake tended to increase (p = 0.06 when sows were fed fermented potato pulp. The weaning to estrus interval was shorter (p = 0.05 and litter weight gain was also higher (p = 0.03 for sows fed fermented potato pulp. Dietary treatments did not affect plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor I and follicle-stimulating hormone. Sows fed fermented potato pulp had higher (p = 0.02 plasma urea nitrogen and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.01 than sows fed the control diet. Feeding potato pulp tended to decrease (p = 0.06 creatinine and increase (p = 0.07 estradiol concentrations in sows plasma. These results demonstrate that feeding lactating sows diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp had a positive effect on sow and litter performance.

Xiangshu Piao

2011-01-01

41

The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

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Full Text Available A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC, Cassava Pellets (CP and Cassava Residue pulp (CR on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05 on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava products but similar to maize diet. Body weight, viscosity of the ileal digesta, digestibility of non starch polysaccharides, crude protein and dry matter as well as energy utilization, concentrations of lactic, succinic and total short chain fat acid in ileal were generally lower on diets containing the CC, CP and CR than on the diet containing maize with weight of birds on the CP being the lowest (p<0.05 over the 21 days growth period. However, the relative weight of the gizzard and small intestine at both 7 and 21 days of age was increased (p<0.05 on diets containing the cassava products while the weight of the bursa was reduced. Feed/Gain ratio over day 1-14 or 21 days was better (p<0.01 on the maize based diets than on the CC and CR based diets The concentrations of valeric, lactic and succinic acids in the caeca were lower (p<0.05 in chickens on the cassava containing diets than on the maize containing diet but the reverse was the case for formic, acetic and butyric acids.

Mingan Choct

2012-01-01

42

Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics. PMID:20109125

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

2010-08-01

43

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

OpenAIRE

In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG) production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG ...

Evrim Ta?k?n; Rengin Eltem; Esra Soyak

2010-01-01

44

Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

45

High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

2015-03-01

46

Cassava forage as a protein source in sugar cane diets for cattle: effect on rumen fermentation of different levels of cassava forage and urea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a 4 x 4 latin square deisgn with zebu bulls, sugarcane/urea was substituted by cassava forage (levels of cassava were 0, 20, 40, or 60%). The feeds were balanced for N content by adding a solution of urea and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The sugarcane had 27.5% dry matter (DM) and 14.2/sup 0/ Brix; the cassava had 20% DM and 2.4% N in the DM. The only other dietary supplement was a mineral mixture. There were no differences in the principal parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, protozoal biomass, total volatile fatty acids (VFA), VFA molar proportion, HN/sub 3/ concentration) or in blood urea levels on the different dietary treatments. Voluntary intake of DM was significantly higher on the 3 cassava diets compared with the control containing only sugarcane/urea. Rumen fermentation parameters varied according to time of feeding, following the pattern established by other workers in this field.

Meyreles, L.; MacLeod, N.A.; Preston, T.R.

1977-01-01

47

Solid-state fermentation: an alternative to improve the nutritive value of coffee pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = -0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35 degrees C, and an aeration of 8 liters/min per kg as fermentation conditions, it was found that the maximum concentration of total amino acids was attained after 43 h. The fermented product had a higher total amino acid content and a lower cell wall constituent value (primarily cellulose and hemicellulose) than the original pulp. A growing chicken's ration containing 10% of the fermented product had a feed efficiency (2.14) similar to that of the standard ration (2.19) and was significantly better than that of the diet containing 10% of the original pulp (2.53). The difference observed in feed intake and weight gain between the standard diet and that with 10% of the fermented product is considered to be due to palatability factors which should be studied further. PMID:16346724

Peñaloza, W; Molina, M R; Brenes, R G; Bressani, R

1985-02-01

48

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

49

Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp  

OpenAIRE

Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = ?0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35...

Pen?aloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

1985-01-01

50

Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose. Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. In addition, ethanol yields based on the theoretical maximum ethanol production in the fed-batch SSF process was increased from 49% without A-LDs to 64% in the presence of A-LDs. PMID:25291627

Cheng, Ningning; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Uraki, Yasumitsu

2014-12-01

51

Fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration from cassava residues: effect of pretreatment on structural characterization and fermentation performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical properties of cassava residues subjected to microwave (or steam)-heated acid pretreatment (MHAP or SHAP) were comparatively investigated to improve fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration. The hydrogen yield from cassava residues with MHAP and enzymolysis was higher (106.2 mL/g TVS) than that with SHAP and enzymolysis (102.1 mL/g TVS), whereas the subsequent methane yields showed opposite results (75.4 and 93.2 mL/g TVS). Total energy conversion efficiency increased to 24.7%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed MHAP generated numerous regular micropores (?6 ?m) and SHAP generated irregular fragments (?23 ?m) in the destroyed lignocellulose matrix. Transmission electron microscopy images showed SHAP generated wider cracks (?0.2 ?m) in delaminated cell walls than MHAP (?0.1 ?m). X-ray diffraction patterns indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity index (33.00) than SHAP (25.88), due to the deconstruction of amorphous cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity coefficient (1.20) than SHAP (1.12). PMID:25553572

Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2015-03-01

52

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

OpenAIRE

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatog...

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-01-01

53

L(+)-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a cap [...] acidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios fermentados em vez de soluções ácidas láticas aquosas. Abstract in english The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that w [...] eak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93%) instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%).

Rojan P., John; K. Madhavan, Nampoothiri; Ashok, Pandey.

1241-12-01

54

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and...

Flávera Camargo Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2005-01-01

55

Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL ?-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

KUSMIYATI

2010-01-01

56

The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

57

Effect of different cultivation conditions on Lactobacillus manihotivorans OND32T, an amylolytic lactobacillus isolated from sour starch cassava fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of the cassava sour starch fermentation has led to the isolation of a new homofermentative amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus manihotivorans OND32T, whose nutritional requirements have been investigated in this work. The main effect of deleting one of the substrate components of the MRS-starch medium was to reduce the amylase production. When starch fermentation with nitrogen as a gas phase was compared to fermentation under aerobic conditions, both growth and amylase production were reduced whereas lactic acid formation was not affected. Addition of carbon dioxide (> or = 20% v/v) to the nitrogen gas phase restored growth and amylase production. The amylase production was high with starch, maltose or cellobiose contrary to glucose, fructose and sucrose. During mixed fermentation of glucose and maltose, a diauxic growth was observed. The maltose consumption and the amylase production started after the glucose depletion. The presence of maltose altered the carbon assimilation from glucose, whereas the energetic pathway was not affected. It is concluded that the elimination of soluble sugars by the wet extraction of starch during the processing of cassava, together with the expected in situ CO2 production, are conditions favouring the growth and the amylase synthesis. However, these are likely to be limited by the low nitrogen content in cassava. PMID:11518431

Guyot, J P; Morlon-Guyot, J

2001-08-01

58

KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min. A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis. The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

MARIEL MONRROY

2012-01-01

59

KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields rang [...] ing from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

MARIEL, MONRROY; JOSÉ, RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS, TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME, BAEZA; JUANITA, FREER.

1113-11-01

60

Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. PMID:25846929

Ramos, Cíntia L; Sousa, Edinaira S O de; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

2015-08-01

61

SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS / SACARIFICACIÓN Y FERMENTACIÓN SILMUTÁNEA DE TALLOS DE YUCA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacarificación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptim [...] as de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrato en una relación sólido: líquido 1:10; el complejo enzimático Accellerase 1500 y la levadura Ethanol Red fueron evaluados a dos niveles a una temperatura de 38 ° C y pH 4.0 a escala de erlenmeyer. Se evaluaron como controles del proceso: Sacarificación fermentación simultáneas sin pretratamiento de los tallos y Sacarificación fermentación independientes de tallos pretratados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión y el modelo obtenido fue maximizado empleando algoritmos genéticos. A las condiciones óptimas identificadas en erlenmeyer fue evaluada la producción de etanol en biorreactor de 5 litros. Se obtuvo una concentración experimental de etanol de 1.88±0.04 %v/v (1.99 %v/v óptimo simulado) con una concentración de inóculo de 1.59 g/L y una concentración de enzima de 13.3 FPU/g, valor aproximadamente 4 veces mayor a la cantidad de etanol producido sin pretratamiento por sacarificación y fermentación independientes de tallos de yuca pretratados. La evaluación del proceso en biorreactor alcanzo una concentración de etanol 20% inferior a la alcanzada a escala de erlenmeyer. Abstract in english This research evaluates the effects of the inoculum size and enzymatic activity on the concentration of ethanol obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated cassava stems. Other goals for this study include the determination and validation of the optimal c [...] onditions for and the evaluation of the process of ethanol production in a bioreactor. Alkaline-pretreated cassava stems were used as the substrate in a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10; the enzymatic complex Accellerase 1500 and the yeast Ethanol Red were evaluated at two levels at a temperature of 38° C and a pH of 4.0 in an Erlenmeyer flask. The following were evaluated as process controls: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of non-pretreated stems and separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated stems. A regression analysis was conducted, and the resulting model was maximized using genetic algorithms. At the optimal conditions identified in an Erlenmeyer flask, the production of ethanol in a 5-liter bioreactor was subsequently evaluated. An experimental concentration of ethanol of 1.88±0.04% v/v (1.99% v/v simulated optimum) was obtained using an inoculum concentration of 1.59 g/L and an enzyme concentration of 13.3 FPU/g. This value was approximately four times the quantity of ethanol produced without pretreatment or by the separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava stems. The evaluation of the process in the bioreactor yielded an ethanol concentration 20% less than that reached in the Erlenmeyer flask.

HADER, CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN, REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ, ZAPATA MONTOYA.

2013-08-01

62

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers. PMID:16153731

Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2005-11-25

63

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to arm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

64

The use of a starter culture in the fermentation of cassava for the production of "kivunde", a traditional Tanzanian food product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cassava fermentation methods (spontaneous fermentation, back-slopping and the use of starter culture) for the production of kivunde, executed in three trials at 30 degrees C, were compared in terms of cyanide level reduction, microbiology and product quality improvement. Among the isolates from spontaneously fermented cassava batches, four strains were selected on the basis of their enzymatic activities and acid production. All were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and were used as starters in this study. Lowest residual cyanide levels were detected after 120 h fermentation time in samples fermented with the starter culture and were below the maximum value of 10 mg/kg recommended by the Codex/FAO for cassava flour. This finding seems to be related to the alpha-glucosidase activity of the inoculated strains of which API-zyme (Bio-Merieux) tests showed activities of between 20 and > or = 40 nmol/4 h. The total residual cyanide levels of the spontaneous and back-slopping fermentations at 96 h were respectively 43.5 and 47.7 mg/kg dry weight of cassava. Extension of the fermentation period to 5 days, lead to further substantial reduction in the residual cyanide level in both these processes, but not below the recommended maximum value as in the case of starter culture fermented products. The spontaneous and back-slopping fermented cassava showed signs of deterioration after 3 days of fermentation. There was a sharp drop of pH and an increase of titratable acidity for all three batches during the first 48 h followed by a slow rise of pH and drop in titratable acidity towards the end of fermentation. The samples fermented with the starter culture had a smooth texture and pleasant fruity aroma, as opposed to the course and dull appearance and more complex flavour of the samples of spontaneous and back-slopping batches. During fermentation with starter culture, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts and moulds could not be isolated throughout the period of fermentation (detection limit: 10 colony forming units/g). The present findings indicate the suitability of these Lb. plantarum strains as starter cultures for cassava fermentation in the kivunde process. The paper highlights the potential for the improvement of a traditional African fermented food (kivunde) through the use of a starter culture. PMID:10857544

Kimaryo, V M; Massawe, G A; Olasupo, N A; Holzapfel, W H

2000-06-01

65

In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis [...] and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

A., Gasmi-Boubaker; M.R., Mosquera-Losada; B., Boubaker.

66

Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola / Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrat [...] ions (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

Carolina Oliveira de, Souza; Luciana Tosta, Silva; Janice Izabel, Druzian.

67

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02

68

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activ [...] ity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

S.M., Crispim; A.M.A., Nascimento; P.S., Costa; J.L.S., Moreira; A.C., Nunes; J.R., Nicoli; F.L., Lima; V.T., Mota; R.M.D., Nardi.

69

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

S.M. Crispim

2013-01-01

70

Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

2009-11-15

71

Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.  

OpenAIRE

Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (M...

Katagiri, N.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishida, T.

1995-01-01

72

Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

2012-01-01

73

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG production under solid state fermentation (SSF conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support, which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

Evrim Ta?k?n

2010-02-01

74

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content usin...

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2011-01-01

75

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

OpenAIRE

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Fre?de?ric; Gobert, William; Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

76

Interesting starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation revealed by simulated cocoa pulp fermentations of cocoa-specific lactic acid bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol. PMID:21803901

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-09-01

77

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P?fermentation significantly (P?fermented cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted. PMID:24426021

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2013-12-01

78

Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2 °C day(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646 mg L(-1), propionic acid 596 mg L(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000 mg L(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

2014-08-01

79

Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão / Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade d [...] e expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was eva [...] luated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA). Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

Alvaro Renato Guerra, Dias; Moacir Cardoso, Elias; Maurício, Oliveira; Elizabete, Helbig.

2007-12-01

80

Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade de expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação.Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was evaluated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA. Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias

2007-12-01

81

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

82

Pectinase-hyperproducing mutants of Aspergillus niger C28B25 for solid-state fermentation of coffee pulp  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to improve mold strains for the production of pectinases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of coffee pulp. A screening of 248 strains, isolated in Mexico's coffee-growing areas, permitted us to select a wild strain of #Aspergillus niger$ which in 72 h attains a peak production of 27.7 U ml-1(138 U g-1 dry pulp) of pectinase measured by viscosimetry. Though the use of a selective culture medium with low water activity (aw = 0.954) with 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) it was pos...

Antier, Philip; Minjares, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice; Viniegra-gonzalez, G.

1993-01-01

83

Core fluxome and metafluxome of lactic acid bacteria under simulated cocoa pulp fermentation conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive (13)C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel (13)C studies with [(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, and [(13)C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-09-01

84

Effect of soluble and insoluble fibers within the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp by human gut bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to study the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp (CRP) and ensiled CRP (ECRP) using human fecal inoculum. Analysis of carbohydrate levels in fermentation digests showed that 51% of all CRP carbohydrates were utilized after 24 h of fermentation. For ECRP, having the same cell wall polysaccharide composition as CRP, but with solubilization of 4 times more of CRP pectin due to ensiling, the fermentation was quicker than with CRP as 11% more carbohydrates were utilized within the first 12 h. The level of fiber utilization for ECRP after 24 h was increased by 8% compared to CRP. This effect on fiber utilization from ECRP seemed to arise from (i) increased levels of soluble pectin fibers (arabinan, homogalacturonan, and galactan) and (ii) ahypothesized more open structure of the remaining cell walls in ECRP, which was more accessible to degradation than the CRP cell wall network. PMID:24967835

Ramasamy, Uttara S; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

2014-07-16

85

Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase se in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some molasses would appear desirable so as to stimulate favourable fermentation. This can produce silage that is both safe from potentially pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and a potential feed resource for ruminants

86

Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

Smith Yimmongkol

2009-10-01

87

Evaluation of enzyme mixtures in releasing fermentable sugars from pre-pulping extracts of mixed northeast hardwoods.  

Science.gov (United States)

One near-term option to developing a forest product biorefinery is to derive pre-pulping extract from incoming wood chips before the main pulping step. The release of monomer sugars from a xylan-rich extract, creating a fermentable substrate is a prerequisite for utilization of pre-pulping extract for production of ethanol or other value-added products. This study examined the individual and mixture efficiencies of two hemicellulolytic microbial enzymes and two xylanase preparations in catalyzing degradation of green liquor (GL) and hot water (HW) pre-pulping extracts. The effects of four commercial enzyme preparations were determined by assessing yields of xylose + galactose + mannose (xmg) obtained under different reaction conditions. Of the individual enzyme preparations tested, a sample NS 50012 was superior to the other enzyme preparations in releasing xmg under conditions optimized for separate hydrolysis and fermentation and for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In comparison to pre-pulping extracts treated with HW, extract treated with GL was found to inhibit the action of all tested enzymes. This inhibition may be related to higher salt and lignin phenol in the GL extract. On both types of extracts, the mixture constituted by NS 50012 and NS 50030 provided the highest yield of hemicellulose conversion at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5. The generated digestibility thus signified that the synergistic effectiveness in xylan + galactan + mannan (XMG) hydrolysis between NS 50012 (from Aspergillus aculeatus) and NS 50030 (from Aspergillus oryzae) is the result of an interaction mechanism involving different XMG-degrading enzyme activities in the two enzyme preparations. PMID:20084471

Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

2010-05-01

88

Antimicrobial interactions of microbial species involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima with particular reference to the inhibitory effect of lactic acid bacteria on enteric pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus species and yeasts are involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima. Microbial interactions within and between these groups of microorganisms were investigated in addition to the survival of five enteric pathogens inoculated into agbelima under various conditions. Nine out of 10 cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated at the end of agbelima fermentation showed inhibitory effect against 10 cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated at the start of fermentation. Only 3 out of 10 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were inhibited by 10 isolates of lactic acid bacteria tested. No interactions were observed between yeasts and the lactic acid bacteria, whereas three of the Bacillus isolates showed inhibitory effects against the yeasts. Twelve isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum tested inhibited the growth of an isolate each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis but none tested positive for bacteriocin production. The antimicrobial effect of the lactic acid bacteria was attributed to acid production. In fermenting cassava dough, enteric pathogens survived to different extents depending on pH and their sensitivity to acids. Vibrio cholerae C-230, Salmonella typhimurium 9 and Salmonella enteritidis 226 were not detectable in 10 g of sample after 4 h when inoculated into the 48-h fermented product, agbelima, whereas Shigella dysenteriae 2357T and Escherichia coli D2188 were detectable up to 8 h in the product. PMID:14580972

Mante, Ebenezer Siaw; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

2003-12-15

89

KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

OpenAIRE

The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alka...

MARIEL MONRROY; JOSÉ RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME BAEZA; JUANITA FREER

2012-01-01

90

Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

Flavio Martins Montenegro

2008-12-01

91

The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

2014-08-01

92

Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp. during fermentation  

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Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC, pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl concentration, type of salt were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%. Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05 increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

Anihouvi VB

2012-10-01

93

Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p fermentation, whereas reducing sugars and FFA increased. PS increased the FFA levels, reduced the protein content but did not have any effect on the sugars. The rate of total and non-reducing sugars degeneration with concomitant generation of reducing sugars in the cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS. PMID:21599466

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2011-11-01

94

In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P effect and that CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations as popular prebiotic and fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs. PMID:25403197

de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

2015-01-01

95

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

OpenAIRE

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

96

The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

Budi Haryanto

2001-05-01

97

Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

98

Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

2003-07-01

99

Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

2014-01-01

100

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2005-06-01

101

Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

2013-01-01

102

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

Flávera Camargo Prado

2005-06-01

103

A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme) and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk) and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SS...

Cristine Rodrigues; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Juliana Teodoro; Juliana Fraron Oss; Ashok Pandey; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2009-01-01

104

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

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Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de f?cil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes.

Magali Leonel

2011-06-01

105

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

Magali, Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Martha Maria, Mischan.

2011-06-01

106

Strategies for developing the cassava industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (authorassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

107

Cinética de fermentação in vitro de silagens da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the silage shoots of cassava  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arra [...] njado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). O material foi ensilado em silos experimentais de PVC, sendo abertos após 56 dias de fermentação. Amostras das silagens foram coletadas e submetidas à pré-secagem, moídas e em seguida procedeu-se ensaio de produção de gases in vitro. As leituras de pressão dos gases produzidos durante as fermentações foram realizadas às 0; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 e 96 horas após o início das incubações. As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. O maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS ocorreu nos tempos entre zero e 24 horas. As maiores produções de gases por hora foram obtidas aproximadamente às 48 horas de fermentação para a variedade Olho Roxo na fração planta inteira. As silagens das diferentes variedades e frações da parte aérea de mandioca apresentaram o mesmo potencial de produção de gases. Entretanto, as silagens da variedade Amarelinha nas frações da parte aérea terço superior e sobras de plantio apresentaram melhores degradabilidades efetiva e potencial. Abstract in english The objective of this work to determine Kinetics of ruminal fermentation of silages of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, arranged in a 4x3 fact [...] orial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho Roxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant). The material was ensiled in mini-silos of PVC, being opened after 56 days of fermentation. Silage samples were collected and submitted to pre-dried, ground and then proceeded to test gas production in vitro. The pressure readings of the gases produced during fermentations were performed at 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubations. Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases. The major ruminal DM disappearance occurred in times between zero and 24 hours. The highest yields of gas per hour were obtained at approximately 48 hours of fermentation for variety in Shiner fraction entire plant. The silages of different varieties and fractions of cassava shoots have the same potential for gas production. However, silage variety of Hopscotch fractions in the upper third of shoot and leftover planting have better effective degradability and potential.

Kléria Maria Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Vanice Mendes de, Souza; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Malber Natham Nobre de, Palma; Geanderson Walder Vieira da Silva, Silva; Ana Paula da Silva, Antunes.

2013-03-01

108

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

Inayara C. A., Lacerda; Fátima C. O., Gomes; Beatriz M., Borelli; César L. L., Faria Jr; Gloria R., Franco; Marina M., Mourão; Paula B., Morais; Carlos A., Rosa.

2011-06-01

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KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

M. Supli Effendi

2002-08-01

110

Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P<0.01. A significant difference at P<0.05 were also detected in amonia concentration, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), protozoa counts, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. These differences were observed particularly in animals receiving ration C. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

111

Ocorrência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico na fermentação de fécula de mandioca / Biological fixation of atmospheric N2 in the initial phase of cassava starch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fase inicial do processo de fermentação natural de fécula de mandioca apresenta a ocorrência de fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h, mesmo com o meio tendo uma relação carbono/nitrogênio muito alta. Assim, o nitrogênio necessário à formação da biomassa nos primeiros estágios da fermentação seria o [...] riginário de fora do sistema via fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico, já que o teor protéico disponível na fécula de mandioca é muito baixo. Para verificar tal hipótese, foram feitos dois experimentos fundamentados no balanço de nitrogênio na suspensão com grânulos de fécula durante as primeiras 120 h do processo fermentativo, conduzido sob temperatura ambiente e sob temperatura controlada a 28 °C. Não foram detectados aumentos de nitrogênio na fase estudada, o que sugere a não existência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico. Os resultados sugerem que a origem do nitrogênio para o processo fermentativo é a própria fécula, que, quando na forma de polvilho apresenta alta relação C/N, porém, quando em suspensão essa relação abaixa propiciando uma fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h. Abstract in english The initial phase of natural fermentation of cassava starch presents vigorous fermentation within the first 24 h and is characterized by a high ration of carbon/nitrogen. Consequently, the necessary nitrogen to the formation of biomass would be originated from outside of the system because the avail [...] able protein content from cassava starch is very low and depending on biological fixation of atmospheric N2. To verify that hypothesis two essays were conducted with the nitrogen balance in the starch granule suspension during the initial 120 h of the fermentation process. The essays were set at room temperature and at the controlled temperature of 28 °C. No increase in the nitrogen content was detected suggesting that no involvement of atmospheric N2. Results suggest that the origin of the nitrogen to the fermentation process is the cassava starch itself. The cassava starch in the flour form possesses high C/N ratio whereas in the aqueous suspension the C/N ratio is lowered propitiating vigorous fermentation.

Luiz Ermindo, Cavallet; Sila Mary Rodrigues, Ferreira; Jair J. de, Lima; Lindamir T., Tullio; Diomar Augusto de, Quadros.

2006-09-01

112

Cinética de fermentação in vitro de fenos da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the hay shoots of cassava  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal dos fenos de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, arranjado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro [...] variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. Foram avaliadas a produção cumulativa de gases, as frações solúvel e insolúvel potencialmente degradável da MS, a taxa de degradação da MS, as degradabilidades potencial e efetiva da MS, a fração indegradável da MS, o potencial máximo de produção de gases, a taxa de produção de gases e o tempo de colonização. A produção de gases aumentou tendendo a se estabilizar por volta de 48 horas e observou-se um maior desaparecimento da matéria seca entre o tempo zero e 24 horas de fermentação. Os valores de produção cumulativa de gases (PCG) dos fenos analisados tiveram uma produção máxima de 50 ml ao final das 96 horas de fermentação. O feno do terço superior da variedade Amarelinha, por apresentar melhores degradabilidade potencial (64,17%) e efetiva (55,65%) da matéria seca e maior potencial máximo de produção de gases (35,69 mL/g de MS), em relação às demais variedades, demonstra superioridade nutricional. Abstract in english Aimed to evaluate thekinetics of ruminal fermentation of hays of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, arranged in a 4x3 factorial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinh [...] a, Sabará, OlhoRoxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant) Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases.Were evaluated the cumulative gas production, potentially degradable insoluble fraction and soluble fraction of MS, the degradation rate of DM, the potential and effective degradability of DM, the undegradable fraction of DM, the maximum potential gas production, the rate gas production and colonization time.There was an increase in gas production with a tendency of stabilization around a 48 hours period and a greater decrease in dry matter between zero and 24 hours fermentation period. The values of cumulative gas production (PCG) hay analyzed had a maximum output of 50 mL at the end of 96 hours of fermentation.The hay of Amarelinha's superior third was considered the most nutritional kind due to its betters degradability potential (64.17%), effective dry matter (55.65%), and greater maximal potential of gas production(35.69 mL / g DM) when compared to the other varieties studied.

Kléria Maria de Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Silvio Humberto Cardoso de, Almeida Filho; Laís Matos, Oliveira; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Ana Cássia Rodrigues de, Aguiar; Criszoel Ferreira, Souza; Cláudia Ribeiro, Antunes.

2014-09-01

113

Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation between predicted and measured by the reference methods values (R (2) between 0.789 and 0.997), and adequate values of the ratio between the standard deviation of the reference methods and the standard errors of infrared PLS models relative performance determinant (RPD) (greater than 3 for majority of the models). Use of IR for ethanol quantification showed similar and even better results to the obtained with the discrete chemical data, especially in the case of mid-IR models, where ethanol concentration can be estimated with a RMSEV equal to 1.9 g?L(-1). These results could facilitate the analysis of high number of samples required in the evaluation and optimization of the processes. PMID:23070712

Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

2012-12-01

114

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

115

Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc, de raspa (SRpPc e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4. A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB (% PV foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33, SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30 e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27 em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19, respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%, matéria orgânica (66,9% e energia bruta (64,3% para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR e intestinal (CDI da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5, SRpPc (39,3 e SCnPc (37,0, sobre a SCcPc (20,0. A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp, cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP intake (%LW of CS (2.47 and 0.33, ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30 and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27 were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19. The dry matter (65.0%, organic matter (66.9%, and the gross energy (64.3% total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%. The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC and intestinal (IDC digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%, the CrSCp (39.3%, and the ScSCp (37.0% were higher than ChSCp (20.0%. The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

Djalma de Freitas

2002-06-01

116

Xylanase production using agro-residue in solid-state fermentation from Bacillus pumilus ASH for biodelignification of wheat straw pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two stage statistical design was used to optimize xylanase production from Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation. Initially, Plackett-Burman designing (PB) was used for the selection of crucial production parameters. Peptone, yeast extract, incubation time, moisture level and pH were found to be the crucial factors for the xylanase production. Crucial variables were further processed through central composite designing (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) to maximize the xylanase yield. Each significant factor was investigated at five different levels to study their influence on enzyme production. Statistical approach resulted in 2.19-fold increase in xylanase yield over conventional strategy. The determination coefficient (R (2)) as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA) was 0.9992, which shows the adequate credibility of the model. Potential of cellulase-free xylanase was further investigated for biobleaching of wheat straw pulp. Xylanase aided bleaching through XCDED(1)D(2) sequence resulted in 20 and 17% reduction in chlorine and chlorine dioxide consumption as compared to control. Significant increase in pulp brightness (%ISO), whiteness and improvement in various pulp properties was also observed. PMID:21437760

Garg, Gaurav; Mahajan, Ritu; Kaur, Amanjot; Sharma, Jitender

2011-11-01

117

Farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante: fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e características fermentativas / Cassava meal in the elephant grass silage: carbohydrate and protein fractioning and fermentation characteristics of silage elephant grass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas, bem como as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante, sem e com emurchecimento, e acrescida de farelo de mandioca. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições no delineamento inteiramente [...] casualizado. Os fatores avaliados foram níveis de farelo de mandioca (0; 7,5; 15 e 22,5% MN) e emurchecimento (sem e com). Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50 cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro para a produção das silagens. As frações de CHO (A+B1 e B2) e as frações nitrogenadas B3 e C foram influenciadas pela associação do emurchecimento aos níveis de farelo de mandioca, o que não ocorreu com as frações nitrogenadas (A e B1+B2) das silagens. A adição de farelo de mandioca reduziu linearmente a fração C dos carboidratos. No que concerne às características fermentativas das silagens, o pH apresentou comportamento quadrático. O nitrogênio amoniacal apresentou comportamento quadrático e linear decrescente para as silagens sem e com emurchecimento, respectivamente. A utilização do farelo de mandioca reduz a fração B2 e a porção de carboidratos indisponíveis. As principais frações proteicas das silagens estudadas são as frações A e B1+B2. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca melhoram o valor nutritivo e as características fermentativas das silagens estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the fractions that compose the carbohydrates (CHO) and proteins and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage without or with wilting and added of cassava meal. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely rand [...] omized design. The factors evaluated were wilting (without and with) and cassava meal levels (0; 7.5; 15 and 22.5 % DN). PVC silos with 50cm height and 10cm diameter were used for silages production. A+B1 and B2 CHO fractions and B3 and C nitrogen fractions of silages were influenced by association of wilting with cassava meal levels, the wilting and the cassava meal inclusion had no effect on A and B1+B2 nitrogen fractions. The cassava meal addiction linearly reduced the CHO C fraction. Relative to variables inherent to silages' fermentative characteristics, pH presented quadratic behavior. Ammonia nitrogen, presented quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. The use of cassava meal reduces the B2 and unavailable carbohydrates fraction. The main protein fractions of the silages studied are A and B1 + B2 fractions. Wilting and the addition of cassava meal improved the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of the silages studied.

Aline Cardoso, Oliveira; Rasmo, Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Hellenn Cardoso, Oliveira; Vitor Visintin Silva de, Almeida; Cristina Mattos, Veloso; Aires Lima, Rocha Neto; Ueslei Leonardo Cardoso, Oliveira.

1020-10-01

118

Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate / Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar [...] a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por planejamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the con [...] centrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taking as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

Izabel Cristina Veras, Silva; Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira, Santos; Mayara Lúcia da Costa, Leite; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sérgio, Marcellini.

2013-09-01

119

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

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Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V. Brandão

2010-09-01

120

Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.

2010-01-01

121

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

Joan E. QUINTERO M.

2012-12-01

122

Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculant and beet pulp addition on fermentation characteristics and in vitro ruminal digestion of vegetable residue silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and treatments were designed as control silage without additive or with BP (30% fresh matter basis), LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5mg/kg, fresh matter basis), and BP+LAB. In vitro incubation was performed using rumen fluid mixed with McDougall's artificial saliva (at a ratio of 1:4, vol/vol) at 39°C for 6h to determine the ruminal fermentability of the vegetable residue silages. These vegetable residues contained high levels of crude protein (20.6-22.8% of DM) and moderate levels of neutral detergent fiber (22.7-33.6% of DM). In all silages, the pH sharply decreased and lactic acid increased, and the growth of bacilli, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts was inhibited by the low pH at the early stage of ensiling. The silage treated with BP or LAB had a lower pH and a higher lactic acid content than the control silage. After 6h of incubation, all silages had relatively high DM digestibility (38.6-44.9%); in particular, the LAB-inoculated silage had the highest DM digestibility and the lowest methane production. The vegetable residues had high nutritional content and high in vitro DM digestibility. Also, both the addition of a LAB inoculant and moisture adjustment with BP improved the fermentation quality of the vegetable residue silages. In addition, LAB increased DM digestibility and decreased ruminal methane production. PMID:21787927

Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshida, N; Tohno, M; Uegaki, R; Nonaka, K; Terada, F

2011-08-01

123

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

2010-09-01

124

Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

125

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP. Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity of 900 kg m-3. Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of fresh forage and seven times (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days after sealing. PCP inclusion increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations by 15 to 20% and reduced pH (5.3 to 4.2 and N-NH3 levels of experimental silages. An increase of the population size of the enterobacterium (mean of 3 CFU g-1 was observed only at the first day of fermentation, small growth (mean 0.5 of CFU g-1 of clostridium and the dominance of homo in relation to hetero-fermentative bacteria. Citric pulp addition during Marandu-grass ensilage was benefic, its utilization being recommended, especially when associated with economical advantages.Forragens com alta umidade e baixa concentração de carboidratos solúveis, como é o caso dos capins tropicais, podem conduzir a condições desfavoráveis para a produção de silagens de qualidade satisfatória. Esse estudo objetivou conhecer o perfil fermentativo e microbiológico de silagens de capim-Marandu [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf cv. Marandu], colhido com 58 dias de crescimento, aditivadas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP,. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen, tendo a silagem atingindo densidade de 900 kg m-3. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três proporções de PCP (0, 50 e 100 g kg-1 em relação a matéria natural e sete tempos de abertura após a ensilagem (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. A presença de PCP aumentou os teores de CHOs em 15 a 20%, reduziu o pH (5,3 para 4,2 e diminuiu as concentrações de N-NH3. Houve crescimento da população de enterobactérias somente durante o primeiro dia de fermentação (média 3 UFC g-1, pequeno desenvolvimento de clostrideos (média 0,5 UFC g-1 e dominância de bactérias homo em relação às heterofermentativas, para os três tratamentos estudados. A adição de polpa cítrica durante a ensilagem do capim-Marandu foi benéfica, podendo ser recomendada desde que haja benefício econômico na sua adoção.

Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

2005-06-01

126

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets / Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Forragens com alta umidade e baixa concentração de carboidratos solúveis, como é o caso dos capins tropicais, podem conduzir a condições desfavoráveis para a produção de silagens de qualidade satisfatória. Esse estudo objetivou conhecer o perfil fermentativo e microbiológico de silagens de capim-Mar [...] andu [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu], colhido com 58 dias de crescimento, aditivadas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP),. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen, tendo a silagem atingindo densidade de 900 kg m-3. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três proporções de PCP (0, 50 e 100 g kg-1 em relação a matéria natural) e sete tempos de abertura após a ensilagem (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias). A presença de PCP aumentou os teores de CHOs em 15 a 20%, reduziu o pH (5,3 para 4,2) e diminuiu as concentrações de N-NH3. Houve crescimento da população de enterobactérias somente durante o primeiro dia de fermentação (média 3 UFC g-1), pequeno desenvolvimento de clostrideos (média 0,5 UFC g-1) e dominância de bactérias homo em relação às heterofermentativas, para os três tratamentos estudados. A adição de polpa cítrica durante a ensilagem do capim-Marandu foi benéfica, podendo ser recomendada desde que haja benefício econômico na sua adoção. Abstract in english High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria [...] brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity of 900 kg m-3. Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of fresh forage) and seven times (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days) after sealing. PCP inclusion increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations by 15 to 20% and reduced pH (5.3 to 4.2) and N-NH3 levels of experimental silages. An increase of the population size of the enterobacterium (mean of 3 CFU g-1) was observed only at the first day of fermentation, small growth (mean 0.5 of CFU g-1) of clostridium and the dominance of homo in relation to hetero-fermentative bacteria. Citric pulp addition during Marandu-grass ensilage was benefic, its utilization being recommended, especially when associated with economical advantages.

Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Andréia Luciane, Moreira.

2005-06-01

127

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION / PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL) es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. [...] La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS), medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM), y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1). Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S ) de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6,5. Conclusiones: Estos resultados son comparables con los obtenidos en otros trabajos usando glucosa como fuente de carbono, y permiten considerar al jarabe de yuca como un potencial sustrato de bajo costo y alta disponibilidad para la producción de AL a escala de laboratorio, y eventualmente a escala industrial. Abstract in english Background: Lactic acid (LA) is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the [...] demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates) into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS), as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM), and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1). Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentrat

Joan E., QUINTERO M.; Alejandro, ACOSTA C.; Carlos, MEJÍA G; Rigoberto, RÍOS E.; Ana M., TORRES L..

2012-12-01

128

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia...

Nyanga, L. K.; Nout, M. J. R.; Gadaga, T. H.; Theelen, R. M. C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M. H.

2007-01-01

129

Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%assava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

130

The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep  

OpenAIRE

Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effe...

Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; Bata, M.

2001-01-01

131

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira=Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22 e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22 with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Priscila Aparecida Suman

2011-10-01

132

Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e, Silva; João Paulo Almeida dos, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sergio, Marcellini.

2011-03-01

133

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca / Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados co [...] m esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Ama [...] relinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Álvaro Diego Soares, Mota; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; André Santos de, Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Thierry Ribeiro, Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da, Costa.

1466-14-01

134

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior. No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

2011-07-01

135

Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

136

Cinética e parâmetros de fermentação ruminal in vitro de silagens de parte aérea e raízes de mandioca / Kinetic parameters and in vitro rumen fermentation of cassava foliage and roots silages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes 0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a cinética e os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. A produção acumulada de gases (PAG) às 96 horas de incubação foi influenciada significativamente (P[...] 0,05) pela interação emurchecimento versus inclusão de raízes. Para a PAG, houve elevação linear de 1,88mL a cada unidade percentual de raiz adicionada às silagens não emurchecidas e efeito quadrático nas silagens emurchecidas, com produção máxima de 226mL de gases, com a inclusão de 30,5% de raízes. A degradabilidade verdadeira in vitro da MS (DVIMS) das silagens apresentou significância (P Abstract in english The effects of wilting and roots inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% fresh matter) on rumen fermentation kinetics and parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Total gas production (TGP) after 96 hours of incubation was significantly influenced (P [...] oots inclusion. TGP was linearly increased by 1.88 mL for each percent unit of root added to the wilted silage, whereas, for wilted ones, a quadratic effect was observed, with a maximum gas cumulative output of 226 mL for 30.5% roots addition. The true DM degradability of silages in vitro (IVTDMD) showed significance (P

C.F.P.G., Silva; M.P., Figueiredo; M.S., Pedreira; F.S., Bernardino; D.H., Farias; J.A.G., Azêvedo.

1639-16-01

137

Cinética e parâmetros de fermentação ruminal in vitro de silagens de parte aérea e raízes de mandioca Kinetic parameters and in vitro rumen fermentation of cassava foliage and roots silages  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes 0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a cinética e os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. A produção acumulada de gases (PAG às 96 horas de incubação foi influenciada significativamente (PThe effects of wilting and roots inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% fresh matter on rumen fermentation kinetics and parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Total gas production (TGP after 96 hours of incubation was significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the interaction between wilting and roots inclusion. TGP was linearly increased by 1.88 mL for each percent unit of root added to the wilted silage, whereas, for wilted ones, a quadratic effect was observed, with a maximum gas cumulative output of 226 mL for 30.5% roots addition. The true DM degradability of silages in vitro (IVTDMD showed significance (P<0.05 to wilting and interaction between root inclusion and incubation time. Wilting reduced silage degradability in approximately 2%, while root inclusion led to linear increases in this variable, which reached its peak at 24h of incubation.

C.F.P.G. Silva

2012-12-01

138

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF) / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la inf [...] luencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas), partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF), proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores) y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yuca Abstract in english The world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzy [...] me dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation) process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I, CASTAÑO P; Carlos E, MEJIA G.

2008-07-01

139

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la influencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas, partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF, proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yucaThe world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzyme dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I CASTAÑO P

2008-07-01

140

Comparison of Sweet Sorghum and Cassava for Ethanol Production by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available ?-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.

N. Nadir

2009-01-01

141

Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

2011-04-01

142

Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

Metha Wanapat

2007-01-01

143

Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips  

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Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

2003-12-01

144

Exploration, collection and characterization of cassava landraces (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) grown in western ghats region  

OpenAIRE

Fifty six land races of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu exhibited significant variability for root morphological and biochemical traits studied. Amylose and starch contents varied from 14.4 to 30.4% and 10.0 to 39.7% respectively. Among the collections, 50% landraces had yellow colour pulp, indicated the possibility for selection and gene manipulation to improve the carotenoid content of cassava tuberous roots and thereby enhance its nutritive value. The c...

Kanagarasu, S.

2014-01-01

145

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir d [...] e harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enzimático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme h [...] ydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface central composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

HADER, CASTAÑO PELAEZ; MARIANA, CARDONA BETANCUR; CARLOS, MEJÍA GOMEZ; ALEJANDRO, ACOSTA CÁRDENAS.

2011-10-01

146

Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

147

Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage  

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Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis. Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

2005-08-01

148

Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante / Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na ma [...] téria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced [...] in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Laura Maria Oliveira, Borgatti; Rériton Weldert, Gomes; Roberta, Passini; Paula Marques, Meyer.

1138-11-01

149

Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica / Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: [...] controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia. Abstract in english Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, a [...] nd Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Luis Fernando Simões de, Almeida; Carlos de Souza, Lucci; Laércio, Melotti; Félix Ribeiro de, Lima.

1646-16-01

150

Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp  

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Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS, cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia.Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp. and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

2004-12-01

151

Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds. PMID:14545673

Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

1993-01-01

152

Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch  

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Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

DEMIATE I.M.

1999-01-01

153

A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation  

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Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.O ácido giberélico (GA3 é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de soja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação.

Cristine Rodrigues

2009-11-01

154

Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process  

OpenAIRE

The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while s...

Nwosu, J. N.; Ahaotu, N. N.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Ogueke, C. C.; Ahaotu, I.

2011-01-01

155

Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05; r = 0.9288 between PUN and MUN concentrations, making possible PUN estimation from the equation: PUN (mg/dL = 0.7672*MUN (mg/dL + 7.4894. These results permit to conclude that cassava by-product meal can be used in lactating goat diets, as 30% of DM, in total replacing of corn, without problems in ruminal fermentation and protein metabolism.

Gisele Fernanda Mouro

2002-07-01

156

Physicochemical, Nutritional and Processing Properties of Promising Newly Bred White and Yellow Fleshed Cassava Genotypes in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Randomly selected fresh roots of sixteen experimental cassava cultivars (fourteen improved cultivars and two controls) in National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria were assessed for their food quality characteristics amongst other relevant pre and post harvest traits. TMS 30572 and TME 419 cultivars of cassava were used as local and national checks or controls. The result of the physical properties of the experimental roots showed that those with yellow and cream pulp hav...

Egesi, C.; Chijoke, U.; Ukpabi, U. J.; Ukenye, E.; Njoku, S.

2013-01-01

157

Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp  

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Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

Mariusz Lesiecki

2012-03-01

158

COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L.) SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA / PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.), AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por ferm [...] entação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%), diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Abstract in english The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the differ [...] ent times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%), differing significantly from the other treatments.

WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO, NASCIMENTO; ANDREZA TAVARES, TOMÉ; JOSÉ E. URANO DE, CARVALHO; CARLOS HANS, MÜLLER.

2001-12-01

159

Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

Joan, Quintero; Alejandro, Acosta; Carlos, Mejía; Rigoberto, Ríos; Ana María, Torres.

2012-12-01

160

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf cv. Marandu foram colhidos aos 64 e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP, em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total, uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH Stapf cv. Marandu grasses were harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%, addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Rogério Marchiori Coan

2007-10-01

161

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada / Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 [...] e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were [...] harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Rogério Marchiori, Coan; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gisela Rojas, Garcia; Ruben Pablo, Schocken- Iturrino; Daniel de Souza, Ferreira; Flávio Dutra de, Resende; Felipe do Amaral, Gurgel.

1502-15-01

162

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

Bull, Simon E

2015-01-01

163

Cassava For Space Diet  

Science.gov (United States)

Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

164

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9279 Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira  

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Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22 e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22 with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Magali Leonel

2011-09-01

165

Production of ethanol from cassava whey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations were conducted into the potential use of enzyme hydrolysed cassava whey for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aspergillus niger grown on whet bran was used as crude enzyme source to saccharify the whey starch. The whey with an initial HCN concentration of 54.0 ..mu..g/ml was fermented at pH 4.5 and 30/sup 0/C in a one-step process to produce ethanol. A maximum ethanol concentration of 4.5% (v/v) was obtained in 120 h with a decrease in HCN level to 4.0 ..mu..g/ml. In a two-stage fermentation, in which the raw whey was pre-hydrolysed and under the same fermentation conditions, the unsterilized hydrolysate yielded alcohol content of 5.5% (v/v), while the sterilized hydrolysate gave higher alcohol yield, 7.5% (v/v), in 48 h. No HCN was detected in the fermented liquour at the end of the two-stage process.

Akpan, I.; Ikenebomeh, M.J.; Uraih, N.; Obuekwe, C.O.

1988-01-01

166

Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana  

OpenAIRE

Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar f...

Vrije, G. J.; Budde, M. A. W.; Lips, S. J. J.; Bakker, R. R.; Mars, A. E.; Claassen, P. A. M.

2010-01-01

167

Cyanogenic potential of cassava flour: field trial in Mozambique of a simple kit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyanogenic potential (ppm HCN equivalents) of 80 samples of cassava flour (obtained from the Mujocojo and Terrene-A areas of Nampula Province and the markets of Nampula City in Mozambique) were determined using a new simple kit, based on the use of picric acid paper (Egan et al., 1997). The kit is compact, requires only a small amount of water and is very simple to use in the field. Comparison with the results of a semi-quantitative method shows a mean deviation between the two methods of 20% (SD 12%). All samples fitted a single population distribution with a mean value of 45 ppm HCN equivalents (SD 37). Two maxima were observed in the distribution curve at 11-20 and 41-50 ppm. Five samples exceeded 100 ppm with two values of 200 ppm. The WHO safe level for cyanogens in cassava flour is 10 ppm. The lowest levels (2 and 6 ppm) were obtained from cassava flour prepared from sweet cassava. Over 76 samples the mean value of the cyanogenic potential of cassava flour produced by heap fermentation is only one half as large as that produced by sun-drying (P < 0.005). Interventions needed to reduce cyanogen levels are (1) improvements in processing methods, such as replacement of sun-drying by heap fermentation, (2) introduction of additional vegetables, pulses and fruit to alleviate the monotonous cassava diet of the people and (3) introduction of high-yielding, disease-resistant, low-cyanide cultivars. PMID:9713579

Cardoso, A P; Ernesto, M; Cliff, J; Egan, S V; Bradbury, J H

1998-03-01

168

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica / Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o [...] uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade. Abstract in english Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fi [...] ber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Magali, Leonel.

2010-09-01

169

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Luciana Bronzi de Souza

2010-09-01

170

The potential of cassava as an energy crop. [NONE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is today the most widely grown of all root crops. Production figures suggest a world output of some 100 million tons per annum and around 70% of this production comes from Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire, Nigeria and India. Nevertheless many other countries have outputs running into thousands of tons. The bulk of this harvested material is consumed directly as human food. The use of cassava as a source of starch, or as an animal feedstuff, has long been of industrial interest, but the prediction that the world could face an energy crisis long before food supplies become critical, has caused a number of countries to assess cassava in an entirely new light. Thus, the starch content of cassava can, by fermentation, be turned into ethanol, a product that, apart from its value as a chemical feedstock, can be used directly as a liquid fuel. The standard automobile engine can run on a mixture of 90% petroleum: 10% ethanol with little difficulty, and with modification, the inclusion rate of alcohol can go even higher. This realization has led a number of tropical countries to consider seriously the potential of cassava as an industrial base, for even a 10% reduction in demand for imported oil represents a massive saving of foreign exchange. The fact that industrialized countries like Australia and New Zealand are moving in the same direction suggests that the carbohydrate-liquid fuel process is becoming attractive economically, as well as representing a method of conserving available fossil fuels. It would seem, therefore, an appropriate point in time to consider the potential of cassava as industrial crop. This paper aims to determine just how realistic are the aspirations of those seeking to further exploit this carbohydrate source. 24 references

Robinson, R.K.; Kutianawala, S.M.

1979-09-01

171

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA PULP  

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Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

Sabina Rawshan

2009-08-01

172

Cassava biology and physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4 species, pointing to the need for further research on cultivated and wild Manihot to further improve its photosynthetic potential and yield,particularly under stressful environments. Moreover, a wide range in values of Km (CO2) for the C3 photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco was found among cassava cultivars indicating the possibility of selection for higher affinity to CO2, and consequently higher leaf photosynthesis. Several plant traits that may be of value in crop breeding and improvement have been identified, such as an extensive fine root system, long leaf life, strong root sink and high leaf photosynthesis. Selection of parental materials for tolerance to drought and infertile soils under representative field conditions have resulted in developing improved cultivars that have high yields in favorable environments while producing reasonable and stable yields under stress. PMID:15669146

El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

2004-11-01

173

Extrusion cooking of cassava starch for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of extrusion variables on gelatinization and viscosity of cassava starch with the aim to reduce energy consumption in alcohol production. None of the variables significantly affected the degree of gelatinization and moisture content of starch was the only significant variable affecting cold viscosity. Torque was affected by all the variables moisture being the most important. Extrusion was an efficient pre-treatment for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch, resulting in 92.4% ethanol conversion. The best conditions for continuous process were: 100/sup 0/C, 70 rpm, 4 mm die opening and 25-27% moisture. For discontinuous process, when the extruded starch would be dried and ground 200/sup 0/C, 190 rpm, 4 mm die opening and 20% moisture is recommended.

Grossmann, M.V.E.; El-Dash, A.A.; Carvalho, J.F.

1988-08-01

174

Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the vill a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

175

Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics  

OpenAIRE

The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of p...

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

2013-01-01

176

Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida [...] os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when sub [...] mitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

Eduardo Zambello de, Pinho; Ciniro, Costa; Mario De Beni, Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos, Silveira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani; Sheila Zambello de, Pinho.

177

[Degradation of cyanide and maturity in cassava processing wastes composting].  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out to approach the degradation of cyanide and maturity during the cassava processing wastes composting process. Mixtures of cassava hull, cassava residues and pig manure were used in the experiment. Parameters like temperature, pH, cyanide, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and C/N ratio were assessed during the composting process, the effect of composting process on the degradation of cyanide and maturity were evaluated. The results reveal that the content of cyanide decreases sharply and declines to 2.08 mg/kg (30 days of composting), the degradation rate of cyanide is 94.16% and is in accord with food safety standard. After 15 days of the composting process, degradation of composting materials containing carbon (starch, cellulose, hemicellulose) and cyanide are quick and the degradation rates of them are more than 80%, properties tend towards stability basically. During 30 days of the composting process, the composting temperature drops to normal temperature and tends to stability, pH remains stable at 7.2. Parameters like C/N ratio, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) as maturity evaluation index were measured, and the results indicate that physical and chemical properties keep stability after 15 days of cassava processing wastes composting process. At the end of fermentation, C/N ratio is 17.55, the content of nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen reach 2.5g/kg and 10 mg/kg respectively, NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio is 250. The changes of these above mentioned parameters meet with maturity evaluation standard. Proving that cassava processing wastes during 30 days of composting treatment can achieve stability and security state. PMID:19558134

Lü, Yu-Cai; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zong-Jun

2009-05-15

178

A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O ácido giberélico (GA3) é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme) e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de s [...] oja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café) e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme) and substra [...] tes (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk) and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.

Cristine, Rodrigues; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Juliana, Teodoro; Juliana Fraron, Oss; Ashok, Pandey; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2009-11-01

179

Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet  

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Full Text Available A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP. Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that was included in a cassava-based concentrate at 0, 14, 18 or 22 % level. Average feed intake (g/W0.725 kg was reduced (p < 0.05 in goats fed poultry manure at 22 % inclusion level when compared with the other dietary groups. Effects of poultry manure treatments on digestibility of dry matter or crude protein, nitrogen retention and body weight gain were significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that poultry manure could be used to complement cassava leaf meal in cassava plant-based concentrates for the goats. The use of poultry manure as a source of fermentable nitrogen would promote activities of rumen microbial populations for efficient fermentation and reduce the constraints associated with collection and processing of cassava leaf in sufficient quantity for inclusion in the diet.

Yousuf, M. B.

2013-11-01

180

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

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Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Yalcin Copur

2007-01-01

181

New Amylolytic Yeast Strains for Starch and Dextrin Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by ...

Laluce, Ceci?lia; Bertolini, Maria Ce?lia; Ernandes, Jose? Roberto; Martini, Ann Vaughan; Martini, Alessandro

1988-01-01

182

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP  

OpenAIRE

Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

Sabina Rawshan; Sarwar Jahan, M.

2009-01-01

183

Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

184

Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

185

Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

2009-09-01

186

Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-12-15

187

Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

2013-12-01

188

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

189

Qualidade fermentativa e caracterização químico-bromatológica de silagens da parte áerea e raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930 Fermentation quality and chemical and bromatological characteristics of foliage and roots of silage cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes (0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. O emurchecimento influenciou significativamente o teor matéria seca (MS, a densidade e o pH das silagens em todas as doses de adição de raízes. A inclusão destas elevou o teor de MS em 0,128 e 0,261%, a densidade em 1,79 e 4,54 kg m-3 e, reduziu o pH em 0,0007 e 0,0062, respectivamente nas silagens emurchecidas ou não, a cada unidade percentual de adição de raízes. A exceção dos teores de fibra detergente ácida (FDA e lignina, todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram interação significativa entre o emurchecimento e a inclusão de raízes. O emurchecimento aumentou em 4,52% os teores de FDA e 12,86% os de lignina, enquanto o incremento de raízes promoveu decréscimo linear de ambos. O acréscimo de raízes reduziu linearmente os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, enquanto o emuchercimento elevou-os. O teor de PB respondeu inversamente, apresentando valores mínimos de 8,99 e 11,03 e máximos de 18,01 e 20,9% da MS, respectivamente nas silagens sem e com emurchecimento.The effects of wilting and root inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% natural matter on the chemical and bromatological composition coupled to silage fermentation parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Wilting affected significantly dry matter content (DM, density and pH values (p -3; pH values were reduced by 0.0007 and 0.0062 respectively in wilted silages or not wilted ones for every included root percentage unit. All parameters, with the exception of acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin contents, showed significant interaction between wilting and root inclusion. Wilting increased ADF and lignin contents respectively by 4.52 and 12.86%, whereas root inclusion caused a linear decrease in both. Silage root addition decreased linearly neutral detergent fiber rates and conversely wilting increased them. The opposite occurred with crude protein contents, with minimum rates 8.99 and 11.03 and maximum ones 18.01 and 20.9% DM values, respectively in silages with and without wilting.

Fernando Salgado Bernardino

2010-10-01

190

Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava  

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Full Text Available This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat flour doughs in order to test the fermentative ability of the isolates. The fermented doughs were baked and organoleptic analysis was carried out using some physical parameters namely: leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. The analysis showed that Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Geotrichum lactis and Candida robusta were best in leavening the flour doughs. Each of these isolates scored between 55 and 60% in all the attributes tested. In the sensory attributes applied, statistical analysis using ANOVA (p<0.05 and Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that about 71 and 80% of the tested isolates compared favourably with the commercial baker`s yeasts STK Royal and Saf-instant used.

B. Boboye

2009-01-01

191

Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

192

Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

2015-01-01

193

Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava. PMID:18661095

Alabi, Olufemi J; Ogbe, Francis O; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Lava Kumar, P; Dixon, Alfred G O; Hughes, Jaqueline d'A; Naidu, Rayapati A

2008-01-01

194

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

OpenAIRE

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermen...

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-marie; Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

195

The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each). PMID:19493582

Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

2009-07-31

196

The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log10 CFU/g to 9 log10 CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log10 CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log10 CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (< 5% each).

Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2009-01-01

197

Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety) were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v)) in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C) to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h interva...

Achinewhu, S. C.; Ogueke, C. C.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Barimalaa, I. S.

2011-01-01

198

PULP dead or alive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal

2011-12-01

199

Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

Nurhayati

2008-01-01

200

Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash. PMID:22514894

Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

2011-10-15

201

Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 mol mL-1 nmol-1. Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter. The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter. Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57x108 cfu g-1. pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

J.N. Nwosu

2011-01-01

202

Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener [...] así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron para producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fer [...] mentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

Manuel Fernando, Rubio-Arroyo; Pilar, Vivanco-Loyo; Moisés, Juárez; Martha, Poisot; Guillermo, Ramírez-Galicia.

2011-12-01

203

Power generation from cassava alcohol wastewater: effects of pretreatment and anode aeration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava alcohol wastewater produced from the bioethanol production industry is carbohydrate-rich wastewater with large quantities of insoluble organic compounds. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used for electricity recovery and pollutants removal from this wastewater. Different pretreatment methods (solid-liquid separation, ultrasonication, pre-fermentation) and anode-aeration modes were explored in MFCs aimed to enhance the efficiency of power generation and pollutants removal. Pre-fermentation was found to be the most effective pretreatment method. A maximum power density of 437.13 ± 15.6 mW/m(2) and TCOD removal of 62.5 ± 3.5% were achieved using the pre-fermented wastewater, 150 and 20% higher than the un-pretreated control. Aeration in anode chamber could promote the hydrolysis of organic matter and production of VFAs in the raw wastewater, and increase TCOD removal and power density. Pre-fermentation coupled with halfway anode aeration may be a feasible strategy to enhance power generation and pollutants removal from the cassava wastewater in MFCs. PMID:24842224

Quan, Xiangchun; Tao, Kun; Mei, Ying; Jiang, Xiaoman

2014-11-01

204

Ethanol Production from Cassava Starch by Selected Fungi from an-Koji and Saccaromycetes cereviseae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of selected fungi and S. cerevisiae was investigated. Firstly starch hydrolysis fungi were isolated and screened from tan-koji (loog-pang. Enzymatic activities of 10 isolated Rhizopus sp. strains were determined on 0.1% starch agar plate at various pH (3-10 as primary screening. Clear zone diameter was occurred at pH ranging from 3 to 8 and no response at pH 10. The highest clear zone diameter that were found from 2 strains of Rhizopus sp. #2Bu and Rhizopus sp. #3Su at pH 4 were nearly equal. Secondary screening, sugar liberated were performed at various starch concentration from these 2 fungal strains. The results showed that Rhizopus sp. #3Su was the maximum efficiency. The highest reducing sugar yield was 25.9% from 6% cassava starch medium at 72 h. Ethanol production by SSF process, the coupling process between saccharification and fermentation was developed by using co-culture of Rhizopus sp. #3Su and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5088. After 24, 48 and 72 h of saccharification period by the fungal strain, the fermentation process was begun by adding yeast inoculum. The highest ethanol production was achieved at 14.36 g L-1 after 24 h of saccharification process on 6% cassava starch medium.

Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak

2010-01-01

205

Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectino [...] lytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

María Alicia, Martos; Emilce Roxana, Zubreski; Mariana, Combina; Oscar Alfredo, Garro; Roque Alberto, Hours.

2013-06-01

206

Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

María Alicia Martos

2013-06-01

207

Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

2000-10-01

208

Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE) produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this stu [...] dy. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24%) and in the juice (28%), with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively). The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%), and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the ?-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls.

Ivana Greice, Sandri; Luciani Tastch, Piemolini-Barreto; Roselei Claudete, Fontana; Mauricio Moura da, Silveira.

2014-12-01

209

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not. The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis of variance results, only pH (p <0.01), duration of storage (p <0.01), population of aflatoxin-producing species (0.0001) and the chip type (p <0.05) were significantly related to aflatoxin in positive samples. A stepwise regression analysis (forward selection procedure) indicated that aflatoxin levels were significantly (p <0.01) correlated with processing practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips.

Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.

2009-01-01

210

Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

Udoudoh, P. J.

2011-12-01

211

Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

2011-02-15

212

Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational backgro...

Odoemenem, I. U.; Otanwa, L. B.

2011-01-01

213

Evaluation of the co-product pulp from Salix viminalis energy crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salix viminalis is among the species that are considered as promising for future energy crops in marginal lands throughout Canada. Whilst research conducted on Salix species is oriented, to a large extent, towards the hydrolytic production of sugars for fermentation, we have considered co-product fibre since it adds potential value to an integrated use of the biomass. In this study, extractives, lignin, hemicellulose, holocellulose and {alpha}-cellulose have been quantified using ASTM or TAPPI standard methods. Carbohydrates found in the hemicellulose were also quantified using HPLC. Hemicellulose comparison for one and three years old samples showed that the xylose content increases with age during this growth period. Kraft pulp has been produced at a bench scale (few kg range) using established pulping conditions. The pulp was tested following ATTPC standard methods. Pulp yields were of 29% and 34% for one and three years old samples respectively. The average fibre lengths were shorter for the younger samples, 0.35 mm, as compared with the older samples, 0.41 mm. Short fibres are not necessarily related to the species as much as to the fact that the samples used for the pulping were from young wood. When compared to industrial pulp, the basket willow pulp showed mechanical properties comparable to hardwood pulp which implies that this pulp could eventually be used in similar applications. Comparison with other energy crops shows advantages from the perspective of using this energy crop in Canada to co-produce pulp and, following suitable hydrolysis, sugars for fermentation to ethanol. (author)

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Capek-Menard, Eva; Chornet, Esteban [Industrial Research Chair on Cellulosic Ethanol and 2nd Generation Biofuels, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15

214

Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

215

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7]) of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucl...

Tas, Aveling; Jp, Legg; Ndunguru J; Thompson G; Cm, Fauquet

2005-01-01

216

Cassava Processing: Safety and Protein Fortification  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in tropical regions, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cassava as a human food is a good source of energy as it has a comparable high energy density of about 610 kJ/100 g fresh root. The crop has growth advantages and production can take place in soil where other crops such as maize, sorghum and sweet potatoes cannot grow. In the region, cassava is used mainly by the farmers themselves as a subsistence crop b...

Tivana, Lucas

2012-01-01

217

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained olig [...] osaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

Geovana Rocha Plácido, Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do, Canto; Edna Regina, Amante; Valdir, Soldi.

2005-08-01

218

Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio ...

Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

2013-01-01

219

Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

Science.gov (United States)

A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava. PMID:20336312

Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

2010-05-01

220

EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

Cuihua Dong,

2012-07-01

221

Chemical composition and nutritive value of four varieties of cassava leaves grown in South-Western Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritive value of leaves of four varieties of cassava - MS 6, TMS 30555, Idileruwa and TMS 30572 was evaluated based on their chemical composition and in vitro fermentation. Crude protein (CP) contents of cassava leaves ranged from 177 to 240 g/kg dry matter (DM), with TMS 30555 showing the highest CP contents. Neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) contents of cassava leaves ranged from 596 to 662 and 418 to 546 g/kg DM respectively. Condensed tannin (CT) and hydrocyanic acid contents ranged from 1.0 to 3.8 g/kg and 58.5 to 86.7 mg/kg DM respectively. The range of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the supernatant after in vitro incubation of the cassava varieties was: acetate (14.7-31.5 mmol/l); propionate (4.5-6.3 mmol/l); butyrate (3.1-3.9 mmol/l); valerate (0.4-0.6 mmol/l); iso-butyrate (0.6-1.3 mmol/l); iso-valerate (1.1-1.9 mmol/l). The acetate:propionate ratio resulting from fermentation of TMS 30555 was higher(p cassava leaves were positively correlated with gas production, while CT content was negatively correlated with gas production. The study showed that leaves of the varieties MS 6 and TMS 30555 are superior to the others in terms of CP and gas production indicating a higher digestibility and energy content and thus nutritive potential. They may therefore serve as supplements for ruminants fed on poor roughages. PMID:21091552

Oni, A O; Onwuka, C F I; Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Oduguwa, O O; Onifade, O S; Tan, Z L

2011-10-01

222

LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be brok [...] en under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

M. P., CEREDA; M.C.Y., MATTOS.

223

RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

2011-09-01

224

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

225

[Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and of protein. The magnitude of these changes was found to be directly related to the losses in dry matter. From the results of this research, it was concluded that the addition of forage improves the chemical characteristics of silage prepared from coffee pulp. PMID:1275634

Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

1976-03-01

226

Dental pulp tissue engineering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo altamente especializado que possui uma restrita capacidade de regeneração, devido à sua disposição anatômica e à natureza pós-mitótica das células odontoblásticas. A remoção total da polpa, seguida da desinfecção do canal radicular e seu preenchimento com materi [...] al artificial proporciona a perda de uma significante quantidade de dentina deixando como sequela um dente não vital e enfraquecido. Entretanto, a endodontia regenerativa é um campo emergente da engenharia tecidual, que demonstrou resultados promissores utilizando células-tronco associadas à scaffolds e moléculas bioativas. Desta forma, esse artigo revisa os recentes avanços obtidos na regeneração do tecido pulpar baseado nos princípios da engenharia tecidual e fornece aos leitores informações compreensivas sobre os diferentes aspectos envolvidos na engenharia tecidual. Assim, nós especulamos que a combinação ideal de células, scaffolds e moléculas bioativas pode resultar em significantes avanços em outras áreas da pesquisa odontológica. Os dados levantados em nossa revisão demonstraram que estamos em um estágio no qual, o desenvolvimento de tecidos complexos, tais como a polpa dental, não é mais inatingível e que a próxima década será um período extremamente interessante para a pesquisa odontológica. Abstract in english Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant [...] amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.

Flávio Fernando, Demarco; Marcus Cristian Muniz, Conde; Bruno Neves, Cavalcanti; Luciano, Casagrande; Vivien Thiemy, Sakai; Jacques Eduardo, Nör.

227

Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

228

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose: xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. PMID:18576569

Yu, S; Wayman, M; Parekh, S K

1987-06-01

229

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-06-01

230

Microbial population present in fermented beverage 'cauim' produced by Brazilian Amerindians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tapirapé Amerindians of the Tapi'itãwa tribe produce several fermented foods and beverages among them the beverage called 'cauim'. This beverage is the main staple food for infants until two years old and their parents. For producing the beverage, several substrates are used, such as: cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. The fermentation using mainly cassava was accomplished and samples were collected for chemical and microbiological analysis. A progressive acidification during the fermentation was observed and pH value decreased from 5.5 to 3.4. Lactic acid was the most important fermentation metabolite found but significant amounts of ethanol and acetic acid were also observed. The microbial load was high at the beginning of the fermentation, bacterial population was about 6.8 log cfu/ml and yeast population was 3.7 log cfu/ml. A total of 355 bacteria were isolated and identified. All the isolates were grouped into Gram-negative (3.5%), Gram-positive non-sporulating (78%) and Gram-positive sporulating bacteria (18.5%). Lactic acid bacteria increased from the beginning of fermentation and became the dominant microorganism throughout the fermentation. Species of bacteria were varied and they were found to be Lactobacillus pentosus, L. plantarum, Corynebacterium xerosis, C. amylocolatum, C. vitarumen, Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. circulans and Paenibacillus macerans. The species L. pentosus and L. plantarum were the dominant bacteria and were present in all the periods of evaluation of the samples. PMID:17888538

Almeida, Euziclei G; Rachid, Caio C T C; Schwan, Rosane F

2007-11-30

231

Integrated pulping and biorefining of palm residues based on semichemical cooking and fiber fractionation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work validates a new strategy for complete utilization of palm residues by separating fibers and parenchyma for the respective purposes of pulping and biorefining. The parenchyma cells were fractionated from royal palm sheath (RPS) after neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking for producing fermentable sugars, leaving vascular bundles for manufacturing pulp and paper. Parenchyma cells could be readily and completely screened out prior to defibration. They were more digestible by cellulase than vascular bundles or the pulp derived from them. Cellulose enzymatic digestibility (CED) of parenchyma cells rapidly reached 82% in 12-h hydrolysis and finally up to 92%. The CEDs of parenchyma were maintained around 90% at a medium solid consistency, 12% (w/w). The average length, retention and drainability of RPS pulp were all improved without loss of physical strength after removing parenchyma. This work may help establish a new platform for maximizing the utilization efficiency of parenchyma-rich biomass. PMID:23567685

Liu, Hao; Li, Ning; Fu, Shiyu; Chen, Shicheng

2013-05-01

232

Direct pulp capping using biodentine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

Popovi?-Baji? Marijana

2014-01-01

233

Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

234

Repeated-batch fermentative for bio-hydrogen production from.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COID(-1) and 851.84 mL h(-1), respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative broth was depleted to 150-250 mg L(-1) which equivalent to 10-15% of initial glucose concentration. Repeated-batch reactor was operated at 3 different feed-in/feed-out rates i.e., 25, 50 and 75%. Results revealed that a suitable feed-in/feed out rate for production of hydrogen from cassava wastewater was at 75%. This was indicated by the highest hydrogen yield, the highest potential maximal amount of hydrogen produced, a relatively high maximum hydrogen production rate, a relatively high maximum specific hydrogen production rate and a relatively short lag time of 0.0094 mL mg-COD(-1), 12,532.80 mL, 540.46 mL h(-1), 3.5 mL g-VSS(-1) h and 5.31 h, respectively. Major soluble metabolites were acetic and butyric acids. Our results indicated that repeated batch fermentation was more effective in producing hydrogen from cassava wastewater than batch fermentation. PMID:19086538

Sangyoka, Suksaman; Reungsang, Alissara; Moonamart, Samart

2007-06-01

235

Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau.

Rita de Cássia Trindade

1999-01-01

236

Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas fora [...] m testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau. Abstract in english The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ab [...] ility to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.

Rita de Cássia, Trindade; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa, Barreto; Taniella de Carvalho, Mendes; Carlos Augusto, Rosa.

237

Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2013-09-16

238

Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of bagasse on pulp properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190-210 degrees C, time: 120-180 min, organic solvent charge: 40-60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp properties (yield and holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, kappa number, ash and ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB). Main factor analysis revealed that optimum pulp has the following characteristics: 82.7% (yield), 92.9 (kappa number), 95.84% (holocellulose), 83.53% (alpha-cellulose), 1.403% (ash), 2.562% (ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and 6.39 (pH). These results showed that acceptable properties of pulps could be gained at 200-210 degrees C for 150 min and 40-60% DMF. Based on these results, this method could be used for pulping of bagasse equivalent NSSC concerning high yield at a fixed kappa number. In addition, bagasse could be pulped with ease to approximately 55% yield with a kappa number approximately 31. Numerical analyses showed that cooking temperature had the greatest influence on properties of obtained pulps within the DMF concentrations and cooking time as cooking variables. PMID:16324845

Rezayati-Charani, P; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Hashemi, S J; Kazemi-Najafi, S

2006-12-01

239

Fermentation Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

1978-01-01

240

Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-11-01

241

Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

2014-01-01

242

Accelerated coffee pulp composting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost. PMID:10423839

Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

1999-02-01

243

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-01-01

244

Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

2013-01-01

245

A novel cassava-infecting begomovirus from Madagascar: cassava mosaic Madagascar virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) are implicated in cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the main constraint to cassava production in Africa. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A and DNA-B of a newly characterized CMG found infecting cassava in Madagascar, for which we propose the tentative name cassava mosaic Madagascar virus. With the exception of two recombinant regions that resembled a CMG, we determined that the non-recombinant part of the DNA-A component is distantly related to the other CMGs. Whereas the DNA-B component possesses one recombinant region originating from an unidentified virus, the rest of the genome was seen to be closely related to members of the species East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV). Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences demonstrated that DNA-A and DNA-B components are outliers related to the clade of EACMV-like viruses and that DNA-A is related to the monopartite tomato leaf curl begomoviruses described in islands in the south-west Indian Ocean. PMID:22777180

Harimalala, Mireille; Lefeuvre, Pierre; De Bruyn, Alexandre; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Ranomenjanahary, Sahondramalala; Andrianjaka, Alice; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

2012-10-01

246

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

2011-05-01

247

High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-03-01

248

Isolation of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus from pulp mill sources with potential to deconstruct pulping waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. A microorganism was isolated from a black liquor sample collected from the Department of Forest Biomaterials at North Carolina State University. The organism was identified as Paenibacillus glucanolyticus using 16S rRNA sequence analysis and was shown to be capable of growth on black liquor as the sole carbon source based on minimal media growth studies. Minimal media growth curves demonstrated that this facultative anaerobic microorganism can degrade black liquor as well as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify products generated by P. glucanolyticus when it was grown anaerobically on black liquor. Fermentation products which could be converted into high-value chemicals such as succinic, propanoic, lactic, and malonic acids were detected. PMID:24841577

Mathews, Stephanie L; Pawlak, Joel J; Grunden, Amy M

2014-07-01

249

The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

2012-03-01

250

Ethanol by continuous fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solutions containing 10-40% fermentable sugars or oligomers of fermentable sugars are subjected to continuous fermentation in an apparatus consisting of a series of fermentation receptacles linked to each other. A diagram of the apparatus is given. The fermentation process uses 2 types of yeast, i.e., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which provides a high rate of conversion of sugar to ethanol, and S. cerevisiae var ellipsoideus or S. carlsbergensis which provides a high rate of conversion of fermentable sugar oligomers into ethanol.

Miller, F.D.; Muller, W.C.

1981-09-15

251

Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

I.U. Odoemenem

2011-09-01

252

Fermentation Characteristics of Rice Crop Residue-Based Silage Treated by Epiphytic and Commercial LAB  

OpenAIRE

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control;...

Santoso, B.; Tj Hariadi, B.; Alimuddin; Seseray, D. Y.

2012-01-01

253

Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition  

OpenAIRE

The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic aci...

Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

2010-01-01

254

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

OpenAIRE

All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.

2000-01-01

255

Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization  

OpenAIRE

Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

2012-01-01

256

CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL  

OpenAIRE

In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml...

Lois Larbie; Claude Fiifi Hayford; Elsie Effah Kaufmann

2012-01-01

257

Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).  

OpenAIRE

Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be directly applied in existing varieties of vegetatively propagated crops like cassava. Genetic modification requires efficient, genotype-independent regeneration methods. Plant regeneration can be a...

Raemakers, C. J. J. M.

1993-01-01

258

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP  

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Full Text Available This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% consistency with crude xylanase (6 IU/g o.d. pulp at 60 ºC for 2 h increased the final brightness by 4.9%. The enzyme treatment reduced the chlorine consumption by 28.6% with the same brightness as in the control. A reduction in kappa number and increase in viscosity was observed after enzyme pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loosening and swelling of pulp fibers. The strength properties viz. grammage, fiber thickness, beating degree, tensile index, breaking length, tear index and double fold of the treated pulp were improved as compared to the control pulp. This study reveals the potential of B. subtilis ASH xylanase as a biobleaching agent for the paper and pulp industry.

Ashwani Sanghi

2009-08-01

259

Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong. PMID:24747716

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

2014-06-16

260

Improving the efficiency of enzyme utilization for sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a carbohydrate-rich residue of table sugar processing. It shows promise as a feedstock for fermentable sugar and biofuel production via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. This research focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP and examined the effects of solid loading (2-10 %, dry basis), enzyme preparation, and enzyme recycle on the production of fermentable sugars. The enzyme partitioning to the solid and liquid phases during SBP enzymatic hydrolysis and loss during recycling were investigated using SDS-PAGE and Zymogram analysis. Without considering product inhibition, the cellulase added initially to the SBP hydrolysis lost only 6 % filter paper activity and negligible carboxymethyl cellulose activity upon multiple cycles of SBP hydrolysis. It was found that enzyme dosage can be reduced by 50 % while maintaining similar, and in some cases higher fermentable sugar yield. The removal of hydrolysis products will further improve enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP for biofuel production. PMID:22580744

Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

2012-11-01

261

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

OpenAIRE

Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

2011-01-01

262

Modeling and Optimising the Growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae During Gathotan Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gathotan is fungal fermented cassava, and a raw material for a Javanese snack called ‘gathot’. This type of food is now hardly to find, and the process of making gathotan is relatively lack of process control, leads to failure in process. To make gathotan, peeled cassava tubers are left on the ground or roof for several weeks or months until they become black inside an important characteristic of gathotan. This work aims to improve gathotan fermentation by optimizing fermentation process. The effect of incubation temperature and time, inoculum level, soaking time, and drying, on the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the main gathotan fungus, in cassava tubers was studied. Experimental design was set up according to response surface methodology. Five parameters measured were pH, titratable acidity, and fungal growth. Results showed that incubation temperature affected pH in linear (P<0.01 and quadratic functions (P<0.05. Titratable acidity was not affected by any treatment. Fungal growth was significantly affected by incubation time (P<0.01 or inoculum level (P<0.05, and interaction of several factors: incubation time and incubation temperature (P<0.05 or drying time (P<0.01. Optimization model indicated that incubation temperature at 34.5°C for 2.4 days, soaking for 26.4 hours, drying time of 3.7 hours at 40°C, and inoculum level of 2% resulted in maximum growth of L. theobromae in gathotan.

UMI PURWANDARI

2015-03-01

263

Resistance to cassava mosaic disease in transgenic cassava expressing antisense RNAs targeting virus replication genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) is a major contributor to cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the economically most important and devastating disease of cassava in Africa. We have developed transgenic cassava plants with increased ACMV resistance using improved antisense RNA technology by targeting the viral mRNAs of Rep (AC1), TrAP (AC2) and REn (AC3). Viral DNA replication assays in detached leaves demonstrated that replication of two ACMV isolates was strongly reduced or inhibited in most transgenic lines. After ACMV infection of plants using biolistic inoculation, several lines remained symptomless at lower infection pressure (100 ng viral DNA/plant). Symptom development was reduced and attenuated even at higher DNA doses. Transgenic ACMV-resistant plants had significantly reduced viral DNA accumulation in their infected leaves. Short sense and antisense RNAs specific to AC1 were identified in transgenic lines expressing AC1 antisense RNA, suggesting that the short RNAs mediate interference by post-transcriptional gene silencing. Our results demonstrate that resistance to ACMV infection of cassava can be achieved with high efficacy by expressing antisense RNAs against viral mRNAs encoding essential non-structural proteins, providing a new tool to combat CMD in Africa. PMID:17173627

Zhang, Peng; Vanderschuren, Hervé; Fütterer, Johannes; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2005-07-01

264

Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

Haidar Abbasi

2010-10-01

265

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first 2-3 days of fermentation were characterised by the successional growth of various species of filamentous fungi, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The principal species found were Penicillium citrinum, an unidentified basidiomycete, Kloeckera apis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The later stages of fermentation were dominated by the presence of Bacillus species, mostly, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid of the bean pulp were utilised during fermentation, with the production of ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid that diffused into the beans. The filamentous fungi were notable for their production of polygalacturonase activity and probably contributed to the degradation of bean pulp. PMID:12892924

Ardhana, Made M; Fleet, Graham H

2003-09-01

266

Production of L-lactic acid from fresh cassava roots slurried with tofu liquid waste by Streptococcus bovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics, the fermentation performance of L-lactic acid for a new fermentation medium, fresh cassava roots (FCRs) as a substrate slurried with tofu liquid waste (TLW) as basal medium, was investigated by batch fermentation of Streptococcus bovis. The fermentation properties of the three substrates, namely, FCR, tapioca (cassava starch) and glucose, which were independently mixed with TLW, were compared with those independently mixed with the standard basal medium, trypto-soya broth (TSB). Experiments were conducted at various sugar concentrations of the substrates with CaCO(3) as a neutralizer. The maximum L-lactic acid concentrations (C(La)) obtained using the three substrates in TLW were about 75% of those obtained using TSB caused by less nutrients in the TLW. The L-lactic acid productivities (P(La)) and the specific growth rates of S. bovis (mu) in TLW were about 1/4 to 1/3 and 1/5 to 1/4 of those in TSB, respectively. The maximum C(La), P(La) and mu were obtained at 10% w/w sugar concentration. Total yields (eta) were nearly constant up to 10% w/w sugar concentration for TSB and TLW, that is, 80% to 85% and 50% to 60%, respectively. But their total yields decreased in more than 10% w/w sugar concentration in both basal media, because of substrate inhibition. The fermentation properties (C(La), P(La), mu, and eta) were found to be in the order of: FCR > tapioca > glucose for all concentrations of the three substrates. The fermentation properties for FCR and tapioca were higher than those for glucose, in TLW or TSB, because S. bovis in a medium containing starch (FCR and tapioca) has more amylase activity than in a medium containing glucose. The nutrients in FCR with poor nutrient basal medium (TLW) more strongly affected the fermentation properties than those in FCR with rich nutrient basal medium (TSB). The proposed fermentation medium of FCR slurried with TLW is worth studying in order to reduce production cost of biodegradable plastics. PMID:16473768

Ghofar, Abdul; Ogawa, Shingo; Kokugan, Takao

2005-12-01

267

Strength loss in kraft pulping  

Science.gov (United States)

Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

Iribarne, Jose

268

Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture) and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed) on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A centra [...] l composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*), and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%), low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%), and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C) and screw speed (230rpm), it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

Cristiane da Cunha, Salata; Magali, Leonel; Fernanda Rossi Moretti, Trombini; Martha Maria, Mischan.

2014-09-01

269

Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic potential (CNp). Processed products from Luapula showed a low CNp,

Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.

2011-01-01

270

Avaliação da farinha de mandioca e do fubá de milho como substratos para a obtenção de bebida fermento-destilada Evaluation of cassava and corn flours as substrates for alcoholic distilled beverage production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca e o fubá de milho foram avaliados como matérias-primas alternativas na obtenção de uma bebida fermento-destilada, visando gerar informações úteis à aplicação industrial. Os substratos foram caracterizados e comparou-se a eficiência da mosturação, o perfil de açúcares no mosto, bem como as curvas de fermentação dos substratos. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo de amido foi de 78,1 % para o fubá de milho e 92,7 % para a farinha de mandioca. Quanto ao rendimento da mosturação foi de 57, 4 % para o milho e 66,4 % para a mandioca, sendo que o perfil de açúcares no mosto demonstrou que 95 % dos açúcares presentes no mosto de mandioca foi glicose e o restante pequenas porcentagens de dextrinas e maltose. Já o perfil do mosto de milho apresentou cerca de 85 % de glicose , 10 % de dextrinas e cerca de 4 % de maltose. Para o processo fermentativo, observou -se que o consumo de açúcares no mosto de mandioca foi mais rápido que no mosto de milho.Cassava and corn flours were evaluated as alternative raw-materials for production of a fermented and distilled drink. The objective of this work was to generate information for technological application. Both flours were characterized and starch hydrolysis efficiency, sugar profile and fermentation pattern were compared. The results obtained showed that starch content of corn flour was 78.1% and for cassava flour 92.7%. Starch hydrolysis yield was 57.4% for corn and 66.4% for cassava and the sugar profiles in the hydrolysates showed that 95% of total sugar present in cassava hydrolysate was glucose and the remaining fraction was represented by dextrins and maltose. For corn hydrolysate 85% of total sugar was glucose, 10% dextrins and around 4% maltose. The fermentative process was evaluated by measuring the velocity of sugar consumption which for cassava hydrolysate was higher than for corn hydrolysate.

I. M. Demiate

1997-08-01

271

Transformation alimentaire du manioc = Cassava food processing  

OpenAIRE

Le manioc (#Manihot esculenta$) est l'une des plus importantes plantes alimentaires en Afrique et sous les tropiques. En Afrique, la fermentation est une opération importante de la transformation des racines brutes en aliments. Le rôle des microorganismes de la fermentation dans le processus de détoxication, dans le développement de la saveur et dans la conservation de l'aliment a été confirmé. Cet article présente des travaux sur la fermentation traditionnelle par immersion dans l'ea...

Oyewole, O. B.

1995-01-01

272

Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase.

Wang, Wen; Xie, Li

2012-01-01

273

Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VS(CS)/VS(CES) of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VS(CS)/VS(CES) of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VS(CS)/VS(CES) of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VS(CS)/VS(CES) of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase. PMID:22789828

Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Lu, Qin

2012-09-01

274

Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

OpenAIRE

The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ) ...

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Milji? Uroš D.; Puškaš Vladimir S.

2013-01-01

275

PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA)  

OpenAIRE

The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this...

Bahekar S; Kale R

2013-01-01

276

Caracterização molecular de acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético Molecular characterization of biofortified cassava accessions with potential for use in genetic improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mandioca apresenta potencial como fonte de carotenóides na alimentação humana, em especial ?-caroteno (nas raízes amarelas e licopeno (nas raízes rosadas. Assim, a possibilidade da mandioca ser, além de fonte de calorias, uma fonte de vitaminas e antioxidantes, é encarada como forma de melhorar a nutrição dos habitantes de países em desenvolvimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar por meio de marcadores RAPD 20 acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético. Os acessos foram avaliados por meio de marcadores RAPD, sendo posteriormente estimada a matriz de similaridade genética entre os acessos, por meio do índice de Jaccard. A análise por meio de 12 iniciadores gerou um total de 144 bandas das quais 120 (83% foram polimórficas. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação três grupos, sendo o grupo um formado por sete acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e dois acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, o grupo dois formado por oito acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela e um acesso com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e o grupo três formado pelos acessos melhorados com cor da polpa da raiz creme e branca. Os marcadores RAPD foram eficientes na determinação da variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, rosada, creme e branca, diferenciaram os acessos melhorados dos demais acessos e revelaram uma tendência de separação dos acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada dos com a cor da polpa da raiz amarela.Cassava presents potential as source of carotenoids for human diet, in special ?-carotene (within the yellow roots and lycopene (within the pinkish roots. So, the possibility for cassava to be, besides source of calories, source of vitamins and antioxidants as well is faced as a manner to improve the nutrition of inhabitants of developing countries. In the present work, the aim was to characterize by RAPD markers 20 accessions of biofortified cassava with potential for use in genetic improvement. The accessions were evaluated via RAPD markers, being then estimated the matrix of genetic similarity among the accessions by using the Jaccard index. The analysis using 12 primers generated a total of 144 markers, among which 120 (83% were polymorphic. The clustering analysis revealed the formation of three groups, being group one formed by seven accessions with pinkish root pulp and two with yellow root pulp, group two formed by eight accessions with yellow root pulp and one accession with pinkish root pulp, and group three formed by improved accessions with either cream color or white root pulp. The RAPD markers were efficient to determine the genetic variability among the cassava accessions with yellow, pinkish, cream color and white root pulp, differentiated the improved accessions from the others and revealed a trend to separate the accessions with pinkish root pulp from the accessions with yellow root pulp.

Eduardo Alano Vieira

2011-06-01

277

Caracterização molecular de acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético / Molecular characterization of biofortified cassava accessions with potential for use in genetic improvement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mandioca apresenta potencial como fonte de carotenóides na alimentação humana, em especial ?-caroteno (nas raízes amarelas) e licopeno (nas raízes rosadas). Assim, a possibilidade da mandioca ser, além de fonte de calorias, uma fonte de vitaminas e antioxidantes, é encarada como forma de melhorar [...] a nutrição dos habitantes de países em desenvolvimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar por meio de marcadores RAPD 20 acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético. Os acessos foram avaliados por meio de marcadores RAPD, sendo posteriormente estimada a matriz de similaridade genética entre os acessos, por meio do índice de Jaccard. A análise por meio de 12 iniciadores gerou um total de 144 bandas das quais 120 (83%) foram polimórficas. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação três grupos, sendo o grupo um formado por sete acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e dois acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, o grupo dois formado por oito acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela e um acesso com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e o grupo três formado pelos acessos melhorados com cor da polpa da raiz creme e branca. Os marcadores RAPD foram eficientes na determinação da variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, rosada, creme e branca, diferenciaram os acessos melhorados dos demais acessos e revelaram uma tendência de separação dos acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada dos com a cor da polpa da raiz amarela. Abstract in english Cassava presents potential as source of carotenoids for human diet, in special ?-carotene (within the yellow roots) and lycopene (within the pinkish roots). So, the possibility for cassava to be, besides source of calories, source of vitamins and antioxidants as well is faced as a manner to improve [...] the nutrition of inhabitants of developing countries. In the present work, the aim was to characterize by RAPD markers 20 accessions of biofortified cassava with potential for use in genetic improvement. The accessions were evaluated via RAPD markers, being then estimated the matrix of genetic similarity among the accessions by using the Jaccard index. The analysis using 12 primers generated a total of 144 markers, among which 120 (83%) were polymorphic. The clustering analysis revealed the formation of three groups, being group one formed by seven accessions with pinkish root pulp and two with yellow root pulp, group two formed by eight accessions with yellow root pulp and one accession with pinkish root pulp, and group three formed by improved accessions with either cream color or white root pulp. The RAPD markers were efficient to determine the genetic variability among the cassava accessions with yellow, pinkish, cream color and white root pulp, differentiated the improved accessions from the others and revealed a trend to separate the accessions with pinkish root pulp from the accessions with yellow root pulp.

Eduardo Alano, Vieira; Josefino de Freitas, Fialho; Fabio Gelape, Faleiro; Graciele, Bellon; Marilia Santos, Silva.

2011-06-01

278

Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

Alissara Reungsang

2007-01-01

279

IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

Chun-Han Ko

2011-02-01

280

Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

281

GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

282

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

283

Dissolving pulp from jute stick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of ?-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% ?-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

2015-01-22

284

Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project  

OpenAIRE

Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava su...

Braima Dama James; Okechuckwu, P. Bramel E. Witte R. Asiedu D. Watson R.

2013-01-01

285

Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

Junjun Liu

2014-03-01

286

An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes. PMID:25707473

Batista de Souza, Claudia R; Dos Reis, Savio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

2015-01-01

287

Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

2010-12-01

288

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

289

21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or battery powered device...

2010-04-01

290

APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE  

OpenAIRE

The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

Yahya Hamzeh; Ali Abyaz; Mahsa O-Sadat Mirfatahi Niaraki; Ali Abdulkhani

2009-01-01

291

Rumen in vitro Gas Production of Combinations Between Slowly and Rapidly Fermentable Fibre Sources  

OpenAIRE

An in vitro rumen fermentation was performed, where two sources of slowly fermentable fibre (milk thistle, MT; pure cellulose, CE) and three of rapidly fermentable fibre (tomato peels without seeds, TP; citrus pulp, CI; pectin, PE) were incubated alone or as 75:25 or 25:75 mixtures (MT:TP, MT:CI, MT:PE, CE:TP, CE:CI, CE: PE ), to detect associative effects among substrates. Substrates or mixtures (0.5 g) were incubated with 75 ml of buffered rumen fluid into individual bottles at 39°C for 96...

Laura Maccarana; Mirko Cattani; Lucia Bailoni

2013-01-01

292

ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm, using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, ?-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

Ana Requejo,

2012-06-01

293

Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h intervals and processed into gari. The processes were repeated for controlled fermentation at 35 and 40°C using a water bath. The samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, residual cyanide and sensory evaluation (taste, appearance and general acceptability. The results show that increasing concentration of spent liquor significantly lowered residual cyanide, decreased pH and increased the titratable acid. The addition of preferment reduced the HCN concentration to 9.92 mg HCN kg-1 for 15.0% and 8.36 mg HCN kg-1 for 20.0% samples. Similarly, 15% preferment liquor, gave the highest swelling index-26.19 when, fermented at 30°C. However, the value decreased to 23.12 and 22.71 when fermented at 35 and 40°C. The sample fermented at 5.0% gave the best performance (0.6047 g cm-3 for the bulk density. The sample from 5.0% preferment treatment also gave the best performance in terms of appearance (6.0, taste (6.1 and general acceptability (6.1. The titratable acidity increased with increase in preferment concentration. Moreover, limiting the spent liquor to 5.0%, temperature, at 35°C and duration of fermentation, at 48 h gave best performance for functional and sensory qualities and also guarantees food safety.

S.C. Achinewhu

2011-01-01

294

Decommissioned dates: chemical composition and fermentation substrate for the production of extracellular catalase by an Aspergillus phoenicis mutant  

OpenAIRE

The recovery of dates downgraded as a fermentation medium for the production of extracellular catalase by Aspergillus phoenicis K30 was studied. Analysis of the chemical composition of pulp and kernel flour of dates showed that the pulp had a considerably greater carbohydrate content compared to the kernel (84 vs 2.93% respectively). However, the kernel flour was richer in nitrogen (0.68% vs 0.34), mineral elements (3.63 vs 1.28%) and in essential fatty acids C18: 2 vs C18: 3 than the pulp fl...

Kacem-chaouche, N.; Dehimat, L.; Meraihi, Z.; Destain, Jacqueline; Kahlat, K.; Thonart, Philippe

2013-01-01

295

Statistical optimization of bioprocess parameters for enhanced gallic acid production from coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was produced by microbial biotransformation of coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum. Gallic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design. Process parameters such as pH, moisture, and fermentation period were considered for optimization. Among the various fungi isolated from coffee by-products, Penicillium verrucosum produced 35.23 µg/g of gallic acid on coffee pulp as sole carbon source in solid-state fermentation. The optimum values of the parameters obtained from the RSM were pH 3.32, moisture 58.40%, and fermentation period of 96 hr. Gallic acid production with an increase of 4.6-fold was achieved upon optimization of the process parameters. The results optimized could be translated to 1-kg tray fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and spectral studies such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that the bioactive compound isolated was gallic acid. Thus, coffee pulp, which is available in enormous quantity, could be used for the production of value-added products that can find avenues in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. PMID:23464918

Bhoite, Roopali N; Navya, P N; Murthy, Pushpa S

2013-01-01

296

Fermentation Quality and in Vitro Nutrient Digestibility of Fresh Rice Straw-Based Silage Treated with Lactic Acid Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of fresh rice straw-based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was the ratio of fresh rice straw (FRS), tofu waste (TW) and cassava waste (CW) consisted of two levels i.e., 40 : 20 : 40 and 40 : 25 : 35, on dry matter ...

Santoso, B.; Tj Hariadi, B.; Sabariah, V.; Sraun, T.

2014-01-01

297

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

298

Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong.

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line

2014-01-01

299

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

300

Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch  

OpenAIRE

This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC...

Azeez, O. S.

2005-01-01

301

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

2003-01-01

302

Fermentation and food  

Science.gov (United States)

This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

303

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. PMID:21569940

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-08-01

304

Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

Phengpricha, N.

1980-01-01

305

Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

1984-07-01

306

Identification of Genetically Distinct Cassava Clones from On-Farm Plantations to Widen the Thai Cassava Breeding Gene Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is one of the most important economic crops in Thailand. However, the Thai cassava breeding gene pool was genetically narrow with only 11 distinct landraces. An attempt was made here to characterize 266 cassava clones collected from 80 farms in eight provinces using 35 SSR markers. A total of 365 polymorphic alleles were detected in the assayed samples. The molecular analysis of variance revealed that a large SSR variance (19.8% was present among the farm samples. The genetic relationships of the 266 farm samples revealed by the principal coordinate analysis confirmed the large SSR variation observed among the collected cassava samples. The average dissimilarity (AD of a cassava sample against the other 265 samples was calculated and the AD values obtained ranged from 0.256 to 0.502 with a mean of 0.319. Based on these AD values, a set of 50 unique cassava samples with AD values of 0.346 or higher was assembled from the on-farm samples to widen the genetic base of the Thai cassava breeding gene pool.

Preeya P. Wangsomnuk

2013-07-01

307

Effect of substrate adaptation on the microbial fermentation and microbial composition of faecal microbiota of weaning piglets studied in vitro  

OpenAIRE

The in vitro cumulative gas production technique can be used to assess microbial activity of a complex community, in relation to fermentation of a particular energy source. Therefore, in combination with an in vivo study to examine the effects of two different diets for weaning piglets, microbial activities of faeces were compared from animals on the two different diets. The two diets were: CHO diet [containing added fermentable carbohydrates, including sugarbeet pulp (SBP) and wheat starch (...

Awati, A. A.; Konstantinov, S. R.; Williams, B. A.; Akkermans, A. D. L.; Bosch, M. W.; Smidt, H.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

2005-01-01

308

Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar  

OpenAIRE

Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spacing of cassava (2.5 x 2.5 m), was always low, the hypothesis was tested whether damage due to CMD could be decreased by applying green manure. A total of 10 tonnes of fresh Gliricidia sepium leaves ...

Spittel, M. C.; Huis, A.

2000-01-01

309

Gas Extraction from Sludge as Acquired from Oxidation Ponds of Community Wastewater and Cassava-Factory Wastewater Treatment through Nature-by-Nature Processes  

OpenAIRE

The study was aimed on determining the gas volume from sludge of oxidation ponds for community wastewater treatment and UASB tank of cassava factory for wastewater treatment in which the organic matters of both units were digested through the nature-by-nature process. The amounts of oven- dry weight sludge about 200 g were collected in the light brow glass bottle with 2.5-l capacity. The fermentation of organic matters in sludge is the process to produce gases and being transferred to store i...

Noppawan Semvimol; Kasem Chunkao; Surat Bualert

2014-01-01

310

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

2006-11-01

311

Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the cassava farmers were married, literate and of about 35 years meaning that more young people were into cassava cultivation in Ile-Ife. Also, the farmers had an average of 8 members per household. The results of the regression analysis revealed that 97% of the variations in the marketed surplus of cassava were explained by the variables in the model. The result also revealed that the quantity of cassava output in kg and the family size had positive and significant effects on the marketed surplus while losses, quantity of cassava consumed in kg, payments in kind in kg, size of land in hectares had negative effects on the marketed surplus. The elasticity of marketed surplus was 1.6 meaning that the supply response was elastic indicating that the higher the price of cassava output in kg the more the quantity of cassava that will be supplied.

Key words: Cassava Farmers; Market supply response; Nigeria; Osun State

R. O. Oluitan

2012-06-01

312

Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among...

Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

1999-01-01

313

Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

OpenAIRE

Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.A Apomixia mantém a heterose e evita a transmissão de patógenos sistêmicos que acompanham a propagaçã...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.; Vieira, Marco Andre? R.; Clibas Vieira; Dario Gratapaglia

1998-01-01

314

Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%); Family-Hired labour (27.8%); Family-Contract labour (31.1%). The gros...

Abila, N.

2012-01-01

315

Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator  

OpenAIRE

The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

Tutuk Djoko Kusworo; Budiyono, B.

2011-01-01

316

Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava’s evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava’s origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants. PMID:10318928

Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

1999-01-01

317

Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Acetate Derivative Cassava Starch  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study were to observe the possibility of application of microwave heating in the acetylation of cassava starch and to study the physicochemical properties of the starch acetate obtained. The acetylation was carried out by mixing native cassava starch with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide of a certain weight ratio in a sealed container. The mixture was then sprayed with ethanol and heated using microwave power. The Degree of Substitution (DS), Reaction Efficiency (RE) and...

Retnowati, D. S.; Budiyati, C. S.; Kumoro, A. C.

2010-01-01

318

Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk), Don Chedi (Dc), Pak Chong (Pc),and Ban Beung (BBg) soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 18...

Jakchaiwat Kaweewong; Thanuchai Kongkaew; Saowanuch Tawornprek; Sukunya Yampracha; Russell Yost

2013-01-01

319

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

320

Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM y de fuerza atómica (AFM. Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glicerina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente. El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos.An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and glycerine, were processed at 120(0C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode. Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

Harold A Acosta

2006-01-01

321

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% co...

Ashwani Sanghi; Neelam Garg; Kalika Kuhar; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Gupta, Vijay K.

2009-01-01

322

Anaerobic digestion of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the production of biogas by using pineapple pulp and peel, the by-products from fruit processing plants, in a plug-flow reactor (17.5 L total volume). The effects of feed concentration, total solids (TS) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on degradation of the waste were investigated. The increase of pineapple pulp and peel of 2% (wt/vol) at HRT 7 d to 4% (wt/vol) at HRT 10 d showed increases in biogas production rate, biogas yield and methane yield - from 0.12 v/v-d, 0.26 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.11 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 64.1%, to 0.25 v/v-d, 0.43 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.14 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 60.41%. The methanogenic fermentation was more active in the middle and final parts of the reactor. The recirculation of fermentation effluent at 40% (vol/vol) of the working volume into the reactor could increase the biogas production rate and biogas yield up to 52% and 12%, respectively. The results showed technological potential for waste treatment of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor. PMID:22705859

Namsree, Pimjai; Suvajittanont, Worakrit; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

2012-11-15

323

Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

Cock, J.H.

1982-11-19

324

Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Acetate Derivative Cassava Starch  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study were to observe the possibility of application of microwave heating in the acetylation of cassava starch and to study the physicochemical properties of the starch acetate obtained. The acetylation was carried out by mixing native cassava starch with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide of a certain weight ratio in a sealed container. The mixture was then sprayed with ethanol and heated using microwave power. The Degree of Substitution (DS, Reaction Efficiency (RE and some physical properties of the acetylated starches were then analyzed. It was found that microwave assisted acetylation of cassava starch using chloroacetic acid can be done in a very short reaction time. The highest DS and RE obtained were 0.045 and 0.051%, respectively. Acetylation of cassava starch reduced gel hardness during storage. Acetylation also inhibits the retrogradation of starch gel. Cassava starch acetylation changed starch molecular motion, resulting in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Amylopectin retrogradation was not significantly reduced, indicating that the degrees of modification of the starches in this study were too low to cause enough steric hindrance to prevent retrogradation. The modifications were done on native starch granules; they took place preferentially on the amylose fraction, not the amylopectin fraction, thus leaving amylopectin retrogradation was mostly unaffected. It can be concluded that microwave heating can be applied in the acetylation of cassava starch to obtain significant changes of the properties of starch.

D.S. Retnowati

2010-01-01

325

EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS  

OpenAIRE

Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md. Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

2010-01-01

326

Production of thermostable pectinase and xylanase for their potential application in bleaching of kraft pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very high level of alkalophilic and thermostable pectinase and xylanase has been produced from newly isolated strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Enzyme production for pectinase was carried out under SSF using combinations of cheap agricultural residues while xylanase was produced under submerged fermentation using wheat bran as substrate to minimize the cost of production of these enzymes Among the various substrates tested, the highest yield of pectinase production was observed by using combination of WB + CW (6592 U/g of dry substrate) supplemented with 4% yeast extract when incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 h using deionized water of pH 7.0 as moistening agent. The biobleaching effect of these cellulase free enzymes on kraft pulp was determined. Both xylanase and pectinase showed stability over a broad range of pH from 6 to 10 and temperature from 55 to 70 degrees C. The bleaching efficiency of the pectinase and xylanase on kraft pulp was maximum after 150 min at 60 degrees C using enzyme dosage of 5 IU/ml of each enzyme at 10% pulp consistency with about 16% reduction in kappa number and 84% reduction in permanganate number. Enzyme treated pulp when subjected to CDED(1)D(2) steps, 25% reduction in chlorine consumption and upto 19% reduction in consumption of chlorine dioxide was observed for obtaining the same %ISO brightness. Also an increase of 22 and 84% in whiteness and fluorescence respectively and a decrease of approximately 19% in the yellowness of the biotreated pulp were observed by pretreatment of the pulp with our enzymatic mixture. PMID:17726619

Ahlawat, Sonia; Battan, Bindu; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Sharma, Jitender; Mandhan, Rishi Pal

2007-12-01

327

The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages  

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Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

Koljaji? Viliman

2003-01-01

328

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

OpenAIRE

This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J. A. F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

2012-01-01

329

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES  

OpenAIRE

Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells), usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The...

Elina Orblin; Pedro Fardim

2011-01-01

330

21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section 872.1730 ...§ 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied...

2010-04-01

331

Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

Lowell, A.

2012-04-01

332

Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

Bouveng, H.O.

1967-01-01

333

PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA  

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Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and ?- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an ?-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% ?-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

Baya Bouiri

2010-02-01

334

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

335

Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

1995-07-01

336

Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

2010-08-15

337

Utilization of Equipment and Biosafety of Cassava Processing in the Middle Belt of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Cassava processing and equipment assessment is very important for safe consumption and utilization. The presidential initiatives in cassava production have led to many establishments of cassava processing industries in the middle belt of the country. Apart from being used as food, cassava is an important industrial raw material for the production of starch, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, gum and confectioneries. This study derived its data from secondary source to assess the utilization of equipme...

Yohanna, J. Kuje; Umogbai, V. I.

2011-01-01

338

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

2012-01-01

339

PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA  

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Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

Bahekar S

2013-01-01

340

Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch  

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Full Text Available This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC and 120oC respectively.The best of white dextrin which had the highest solubility of 36.1 per cent was used to formulate the adhesive.

O. S. AZEEZ

2005-06-01

341

Effects of the kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on hypercholesterolemic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterole [...] mic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

Michel Cardoso de, Angelis-Pereira; Maria de Fátima Píccolo, Barcelos; Mariana Séfora Bezerra, Sousa; Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro, Pereira.

2013-07-01

342

Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. PMID:24376222

Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

2014-01-01

343

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca / Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi [...] realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso), com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1%) e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%). As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6) foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1). A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in t [...] he natural matter basis (weight/weight), with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1%) and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%). The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6) above other silages (4.1). The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Rasmo, Garcia; José Nobre de, Carvalho Junior; Leandro Sampaio Oliveira, Ribeiro; Daiane Maria Trindade, Chagas.

2009-01-01

344

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1% and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%. The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6 above other silages (4.1. The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Aureliano José Vieira Pires

2009-01-01

345

Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

Adenle Ademola A

2012-08-01

346

Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1  

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Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

Tofino Adriana

2011-08-01

347

REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER  

OpenAIRE

Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK) as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Resu...

Guanglei Zhao; Ronald Lai; Xiaofeng Li; Beihai He; Thomas Greschik

2010-01-01

348

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. PMID:23279821

de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2013-02-01

349

Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

2006-01-01

350

Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization  

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Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

2012-01-01

351

Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater  

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Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

B Budiyono

2012-03-01