WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermented cassava pulp

  1. Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

  2. Effects of fermented cassava pulp on dry matter intake, feed digestion, conception rate and performances of dairy heifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen crossbred Holstein Friesian heifers (307 ± 18.4 kg of body weight (BW)) were assigned to 4 treatments in randomized completely block design. Feed ingredients and compositions of experimental diets on DM basis are presented. Heifers were offered feed as TMR diets with a 10% refusal. Intakes and refusals were recorded daily. Experimental period consisted of 74 d, with 14-d adjustment period. During d 60 to 74, samples of feed offered were collected and BW was recorded. Diet composites were analyzed for CP, Fat (AOAC, 1990) NDF, ADF (Van Soest et al., 1991). Chromic oxide was used as indicator for feed. Blood samples were analyzed for BUN, Glucose. All heifers were induced by using the 2 injection protocol of Prostaglandin F2? and Pregnancy check at day 60 after injection. All data were done using the GLM procedure of SAS (1988). The experiment data suggested that intakes of DM per day were affected (P > 0.03) by amount of cassava pulp that heifer had lower feed intake as increased ratio of cassava pulp into diet. However, it did not effect body weight change among treatments and tend to improve feeding efficiency as using more cassava pulp. Diet DM and ADF digestion had no effects among treatments (average in 60.8% and 43.3%). But NDF digestion was significantly difference (P < 0.03) that increasing amount of cassava pulp increased NDF digestion. The average blood glucose and BUN levels during 1-3 h post feeding were not significant difference amongng were not significant difference among treatments. Even blood glucose tended to decrease and BUN tended to increase. Number of oestrus heifers and pregnancy heifers were not significantly difference among treatments. Consequently, at the 50% of cassava pulp can use incorporative in diet without any effects on fertility. Cassava pulp was one of the main by-product feed from Agro-industry. The study showed that when increased a ratio of cassava pulp to 50% TMR.DM, it improved feed conversion ratio and feed utilization without effect on heifer fertility

  3. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahono Sumaryono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  4. Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ganiyu, Oboh.

    2006-01-15

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

  5. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  7. Efficient utilization of cassava pulp for succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawisit, Apichai; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2015-01-01

    A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 was efficiently utilized for succinate production from cassava pulp during batch separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) under simple anaerobic conditions. Succinate concentration of 41.46 ± 0.05 g/L with yield and productivity of 82.33 ± 0.14 g/100 g dry pulp and 0.84 ± 0.02 g/L/h was obtained. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), hydrolysis of 12 % (w/v) cassava pulp with an enzyme loading of 2 % AMG + 3 % Cel (v/w) at pH 6.5 was optimized at 39 °C. Succinate concentration of 80.86 ± 0.49 g/L with a yield of 70.34 ± 0.37 g/100 g dry pulp and a productivity of 0.84 ± 0.01 g/L/h was attained using E. coli KJ122. Fed-batch SSF significantly enhanced succinate concentration to 98.63 ± 0.12 g/L at yield and productivity of 71.64 ± 0.97 g/100 g dry pulp and 1.03 ± 0.01 g/L/h. This result indicated an efficient and economical succinate production from cassava pulp using SHF and SSF by the use of E. coli KJ122. PMID:25030337

  8. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  9. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  10. Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (°C and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 °C and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

  11. Nutrient Enrichment of Cassava Starch Industry By-Product Using Rumen Microorganism as Inoculums Source

    OpenAIRE

    Songsak Chumpawadee; Sirilak Soychuta

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to nutrient enriched of cassava starch industry by-product using fermentation method. The experimental design was 2 x 3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factor A was kind of cassava starch industry by-product (cassava pulp and cassava peel) and combine with factor B (unfermented, naturally fermented and rumen microorganism fermented). The results revealed that the interaction between cassava starch industry by-product and fermentation method...

  12. Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

  13. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  14. Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, G; Oladunmoye, M K

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber. Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were washed, peeled, grated and aseptically inoculated with pure strains of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyce cerevisae in nutrient solution respectively, before allowing them to ferment aerobically for 3 days. The fermented mash was subsequently dried and milled into cassava flour. Subsequently, the proximate, mineral and the antinutrinet composition of the cassava flour were determined. The results of the study revealed that the unfermented flour from low-cyanide cassava variety had higher protein, fibre, ash, fat, Ca, Na and K; while those produced from medium-cyanide variety, had higher antinutrinet (tannin, cyanide & phytate), Zn, Mg and Fe content. However, solid substrate fermentation of the cassava mash using Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae respectively caused a significant (P fermentation brought about a higher increase in the nutrient content than Rhizopus oryzae fermentation. Conversely, fermentation of the cassava caused a significant decrease (P 0.05) in the ability of the fungi to decrease the antinutrient (except phytate) of the cassava flour. Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. In conclusion, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low antinutrient content and more susceptible to micro-fungi nutrient enrichment and detoxification than medium-cyanide variety. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisae was more efficient in the nutrient enrichment of the cassava flour than Rhizopus oryzae. PMID:18087867

  15. Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation / Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krisada, Boonnop; Metha, Wanapat; Ngarmnit, Nontaso; Sadudee, Wanapat.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca (Manihot esculenta) é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresc [...] a e raspas) por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM) e de polpa fresca (PF) foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their pr [...] oducts (fresh pulp and chips). Both cassava chip (CC) and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR) samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p

  16. Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

    1996-08-01

    The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum. PMID:8880299

  17. Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Danvirutai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

  18. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  19. Silage Production from Cassava Peel and Cassava Pulp as Energy Source in Cattle Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitiporn Suksombat; Mek Khungaew; Pipat Lounglawan

    2011-01-01

    Processing of the silage using cassava peel as energy source in dairy cow diets was studied. The experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, degradability, lactic acid production and hydrocyanic acid content of various silages with varying cassava peel additions and ensiling times. The experiment was a 5x3 factorial design, completely randomized with factor A as the different formulated mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% kg fresh weight of cassava peel) and factor B as the ...

  20. The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mingan Choct; Song, S. Y.; Ru, Y. J.; Tang, D. F.; Iji, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC), Cassava Pellets (CP) and Cassava Residue pulp (CR) on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p

  1. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  2. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  3. Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Sureelak Rodtong; Hathairat Urairong; Onuma Chansatein

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media d...

  4. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49-5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS?h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63-6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS?h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  5. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

  6. Co-fermentation of Cassava/Cowpea/Carrot to Produce Infant Complementary Food of Improved Nutritive Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mojisola A. Oyarekua

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted co-fermentation of cassava 50%, cowpea 30% and carrot 20% w/w for the production of infant complementary food. Analyses on proximate, minerals, amino acids and ?-carotenoid contents were carried out using standard methods. Cassava ogi had lower crude protein content than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. Leucine and lysine contents were comparable in both samples. Crude protein, total amino acids values increased. Cassava ogi had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium c...

  7. Production of ethanol from raw cassava starch by a nonconventional fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S.; Zenin, C.T.; Monteiro, D.A.; Park, Y.K.

    1981-02-01

    Raw cassava root starch was transformed into ethanol in a one-step process of fermentation, in which are combined the conventional processes of liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation to alcohol. Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 and Aspergillus niger were cultivated on wheat bran and used as Koji enzymes. Commercial A. niger amyloglucosidase was also used in this experiment. A raw cassava root homogenate-enzymes-yeast mixture fermented optimally at pH 3.5 and 30/degree/C, for five days and produced ethanol. Alcohol yields from raw cassava roots were between 82.3 and 99.6%. Fungal Koji enzymes effectively decreased the viscosity of cassava root fermentation mashes during incubation. Commercial A. niger amyloglucosidase decreased the viscosity slightly. Reduction of viscosity of fermentation mashes was 40, 84, and 93% by commercial amyloglucosidase, A. awamori, and A. niger enzymes, respectively. The reduction of viscosity of fermentation mashes is probably due to the hydrolysis of pentosans by Koji enzymes. 12 refs.

  8. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureelak Rodtong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media described by potential references. Both complex and minimal media were developed when cultured at 35°C for 48 h. The isolates were tested for the presence of PHA accumulation by straining with 1% Nile blue A and observed under the fluorescence microscope at excitation wave length of 650 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM was used for comfirmation of PHA granules accumulation in bacterial cells. Alcaligenes eutrophus (TISTR 1095 and E. coli (TISTR 527 were used as the positive and negative control of PHAs-producing strain, respectively. This is the first report for the suitable media for detecting of PHAs-producing bacteria isolated from cassava pulp.

  10. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g(-1) VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  11. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  12. Mechanical Semolining of Fermented Cassava Dough on Physicochemical and Sensory Characterises of Produced Attiéké

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Martial Thierry Akely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available emolining for attiéké production is traditionally manufactured physically by hand in wooden device. The end cooked attiéké obtained is subjected to low sensory and physicochemical qualities. For avoiding its variability and enhancing high quality end product, influence of mechanical semolining of fermented cassava dough during attiéké manufactured is carried out in this study for cottage industry; industrial and household can all benefits. Experimentally 4500 g of cassava are being prepared into cassava mash which is mechanically semolined in triplicate. During the process, 25 angle tilts deviation of the machine (SI are being investigated. For each angle tilt experienced cassava dough is differently study according to the water content, inocula level adjunction and fermentation time. Samples were collected for total sugar content, cyanide content, starch content, total solid content, and grain size physical chemical and sensory analysis. As compared to traditional control, the semolina grain sizes (1.52±0.04 and 1.82±0.02 mm are attained from 26.3 to 31.6 angle tilt intervals. Consequently when cassava mash run about 52 % of the moister content, 10 or 12% amount of inocula loaded and 12 or 24 hrs of fermenting paste. Interestingly at these the optimal semolina size grain is 1.32±0.02 especially at 31° angle tilt deviation, and comparatively fitted to traditional grain sizes taken as a control. Singularly when cassava dough is left for fermenting 12 or 24 hours, the semolina grain size collapsed between 1.12±0.13 and 1.35±0.07 diameters. But when it loaded with 10 to 12% amount the semolina grain sizes get from 1.19 ± 0.06 to 1.27 ± 0.04. Finally the attiéké obtain after mechanical semolining is evaluated having very good sensory quality compared to the traditional attiéké control as regards grain sizes and homogeneity even for fresh or cooked semolina one. In conclusion, mechanical semolining is achieved in condition that cassava dough was loaded at 10% amount of inoculation and, left to ferment 12 hours. A final semolina end product could be obtained when cassava mash is moisten at 52% of solid content and semolined at 31° angle tilt deviation. Semolinor technology innovation in attiéké production could enhance attiéké texture and safety qualities so that household and industry can all benefits

  13. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.

    2007-01-01

    The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during the fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby contribute to improve nutrition in native tribes in the region.

  14. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, S. M.; Nascimento, A. M. A.; Costa, P. S.; Moreira, J. L. S.; Nunes, A. C.; Nicoli, J. R.; Lima, F. L.; Mota, V. T.; Nardi, R. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 ...

  15. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars*

    OpenAIRE

    Collares, Renata M.; Miklasevicius, Luiza V. S.; Bassaco, Mariana M.; Salau, Nina P. G.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Bisognin, Dilson A.; Terra, Lisiane M.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, ?-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was con...

  16. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days, respectively, when using natural fermentation.Key words: cocoa quality, fermentation, depolymerization, pectolytic.

  17. Use of Fermented Potato Pulp in Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Piao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented potato pulp is a by-product obtained from the potato-starch industry. There could be great economical and environmental advantages if it could be exploited for use as a new feed resource. This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary effect of adding 5% fermented potato pulp to diets fed to lactating sows on sow and litter performance, blood metabolites and hormones. On day 110 of gestation, 80 mixed parity sows (256.0±4.3 kg BW and 3.2±0.2 parity were moved into a farrowing room and allotted to one of two corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp in a completely random design experiment. Each treatment had 40 replicates and the sows were fed the dietary treatments until weaning following 28 days of lactation. Sow lactation weight loss tended to decrease (p = 0.09 and feed intake tended to increase (p = 0.06 when sows were fed fermented potato pulp. The weaning to estrus interval was shorter (p = 0.05 and litter weight gain was also higher (p = 0.03 for sows fed fermented potato pulp. Dietary treatments did not affect plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor I and follicle-stimulating hormone. Sows fed fermented potato pulp had higher (p = 0.02 plasma urea nitrogen and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.01 than sows fed the control diet. Feeding potato pulp tended to decrease (p = 0.06 creatinine and increase (p = 0.07 estradiol concentrations in sows plasma. These results demonstrate that feeding lactating sows diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp had a positive effect on sow and litter performance.

  18. Uji Nilai Nutrisi Kulit Ubi Kayu yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger (Nutrient Value Test of Cassava Tuber Skin Fermented by Aspergillus niger)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirwandhono, Edhy; Bachari, Irawati; Situmorang, Darwanto

    2010-01-01

    Cassava tuber skin is a by-product of cassava chip industry, fermented by using mixed mineral (solid media) and Aspergillus niger. The objectives of this research was to know the increasing of nutrient value of cassava tuber skin toward the period of fermentation and several level of inoculums giving Aspergillus niger. The experiment was using completely randomized experimental of factorial design with 12 treatment and 3 replication with several level Aspergillus niger giving was: 0...

  19. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  20. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Kusmiyati (2010) Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many st...

  1. Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksaman Sangyoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COD-1 and 851.84 mL h-1, respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative broth was depleted to 150-250 mg L-1 which equivalent to 10-15% of initial glucose concentration. Repeated-batch reactor was operated at 3 different feed-in/feed-out rates i.e., 25, 50 and 75%. Results revealed that a suitable feed-in/feed out rate for production of hydrogen from cassava wastewater was at 75%. This was indicated by the highest hydrogen yield, the highest potential maximal amount of hydrogen produced, a relatively high maximum hydrogen production rate, a relatively high maximum specific hydrogen production rate and a relatively short lag time of 0.0094 mL mg-COD-1, 12,532.80 mL, 540.46 mL h-1, 3.5 mL g-VSS-1 h and 5.31 h, respectively. Major soluble metabolites were acetic and butyric acids. Our results indicated that repeated batch fermentation was more effective in producing hydrogen from cassava wastewater than batch fermentation.

  2. The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingan Choct

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC, Cassava Pellets (CP and Cassava Residue pulp (CR on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05 on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava products but similar to maize diet. Body weight, viscosity of the ileal digesta, digestibility of non starch polysaccharides, crude protein and dry matter as well as energy utilization, concentrations of lactic, succinic and total short chain fat acid in ileal were generally lower on diets containing the CC, CP and CR than on the diet containing maize with weight of birds on the CP being the lowest (p<0.05 over the 21 days growth period. However, the relative weight of the gizzard and small intestine at both 7 and 21 days of age was increased (p<0.05 on diets containing the cassava products while the weight of the bursa was reduced. Feed/Gain ratio over day 1-14 or 21 days was better (p<0.01 on the maize based diets than on the CC and CR based diets The concentrations of valeric, lactic and succinic acids in the caeca were lower (p<0.05 in chickens on the cassava containing diets than on the maize containing diet but the reverse was the case for formic, acetic and butyric acids.

  3. ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Ta?k?n; Rengin Eltem; Esra Soyak

    2010-01-01

    In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG) production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG ...

  4. Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

  5. L(+)-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rojan P., John; K. Madhavan, Nampoothiri; Ashok, Pandey.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a cap [...] acidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios fermentados em vez de soluções ácidas láticas aquosas. Abstract in english The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that w [...] eak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93%) instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%).

  6. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

  7. Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

  8. Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshaw, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

  9. Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Pen?aloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

    1985-01-01

    Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = ?0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35...

  10. Fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration from cassava residues: effect of pretreatment on structural characterization and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-01

    The physicochemical properties of cassava residues subjected to microwave (or steam)-heated acid pretreatment (MHAP or SHAP) were comparatively investigated to improve fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration. The hydrogen yield from cassava residues with MHAP and enzymolysis was higher (106.2 mL/g TVS) than that with SHAP and enzymolysis (102.1 mL/g TVS), whereas the subsequent methane yields showed opposite results (75.4 and 93.2 mL/g TVS). Total energy conversion efficiency increased to 24.7%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed MHAP generated numerous regular micropores (?6 ?m) and SHAP generated irregular fragments (?23 ?m) in the destroyed lignocellulose matrix. Transmission electron microscopy images showed SHAP generated wider cracks (?0.2 ?m) in delaminated cell walls than MHAP (?0.1 ?m). X-ray diffraction patterns indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity index (33.00) than SHAP (25.88), due to the deconstruction of amorphous cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity coefficient (1.20) than SHAP (1.12). PMID:25553572

  11. Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatog...

  12. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL ?-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  13. The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

  14. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARIEL, MONRROY; JOSÉ, RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS, TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME, BAEZA; JUANITA, FREER.

    1113-11-01

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields rang [...] ing from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  15. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIEL MONRROY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min. A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis. The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  16. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia L; Sousa, Edinaira S O de; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. PMID:25846929

  17. SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS / SACARIFICACIÓN Y FERMENTACIÓN SILMUTÁNEA DE TALLOS DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN, REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ, ZAPATA MONTOYA.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacarificación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptim [...] as de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrato en una relación sólido: líquido 1:10; el complejo enzimático Accellerase 1500 y la levadura Ethanol Red fueron evaluados a dos niveles a una temperatura de 38 ° C y pH 4.0 a escala de erlenmeyer. Se evaluaron como controles del proceso: Sacarificación fermentación simultáneas sin pretratamiento de los tallos y Sacarificación fermentación independientes de tallos pretratados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión y el modelo obtenido fue maximizado empleando algoritmos genéticos. A las condiciones óptimas identificadas en erlenmeyer fue evaluada la producción de etanol en biorreactor de 5 litros. Se obtuvo una concentración experimental de etanol de 1.88±0.04 %v/v (1.99 %v/v óptimo simulado) con una concentración de inóculo de 1.59 g/L y una concentración de enzima de 13.3 FPU/g, valor aproximadamente 4 veces mayor a la cantidad de etanol producido sin pretratamiento por sacarificación y fermentación independientes de tallos de yuca pretratados. La evaluación del proceso en biorreactor alcanzo una concentración de etanol 20% inferior a la alcanzada a escala de erlenmeyer. Abstract in english This research evaluates the effects of the inoculum size and enzymatic activity on the concentration of ethanol obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated cassava stems. Other goals for this study include the determination and validation of the optimal c [...] onditions for and the evaluation of the process of ethanol production in a bioreactor. Alkaline-pretreated cassava stems were used as the substrate in a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10; the enzymatic complex Accellerase 1500 and the yeast Ethanol Red were evaluated at two levels at a temperature of 38° C and a pH of 4.0 in an Erlenmeyer flask. The following were evaluated as process controls: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of non-pretreated stems and separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated stems. A regression analysis was conducted, and the resulting model was maximized using genetic algorithms. At the optimal conditions identified in an Erlenmeyer flask, the production of ethanol in a 5-liter bioreactor was subsequently evaluated. An experimental concentration of ethanol of 1.88±0.04% v/v (1.99% v/v simulated optimum) was obtained using an inoculum concentration of 1.59 g/L and an enzyme concentration of 13.3 FPU/g. This value was approximately four times the quantity of ethanol produced without pretreatment or by the separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava stems. The evaluation of the process in the bioreactor yielded an ethanol concentration 20% less than that reached in the Erlenmeyer flask.

  18. Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations Reveals a Core and Variable Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis...

  19. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to arm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

  20. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are juxtaposed with market penetration and saturation. PMID:18273654

  1. In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Gasmi-Boubaker; M.R., Mosquera-Losada; B., Boubaker.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis [...] and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

  2. Effects of carbohydrates from citrus pulp and hominy feed on microbial fermentation in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, P; Bach, A; Stern, M D; Hall, M B

    2001-10-01

    Eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) on fermentation by ruminal microorganisms. Citrus pulp and hominy feed were added to a basal diet as sources of NDSC, with citrus pulp providing neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF) in the form of pectic substances and with hominy feed in the form of starch. The basal diet contained 26.7% corn silage, 6.0% alfalfa hay and 3.8% cottonseed hulls on a DM basis. The dried citrus pulp diet contained on a DM basis 17.2% CP, 34.7% NDF, 33.7% NDSC, and 14.4% NDSF, whereas the hominy feed diet contained 17.9% CP, 33.2% NDF, 35.9% NDSC, and 8.8% NDSF. Organic matter, DM, and NDF and ADF digestion were not affected by source of carbohydrate. Ammonia N concentration was greater (P citrus pulp diet (9.3 mg/100 mL). Total N, nonammonia N, microbial N, and dietary N flows were not affected by treatments; however, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was greater (P = 0.055) for the dried citrus pulp diet than for the hominy feed diet (30.6 vs 27.8 g of bacterial N/kg of OM truly digested). Results from this experiment indicate that NDSF from citrus pulp can provide similar sources of energy compared with starch from hominy feed to support ruminal microbial growth. PMID:11721852

  3. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vb, Anihouvi; Eo, Afoakwa; Sakyi-Dawson E; Gs, Ayernor; Jd, Hounhouigan

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC), pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl) concentration, type of salt) were used as the independent variables for a Central Compos...

  5. Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kar, Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar, Datta; Ramesh Chandra, Ray.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluat [...] e the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Lactobacillus manihotivorans Species-Specific rRNA-Targeted Hybridization Probe and Its Application to the Study of Sour Cassava Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ampe, Fre?de?ric

    2000-01-01

    Based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison, we have designed a 20-mer oligonucleotide that targets a region specific to the species Lactobacillus manihotivorans recently isolated from sour cassava fermentation. The probe recognized the rRNA obtained from all the L. manihotivorans strains tested but did not recognize 56 strains of microorganisms from culture collections or directly isolated from sour cassava, including 29 species of lactic acid bacteria. This probe was then successfully used in qua...

  7. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Crispim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  8. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Crispim; A.M.A., Nascimento; P.S., Costa; J.L.S., Moreira; A.C., Nunes; J.R., Nicoli; F.L., Lima; V.T., Mota; R.M.D., Nardi.

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activ [...] ity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  9. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

  10. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank DrØscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentrationincrease of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination.

  11. Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carolina O; Silva, Luciana T; Silva, Jaff R; López, Jorge A; Veiga-Santos, Pricila; Druzian, Janice I

    2011-03-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05), was detected in products packed in film formulations containing high concentration of additives. However, it was found that the high content of vitamin C in acerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films. PMID:21361289

  12. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  13. Production and anti-diabetic activity of soluble dietary fiber from apricot pulp by Trichoderma viride fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Qiaohui; Ou, Yangjie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-13

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by Trichoderma viride fermentation by using apricot pulp as the raw material. A four-factor and three-level response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions affecting the extraction rate of SDF. The optimum fermentation conditions were listed: crude enzyme volume, 9.59 mL g(-1); fermentation temperature, 43 °C; initial pH, 5.36; fermentation time, 6.47 h. Under these conditions, 15.69% yield was obtained and its relative error with the predicted theoretical value (15.87%) was 1.14%. The dietary fiber content of SDF was 84.0% whereas it was found to be 43.1% in apricot pulp flour. The anti-diabetic effect of apricot pulp SDF on rat models of diabetes was investigated. Both the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly changed in apricot pulp SDF-treated groups compared with the diabetic group (p SDF elicited inhibitory effects on the ?-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 17.458 mg mL(-1). These results implied that apricot pulp SDF relieved the symptoms of diabetic rats. PMID:25882161

  14. Solid state fermented potato pulp can be used as poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T Y; Wu, Y H; Jiang, C Y; Liu, Y

    2010-04-01

    1. Potato pulp is the industrial waste produced during starch extraction from potatoes. Its discharge has become an environmental pollution problem and a decisive cost factor due to stricter environmental legislation and associated expense in the potato starch industry. 2. To date, little information has been provided regarding the nutritive value and any possible toxic effects of potato pulp for poultry feed. 3. In the present paper, a model was developed to assess potato pulp for use as a new poultry feed, which will help starch factories to decrease waste discharge. 4. First, a solid-state fermentation technique to change potato pulp to poultry feed is briefly described; then, the major nutrient compositions of this feed are analysed; lastly, related toxicological effects are studied and the safety of the feed assessed. 5. The results indicated that no unintended effects were found on layer quails during a 30-d feeding study, and the new feed initially showed its safety for poultry in our assessment procedure. However, additional work on limiting nutrients analysis, appetite depressant effects, and egg-laying in a large-scale experiment is required to further establish the findings. PMID:20461584

  15. Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água / Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Campos, Chisté; Kelly de Oliveira, Cohen.

    Full Text Available A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros fís [...] ico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1), que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas. Abstract in english The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil) is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's ma [...] in physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1), which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

  16. Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, N.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishida, T.

    1995-01-01

    Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (M...

  17. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  18. Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Fre?de?ric; Gobert, William; Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

  19. Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Oliveira de Souza; Luciana Tosta Silva; Janice Izabel Druzian

    2012-01-01

    Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among...

  20. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

  1. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2007-11-30

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

  2. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão / Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra, Dias; Moacir Cardoso, Elias; Maurício, Oliveira; Elizabete, Helbig.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade d [...] e expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was eva [...] luated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA). Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  3. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade de expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação.Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was evaluated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA. Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  4. Pectinase-hyperproducing mutants of Aspergillus niger C28B25 for solid-state fermentation of coffee pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Antier, Philip; Minjares, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice; Viniegra-Gonzalez, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve mold strains for the production of pectinases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of coffee pulp. A screening of 248 strains, isolated in Mexico's coffee-growing areas, permitted us to select a wild strain of #Aspergillus niger$ which in 72 h attains a peak production of 27.7 U ml-1(138 U g-1 dry pulp) of pectinase measured by viscosimetry. Though the use of a selective culture medium with low water activity (aw = 0.954) with 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) it was pos...

  5. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase se in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some molasses would appear desirable so as to stimulate favourable fermentation. This can produce silage that is both safe from potentially pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and a potential feed resource for ruminants

  6. Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, respectively. Rice straw was used as a roughage source. It was found that gas production from the insoluble fraction (b) of YEFECAP supplemented group was significantly higher (p0.05) on ether in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) while R:C ratio affected the IVDMD and IVOMD (p0.05) as compared between the two sources of protein. Moreover, fungal zoospores and total bacteria population were significantly increased (pfermentation efficiency in ruminants. PMID:25049924

  7. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  8. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fa?tima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr, Ce?sar L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Moura?o, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank a...

  9. The effect of citrus pulp type on pectinase production in solid-state fermentation: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Anvari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food processing industries and solid state fermentation (SSF is an attractive technology for enzyme production. In this work, design of experimental (DOE methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (different levels of citrus pulp, initial pH of the medium, C/N ratio, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp on the pectinase production by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The results showed that citrus pulp concentration, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp were found to be the most effective factor for promoting enzyme production and the supplementation of the medium with citrus pulp caused a 23% increase in the pectinase production when compared with the basal medium. The study shows that the Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the experiments for the production of pectinase (R2 = 0.946.

  10. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

  11. Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp. during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anihouvi VB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC, pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl concentration, type of salt were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%. Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05 increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

  12. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with R...

  13. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems.

  14. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  15. Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

  16. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  17. Efeito da fermentação na qualidade de "chips" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Effect of fermentation on the quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Kitagawa, Grizotto; Hilary Castle de, Menezes.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da fermentação natural da mandioca, isoladamente, ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, na crocância dos "chips". As fatias de mandioca, oriundas de raízes previamente descascadas e limpas foram imersas em água potável a 30ºC durante períodos de 8h e 24h e de [...] pois fritas. As raízes inteiras, descascadas e limpas, foram mantidas nas mesmas condições, porém por períodos mais longos: 24h, 30h e 48h, após os quais as raízes foram fatiadas e fritas. A fermentação natural foi conduzida sem a adição de qualquer agente fermentativo, imergindo uma parte de fatias ou de raízes de mandioca em quatro partes de água potável a 30ºC, em estufa com controle de temperatura. Outras variáveis estudadas foram: variedades de mandioca e o formato das fatias. O efeito dos tratamentos foi avaliado com base na fraturabilidade dos "chips", medidos em Analisador de Textura TA.XT2. O formato das fatias pareceu ser um fator importante, pois afetou as características de textura dos "chips", além dos tratamentos propriamente ditos. O formato retangular das fatias, apesar do aspecto atrativo, foi considerado inadequado para a fabricação dos "chips", sendo sugerido o formato redondo. Foi verificado que a fermentação natural das raízes inteiras ou cortadas em fatias, isoladamente ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, foi considerada uma técnica inadequada para tornar os "chips" de mandioca mais crocantes, visto que promoveram, na maioria dos casos, aumento na dureza comparado aos "chips" obtidos do controle. Estas observações foram válidas para todas as variedades estudadas: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 e IAC 14. Abstract in english It was investigated the effect of natural fermentation of cassava, alone or combined with cooking in boiling water on the crispness of cassava chips. The thin slices of cassava, originally from previously peeled and cleaned roots were submerged in drinkable water at 30ºC during periods of 8h and 24h [...] . The whole cassava roots, also peeled and cleaned were submitted on the same conditions, but for longer periods: 24h, 30h and 48h, after those roots were sliced and fried. The natural fermentation was conducted without any fermentative agent, only submerging one part of thin slices or whole roots into four parts of drinkable water at 30ºC in a controlled temperature incubator. The other variables studied were: cassava variety and slice format. The effect of the treatments was evaluated, based on the friability of the chips as measured by the Texture Analyzer TA.XT2. The format of the slices appeared to be an important factor, because it affected texture characteristics of the chips, as well as the actual treatments. The rectangular format, although attractive, was considered inadequate for the manufacture of chips, the round format being suggested as more suitable. It was shown that the natural fermentation of the whole roots or cut into thin slices, alone or combined with boiling was considered an inadequate technique to obtain crispness cassava chips, since in general, such treatments increased the hardness of the chips, as compared to the untreated samples. This observations were valuable from all the studied varieties: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 and IAC 14.

  18. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

  19. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  20. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  1. Nuclear techniques in the improvement of traditional amylase fermentation practice on cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 200 Aspergillus and Rhizopus were collected from Bangkok MIRCEN, laboratories and Industries. Fungi N2, A26B, W337 and Aw are the highest amylolytic fungi in our screening test. After irradiation at 50-99 percent killing doses, only Aw showed the improvement of amylolytic activity called A-W - M1 and Aw - M2. The optimum environment of these mutants were pH 4.5, temperature at 30 deg. C and the moisture content at 45 percent. The mutant Aw - M1 grows faster than Aw - M2 before 3.5 day. At 4 days of incubation Aw - M2 gave higher glucosamine content at 205.5 mg. per 1 g of the mold bran. MnSO4 at 0.03 percent gave more sporulation of these mutants. The mutants Aw - M2 and Aw - M1 gave higher protein content in the mold bran and potato dextrose both respectively. The kinetics of the fermentation process of the mutants showed that Aw - M1 and Aw - M2 gave the highest raw starch digestion and glucoamylase activity at 396.35 mg. sugar and 1,458.01 unit per 1 g mold bran at 3 and 4 days respectively. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Essers, A. J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a small outbreak of paralysis and poisoning in a cassava-dominated rural area of Mozambique revealed that the walking disability was konzo, a recently identified disease, and suggested that insuffici...

  3. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

  4. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Olubunmi Omowunmi FADINA; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  5. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  6. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávera Camargo Prado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

  7. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes.

  8. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magali, Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

  9. Cinética de fermentação in vitro de silagens da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the silage shoots of cassava

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kléria Maria Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Vanice Mendes de, Souza; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Malber Natham Nobre de, Palma; Geanderson Walder Vieira da Silva, Silva; Ana Paula da Silva, Antunes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arra [...] njado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). O material foi ensilado em silos experimentais de PVC, sendo abertos após 56 dias de fermentação. Amostras das silagens foram coletadas e submetidas à pré-secagem, moídas e em seguida procedeu-se ensaio de produção de gases in vitro. As leituras de pressão dos gases produzidos durante as fermentações foram realizadas às 0; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 e 96 horas após o início das incubações. As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. O maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS ocorreu nos tempos entre zero e 24 horas. As maiores produções de gases por hora foram obtidas aproximadamente às 48 horas de fermentação para a variedade Olho Roxo na fração planta inteira. As silagens das diferentes variedades e frações da parte aérea de mandioca apresentaram o mesmo potencial de produção de gases. Entretanto, as silagens da variedade Amarelinha nas frações da parte aérea terço superior e sobras de plantio apresentaram melhores degradabilidades efetiva e potencial. Abstract in english The objective of this work to determine Kinetics of ruminal fermentation of silages of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, arranged in a 4x3 fact [...] orial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho Roxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant). The material was ensiled in mini-silos of PVC, being opened after 56 days of fermentation. Silage samples were collected and submitted to pre-dried, ground and then proceeded to test gas production in vitro. The pressure readings of the gases produced during fermentations were performed at 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubations. Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases. The major ruminal DM disappearance occurred in times between zero and 24 hours. The highest yields of gas per hour were obtained at approximately 48 hours of fermentation for variety in Shiner fraction entire plant. The silages of different varieties and fractions of cassava shoots have the same potential for gas production. However, silage variety of Hopscotch fractions in the upper third of shoot and leftover planting have better effective degradability and potential.

  10. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (authorassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  11. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayara C. A. Lacerda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788 related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

  12. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C A; Gomes, Fátima C O; Borelli, Beatriz M; Faria, César L L; Franco, Gloria R; Mourão, Marina M; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

    2011-04-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  13. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inayara C. A., Lacerda; Fátima C. O., Gomes; Beatriz M., Borelli; César L. L., Faria Jr; Gloria R., Franco; Marina M., Mourão; Paula B., Morais; Carlos A., Rosa.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. PMID:25732688

  15. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  16. Síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com resíduos de mandioca e cana-de-açúcar ensilados com polpa cítrica Efficiency of microbial protein in bovine fed with cassava residues and sugar cane ensiled with citric pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Dias Salman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos, quatro animais canulados no rúmen e duodeno foram alimentados com 4 dietas: 1- Dieta basal (DB, composta por silagem de milho (SMi e farelo de soja participando na proporção de 60% da matéria seca total das dietas à base de casca e raspa de mandioca; 2- DB + silagem de raspa de mandioca (SRp; 3- DB + silagem de casca de mandioca (SCc e 4- silagem de cana-de-açúcar (SCn, sendo as silagens SRp, SCc e SCn acrescidas da polpa cítrica peletizada como aditivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 em relação à composição das bactérias isoladas do conteúdo ruminal de animais que recebiam as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana das dietas com SMi, SRp e SCc foram maiores (P With the goal to study the microbial protein synthesis in bovines, four duodenal and ruminant canuleted animals were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed with diets formulated with: corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS or sugar cane (SCS silage. The CMS, CHS and SCS were mixed with citric pulp. The basal diet, composed by CS and soybean meal, participated in 60% of total dry matter of cassava diets. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among diets in relation to bacterial composition isolated from the animal's ruminant contents. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of diets on CS, CMS and CHS were larger (p < 0.05 (32.1; 22.2; 26.1 gN/kg of organic matter apparently rumen degraded, respectively than CS (16.4 gN/kg OMARD.

  17. Production of d-lactic acid from hardwood pulp by mechanical milling followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Mizuno, Shino; Kihara, Maki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Noda, Hideo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on the process development for the d-lactic acid production from cellulosic feedstocks using the Lactobacillus plantarum mutant, genetically modified to produce optically pure d-lactic acid from both glucose and xylose. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using delignified hardwood pulp (5-15% loads) resulted in the lactic acid titers of 55.2-84.6g/L after 72h and increased productivities of 1.77-2.61g/L/h. To facilitate the enzymatic saccharification of high-load pulp at a fermentation temperature, short-term (?10min) pulverization of pulp was conducted, leading to a significantly improved saccharification with the suppressed formation of formic acid by-product. The short-term milling followed by SSF resulted in a lactic acid titer of 102.3g/L, an optical purity of 99.2%, and a yield of 0.879g/g-sugars without fed-batch process control. Therefore, the process presented here shows promise for the production of high-titer d-lactic acid using the L. plantarum mutant. PMID:25846187

  18. Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P<0.01. A significant difference at P<0.05 were also detected in amonia concentration, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), protozoa counts, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. These differences were observed particularly in animals receiving ration C. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  19. Effect of the type of concentrate, cereals vs. sugar beet pulp, on rumen fermentation, plasma concentration of methylmalonate and quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Je?ro?me; The?riez, Michel; Bas, Pierre; Berthelot, Vale?rie; Aurousseau, Bernard; Sauvant, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting wheat and barley by sugar beet pulp on the quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs. Rumen fermentation and methylmalonate plasma concentration, both considered as indicators of lamb metabolism, were also studied. Forty-nine male lambs of the Lacaune dairy breed were fed from 23.6 ($\\pm$ 4.1) kg to 41.0 ($\\pm$ 1.9) kg live weight with hay and a pelleted concentrate containing either wheat and barley ...

  20. Cinética de fermentação in vitro de fenos da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the hay shoots of cassava

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kléria Maria de Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Silvio Humberto Cardoso de, Almeida Filho; Laís Matos, Oliveira; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Ana Cássia Rodrigues de, Aguiar; Criszoel Ferreira, Souza; Cláudia Ribeiro, Antunes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal dos fenos de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, arranjado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro [...] variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. Foram avaliadas a produção cumulativa de gases, as frações solúvel e insolúvel potencialmente degradável da MS, a taxa de degradação da MS, as degradabilidades potencial e efetiva da MS, a fração indegradável da MS, o potencial máximo de produção de gases, a taxa de produção de gases e o tempo de colonização. A produção de gases aumentou tendendo a se estabilizar por volta de 48 horas e observou-se um maior desaparecimento da matéria seca entre o tempo zero e 24 horas de fermentação. Os valores de produção cumulativa de gases (PCG) dos fenos analisados tiveram uma produção máxima de 50 ml ao final das 96 horas de fermentação. O feno do terço superior da variedade Amarelinha, por apresentar melhores degradabilidade potencial (64,17%) e efetiva (55,65%) da matéria seca e maior potencial máximo de produção de gases (35,69 mL/g de MS), em relação às demais variedades, demonstra superioridade nutricional. Abstract in english Aimed to evaluate thekinetics of ruminal fermentation of hays of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, arranged in a 4x3 factorial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinh [...] a, Sabará, OlhoRoxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant) Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases.Were evaluated the cumulative gas production, potentially degradable insoluble fraction and soluble fraction of MS, the degradation rate of DM, the potential and effective degradability of DM, the undegradable fraction of DM, the maximum potential gas production, the rate gas production and colonization time.There was an increase in gas production with a tendency of stabilization around a 48 hours period and a greater decrease in dry matter between zero and 24 hours fermentation period. The values of cumulative gas production (PCG) hay analyzed had a maximum output of 50 mL at the end of 96 hours of fermentation.The hay of Amarelinha's superior third was considered the most nutritional kind due to its betters degradability potential (64.17%), effective dry matter (55.65%), and greater maximal potential of gas production(35.69 mL / g DM) when compared to the other varieties studied.

  1. Nutritive Value, Toxicological and Hygienic Quality of Some Cassava Based Products Consumed in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Djoulde Darman Roger; Essia Ngang Jean-Justin; Etoa François-xavier

    2007-01-01

    Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc") were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±25 ppm), cassava chips (73.85±11 ppm) and a little less in fermented cassava paste ("Batons de manioc") (63.1±5 ppm). The average total protein content was very low (2.9±0.5% in cassava chips,...

  2. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica / Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Djalma de, Freitas; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; João Paulo Guimarães, Soares; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Pedro de, Andrade.

    1531-15-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT) e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc), de raspa (SRpPc) e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc) ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP). A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com [...] farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS) dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4). A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB) (% PV) foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33), SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30) e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27) em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19), respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%), matéria orgânica (66,9%) e energia bruta (64,3%) para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR) e intestinal (CDI) da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido) apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5), SRpPc (39,3) e SCnPc (37,0), sobre a SCcPc (20,0). A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos. Abstract in english The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp), cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp) and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp) silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS) and soybean meal composed 60% [...] of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ) steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM) fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP) intake (%LW) of CS (2.47 and 0.33), ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30) and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27) were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19). The dry matter (65.0%), organic matter (66.9%), and the gross energy (64.3%) total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%). The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC) and intestinal (IDC) digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%), the CrSCp (39.3%), and the ScSCp (37.0%) were higher than ChSCp (20.0%). The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

  3. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma de Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc, de raspa (SRpPc e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4. A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB (% PV foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33, SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30 e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27 em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19, respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%, matéria orgânica (66,9% e energia bruta (64,3% para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR e intestinal (CDI da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5, SRpPc (39,3 e SCnPc (37,0, sobre a SCcPc (20,0. A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp, cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP intake (%LW of CS (2.47 and 0.33, ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30 and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27 were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19. The dry matter (65.0%, organic matter (66.9%, and the gross energy (64.3% total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%. The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC and intestinal (IDC digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%, the CrSCp (39.3%, and the ScSCp (37.0% were higher than ChSCp (20.0%. The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  5. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (pmilk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (pmilk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

  6. Raw Starch Degrading Amylase Production by Various Fungal Cultures Grown on Cassava Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj, C.; Balaji, P; Eyini, M.

    2006-01-01

    The solid waste of sago industry using cassava was fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation. Cassava waste contained 52 per cent starch and 2.9 per cent protein by dry weight. The amylase activity was maintained at a high level and the highest amylase activity was observed on the 8th day in R. stolonifer mediated fermentation. R. stolonifer was more efficient than Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus in bioconverting cassava ...

  7. Farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante: fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e características fermentativas / Cassava meal in the elephant grass silage: carbohydrate and protein fractioning and fermentation characteristics of silage elephant grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cardoso, Oliveira; Rasmo, Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Hellenn Cardoso, Oliveira; Vitor Visintin Silva de, Almeida; Cristina Mattos, Veloso; Aires Lima, Rocha Neto; Ueslei Leonardo Cardoso, Oliveira.

    1020-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas, bem como as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante, sem e com emurchecimento, e acrescida de farelo de mandioca. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições no delineamento inteiramente [...] casualizado. Os fatores avaliados foram níveis de farelo de mandioca (0; 7,5; 15 e 22,5% MN) e emurchecimento (sem e com). Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50 cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro para a produção das silagens. As frações de CHO (A+B1 e B2) e as frações nitrogenadas B3 e C foram influenciadas pela associação do emurchecimento aos níveis de farelo de mandioca, o que não ocorreu com as frações nitrogenadas (A e B1+B2) das silagens. A adição de farelo de mandioca reduziu linearmente a fração C dos carboidratos. No que concerne às características fermentativas das silagens, o pH apresentou comportamento quadrático. O nitrogênio amoniacal apresentou comportamento quadrático e linear decrescente para as silagens sem e com emurchecimento, respectivamente. A utilização do farelo de mandioca reduz a fração B2 e a porção de carboidratos indisponíveis. As principais frações proteicas das silagens estudadas são as frações A e B1+B2. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca melhoram o valor nutritivo e as características fermentativas das silagens estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the fractions that compose the carbohydrates (CHO) and proteins and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage without or with wilting and added of cassava meal. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely rand [...] omized design. The factors evaluated were wilting (without and with) and cassava meal levels (0; 7.5; 15 and 22.5 % DN). PVC silos with 50cm height and 10cm diameter were used for silages production. A+B1 and B2 CHO fractions and B3 and C nitrogen fractions of silages were influenced by association of wilting with cassava meal levels, the wilting and the cassava meal inclusion had no effect on A and B1+B2 nitrogen fractions. The cassava meal addiction linearly reduced the CHO C fraction. Relative to variables inherent to silages' fermentative characteristics, pH presented quadratic behavior. Ammonia nitrogen, presented quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. The use of cassava meal reduces the B2 and unavailable carbohydrates fraction. The main protein fractions of the silages studied are A and B1 + B2 fractions. Wilting and the addition of cassava meal improved the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of the silages studied.

  8. Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate / Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina Veras, Silva; Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira, Santos; Mayara Lúcia da Costa, Leite; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sérgio, Marcellini.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar [...] a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por planejamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the con [...] centrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taking as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

  9. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis

  10. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. QUINTERO M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

  11. Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

  12. Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

  13. Manioc alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, V.; de Queiroz Araujo, N.; Miceli, A.; Souza e Silva, P.C.; da Silva Burle, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    EtOH was produced from dry cassava meal by first obtaining a glucose syrup by enzymic action, then fermenting the syrup with yeast. Bacillus subtilis amylase and Aspergillus awamori amyloglucosidase were prepared by growing the organisms on cassava meal. Both enzymes were used to saccharify the cassava starch to syrup. Saccharomyces cervisiae ATCC 1133 was then used in a continuous process to produce EtOH.

  14. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION / PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan E., QUINTERO M.; Alejandro, ACOSTA C.; Carlos, MEJÍA G; Rigoberto, RÍOS E.; Ana M., TORRES L..

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL) es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. [...] La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS), medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM), y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1). Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S ) de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6,5. Conclusiones: Estos resultados son comparables con los obtenidos en otros trabajos usando glucosa como fuente de carbono, y permiten considerar al jarabe de yuca como un potencial sustrato de bajo costo y alta disponibilidad para la producción de AL a escala de laboratorio, y eventualmente a escala industrial. Abstract in english Background: Lactic acid (LA) is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the [...] demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates) into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS), as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM), and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1). Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentrat

  15. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L. K.; Nout, M. J. R.; Gadaga, T. H.; Theelen, R. M. C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia...

  16. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated potato fiber (CF), insoluble potato fiber (IF), soluble fiber (SF), or cellulose (CEL) ad libitum for 4.5 weeks to study weight change and induce diabetic conditions. This was followed by 16 days of slightly restricted feeding, for the measurement of fecal organic matter digestibility, fecal dry matter, urinary glucose excretion, and fasting blood glucose. Finally, the rats were euthanized 2 hours postprandial for measurement of postprandial glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, and cecal fermentation pattern to assess any relation between digestion processes and hematological risk markers. Diet SF had higher fecal organic matter digestibility and led to a significantly larger pool of organic acids with a higher proportion of propionate than the other diets. There was no difference in hematological parameters except for a small but significant reduction in postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.

  17. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%assava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

  18. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; Bata, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effe...

  19. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked up to seven (like moderately, and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05 for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05. The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

  20. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e, Silva; João Paulo Almeida dos, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sergio, Marcellini.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

  1. Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column / Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K. Madhavan, Nampoothiri; Ashok, Pandey.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextros [...] e Equivalent value), a taxa de conversão máxima (~34%) foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O meio enriquecido com nutrientes resultou em um acúmulo de 21 g/L de ácido glutâmico, com uma elevada (66,3%) taxa de conversão da glicose em ácido glutâmico (baseada em glicose consumida e em uma taxa de conversão teórica de 81,74%). As condições mais favoráveis, levando à uma máxima produção, foram pH 7.5, temperatura 30°C e agitação de 180 rpm. Quando a fermentação foi conduzida em um reator do tipo descontinuo alimentado, onde a concentração de açúcares redutores era mantida em 5% w/v, foram obtidos 25.0 g/L de glutamato após 40 h (16% a mais do que no modo descontinuo). Para a recuperação e purificação do ácido glutâmico, foi utilizada a separação por cromatografia com resina de troca inônica. O ácido foi posteriormente cristalizado e separado, levando-se em consideração a sua baixa solubilidade no ponto isoelétrico (pH 3.2). Abstract in english Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE ( [...] Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).

  2. Método para determinação de volume específico como padrão de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos / Method for the determination of specific volume as a quality standard for fermented cassava starch and substitutes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Hugo dos Santos, BRITO; Marney Pascoli, CEREDA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estabelecer um método para a determinação da expansão como critério de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos. Três tipos de amidos de mandioca foram avaliados: Polvilho Azedo (padrão), Expandex® e Amido Nativo. As amostras foram condicionadas diretamente em moldes de silicone e metal [...] revestido com politetrafluoretileno e forneadas sob condições controladas de temperatura 200 ºC ou 250 °C e tempo 20 ou 25 minutos. O método proposto foi avaliado pela repetitividade do volume específico (relação volume:massa) e os resultados foram comparados com os obtidos por método tradicional com manuseio dos ingredientes com água fervente e moldeamento manual em bolas, posteriormente forneadas em assadeira de alumínio untada, assadas nas mesmas condições. A seleção do melhor método levou em conta os maiores valores para volume específico (cm3 g–1) e menores variações entre as repetições. Para a fôrma de silicone, os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas condições de 200 °C e 25 min (8,89 cm3 g–1 com 1,46% de variabilidade), que proporcionou massas suficientemente resistentes ao manuseio para permitir as medidas. Para moldes de politetrafluoroetileno as melhores condições foram temperatura de 200 °C durante o tempo de 20 minutos (8,16 cm3 g–1 com 7,59% de variabilidade). A amostra de Expandex® apresentou a mesma resposta que o polvilho azedo às variáveis de temperatura de forno e tempo de assamento, porém com valores maiores. A presença residual de grânulos intactos mostrou que a gelatinização do amido não foi completa nas condições de forneamento. O método proposto apresentou facilidade na manipulação e o tempo necessário foi apenas aquele necessário para a elaboração da pasta com água e o forneamento. Abstract in english The objective was to establish a method for the determination of the expansion of cassava starch and substitutes as a quality standard. Three types of cassava starch were evaluated: Fermented Cassava Starch, Expandex® and Native Starch. The samples were put directly into silicone or metal polytetraf [...] luoroethylene moulds and baked under controlled conditions of temperature (200 or 250 °C) and time (20 or 25 minutes). The proposed method was evaluated by the repeatability of the specific volume (volume ratio:mass) and the results compared with those obtained by the traditional method, in which the ingredients were handled in boiling water, moulded into balls by hand, and subsequently baked in greased aluminium baking pans under the same conditions. The selection of the best method took into account the highest values ??for specific volume (cm3 g–1) and the least variations between repetitions. For the silicon mould, the best results were obtained under the conditions of 200 °C and 25 min (8.89 cm3 g–1 with 1.46% variability), which provided pastas sufficiently resistant to handling to allow for the taking of measurements. For the polytetrafluoroethylene moulds, the best conditions were 200 °C for 20 minutes (8.16 cm3 g–1 with 7.59% variability). The sample Expandex® showed the same response as cassava starch to the variables of oven temperature and baking time, but showed higher values. The presence of residual intact granules showed that gelatinization of the starch was not completed under the baking conditions used. The proposed method showed ease of handling and the time required was just that necessary to knead the dough with water and bake it.

  3. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior. No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  4. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca / Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Diego Soares, Mota; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; André Santos de, Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Thierry Ribeiro, Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da, Costa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados co [...] m esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Ama [...] relinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  5. Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse / Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manas R., Swain; Shaktimay, Kar; Ramesh C., Ray.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG) por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: períod [...] o de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial [...] medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.

  6. Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Effect of additives on fermentation of cassava leaf silage and ruminal fluid of west african dwarf goats / Efecto de aditivos sobre la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y el fluido ruminal en cabras enanas de África Occidental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Oni; O.S., Sowande; O.O., Oni; R.Y., Aderinboye; P.A., Dele; V.O. A., Ojo; O.M., Arigbede; C.F.I., Onwuka.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para investigar los efectos de diferentes aditivos sobre la calidad de la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y sus efectos sobre los parámetros del fluido ruminal en dieciocho cabras Enanas de África occidental. Las hojas de yuca fueron ensiladas, durante 30 días, solas [...] (ECF) y con adición de 5 % de melaza (ECFM) o excretas de ponedoras en batería (ECFP) como aditivos. La adición de 5 % de melaza redujo el contenido de materia seca, 252,4 g/kg en ECF, a 238,9 g/kg en ECFM; con adición de 5 % de excretas (ECFP) la MS aumentó hasta 267,6 g/kg. El nivel de PB (207,6 g/kg en ECF) disminuyó a 198,5 g/kg en ECFM. Tanto la adición de melazas o excretas determinaron la reducción del contenido de HCN desde 98,5 g/kg en ECF (sin aditivos) a 89,3 en ECFP y 84,7 g/kg en ECFM. El pH medio del ensilaje sin aditivos (3,66) fue menor (p Abstract in english A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different additives on the fermentation quality of ensiled cassava leaves and its effects on the ruminal fluid parameters using eighteen West African dwarf goats. Cassava leaves were ensiled alone (ECF), with 5 % (w/w) molasses (ECFM) and caged lay [...] er waste (ECFP) respectively as additives for 30 days. Results of chemical composition of the additive and non-additive silages indicated that ensiling with 5 % molasses reduced the DM content from 252.4 g/kg in ECF to 238.9 g/ kg in ECFM and increased with 5 % caged layer waste (ECFP) to 267.6 g/kg. The CP content of ECF was 207.6 g/kg and this decreased to 198.5 g/kg DM in ECFM. Addition of molasses and caged layer waste caused a reduction in the HCN contents from 95.8 mg/kg in non-additive silage (ECF) to 89.3 mg/kg in ECFP and 84.7 mg/kg in ECFM. The mean pH of non-additive silage of 3.66 was significantly (p0.05) in the pH, bc and lactic acid concentration in both the non-additive and additive silages. Ammonia-nitrogen concentration (NH3-N) however, ranged significantly (p

  8. Comparison of Sweet Sorghum and Cassava for Ethanol Production by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available ?-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.

  9. Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

  10. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  11. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca / Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Kitagawa, Grizotto; Hilary Castle de, Menezes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores [...] potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente) para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente) para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados. Abstract in english Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consume [...] rs of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control) chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly) for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately) for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

  12. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

  13. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Trindade; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa Barreto; Taniella Carvalho Mendes; Carlos Augusto Rosa

    1999-01-01

    The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine pr...

  14. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELAEZ; MARIANA, CARDONA BETANCUR; CARLOS, MEJÍA GOMEZ; ALEJANDRO, ACOSTA CÁRDENAS.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir d [...] e harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enzimático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme h [...] ydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface central composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

  15. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  16. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis. Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  17. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante / Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Laura Maria Oliveira, Borgatti; Rériton Weldert, Gomes; Roberta, Passini; Paula Marques, Meyer.

    1138-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na ma [...] téria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced [...] in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  18. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica / Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Luis Fernando Simões de, Almeida; Carlos de Souza, Lucci; Laércio, Melotti; Félix Ribeiro de, Lima.

    1646-16-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: [...] controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia. Abstract in english Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, a [...] nd Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

  19. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS, cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia.Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp. and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

  20. A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristine, Rodrigues; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Juliana, Teodoro; Juliana Fraron, Oss; Ashok, Pandey; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O ácido giberélico (GA3) é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme) e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de s [...] oja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café) e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme) and substra [...] tes (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk) and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.

  1. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  2. Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nwosu; N.N. Ahaotu; C.I. Owuamanam; Ogueke, C. C.; Ahaotu, I.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while s...

  3. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L. SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L., AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por fermentação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the different times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%, differing significantly from the other treatments.

  4. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L.) SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA / PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.), AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO, NASCIMENTO; ANDREZA TAVARES, TOMÉ; JOSÉ E. URANO DE, CARVALHO; CARLOS HANS, MÜLLER.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por ferm [...] entação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%), diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Abstract in english The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the differ [...] ent times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%), differing significantly from the other treatments.

  5. Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan, Quintero; Alejandro, Acosta; Carlos, Mejía; Rigoberto, Ríos; Ana María, Torres.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

  6. Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada / Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Marchiori, Coan; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gisela Rojas, Garcia; Ruben Pablo, Schocken- Iturrino; Daniel de Souza, Ferreira; Flávio Dutra de, Resende; Felipe do Amaral, Gurgel.

    1502-15-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 [...] e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were [...] harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

  7. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  8. Production of Mandioca alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govea, V.deS.

    1973-01-01

    Slurries of cassava meal were saccharified by the action of amylase from Bacillus subtilis and amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus awamori. The resulting glucose medium was fermented continuously on a semi-industrial scale using Saccharomyces cerevisiae without addition of artificial nutrients. A 90.87% yield was obtained in the conversion of glucose to EtOH.

  9. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica / Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Magali, Leonel.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o [...] uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade. Abstract in english Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fi [...] ber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  10. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bronzi de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  11. Energy-Efficient Production of Cassava-Based Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuel ethanol is an important renewable and sustainable fuel, produced in China by fermentation of mostly corn, wheat and cassava feedstock. Fermentation produces an ethanol-lean broth (10 to 12 vol%. Ethanol is recovered by distillation, followed by a molecular sieve drying beyond the azeo-tropic point. The distillation and molecular sieve operations consume most of the total energy used, with the steam consumption currently being ~1.8 kg/kg ethanol, including 0.5 kg/kg ethanol in the final molecular sieve stage during regeneration. The objectives of the paper are fourfold: 1 firstly to study the distillation process of a large-scale cassava-based fuel ethanol production (200,000 tons per year, by field measurements and by using an Aspen Plus V8.2 simulation, with and without energy integration of condensers and reboilers, resulting in a distillation steam consumption of ~1.3 kg/kg ethanol; 2 secondly, to examine the effects of using Very High Gravity (VHG fer-mentation of cassava meal mash. By using VHG fermentation, the ethanol concentration in the fermenter broth is significantly increased, to about 19 vol% (15.4 wt%. The steam consumption is then reduced to ~0.94 kg/kg, representing a considerable saving in comparison with the current operation. Applying VHG fermentation needs minor additional investment, rapidly recovered through the energy savings and the smaller size of equipment; 3 thirdly, to assess the application of a hybrid operation, where pervaporation will be used to selectively and continuously remove ethanol from the fermenter broth, thus slightly increasing the fermentation yield by reducing the risk of ethanol inhibition, whilst producing an ehtanol-rich permeate (about 30 wt%; and finally 4 to demonstrate that the production cost of cassava-based ethanol can substantially be reduced by applying the proposed improvements.

  12. Substituição do milho pela polpa de citros sobre a fermentação ruminal e protozoários ciliados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251 Corn substitution by citrus pulp on ruminal fermentation and ciliate protozoa - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados, em um delineamento em quadrado latino, 4 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio de 400 kg ± 12 kg, canulados, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos de níveis de substituição de milho por polpa de citros na fermentação ruminal e no número de protozoários ciliados. Os tratamentos consistiram nos níveis de substituição: 0%, 40%, 60% e 80%, em base seca. Foram mensurados o pH, a concentração de AGV e os protozoários ciliados no rúmen. A inclusão de polpa de citros provocou diminuição linear nos níveis de pH do líquido ruminal (p Four Nellore steers cannulated with average weight of 400 ± 12 kg were utilized in a Latin square design, to evaluate the effect of substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp on rumen fermentation. The treatments consisted of substitution levels: (0, 40, 60 and 80%, in the dry matter. The pH, volatile fatty acid and ciliate protozoa of the rumen content were evaluated. The addition of citrus pulp to the diets decreased the pH of rumen liquid (p < 0.01 linearly, the quadratic effect of the total volatile fatty acid, of prop ionic acid, butyric acid and the total ciliate protozoa number (p = 0.03; p =0.01; p = 0.02; e p < 0.01, respectively. There was linear increase of the acetate: propionate ratio (p = 0.07. The substitution of corn by citrus pulp improved rumen environment to 60% level

  13. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; SABAA-SRUR Armando U. O.; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  14. Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Zambello de, Pinho; Ciniro, Costa; Mario De Beni, Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos, Silveira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani; Sheila Zambello de, Pinho.

    Full Text Available A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida [...] os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when sub [...] mitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

  15. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of p...

  16. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the vill a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  17. Refining of Polysulfide Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Copur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

  18. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses ?-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as ?-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139

  19. Predominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Traditional Fermentation of Fufu and Ogi, Two Nigerian Fermented Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Olaoluwa Oyedeji; Samuel Temitope Ogunbanwo; Anthony Abiodun Onilude

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of preparation were simulated in the laboratory fermentations of cassava and maize to produce fufu and ogi respectively. Changes in pH, temperature and titratable acidity, as well as the diversity of lactic acid bacteria species were investigated during both fermentations. Lactic acid bacteria strains involved in the fermentation processes were isolated at twelve hourly intervals, characterized and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods....

  20. Evaluation of Local and Elite Cassava Genotypes for Resistance to Cassava Brown Streak Disease in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Omongo, C. A.; Alicai, T.; Pariyo, A.; Baguma, Y.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Kawuki, R.; Abaca, A.; Bua, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cassava production in the East African region is seriously being constrained by the devastating Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) that causes characteristic above and below ground symptoms, making cassava roots unfit for human consumption. Development of cassava varieties that are resistant and/or tolerant to CBSD is an important component in the CBSD management. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was; to evaluate both local and elite cassava genotypes for possible sources of resista...

  1. Preparation and evaluation of sauces from lactic acid fermented vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, V.K.; Somesh, Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Different combinations of fermented vegetables like carrot, radish and cucumber with pear and mango pulps were made separately and were processed. All the sauces prepared were having a constant TSS of 18°B using different combinations of fermented pulp viz., 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fruit pulps of mango and pear. The titratable acidity of carrot, radish and cucumber based sauces ranged from 1.22 to 1.39%. The blending ratio influenced the titratable acidity, Brix-acid ratio, pH and colour of...

  2. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    OpenAIRE

    EmmanuelOkogbenin; TimLSetter; MoragFerguson; HernanCeballos; MartinFregene

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitativ...

  3. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    OpenAIRE

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative...

  4. Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os inoculantes foram aplicados na razão de 25 litros de solução por tonelada de forragem, contendo 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus plantarum e 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus buchneri por grama de silagem. Não houve efeito do uso de diferentes inoculantes sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, assim como no pH. Os teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, carboidratos não fibrosos, matéria mineral, extrato etéreo e o perfil de ácidos graxos não sofreram alterações significativas com a inclusão dos inoculantes. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram superiores para a silagem com Lactobacillus buchneri em relação à silagem controle. O uso de inoculantes microbianos na silagem de polpa cítrica não resulta em benefícios relacionados às perdas durante a ensilagem ou componentes nutricionais.

  5. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  6. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  7. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  8. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it id turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  9. Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Herve?; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Zainuddin, Ima M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV...

  10. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  11. Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

  12. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  13. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L.; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promisin...

  14. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

    2004-05-15

    The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively. PMID:15135588

  15. Energy-Efficient Production of Cassava-Based Bio-Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Jan Baeyens; Raf Dewil; Tianwei Tan

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol is an important renewable and sustainable fuel, produced in China by fermentation of mostly corn, wheat and cassava feedstock. Fermentation produces an ethanol-lean broth (10 to 12 vol%). Ethanol is recovered by distillation, followed by a molecular sieve drying beyond the azeo-tropic point. The distillation and molecular sieve operations consume most of the total energy used, with the steam consumption currently being ~1.8 kg/kg ethanol, including 0.5 kg/kg ethanol in the final ...

  16. Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?

    OpenAIRE

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-marie; Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermen...

  17. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Paul V. Abbott; Eugene Chen

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  18. Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boboye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat flour doughs in order to test the fermentative ability of the isolates. The fermented doughs were baked and organoleptic analysis was carried out using some physical parameters namely: leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. The analysis showed that Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Geotrichum lactis and Candida robusta were best in leavening the flour doughs. Each of these isolates scored between 55 and 60% in all the attributes tested. In the sensory attributes applied, statistical analysis using ANOVA (p<0.05 and Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that about 71 and 80% of the tested isolates compared favourably with the commercial baker`s yeasts STK Royal and Saf-instant used.

  19. Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

  20. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log10 CFU/g to 9 log10 CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log10 CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log10 CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (< 5% each).

  1. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  2. PULP dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

  3. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  5. Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    S.C. Achinewhu; Ogueke, C. C.; C.I. Owuamanam; I.S. Barimalaa

    2011-01-01

    The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety) were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v)) in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C) to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h intervals...

  6. Cacao fermentation. V. Yeasts isolated from cacao beans during the curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTELLI, H L; DITTMAR, H F

    1961-09-01

    Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

  7. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Cereda, M.P.; M.C.Y. MATTOS

    1996-01-01

    Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reactio...

  8. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  9. Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

    2011-10-15

    The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash. PMID:22514894

  10. Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nwosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 mol mL-1 nmol-1. Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter. The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter. Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57x108 cfu g-1. pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

  11. Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

  12. Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Fernando, Rubio-Arroyo; Pilar, Vivanco-Loyo; Moisés, Juárez; Martha, Poisot; Guillermo, Ramírez-Galicia.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener [...] así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron para producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fer [...] mentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

  13. Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivana Greice, Sandri; Luciani Tastch, Piemolini-Barreto; Roselei Claudete, Fontana; Mauricio Moura da, Silveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE) produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this stu [...] dy. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24%) and in the juice (28%), with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively). The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%), and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the ?-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls.

  14. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Alicia, Martos; Emilce Roxana, Zubreski; Mariana, Combina; Oscar Alfredo, Garro; Roque Alberto, Hours.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectino [...] lytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  15. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  16. Pulp and periapical pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Piotto Leonardi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

  17. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  18. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  19. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not. The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis of variance results, only pH (p <0.01), duration of storage (p <0.01), population of aflatoxin-producing species (0.0001) and the chip type (p <0.05) were significantly related to aflatoxin in positive samples. A stepwise regression analysis (forward selection procedure) indicated that aflatoxin levels were significantly (p <0.01) correlated with processing practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips.

  20. Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udoudoh, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

  1. Two-step production of gamma-aminobutyric acid from cassava powder using Corynebacterium glutamicum and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Kimani, Bernard Gitura; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from crop biomass such as cassava in high concentration is desirable, but difficult to achieve. A safe biotechnological route was investigated to produce GABA from cassava powder by C. glutamicum G01 and L. plantarum GB01-21. Liquefied cassava powder was first transformed to glutamic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with C. glutamicum G01, followed by biotransformation of glutamic acid to GABA with resting cells of L. plantarum GB01-21 in the reaction medium. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the maximum concentration of GABA reached 80.5 g/L with a GABA productivity of 2.68 g/L/h. This is the highest yield ever reported of GABA production from cassava-derived glucose. The bioprocess provides the added advantage of employing nonpathogenic microorganisms, C. glutamicum and L. plantarum, in microbial production of GABA from cassava biomass, which can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26115763

  2. Sensorial Analysis of Wines from Malpighia glabra L. Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida; Roberto Rodrigues de Souza; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Elias Basile Tambourgi

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to make the sensorial analysis of Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) wines. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix) and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma) of wines; which were measured on hedonic scale, to obtain the best condition for manufacturing wine from Barbados cherry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used
    for fermentation. Results showed that Ba...

  3. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Cuihua Dong; Zhiqiang Pang,; Jingwen Xue,; Yu Liu, Jiachuan Chen,; Rong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient ...

  4. Fermented Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  5. Effects of Inoculum Size on Solid-Phase Fermentation of Fodder Beets for Fuel Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Gibbons; Westby, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  6. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  7. Ethanol production from cassava starch using a highly productive strain of Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces uvarum ATCC 26602

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poosaran, N.; Heyes, R.H.; Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The liquefaction, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cassava starch (225 g/litre glucose equivalent) were investigated in order to optimize the process. It was found that with 0.125% (v/w) alpha-amylase (Termamyl) at 80 degrees C, a one hour liquefaction was sufficient. At 35 degrees C and an optimum AMG concentration of 0.7% (v/w), Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 had a fermentation time of 20 hours, giving 114 g/litre of ethanol (95% of the theoretical yield on starch supplied). Under the same conditions, Saccharomyces uvarum ATCC 26602 had a fermentation time of 33 hours, producing 106 g/litre of ethanol (a 90% yield). The main factors affecting the rate of fermentation with varying AMG concentrations were glucose limitation (at low AMG concentrations) and substrate inhibition (at high AMG concentrations).

  8. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing aLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  10. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido, Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do, Canto; Edna Regina, Amante; Valdir, Soldi.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained olig [...] osaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  11. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  12. Kinetics of alcohol fermentation at high yeast levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rosario, E.J.; Lee, K.J.; Rogers, P.L.

    1979-08-01

    The fermentation of alcohol from renewable substrates is attracting attention as a promising energy resource. Brazil has started to develop its fermentation industries for producing fuel ethanol from crops such as sugar-cane and cassava. However, before alcohol production costs become competitive, significant improvements in technology will have to be made. This paper evaluates one of the most promising of yeasts that has flocculent characteristics and that is capable of fermentation at high sugar concentrations - Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (uvarum). A maximum specific ethanol production rate of 0.58 g/g/hour was found in batch culture at high yeast concentrations and a value of 0.75 g/g/hour in continuous culture with recycle. It is suggested that where flocculation properties, as well as fermentation properties are required, the use of this yeast could well be justified.

  13. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  14. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. P., CEREDA; M.C.Y., MATTOS.

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be brok [...] en under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  15. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. CEREDA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯ has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  16. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

  17. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  18. Cyanide Reduction, Functional and Sensory Quality of Gari as Affected by pH, Temperature and Fermentation Time

    OpenAIRE

    L.I. Barber; N.C. Ihediohanma; J.O. Iwouno; C.I. Owuamanam

    2010-01-01

    The effects of control pH, temperature and fermentation time on the cyanide reduction, functional and sensory properties of gari were investigated. Freshly harvested cassava roots (local variety) were peeled, washed and grated into a mash. The meal was divided into five equal portions and mixed thoroughly with already prepared buffer solutions from citric acid, sodium orthophosphate, -analytical grade (10% by weight buffer and kept in stainless containers to ferment at room temperature (30oC)...

  19. Dental pulp tissue engineering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio Fernando, Demarco; Marcus Cristian Muniz, Conde; Bruno Neves, Cavalcanti; Luciano, Casagrande; Vivien Thiemy, Sakai; Jacques Eduardo, Nör.

    Full Text Available A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo altamente especializado que possui uma restrita capacidade de regeneração, devido à sua disposição anatômica e à natureza pós-mitótica das células odontoblásticas. A remoção total da polpa, seguida da desinfecção do canal radicular e seu preenchimento com materi [...] al artificial proporciona a perda de uma significante quantidade de dentina deixando como sequela um dente não vital e enfraquecido. Entretanto, a endodontia regenerativa é um campo emergente da engenharia tecidual, que demonstrou resultados promissores utilizando células-tronco associadas à scaffolds e moléculas bioativas. Desta forma, esse artigo revisa os recentes avanços obtidos na regeneração do tecido pulpar baseado nos princípios da engenharia tecidual e fornece aos leitores informações compreensivas sobre os diferentes aspectos envolvidos na engenharia tecidual. Assim, nós especulamos que a combinação ideal de células, scaffolds e moléculas bioativas pode resultar em significantes avanços em outras áreas da pesquisa odontológica. Os dados levantados em nossa revisão demonstraram que estamos em um estágio no qual, o desenvolvimento de tecidos complexos, tais como a polpa dental, não é mais inatingível e que a próxima década será um período extremamente interessante para a pesquisa odontológica. Abstract in english Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant [...] amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.

  20. Production of ethanol from liquefied cassava starch using co-immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces diastaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, R; Gunasekaran, P

    2001-01-01

    Co-immobilized cells of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Zymomonas mobilis produced a high ethanol concentration compared to immobilized cells of S. diastaticus during batch fermentation of liquefied cassava starch. The co-immobilized cells produced 46.7 g/l ethanol from 150 g/l liquefied cassava starch, while immobilized cells of yeast S. diastaticus produced 37.5 g/l ethanol. The concentration of ethanol produced by immobilized cells was higher than that by free cells of S. diastaticus and Z. mobilis in mixed-culture fermentation. In repeated-batch fermentation using co-immobilized cells, the ethanol concentration increased to 53.5 g/l. The co-immobilized gel beads were stable up to seven successive batches. Continuous fermentation using co-immobilized cells in a packed bed column reactor operated at a flow rate of 15 ml/h (residence time, 4 h) exhibited a maximum ethanol productivity of 8.9 g/l/h. PMID:16233146

  1. Optimization of Cassava Waste from Bioethanol Post-Production through Bioactivity Process Consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of laboratory analysis on bioethanol waste shows nutritional and anti-nutritional content (HCN. Based on it, in order to prevent environment damage then performed a bioconversion of bioethanol waste for base material of sheep forage by fermented previously using consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger to eliminate the waste anti-nutritional content and increase nutritional content. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD factorial pattern with two factors and three replications. The first factor was inoculum dose (D and the second factor was variation of tested microorganisms (M. The variables measured were HCN content and nutrient content of fermented products, that were water content, protein content and crude fiber content by proximate analysis. Furthermore, the data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, and was there significant difference analyzed further by Duncan's multiple range test of 5% level. Nutritional compositions of bioethanol waste from cassava that had been fermented by consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger experienced changes compared to before fermentation. The results showed an increase in protein level, while fiber content, water content, and HCN content were decrease. Bioethanol waste from cassava fermented by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (k3 with 2% inoculum dose had the highest protein content increase from 11.79% to 25.41% and had the lowest crude fiber content decrease from 16.4% to 12.84 %. The highest HCN decrease obtained from the fermentation of consortium Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride.

  2. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided. PMID:25817690

  3. Transcriptional Response of Virus-Infected Cassava and Identification of Putative Sources of Resistance for Cassava Brown Streak Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kal...

  4. Direct pulp capping using biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi?-Baji? Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

  5. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau.

  6. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia, Trindade; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa, Barreto; Taniella de Carvalho, Mendes; Carlos Augusto, Rosa.

    Full Text Available O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas fora [...] m testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau. Abstract in english The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ab [...] ility to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.

  7. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  8. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

  10. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  11. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  12. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, I. U.; Abarshi, M. M.; Muli, B.; Hillocks, R. J.; Maruthi, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission b...

  13. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; A. H. van Gelder; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas production profiles of ensiled mixtures containing 85 (M85), 70 (M70), and 50% (M50) of apple pulp were studied at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days. Fermentation quality was assessed by pH, lactic acid, ethanol...

  14. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  15. Energy Input in the Production of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Isaac Bamgboye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the largest components of the production cost in Agricultural activities. The efficiency of its use will often be compromised in favour of other equally important factors. Data were collected in 10 cassava farms by using face to face questionnaire method to determine the energy input in cassava production. Mathematical expressions were used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the defined unit operations. Energy requirement in land preparation, planting, crop maintenance (fertilization and weed control and harvesting were determined. It was observed that 78.67% of the total energy input used in cassava production was indirect, while 21.33% was direct. The average energy input in the production of cassava was 8571.26 MJ/ha, while 9960.00 kg was the average yield obtainable per hectare. Energy input in fertilizer was the highest with 64.0% of the total energy input; followed by diesel fuel with 19.50%. The net energy and energy productivity value were estimated to be 46,655.77 MJ/ha and 1.18 MJ/kg respectively. The ratio of energy output to energy input was 7.1.

  16. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  17. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  18. Multiple Pulp Stones: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Zengin, A. Zeynep; Turk, Selma Elekdag; Sumer, A. Pinar; Bulucu, Bilinc; Kirtiloglu, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Pulp stones are usually found in the pulp chamber. Radiographically, they appear as radiopaque structures in the pulp chambers or root canals of individual teeth. Generalized pulp stones throughout the dentition are usually associated with systemic or genetic disorders of the dentine. This report presents an unusual case of a 13-year-old girl with generalized pulp stones with clinically normal crowns. The patient’s main complaint was a crossbite affecting all permanent canines. Radiographic e...

  19. YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula

    2015-04-01

    Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. PMID:25475331

  20. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  1. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    OpenAIRE

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be directly applied in existing varieties of vegetatively propagated crops like cassava. Genetic modification requires efficient, genotype-independent regeneration methods. Plant regeneration can be a...

  2. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  3. Production of Cocoyam, Cassava and Wheat Flour Composite Rock Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elsie Sanful; Sophia Darko

    2010-01-01

    The proximate and sensory analysis of the cassava-cocoyam supplemented wheat flour rock cake has been made. This was done to investigate the nutritional value and the general acceptability of the cassava flour and cocoyam flour supplemented rock cake. The proximate analysis indicate that the moisture content, ash and the carbohydrate increase with increasing cassava and cocoyam flour concentration. Generally the ash content of composite rock cakes increases as the level of supplementation inc...

  4. Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib M.A. Nassar

    2000-01-01

    All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

  5. Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic acid) dec...

  6. The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhana, Made M; Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first 2-3 days of fermentation were characterised by the successional growth of various species of filamentous fungi, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The principal species found were Penicillium citrinum, an unidentified basidiomycete, Kloeckera apis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The later stages of fermentation were dominated by the presence of Bacillus species, mostly, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid of the bean pulp were utilised during fermentation, with the production of ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid that diffused into the beans. The filamentous fungi were notable for their production of polygalacturonase activity and probably contributed to the degradation of bean pulp. PMID:12892924

  7. Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Abbasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

  8. Sensorial Analysis of Wines from Malpighia glabra L. Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make the sensorial analysis of Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L. wines. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma of wines; which were measured on hedonic scale, to obtain the best condition for manufacturing wine from Barbados cherry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used
    for fermentation. Results showed that Barbados cherry wines were suave, sweet and with 11°GL of alcohol concentration. Flavor and color of wines were characteristic of acerola fresh fruit. The t Student test showed that did not present any significant difference among the wines in both these sensorial attributes. Increasing the initial °Brix of must, the wine obtained had better acceptance and there was no effect of pulp mass on sensorial
    attributes studied. Sensorial analysis revealed that the best Barbados cherry wine was obtained for a must with composition of 22 g/L of sugar and 1 kg of Barbados cherry pulp for each 6 liter of wine. This work supports the usage of acerola for obtaining high quality wines which possess pleasing aroma and shiny red color.

  9. Modeling and Optimising the Growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae During Gathotan Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI PURWANDARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gathotan is fungal fermented cassava, and a raw material for a Javanese snack called ‘gathot’. This type of food is now hardly to find, and the process of making gathotan is relatively lack of process control, leads to failure in process. To make gathotan, peeled cassava tubers are left on the ground or roof for several weeks or months until they become black inside an important characteristic of gathotan. This work aims to improve gathotan fermentation by optimizing fermentation process. The effect of incubation temperature and time, inoculum level, soaking time, and drying, on the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the main gathotan fungus, in cassava tubers was studied. Experimental design was set up according to response surface methodology. Five parameters measured were pH, titratable acidity, and fungal growth. Results showed that incubation temperature affected pH in linear (P<0.01 and quadratic functions (P<0.05. Titratable acidity was not affected by any treatment. Fungal growth was significantly affected by incubation time (P<0.01 or inoculum level (P<0.05, and interaction of several factors: incubation time and incubation temperature (P<0.05 or drying time (P<0.01. Optimization model indicated that incubation temperature at 34.5°C for 2.4 days, soaking for 26.4 hours, drying time of 3.7 hours at 40°C, and inoculum level of 2% resulted in maximum growth of L. theobromae in gathotan.

  10. Exploiting the combination of natural and genetically engineered resistance to cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak viruses impacting cassava production in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B; Zainuddin, Ima M; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444). Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo). An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa. PMID:23049780

  11. Response of Selected Cassava Varieties to the Incidence and Severity of Cassava Brown Streak Disease in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Rwegasira, Gration M.; Rey, Chrissie M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak virus disease (CBSD) has been a serious and most damaging disease in cassava crop throughout the East, Central and Southern part of Africa. Several cassava varieties invariably respond to the disease, but the effect of the disease on affected varieties was not known. The current study was conducted to assess the ability of some farmer-preferred CBSD-affected varieties to withstand the disease. Field experiments were conducted at Kibaha Agricultural Research station from 2...

  12. Effects of cassava starch hydrolysate on cell growth and lipid accumulation of the heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Aili; Zhang, Xuewu; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu; Wu, Qingyu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2009-11-01

    Heterotrophic fermentation of microalgae has been shown to accumulate high amounts of microalgal lipids, which are regarded as one of the most promising feedstocks for sustainable biodiesel production. To increase the biomass and reduce the cost of microalgal culture, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using cassava starch hydrolysate (CSH) instead of glucose as carbon source for heterotrophic culture of Chlorella protothecoides in flasks. First, the two-step enzymatic process of hydrolysis of cassava starch by alpha-amylase and glucoamylase was optimized; the conversion efficiency for cassava starch was up to 97.7%, and over 80% of CSH was glucose. Subsequently, we compared heterotrophic cultures of C. protothecoiedes using glucose or CSH as carbon source. The results demonstrated that when using CSH as the organic carbon source, the highest biomass and the maximum total lipid yield obtained were 15.8 and 4.19 g/L, representing increases of 42.3 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to using glucose as the organic carbon source. This suggests that CSH is a better carbon source than glucose for heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. PMID:19633877

  13. Production of L-lactic acid from fresh cassava roots slurried with tofu liquid waste by Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofar, Abdul; Ogawa, Shingo; Kokugan, Takao

    2005-12-01

    To reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics, the fermentation performance of L-lactic acid for a new fermentation medium, fresh cassava roots (FCRs) as a substrate slurried with tofu liquid waste (TLW) as basal medium, was investigated by batch fermentation of Streptococcus bovis. The fermentation properties of the three substrates, namely, FCR, tapioca (cassava starch) and glucose, which were independently mixed with TLW, were compared with those independently mixed with the standard basal medium, trypto-soya broth (TSB). Experiments were conducted at various sugar concentrations of the substrates with CaCO(3) as a neutralizer. The maximum L-lactic acid concentrations (C(La)) obtained using the three substrates in TLW were about 75% of those obtained using TSB caused by less nutrients in the TLW. The L-lactic acid productivities (P(La)) and the specific growth rates of S. bovis (mu) in TLW were about 1/4 to 1/3 and 1/5 to 1/4 of those in TSB, respectively. The maximum C(La), P(La) and mu were obtained at 10% w/w sugar concentration. Total yields (eta) were nearly constant up to 10% w/w sugar concentration for TSB and TLW, that is, 80% to 85% and 50% to 60%, respectively. But their total yields decreased in more than 10% w/w sugar concentration in both basal media, because of substrate inhibition. The fermentation properties (C(La), P(La), mu, and eta) were found to be in the order of: FCR > tapioca > glucose for all concentrations of the three substrates. The fermentation properties for FCR and tapioca were higher than those for glucose, in TLW or TSB, because S. bovis in a medium containing starch (FCR and tapioca) has more amylase activity than in a medium containing glucose. The nutrients in FCR with poor nutrient basal medium (TLW) more strongly affected the fermentation properties than those in FCR with rich nutrient basal medium (TSB). The proposed fermentation medium of FCR slurried with TLW is worth studying in order to reduce production cost of biodegradable plastics. PMID:16473768

  14. Reference genes for reliable potyvirus quantitation in cassava and analysis of Cassava brown streak virus load in host varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Isabel; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-10-01

    A reliable method for detection and quantitation of viruses associated with cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is essential to determine their presence in material used for field propagation as well as for precise evaluation of CBSD resistance in the cassava germplasm. Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a well-established method for precise quantitation of viral RNA amount in infected tissues. The method requires host reference genes with stable expression patterns under experimental conditions as internal controls for correct data normalization. Using the Genevestigator Refgene tool with Arabidopsis microarray data from Potyvirus-infected Arabidopsis as input data, candidate reference genes with stable expression pattern were selected as potential internal controls for the cassava -Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV; genus Ipomovirus; family Potyviridae) pathosystem. Primer pairs were designed for the cassava orthologs and their expression was analyzed in different tissues of three different CBSV-infected cassava varieties. The expression patterns of PP2A, UBQ10 and GTPb appeared to be the most stable in different CBSV-infected tissues and cassava varieties. The reference genes can therefore be used as internal controls for normalization of gene expression data in all types of cassava samples as well as in different cassava varieties infected by CBSV. The selected reference genes were used as internal controls to quantify CBSV in various symptomatic and asymptomatic plant organs to establish a correlation between virus load and symptom severity. PMID:21756941

  15. Strength loss in kraft pulping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarne, Jose

    Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

  16. Study on the development of methanogenic microflora during anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Labat, M.; Garcia, Jean-louis

    1986-01-01

    The pattern of increase in cell number in 12 different groups of bacteria was studied during anaerobic digestion of enzymatically prehydrolysed sugar beet pulp in a 70-1 fermentor with sequential feeding over a period of 130 days. Glucose-fermenting bacteria accounted for 90 % of the total microflora as estimated by direct epifluorescence. Strictly anaerobic bacteria were largely dominant ; only 10 % were methanogens. Sulphate-reducing bacteria accounted for 0.1 % of the total microflora. The...

  17. Transformation alimentaire du manioc = Cassava food processing

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Oyewole

    1995-01-01

    Le manioc (#Manihot esculenta$) est l'une des plus importantes plantes alimentaires en Afrique et sous les tropiques. En Afrique, la fermentation est une opération importante de la transformation des racines brutes en aliments. Le rôle des microorganismes de la fermentation dans le processus de détoxication, dans le développement de la saveur et dans la conservation de l'aliment a été confirmé. Cet article présente des travaux sur la fermentation traditionnelle par immersion dans l'eau des ra...

  18. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview o...

  19. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  20. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane da Cunha, Salata; Magali, Leonel; Fernanda Rossi Moretti, Trombini; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture) and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed) on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A centra [...] l composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*), and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%), low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%), and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C) and screw speed (230rpm), it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  1. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic potential (CNp). Processed products from Luapula showed a low CNp,

  2. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase.

  3. Optimization of Ethanol Production Process from Cassava Starch by Surface Response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, López Zamora; José Amir, González Calderón; Evangelina, Trujillo Vázquez; Eusebio, Bolaños Reynoso.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo muestra el estudio del proceso optimización de obtención de etanol a partir del almidón de yuca, mediante el planteamiento de un diseño 2² con tres puntos centrales y usando un software estadístico para analizar los resultados. Esta metodología fue aplicada tanto para la etapa de sac [...] arificación del almidón de yuca mediante hidrólisis ácida como para la etapa de fermentación empleando Socchoromyces cerevisioe. A partir de los datos experimentales de la hidrólisis ácida, se propone un modelo cinético de primer orden el cual presentó un error promedio del 1.87 % con respecto a la regresión cuadrática obtenida. El desarrollo de un proceso semi-contínuo mostró una conversión del 89.84 % del almidón inicialmente considerado, obteniéndose una concentración final de etanol del 49.76 % Alc/vol. Abstract in english This work shows the study of the optimization process for producing ethanol from cassava starch based on 2² experimental designs with three central points and using statistical software. This methodology was applied to the stage of saccharification of cassava starch by acid hydrolysis as well as to [...] the stage of fermentation using Socchoromyces cerevisioe. From the experimental data of acid hydrolysis, we proposed a first-order kinetic model which presented an average error of 1.87 % compared to the quadratic regression obtained. The development of a semicontinuous process showed a 89.84 % conversion of starch initially considered, yielding an ethanol concentration of 49.76 % Alc/vol.

  4. Caracterização molecular de acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético / Molecular characterization of biofortified cassava accessions with potential for use in genetic improvement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Alano, Vieira; Josefino de Freitas, Fialho; Fabio Gelape, Faleiro; Graciele, Bellon; Marilia Santos, Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca apresenta potencial como fonte de carotenóides na alimentação humana, em especial ?-caroteno (nas raízes amarelas) e licopeno (nas raízes rosadas). Assim, a possibilidade da mandioca ser, além de fonte de calorias, uma fonte de vitaminas e antioxidantes, é encarada como forma de melhorar [...] a nutrição dos habitantes de países em desenvolvimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar por meio de marcadores RAPD 20 acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético. Os acessos foram avaliados por meio de marcadores RAPD, sendo posteriormente estimada a matriz de similaridade genética entre os acessos, por meio do índice de Jaccard. A análise por meio de 12 iniciadores gerou um total de 144 bandas das quais 120 (83%) foram polimórficas. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação três grupos, sendo o grupo um formado por sete acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e dois acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, o grupo dois formado por oito acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela e um acesso com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e o grupo três formado pelos acessos melhorados com cor da polpa da raiz creme e branca. Os marcadores RAPD foram eficientes na determinação da variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, rosada, creme e branca, diferenciaram os acessos melhorados dos demais acessos e revelaram uma tendência de separação dos acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada dos com a cor da polpa da raiz amarela. Abstract in english Cassava presents potential as source of carotenoids for human diet, in special ?-carotene (within the yellow roots) and lycopene (within the pinkish roots). So, the possibility for cassava to be, besides source of calories, source of vitamins and antioxidants as well is faced as a manner to improve [...] the nutrition of inhabitants of developing countries. In the present work, the aim was to characterize by RAPD markers 20 accessions of biofortified cassava with potential for use in genetic improvement. The accessions were evaluated via RAPD markers, being then estimated the matrix of genetic similarity among the accessions by using the Jaccard index. The analysis using 12 primers generated a total of 144 markers, among which 120 (83%) were polymorphic. The clustering analysis revealed the formation of three groups, being group one formed by seven accessions with pinkish root pulp and two with yellow root pulp, group two formed by eight accessions with yellow root pulp and one accession with pinkish root pulp, and group three formed by improved accessions with either cream color or white root pulp. The RAPD markers were efficient to determine the genetic variability among the cassava accessions with yellow, pinkish, cream color and white root pulp, differentiated the improved accessions from the others and revealed a trend to separate the accessions with pinkish root pulp from the accessions with yellow root pulp.

  5. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1...

  6. Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs

  7. Production of Adhesives from Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Sunday Akin AJISEGIRI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentials of adhesives production from cassava starch were investigated. Adhesive products from Manihot utilisima and Manihot palmate were compared with a commercial adhesive. Based on the results obtained, equations developed for optimum process conditions that would yield products comparable to the commercial process. The products obtained using these conditions were found to have relatively improved pot-life. There no noticeable changes in the properties of the products for the first 21 days.

  8. Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  9. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  10. Rumen degradability of dehydrated beet pulp and dehydrated citrus pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jose; González, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The rumen degradation of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of 10 samples of dehydrated beet pulp (DBP) and 2 samples of dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) were studied in three rumen cannulated wethers using nylon bag and rumen outflow rate techniques. The animals were fed with a mixed diet of prairie hay and concentrate (2:1 on DM) at an intake level of 40 g DM.kg BW-0.75. The effective degradability (ED) values of all feeds of each group were estimated from the rumen outflow rate determined ...

  11. NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF THE WASTE OF SACCHARIFICATION PROCESS FROM CASSAVA BAGASSE ON THE LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Ali-Mursyid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy value of the waste of saccharification process from cassava bagasse (WSPCB on the laying hens. Twenty ISA-Brown laying hens at the age of 72 weeks were randomly distributed into three feeding treatments which consisted of cassava bagase (CB, WSPCB of solid state fermentation method (WSPCB-SSF, and WSPCB of sub merged fermentation method (WSPCB-SmF. All of the hens were fasted for 24 hours and 15 of them were fed with CB, WSPCB-SSF and WSPCB-SmF (five hens for each test-diet. The other five hens were still fasted. Then, all of the hens were fasted again and their excreta were collected during 48 hours. The nutrient digestibilities which were measured consisted of the Apparent and True Digestibility of Dry matter (ADDM and TDDM, Crude Fiber (ADCF and TDCF, Starch (ADS and TDS, and the Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy (AME and TME. The result of this research showed that the saccharification process generated the solid waste with the nutrient digestibility value (ADDM, TDDM, ADS, TDS, AME, and TME which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of CB. The crude fiber digestibility value of the WSPCB has an oposite phenomenon in which the ADCF and TDCF of WSPCB-SmF were greater than CB. In conclusion, the nutrient digestibility value, except for ADCF and TDCF, of the WSPCB on the laying hens were lower in value than those CB.

  12. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44g/g reducing sugar and 34.3wt% of fatty acids and 48.6wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0wt% and a titer of 5.83g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4wt% and yield of 0.22g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production. PMID:26002147

  13. Stem Cells of the Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboobe Dehghani

    2014-01-01

     Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) can be found within the cell rich zone of dental pulp. These stem cells, under specific stimuli, differentiate into many cell types which have wide therapeutic applications.   The dental stem cells are derived from both deciduous and permanent teeth. The viable dental stem cells are very simple to collect, without any mortality and morbidity. Dental pulp stem cells can be obtained from the patient’s vital pulp with the help of stem cell markers, which hel...

  14. Grape and apple wines volatile fermentation products and possible relation to spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychroniadou, E; Kanellaki, M; Iconomopoulou, M; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2003-05-01

    The main volatile by-products of the alcoholic fermentation of grape wine, cider and apple pulp wine were investigated to determine if any correlated with spoilage resistance in the latter two. Spoilage was visually detected after seven days in low-alcohol grape wine in comparison to 11 and 16 days in cider and apple pulp wine, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were the main fermentation by-products detected in all three wines. There were highest concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol and propanol in grape wine and, therefore, these by-products could not be implicated in spoilage resistance in apple wines. Increased concentrations of isobutanol and amyl alcohols, however, in cider and apple pulp wine in comparison to grape wine might have been the reason for spoilage resistance in the apple wines. PMID:12507876

  15. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  16. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes. PMID:25707473

  17. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  18. Evaluation of Trace Elements and Total Antioxidant Status in Nigerian Cassava Processors

    OpenAIRE

    O. G. Arinola; Nwozo, S.O.; J.A. Ajiboye; A.H. Oniye

    2008-01-01

    The consumption and export cassava or cassava product is on the increase, thus more Nigerians are involved in the planting and processing of cassava stems and tubers respectively. Tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and diabetes Mellitus (DM) are among the cassava-cyanide induced conditions in rural Nigerians that engaged in processing and consumption of cassava products. TAN and DM are associated with certain trace elements, therefore this study determines the levels of trace elements (Mg, Fe, ...

  19. Modelling potential ?-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Josh M. Katz; La Frano, Michael R.; Carl K. Winter; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its ?-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the fee...

  20. Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State

    OpenAIRE

    R. O. Oluitan; A. T. Adesiyan; O. F. Adesiyan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the c...

  1. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  2. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requejo,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm, using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, ?-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

  4. Pulp Stones and Dental Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is reported of a 42 year-old female who presented with the painful upper left first molar. Comprehensive clinical examination did not reveal the cause of the pain which got progressively worse. The tooth was extracted on the insistence of the patient. Microscopic examination of multiple sections of the decalcified tooth showed a large freestone which occupied most of the pulp chamber and was closely related to a nerve bundle. The finding tended to support the view that pulp stones in an apparently healthy tooth may cause toothache. (author)

  5. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath. Setelah suhu mencapai 630C, kantung plastik diambil kemudian ditambah hidrogen peroksida sebanyak 4% dari pulp kering dan aquadest sehingga mencapai konsistensi 5%. Campuran dimasukkan kedalam water bath untuk dipanaskan lebih lanjut hingga 2 jam. Hal yang sama dilakukan pada berbagai kadar hidrogen peroksida, waktu dan pH. Pada akhir proses, pulp dipisahkan dengan filtratnya dan dicuci dengan aquades. Filtrat yang diperoleh dianalisa sisa hidrogen peroksidanya. Pulp yang diperoleh dianalisa derajat putih, kekuatan serat serta bilangan kappanya. Maksimum derajat putih yang bisa dicapai adalah 62,1% ISO, bilangan kappa 6,86 dan fiber strength 1,02 kg/15mm yang dicapai pada pemakaian H2O2 16%, pH 11 selama 5 jam. Pencapaian ini hampir sama dengan hasil yang dicapai ketika penambahan H2O2 4%. Ketidak efektifan pemakaian H2O2 disini disebabkan oleh adanya beberapa metal ion yang ada di dalam pulp yang bertindak sebagai katalisator terjadinya reaksi dekomposisi dari H2O2 membentuk oksigen dan air yang tidak efektif dalam memberikan efek terhadap proses pemutihan. Untuk meningkatkan bleach ability dari hydrogen peroksida, perlu dilakukan treatment awal untuk mengeluarkan metal ion dari pulp.

  6. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica I. Cutrignelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  7. Pulp supply optimization – Case M-real

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmonen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a pulp supply optimization model, a management decision support tool, which would efficiently optimize the allocation of the pulp within the company’s supply chain in such a way that the company’s added value is maximized. The company’s current situation and operational methods were carefully analyzed in order to build an accurate linear model that would optimize pulp allocation from the company’s pulp mills and external pulp suppliers to the...

  8. Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Achinewhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h intervals and processed into gari. The processes were repeated for controlled fermentation at 35 and 40°C using a water bath. The samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, residual cyanide and sensory evaluation (taste, appearance and general acceptability. The results show that increasing concentration of spent liquor significantly lowered residual cyanide, decreased pH and increased the titratable acid. The addition of preferment reduced the HCN concentration to 9.92 mg HCN kg-1 for 15.0% and 8.36 mg HCN kg-1 for 20.0% samples. Similarly, 15% preferment liquor, gave the highest swelling index-26.19 when, fermented at 30°C. However, the value decreased to 23.12 and 22.71 when fermented at 35 and 40°C. The sample fermented at 5.0% gave the best performance (0.6047 g cm-3 for the bulk density. The sample from 5.0% preferment treatment also gave the best performance in terms of appearance (6.0, taste (6.1 and general acceptability (6.1. The titratable acidity increased with increase in preferment concentration. Moreover, limiting the spent liquor to 5.0%, temperature, at 35°C and duration of fermentation, at 48 h gave best performance for functional and sensory qualities and also guarantees food safety.

  9. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  10. Fermentation and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploratorium

    2004-01-01

    This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  12. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  13. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong.

  14. Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca / Cooking time and texture of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Vilela, Talma; Selma Bergara, Almeida; Rozana Moreira Pereira, Lima; Henrique Duarte, Vieira; Pedro Amorim, Bebert.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes for [...] am cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento); GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte) e análise de correlação de Pearson (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Ja [...] neiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time), GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance) and Pearson's correlation analysis (p

  15. An EST resource for cassava and other species of Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Delseny, Michel; Fregene, Martin A; Jorge, Veronique; Mba, Chikelu; Lopez, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Piegu, Benoit; Verdier, Valerie; Cooke, Richard; Tohme, Joe; Horvath, David P

    2004-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple for nearly 600 million people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Major losses in yield result from biotic and abiotic stresses that include diseases such as Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB), drought, and acid soils. Additional losses also occur from deterioration during the post-harvest storage of roots. To help cassava breeders overcome these obstacles, the scientific community has turned to modern genomics approaches to identify key genetic characteristics associated with resistance to these yield-limiting factors. One approach for developing a genomics program requires the development of ESTs (expressed sequence tags). To date, nearly 23,000 ESTs have been developed from various cassava tissues, and genotypes. Preliminary analysis indicates existing EST resources contain at least 6000-7000 unigenes. Data presented in this report indicate that the cassava ESTs will be a valuable resource for the study of genetic diversity, stress resistance, and growth and development, not only in cassava, but also other members of the Euphorbiaceae family. PMID:15630617

  16. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  17. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

    2011-08-01

    The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region. This emphasizes the pivotal role played by the vector in both pandemics and the urgent need to identify effective and sustainable strategies for controlling whiteflies on cassava. PMID:21549776

  18. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (pgrass. PMID:25049687

  19. Envejecimiento de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrios de Yuca y Nativos de Papa por Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica Ageing of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se determinó la topografía de almidones termoplásticos (TPS agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, mediante microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM, durante un periodo de 120 días de almacenamiento. Mezclas de almidones agrios (fermentados de yuca y nativo de papa, y glicerina, se procesaron en un extrusor de husillo sencillo. Láminas de TPS agrio de yuca (SCTPS y nativo de papa (NPTPS, se observaron y midieron por AFM (en modo contacto. Sus superficies mostraron incremento en rugosidad y partes lisas solo a altos contenidos de plastificante, pero SCTPS siempre tuvo menor rugosidad que NPTPS, debido a la fermentación natural del almidón agrio. Estos cambios se relacionaron con el tamaño, la forma del gránulo y particularmente con el contenido de plastificante. Los NPTPS de mayor rugosidad presentaron separación de fases a los 120 días, dada la retrogradación de las moléculas del almidón, que tienden a formar cristalitos. Estos resultados indican que el almidón agrio de yuca puede retardar la retrogradación de almidones termoplásticos, lo cual es importante durante el desarrollo de nuevos empaques biodegradables.This study reports on the topography of thermoplastic starches (TPS from sour cassava and native potato using atomic force microscopy (AFM, over a 120 day-storage period. Mixtures of sour cassava (fermented and native potato starches plus glycerine, were processed using a single-screw extruder. Sour cassava thermoplastic starch (SCTPS and native potato thermoplastic starch (NPTPS films were observed and measured by AFM (in contact mode. Their surfaces showed increased rugosity, and smooth parts only at high plasticizer content. However, SCTPS always had lower rugosity than NPTPS, due to the natural fermentation of sour cassava starch. These changes were related to starch granule size and shape, and particularly to plasticizer content. NPTPS with higher rugosity presented phase separation at 120 days, due to retrogradation of starch molecules which tended to form crystallites. These findings indicated that sour cassava starch can lower TPS retrogradation which is important in the development of biodegradable packaging.

  20. On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2012-06-01

    Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

  1. Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar

    OpenAIRE

    Spittel, M.C.; Huis, A.

    2000-01-01

    Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spacing of cassava (2.5 x 2.5 m), was always low, the hypothesis was tested whether damage due to CMD could be decreased by applying green manure. A total of 10 tonnes of fresh Gliricidia sepium leaves ...

  2. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

  3. Pengaruh Penambahan Alkali Terhadap Karakteristik Bioplastik Tepung Porang -Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhan Sultoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan bioplastik terus dilakukan guna mengurangi dampak pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh sampah plastik nondegradable. Pati merupakan bahan yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan dasar bioplastik, termasuk pati porang dan cassava. Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan alkali (NaOH dan KOH terhadap karakteristik bioplastik tepung porang-cassava, dengan variasi komposisi massa cassava terhadap tepung porang sebesar 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% dan 50%. Karakteristik film bioplastik didapatkan dengan pengujian tarik, pengujian swelling, pengujian FTIR dan pengujian biodegradabilitas. Sampel bioplastik yang sesuai dengan standar yakni dengan penambahan NaOH tanpa penambahan cassava  yang memiliki  kekuatan tarik sebesar 0,7 MPa; derajat penggembungan 15,72% dan dapat terurai dalam 3 hari, dengan laju degradasi sebesar 0,035 gr/hari.

  4. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  5. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutions 

  6. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljaji? Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  7. Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM y de fuerza atómica (AFM. Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glicerina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente. El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos.An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and glycerine, were processed at 120(0C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode. Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

  8. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enete, Aa

    2008-01-01

    Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food st...

  9. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Liu; Lanzhong Guo; Li Yang; Zhong Liu; Chunxia He

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent vis...

  10. Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    B Budiyono; T.D. Kusworo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  11. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  12. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro; Samuel Pereira de Carvalho; João Bosco dos Santos; Rafaela Priscila Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thep...

  13. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, PingHua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our an...

  14. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo; B Budiyono

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  15. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong; Thanuchai Kongkaew; Saowanuch Tawornprek; Sukunya Yampracha; Russell Yost

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk), Don Chedi (Dc), Pak Chong (Pc),and Ban Beung (BBg) soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 18...

  16. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  17. The symptom and genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses infecting cassava in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I U; Abarshi, M M; Muli, B; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

    2012-01-01

    The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements. PMID:22454639

  18. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenal, D.; Bajpai, P. K.; S. P. Mishra; SHARMA, N.; Anand, A.; Bajpai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an...

  19. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device...

  20. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Acetate Derivative Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Retnowati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to observe the possibility of application of microwave heating in the acetylation of cassava starch and to study the physicochemical properties of the starch acetate obtained. The acetylation was carried out by mixing native cassava starch with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide of a certain weight ratio in a sealed container. The mixture was then sprayed with ethanol and heated using microwave power. The Degree of Substitution (DS, Reaction Efficiency (RE and some physical properties of the acetylated starches were then analyzed. It was found that microwave assisted acetylation of cassava starch using chloroacetic acid can be done in a very short reaction time. The highest DS and RE obtained were 0.045 and 0.051%, respectively. Acetylation of cassava starch reduced gel hardness during storage. Acetylation also inhibits the retrogradation of starch gel. Cassava starch acetylation changed starch molecular motion, resulting in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Amylopectin retrogradation was not significantly reduced, indicating that the degrees of modification of the starches in this study were too low to cause enough steric hindrance to prevent retrogradation. The modifications were done on native starch granules; they took place preferentially on the amylose fraction, not the amylopectin fraction, thus leaving amylopectin retrogradation was mostly unaffected. It can be concluded that microwave heating can be applied in the acetylation of cassava starch to obtain significant changes of the properties of starch.

  1. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Oluwadare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  2. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  3. Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

  4. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  5. Study of survival time in pulp export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the time for a country to survive exporting pulp, using a Cox regression model. Covariates being used included data about population, Gross Domestic Product, total exports of forest products as an aggregate, pulp production and balance of trade for pulp, economic markets and blocks, and geographic regions. To select and check the most significant covariates, a proposal formulated by Collet (1994 was used. It was concluded that survival analysis via the Cox regression model proved to be a powerful tool for predicting the survival of a country exporting pulp; around 80% of countries that have pulp in their list of exports continue to export the commodity; out of the fifteen covariates selected for fitting the Cox model, four explain the model and two were found significant in explaining the survival of a country exporting pulp; international trade agreements were more significant in the Cox regression model than classes of macroeconomic forest indicators and geographic location; covariates explaining the odds of a country exporting pulp to survive, according to the hazard ratio, were, in descending order, integration between ECLAC and European Union, be a member of the European Union (V07 and be a member of ECLAC (V6; Brazil has 3.5 times as much chance of survival exporting pulp through an integration between ECLAC and the European Union than a country that is not a part of such integration; the probability that Brazil will survive exporting pulp is greater than the probability that Asian countries will.

  6. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and ?- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an ?-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% ?-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  7. Effects of the kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel Cardoso de, Angelis-Pereira; Maria de Fátima Píccolo, Barcelos; Mariana Séfora Bezerra, Sousa; Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro, Pereira.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterole [...] mic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Impact of African Cassava Mosaic Disease on the Production of Fourteen Cultivars of Cassava in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, G.; Bolonge, P.; Bolamba, F.; Walangululu, J.; Winter, S.; C. Bragard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) on growth and yield components were systematically determined on 14 different cassava genotypes in Yangambi. The results show that the tested cultivars differed significantly in terms of severity of the virus, harvest index and tuber production (P< 0.05). CMD had a variable depressive effect on vegetative development. Stem dimensions were hardly reduced, while the height of cultivars Ponjo (38%) and Mboloko (29%) and Ponjo, Lofiongi, Bangi as the le...

  9. Genetic Relationships of Cassava Genotypes That are Susceptible or Tolerant to Cassava Brown Streak Disease in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Abaca; Robert Kawuki; Phenihas Tukamuhabwa; Yona Baguma; Anthony Pariyo; Titus Alicai; C. Christopher Omongo.A; Phillips Abidrabo; Kasifa Katono; Anton Bua

    2013-01-01

    A total of 99 cassava genotypes whose field reaction to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was known, were assayed with 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish their genetic parallels. Two categories of CBSD reaction were considered: CBSD-susceptible genotypes (characterized by > 60% root and foliar CBSD incidence), and CBSD-tolerant genotypes (characterized by < 15% root and foliar CBSD incidence). DNA was extracted from leaf samples using the miniprep method and genotype...

  10. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. PMID:24376222

  11. The Effect of Processing on the Sodium, Potassium and Phosphorus Content of Six Locally Consumed Varieties of Manihot esculenta Grown in Bayelsa State

    OpenAIRE

    Amos- Tautua; Bamidele Martin Woriweinpre; Madukosiri; Chinyelu Helen

    2009-01-01

    The minerals, sodium (Na), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P), content in the peels, raw unfermented pulp and fermented pulp of six local varieties of Manihot esculenta (cassava) grown and consumed in Bayelsa state were determined. The six varieties where identified as old cassava cultivars traditionally named Janet, Rowaina, Yomugha, Accra, Agric and Oguru in Bayelsa state. Flame photometer was used for the analysis of Na and K; while the colourimetric determination of P was done using vanado-...

  12. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. PMID:23279821

  13. Asian fungal fermented food

    OpenAIRE

    Nout, M. J. R.; Aidoo, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegetables, meat and fish. This chapter focuses on some representative foods, their traditional manufacturing, the major fungi involved in the fermentation, the biochemical changes taking place during fe...

  14. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  15. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahekar S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

  16. Utilization of Equipment and Biosafety of Cassava Processing in the Middle Belt of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna, J. Kuje; Umogbai, V. I.,

    2011-01-01

    Cassava processing and equipment assessment is very important for safe consumption and utilization. The presidential initiatives in cassava production have led to many establishments of cassava processing industries in the middle belt of the country. Apart from being used as food, cassava is an important industrial raw material for the production of starch, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, gum and confectioneries. This study derived its data from secondary source to assess the utilization of equipme...

  17. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Harvey, Jagger J. W.; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    While the physiological basis of cassava drought tolerance has been characterized, evaluation of the molecular responses to drought stress remains largely unexplored. This study provides an initial characterization of the molecular response of cassava to drought stress resembling field conditions. The candidate drought tolerance genes in cassava identified in this study can be used as expression-based markers of drought tolerance in cassava or be tested in the context of breeding and engineer...

  18. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  19. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  20. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    OpenAIRE

    Guanglei Zhao; Ronald Lai; Xiaofeng Li; Beihai He; Thomas Greschik

    2010-01-01

    Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK) as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Resu...

  1. Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1% and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%. The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6 above other silages (4.1. The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

  2. Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca / Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Rasmo, Garcia; José Nobre de, Carvalho Junior; Leandro Sampaio Oliveira, Ribeiro; Daiane Maria Trindade, Chagas.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi [...] realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso), com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1%) e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%). As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6) foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1). A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in t [...] he natural matter basis (weight/weight), with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1%) and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%). The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6) above other silages (4.1). The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

  3. The Empirical Determinants of Cassava Farmers Access to Microfinance Services in Abia State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obike, Kingsley Chukwuemeka; Osundu, Charles Kelechi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study analyzed the determinants of cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance services in Abia state, Nigeria. Specifically the study assessed the economic variables influencing cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance, the qualitative perception of farmers’ access and the empirical determinants of cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance. Multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents who were beneficiaries of Microfinance Insti...

  4. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  5. Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Budiyono

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

  6. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  7. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

    2006-01-01

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

  8. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  9. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  10. Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Fields in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Adjata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the Coat Protein (CP. The PCR products obtained from different isolates of two major Begomoviruses species infecting cassava in Togo were then sequenced and compared with the sequenced of the African cassava mosaic Begomoviruses identified to date and available in NCBI GenBank database by phylogenetic analysis. Results: The results indicate that not only the two major Begomoviruses could be in synergistic interaction in infected cassava in Togo as it has been shown between African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV and East African Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV elsewhere, but could also create recombinants which would be highly interfering in the development of symptom severity in the country. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study confirmed the assumption that the symptom severity in cassava fields in Togo is rather caused by recombination between different Begomoviruses in presence than by synergistic interaction. More investigations should be done to give insight to this founding.

  11. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  12. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  13. Modeling Wine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

  14. Influence of Nutrients Utilization and Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Lactic Acid by Homolactic Fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbanwo, S. T.; Okanlawon, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolated from retted cassava ware screened for the production of lactic acid, pH survival and influence of nutrients utilization and cultivation conditions on the production of lactic acid by fermentation. All the Lactobacillus species isolated produced little quantity of lactic acid when grown at 30 °C in normal De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth. However, a temperature of 40 °C at initial pH of 5.5 in constituted MRS medium with 6% (w/v) carbon c...

  15. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Igile Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

  16. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gilberto Vini?cius Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela Da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Ci?ntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

  17. Optimization of Solid-state Fermentation for Acidophilic Pectinase Production by Aspergillus niger Jl-15 Using Response Surface Methodology and Oligogalacturonate Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Fang Bai; Xian-Jun Dai; Rong-Fa Guan; Ming-Qi Liu; Lin Pan

    2012-01-01

    Polygalacturonases that hydrolyzed the ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages of pectin is one of widely used industrial enzymes and applied in food, feed, paper and pulp, fruit juice and textile industries. To improve the production of extracellular pectinase (PgA) by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger JL-15 strain, the conditions of solid-state fermentation (SSF) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum pectinase activity (525.70 IU g-1 dry fermentation product) was obt...

  18. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. PMID:23664257

  19. Cassava physiological responses to the application of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence has been used to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, as well as in the evaluation of plant photosynthetic capacity altered by biotic or abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of cassava plants to herbicides with different mechanisms of action, as well as the damage caused by the application of herbicides on the photosynthetic apparatus of these plants. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were constituted of the application of the following post- emergence herbicides in cassava: bentazon, clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl, glyphosate, nicosulfuron, chlorimuron, fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen, sulfentrazone, besides a control without application. The visual intoxication and chlorophyll a fluorescence assessments were performed at 2, 9, 16 and 23 days after herbicide application. The herbicides evaluated affected differently the cassava plants. Sulfentrazone and glyphosate promoted plant death. Herbicides clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl and chlorimuron-ehtyl caused low toxicity to cassava plants and did not affect the ratio Fv / Fm and ETR. However, for the mixture nicossulfuron and fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen values of Fv / Fm were suboptimal in the first evaluation times but plants treated with these herbicides had recovered. Physiological evaluations can be used as a way to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides in cassava crop as presented similar answers to those observed for visual intoxication symptoms.

  20. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  1. Effect of Aeration on the Production of Endo-Pectinase from Coffee Pulp by a Novel Thermophilic Fungi Mycotypha sp. Strain No. AKM 1801

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, C.; T. Jayachandra; K.A. Anu Appaiah

    2007-01-01

    In the present research a novel thermophilic fungi-Mycotypha sp. strain No. AKM1801 was used to evaluate its efficiency for endo-pectinase production from coffee pulp, a waste produced during coffee processing. The culture was cultivated on coffee pulp through submerged fermentation at 45 ± 2°C in aerated and stationary conditions. Mycotypha showed the maximum endo-pectinase activity of 5.4 U mL-1 at 96 h at pH 5.4 and 4.9 U mL-1 at 168 h at pH 5.6 in aerated and stationary conditions, resp...

  2. Microbiological Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Indigenous Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J. S. Ghosh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the m ost affordable source of many nutritions like proteins and vitamins. Many peopledo not like to consume milk in its liquid form. Therefore, there are several products which are made out milkcalled as Dairy Products, which preserve the nutritive values of milk and makes it easily acceptable toconsumers. One such class of products, is the fermented dairy products. In India these are named in vernacularlanguage as Dahi (lactic fermented and curdled milk, Shrikhand with different flavours prepared from hungcurd, sugar and real fruit pulps, lassi w hich is nothing but a sort of butter milk w ith slightly high milk solidcontent and sweetened with sugar. However a large volume of these products are produced in unorganizedsector, unbranded, with little precautions of food safety and quality. This investigation is a factualdocumentation of such a finding and suggestions as to the methods needed to improve the safety and quality.

  3. Dehydrated chicory pulp as an alternative soluble fibre source in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maertens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fibre (SF is an important nutrient to enhance fermentative activity and gut health in rabbits. The main source of SF in rabbit diets is sugar beet pulp (SBP, whereas, due to its high content of SF (34%, dried chicory pulp (ChP could be an alternative to SBP. In a fattening trial with 192 hybrid weanlings 32 d old weighing 837±45 g, chicory pulp was used in replacement of SBP to study effects on production performances and slaughter characteristics. Rabbits were fed one of 4 iso-energetic (9.65 MJ digestible energy/kg and isonitrogenous (15.6% crude protein diets: a negative control (NC diet with a low dietary SF content (7.3%, a positive control diet with quite a high SBP level (13.5% and SF content (10.6% and 2 diets with respectively 10% and 20% of chicory pulp (ChP10: 9.9% SF and ChP20: 13.7% SF. The SF content was measured as the difference between total dietary fibre and neutral detergent fibre, the latter corrected for ash and protein content. Each dietary treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 4 rabbits. Weight gain was high (on av. 54 g/d and comparable for the NC, SBP and ChP diets. However, feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05 with the ChP20 diet compared to the NC diet (2.88 vs. 2.97. Mortality was low and not influenced by the dietary treatment. Slaughter data were very similar and no effect of the SF level on caecal weight or slaughter yield was observed. It was concluded that chicory pulp is a good alternative soluble fibre source in balanced diets for rabbits and can be used at least up to 20% inclusion rate.

  4. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling TAS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7] of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%. The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity; one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the probable importance of this part of Africa as a source of diversity and evolutionary change both during the early stages of the relationship between CMGs and cassava and in more recent times. The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent.

  5. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  6. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

  7. Citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Induction of high yielding mutants with the help of radiation, combination treatments, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conidia of the citric acid fermenting fungal mutant Aspergillus niger 14/20 was subjected to the gamma radiation treatment. Mutants giving higher total titrable acid values than their parent strain were selected and tested under varied environmental and cultural conditions. After screening of about 2000 mutants, two of them with the highest yield of citric acid in molasses medium (62-76 mg/ml) were selected for further experiments. Further step-wise improvements of these strains are feasible, and radiation is a potential mutagen for the selection of better strains of microorganisms for the industrial use. The cassava starch has been found to be a fairly good substract for citric acid fermentation under the solid state condition and also when mixed with molasses in surface culture condition. Agro-industrial residues such as bagasse, rice straw and saw-dust could be used as a support for the fermentation of sugars to citric acid under the solid state conditions. The use of mixed culture method (amylolytic + citric acid fermenting organisms) had not been found to improve the citric acid fermentation from cassava as a basic substrate. (author). 2 refs

  8. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  9. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Orblin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells, usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS. The surface charge and surface area of pulp fine substrates were measured by methylene blue sorption-XPS analysis and nitrogen adsorption combined with mercury porosimetry, respectively. The driving force behind polyelectrolyte adsorption was the amount of the surface anionic charge, whereas surface area appeared to be of less importance. Based on a comparison of solid-liquid and XPS sorption isotherms, different polyelectrolyte conformations were suggested, depending on the types of fines: A flatter conformation and partial cell-wall penetration of polyelectrolytes on kraft fines from freshly prepared pulp, and a more free conformation with extended loops and tails on lignocellulosic fines from recycled pulp. Additionally, ToF-SIMS imaging proved that recycled pulp fines contained residual de-inking chemicals (primarily palmitic acid salts that possibly hinder the electrostatic interactions with polyelectrolytes.

  11. Non dimensional analysis of cassava transient drying in packing beds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Santamaria; N., Durango; A., Bula; M., Sanjuan.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient mass transfer process is analyzed for cassava drying (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in a pack bed. Experiments were performed in a thermally insulated radial dryer, considering cylindrical pieces of non peeled cassava with three different thicknesses: 4, 6, and 8 mm. The void fractions conside [...] red were 0.22, 0.49, 0.64 and 0.66, while the temperature values were 50ºC and 70ºC. The humidity removed from the cassava was measured from 10 pieces randomly selected at the beginning of the process. These pieces were weighed every 15 minutes during a three hours period. From the data gathered a non linear regression model was attained as a function of non dimensional numbers, which is valid for the following ranges: 700?Re?1900, 10000?Sc?31000, 0

  12. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Zehong; Ma, Fangfang; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Allen, Doug K; Brutnell, Thomas P; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Li, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    To examine the interactions of starch and sugar metabolism on photosynthesis in cassava, a heat-girdling treatment was applied to petioles of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the beginning of the light cycle, inhibited photosynthesis, and affected intracellular sugar levels. RNA-seq analysis of heat-treated and control plants revealed significantly decreased expression of genes related to photosynthesis, as well as N-metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, expression of genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondria electron transport components, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes were induced. These studies reveal a dynamic transcriptional response to perturbation of sink demand in a single leaf, and provide useful information for understanding the regulations of cassava under sink or source limitation. PMID:25672661

  13. Oxidation of Metabolites Highlights the Microbial Interactions and Role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during Cocoa Bean Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Moens, Fre?de?ric; Lefeber, Timothy; Vuyst, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848T, Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244T, and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus ...

  14. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch / Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.M., DEMIATE; A.C., BARANA; M.P., CEREDA; G., WOSIACKI.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste dire [...] tamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado com coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g), acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g), propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g) e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g), presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural. Abstract in english Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected [...] in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g), acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g), propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g) and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g), that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  15. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Yelick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  16. Functional Properties of Tooth Pulp Neurons Responding to Thermal Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, D. K.; Doutova, E. A.; Mcnaughton, K.; Light, A. R.; Na?rhi, M.; Maixner, W.

    2012-01-01

    The response properties of tooth pulp neurons that respond to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp have been not well-studied. The present study was designed to characterize the response properties of tooth pulp neurons to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp. Experiments were conducted on 25 male ferrets, and heat stimulation was applied by a computer-controlled thermode. Only 15% of tooth pulp neurons (n = 39) responded to noxious thermal stimulation of the teeth. Tooth ...

  17. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teet...

  18. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. ...

  19. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  20. Conversion of Wood and Non-wood Paper-grade Pulps to Dissolving-grade Pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Köpcke, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    Dissolving-grade pulps are commonly used for the production of cellulose derivatives and regenerated cellulose. To obtain products of high quality, these so-called "special" pulps must fulfill certain requirements, such as high cellulose content, low hemicellulose content, a uniform molecular weight distribution and high cellulose reactivity. Most, if not all, of the commercial dissolving pulps accomplish these demands to a certain extent. Nevertheless, achieving high cellulose accessibility ...

  1. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space ...

  2. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    OpenAIRE

    SriramRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinica...

  3. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Sriram; Huang, Chun-Chieh; George, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world's population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical tran...

  4. Electrically conductive bioplastics from cassava starch

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro A., Arrieta; Piedad F., Gañán; Samith E., Márquez; Robin, Zuluaga.

    1170-11-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, biofilmes condutores foram sintetizados através de soluções de 100 mL de água com 3 g de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) e quantidades diferentes de glicerina, glutaraldeído, polietilenoglicol e perclorato de lítio. Estes filmes foram caracterizados por espectrosco [...] pia de impedância eletroquímica (EIS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectrometria de reflexão total atenuada no infravermelho com transforma de Fourier (ATR-FTIR), termogravimetria (TG). Os resultados mostraram que os biofilmes com quantidades mais elevadas de perclorato de lítio possuem valores maiores de condutividade e as diferenças morfológica e molecular foram observadas como sendo um resultado das proporções adicionadas dos compostos em cada uma das rotas de preparação Abstract in english In the current work, conductor biofilms were synthesized by means of solutions of 100 mL of water with 3 g of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and different amounts of glycerin, glutaraldehyde, polyethyleneglycol and lithium perchlorate. These biofilms were characterized through electr [...] ochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR?FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Results showed that biofilms with higher amount of lithium perchlorate portray higher values of conductivity and morphological and molecular differences could be observed as a result of the added proportions of the compounds in each one of the trials.

  5. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  6. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  7. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to ices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  8. Physiological causes of yield variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Veltkamp, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research programme was started at CIAT (Colombia). One of its aims was to develop high-yielding clones by genetic modification of the plant habitus.This thesis begins with a literature review in which the availabl...

  9. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet pulp silage and vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemi?ski, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Results of sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) and vinasse (mixed in weight ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) co-fermentation, obtained in this study, provide evidence that addition of too high amount of vinasse into the SBPS decreases biogas yields. The highest biogas productivity (598.1mL/g VS) was achieved at the SBPS-vinasse ratio of 3:1 (w/w). Biogas yields from separately fermented SBPS and vinasse were by 13% and 28.6% lower, respectively. It was found that enzymatic pretreatment of SBPS before methane fermentation that caused partial degradation of component polysaccharides, considerably increased biogas production. The highest biogas yield (765.5mL/g VS) was obtained from enzymatic digests of SBPS-vinasse (3:1) blend (27.9% more than from fermentation of the counterpart blend, which was not treated with enzymes). The simulation of potential biogas production from all the aforementioned mixtures using the Gompertz equation showed fair fit to the experimental results. PMID:25618496

  10. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young leaves, leaf vein colour, colour of mature stems, colour of root pulp and number of leaf lobes. They however, differ with respect to colour of unexpanded apical and first fully expanded leaves, shape of central leaf lobe and colour of phellem and phellogen of the roots (au).

  11. Ethanol fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers using free and immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Kar, S; Sahoo, A K; Ray, R C

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest to find alternate bioresources for production of ethanol, apart from cane/sugar beet molasses and starchy crops like sweet sorghum, cassava and sweet potato. Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) is a forest tree abundantly available in the Indian subcontinent and its flowers are very rich in fermentable sugars (28.1-36.3 g 100 g(-1)). Batch fermentation of fresh and 12-month-stored flowers with free (whole cells) and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CTCRI) was carried out in 2-l Erlenmeyer flasks. The ethanol yields were 193 and 148 g kg(-1) (using free cells) and 205 and 152 g kg(-1) (using immobilized cells) from fresh and 12-month-stored mahula flowers, respectively. PMID:16580830

  12. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions / Resistência à podridão seca das raízes ocasionada por Fusarium em acessos de mandioca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saulo Alves Santos de, Oliveira; Camila Santiago, Hohenfeld; Vanderlei da Silva, Santos; Fernando, Haddad; Eder Jorge de, Oliveira.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência à podridão seca das raízes ocasionada por Fusarium sp. em acessos de mandioca. Inoculou-se uma suspensão (20 µL) de macroconídios de 11 isolados de Fusarium sp. em raízes de 353 acessos e sete variedades comerciais de mandioca. Dez dias [...] após a inoculação, avaliou-se a área total colonizada pelo patógeno na polpa das raízes, por meio de análise de imagens digitais. A análise de agrupamento revelou a presença de cinco grupos quanto à resistência. As áreas lesionadas das raízes variaram de 18,28 a 1.096,07 mm² nos acessos BGM 1518 e BGM 556, respectivamente. Os genótipos BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598 e BGM 1692 apresentam as melhores características agronômicas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL) of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculati [...] on, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  13. Kimchee Fermentation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universitiy of Wisconsin-Madison

    2007-01-01

    Learners make kimchee or sauerkraut, which is really just fermented cabbage, in a 2-liter plastic bottle. The fermentation process takes from 3 days to 2 weeks to complete, and learners measure the progress by taking a daily pH (acid level) test. This activity can be used to teach about anaerobic bacteria, acidity, osmosis, concentration, and density. It comes from a printed book that is also available in Spanish, though the Spanish version is not available online.

  14. Kinetics of methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. R.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics on methane fermentation are described using published data for livestock residue, sewage sludge, and municipal refuse. Methods are presented to determine the kinetic constants and the finally attainable methane production using steady-state methane production data. The effects of temperature, loading rate, and influent substrate concentration on methane fermentation kinetics are discussed. These relationships were used to predict the rate of methane production of a pilot-scale fermentor with excellent results.

  15. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    James Daniell; Séan Dennis Simpson; Michael Köpke

    2012-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)-rich synthesis gas (syngas) via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies hav...

  16. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Asogwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

  17. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleumethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  18. Evaluation of elephant grass silage with the addition of cassava scrapings / Avaliação da silagem de capim-elefante com adição de raspa de mandioca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderson de Moura, Zanine; Edson Mauro, Santos; João Ricardo Rebouças, Dórea; Paulo Alfredo de Santana, Dantas; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva; Odilon Gomes, Pereira.

    2611-26-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos da adição de raspa de mandioca na ensilagem sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, a recuperação da matéria seca, o pH, os teores de N-NH3, ácidos orgânicos e ácidos graxos voláteis e a composição bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante. Utili [...] zou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de raspa de mandioca (0, 7, 15 ou 30% da matéria natural), cada um com quatro repetições. O capim foi cortado aos 50 dias de rebrota e ensilado em silos de 15 litros de capacidade, com válvula de bunsen para escape dos gases. A adição de raspa de mandioca ocasionou redução quadrática nas perdas por gases e redução linear nas perdas por efluente. A recuperação de matéria seca aumentou de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca. O teor de matéria seca aumentou, enquanto os de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) e hemicelulose diminuíram linearmente com a adição de raspa de mandioca. O valor de pH e o teor de ácido lático aumentaram de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca. Os teores de N-NH3 e de ácido butírico diminuíram de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de ácido acético diminuiu linearmente. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca na ensilagem reduz as perdas por gases e efluentes e melhora o perfil fermentativo de silagens de capim-elefante e o nível de 7% da matéria natural é suficiente para assegurar essa melhora. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding cassava scrapings on gas and effluent losses, dry matter recovery, pH, contents of N-NH3, organic acids and volatile fatty acids and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages. It was used a randomized complete desi [...] gn, with four levels of cassava scrapings (0, 7, 15 or 30% natural matter) each one with four replications per level. The grass was cut at 50 days of regrowth and ensiled in 15-L silos, equipped with a Bunsen valve to allow gas outflow. The gas losses decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas effluent losses decreased linearly. Dry matter recovery increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Dry matter (DM) concentration increased but crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose (HEM) decreased linearly with the addition of cassava scrapings. The pH value and lactic acid concentration increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Contents of N-NH3 and butyric acid decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas acetic acid content decreased linearly. Addition of cassava scrapings reduced gas and effluent losses and improved the fermentation profile of elephant grass silages and the level of 7% already ensures this improvement.

  19. Persistent konzo and cyanogen toxicity from cassava in northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, Mario; Cardoso, A Paula; Nicala, Domingos; Mirione, Estevão; Massaza, Fernando; Cliff, Julie; Haque, M Rezaul; Bradbury, J Howard

    2002-06-01

    We aimed to detect new cases of konzo and monitor cyanogen exposure from cassava flour in communities previously affected by konzo epidemics in Nampula Province, northern Mozambique. Other objectives were to detect subclinical upper motor neuron damage in schoolchildren and test a new kit to measure urinary thiocyanate concentration. In 1999 and 2000, we carried out active and passive case detection for konzo in Memba and Mogincual Districts. In July and October, 1999, we collected cassava flour from 30 houses in three communities and measured cyanogen concentrations with a picrate kit. In October 1999, we examined all schoolchildren in three communities for ankle clonus and measured urinary thiocyanate concentration in thirty schoolchildren in each of five communities with a picrate kit. We found 27 new cases of konzo in Mogincual District. Mean total cyanogen concentrations in cassava flour varied between both seasons and years, but were always high, ranging from 26 to 186 ppm. Very high mean levels at three sites in November 1998 and July 1999 were probably due to low rainfall in the 1997-1998 season. The proportion of schoolchildren with ankle clonus varied from 8 to 17%. The new picrate kit for urinary thiocyanate worked well; mean concentrations in schoolchildren ranged from 225 to 384 micromol x l(-1). Konzo and sub-clinical upper motor neuron damage persist in poor rural communities in northern Mozambique, associated with high cyanogen concentrations in cassava flour and high urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren. PMID:12039675

  20. The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Anderson, Paul; Gichuki, Simon; Miano, Douglas; Bua, Anton; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M

    2012-01-01

    The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya. VIRCA is structured to include all aspects of the intellectual property, technology, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a GM crop development and delivery process. VIRCA's goal is to improve cassava for resistance to the viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology, and to field test, obtain regulatory approval for and deliver these products to small landholder farmers. During Phase I of the project, proof of concept was achieved by production and testing of virus resistant plants under greenhouse and confined field trials in East Africa. In VIRCA Phase II, two farmer-preferred varieties will be modified for resistance to CBSD and CMD, and lead events identified after molecular and field screening. In addition to delivery of royalty-free improved planting materials for farmers, VIRCA capacity building activities are enhancing indigenous capability for crop biotechnology in East Africa. PMID:22572842

  1. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate ?max and half saturation constant

  2. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  3. Applications of molecular genetics of the coryneform bacteria to cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main achievement of this project was the cloning of two of the major genes involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids by Corynebacterium glutamicum. The entire tryptophan operon (6 genes) was cloned and the control region and the initial gene was sequenced both in the wild type and in a depressed over-producing mutant. A single base change in the attenuated region was found to be responsible for this over-production of tryptophan. The initial gene of the aromatic biosynthetic pathway - DAHP synthetase - has also been cloned and is being sequenced. In addition, the use of high voltage electroporation has been developed for these bacteria and gives a 1000-fold better system for transformation. The work above has been original and makes a major contribution to amino acid biosynthesis. This work has depended on the very extensive use of radioisotopes in the genetic manipulations involved. The use of these isotopes in DNA probes and DNA sequencing made this work possible. (author). 4 refs

  4. Suitability of Cassava Starch as a Gelling Agent for the in vitro Culture of Banana Plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Buah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the suitability of cassava starch for the in vitro culture of banana tissues was investigated. A combination of cassava starch and agar was used as a solidifying agent as against pure cassava starch and pure agar. Three types of media with respect to the inclusion of cassava starch were prepared as; media with 60 g cassava starch, 6 g agar and 2 g agar+40 g cassava starch. Explants were prepared by sterilizing them with 70% ethanol which was followed by 1% sodium hypochlorite+t...

  5. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  6. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  7. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SriramRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  8. Cassava as an energy crop : A case study of the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali. It is based on a questionnaire survey with 65 households in 2 villages in Loulouni municipality, which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava production are close to acceptable levels to make bioethanol production profitable and the advantages of a continuous demand at agreed prices may motivate farmers to accept prices which would make bioethanol production competitive.

  9. Evolution of cassava brown streak disease-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanzibwa, D R; Tian, Y P; Tugume, A K; Patil, B L; Yadav, J S; Bagewadi, B; Abarshi, M M; Alicai, T; Changadeya, W; Mkumbira, J; Muli, M B; Mukasa, S B; Tairo, F; Baguma, Y; Kyamanywa, S; Kullaya, A; Maruthi, M N; Fauquet, C M; Valkonen, J P T

    2011-04-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has occurred in the Indian Ocean coastal lowlands and some areas of Malawi in East Africa for decades, and makes the storage roots of cassava unsuitable for consumption. CBSD is associated with Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and the recently described Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) [picorna-like (+)ssRNA viruses; genus Ipomovirus; family Potyviridae]. This study reports the first comprehensive analysis on how evolution is shaping the populations of CBSV and UCBSV. The complete genomes of CBSV and UCBSV (four and eight isolates, respectively) were 69.0-70.3 and 73.6-74.4% identical at the nucleotide and polyprotein amino acid sequence levels, respectively. They contained predictable sites of homologous recombination, mostly in the 3'-proximal part (NIb-HAM1h-CP-3'-UTR) of the genome, but no evidence of recombination between the two viruses was found. The CP-encoding sequences of 22 and 45 isolates of CBSV and UCBSV analysed, respectively, were mainly under purifying selection; however, several sites in the central part of CBSV CP were subjected to positive selection. HAM1h (putative nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase) was the least similar protein between CBSV and UCBSV (aa identity approx. 55%). Both termini of HAM1h contained sites under positive selection in UCBSV. The data imply an on-going but somewhat different evolution of CBSV and UCBSV, which is congruent with the recent widespread outbreak of UCBSV in cassava crops in the highland areas (>1000 m above sea level) of East Africa where CBSD has not caused significant problems in the past. PMID:21169213

  10. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  11. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  12. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  13. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' / Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laerte, Scanavaca Júnior; Nelson, Fonseca; Mácio Eduardo Canto, Pereira.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, s [...] ecos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo). Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%), a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha. Abstract in english The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air [...] and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time). The loss of fresh mass (%), the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA), the total soluble solids (TSS), the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  14. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  15. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  16. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  17. Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Theressa F. Aviles; Marco P. de Leon; Melissa S. Borlagdan; Aida C. Mallillin; Trinidad P. Trinidad; Rosario S. Sagum

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (kamote) and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine appar...

  18. Retention of total carotenoid and ?-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; GODOY Ronoel L. O.; Sidney Pacheco; Marília R. Nutti; José L. V. de Carvalho; Elenilda J. Pereira; Wânia G. Fukuda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention a...

  19. Food safety : importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Rijssen, Fredrika W.; Morris, Elizabeth J.; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven “history of safe use”. This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a...

  20. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    OpenAIRE

    Sriburi Pensiri; Wongruong Sasitorn; Mauer Lisa J; Tongdeesoontorn Wirongrong; Rachtanapun Pornchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellu...

  1. Gari Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava Roots Stored Using Traditional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    O.R. Karim; O.S. Fasasi; S.A. Oyeyinka

    2009-01-01

    Cassava has gained increased industrial, economic and nutritional importance over the years, because of the multifarious uses of the starch-rich roots. Several storage methods have been proposed for cassava roots due to the physiological deterioration that sets in 2-3 days after harvesting, followed by microbial deterioration 3-5 days thereafter. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world; with 80% of the production from rural farmers who cannot practice modern storage methods. F...

  2. Relationship between Symptoms Expression and Virus Detection in Cassava Brown Virus Streak-Infected Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rwegasira, Gration M.; Rey, Chrissie M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has for long been based on foliar and root symptoms expression on infected plants. Variability in patterns of symptoms expression between varieties and seasons however, has meant that symptom-based diagnostics are unreliable. The current study established the relationship between symptom expression on cassava plants and the infection with Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) using RT-PCR diagnostic tool. It was established that manifestation of CB...

  3. False beliefs on the socio-economic drivers of cassava cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Fermont, A.M.; Babirye, A.; Obiero, H.M.; Abele, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    General belief has it that cassava is (i) a subsistence crop, grown to avoid hunger (ii) by poor farmers, (iii) predominantly as an intercrop, (iv) requiring less labour than other crops and (v) no inputs. These beliefs influence policy, project development and implementation, and if wrong, may have far-reaching consequences for the success and sustainability of interventions. This study examines five beliefs about cassava and discusses consequences for interventions targeting cassava. From 2...

  4. Incidence of Cassava Viral Diseases and First Identification of East African cassava mosaic virus and Indian cassava mosaic virus by PCR in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Y.M.D. Gumedzoe; M. Aziadekey; Muller, E.; K.D. Adjata; Peterschmitt, M

    2008-01-01

    Cassava is infected by numerous Begomoviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. In order to identify viruses responsible for the disease and characterize them, surveys were conducted in all cassava production zones in Togo. The symptom severity of these viral diseases was recorded. Foliar samples from cassava and other infected plants were collected and analysed by PCR. The results obtained reveal that the severity of the symptoms varies from one localit...

  5. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ?10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index 0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

  6. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate the prebiotic potential of the fibers. Statistically designed experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of enzyme type, dosage, substrate level, incubation time, and temperature on the enzyme catalyzed solubilization to define the optimal minimal enzyme treatment for maximal fiber solubilization. The result was a method that within 1 min released 75% [weight/weight (w/w)] dry matter from 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from Aspergillus aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C. Molecular size fractionation of the solubilized fibers revealed two major fractions: one fraction rich in galacturonic acid of 10–100 kDa indicating mainly homogalacturonan, and a fraction >100 kDa rich in galactose, presumably mainly made up of ?-1,4-galactan chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. When fermented in vitro by microbial communities derived from fecal samples from three healthy human volunteers, both of the solubilized fiber fractions were more bifidogenic than fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Notably the fibers having molecular masses of >100 kDa selectively increased the densities of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. 2–3 times more than FOS.

  7. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production. PMID:22843214

  8. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations.

  9. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  10. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of South African cassava mosaic virus-infected susceptible and tolerant landraces of cassava highlights differences in resistance, basal defense and cell wall associated genes during infection

    OpenAIRE

    Allie, Farhahna; Pierce, Erica J.; Okoniewski, Michal J.; Rey, Chrissie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cassava mosaic disease is caused by several distinct geminivirus species, including South African cassava mosaic virus-[South Africa:99] (SACMV). To date, there is limited gene regulation information on viral stress responses in cassava, and global transcriptome profiling in SACMV-infected cassava represents an important step towards understanding natural host responses to plant geminiviruses. RESULTS A RNA-seq time course (12, 32 and 67 dpi) study, monitoring gene expression in...

  12. Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Adjata, K. D.; Muller, E.; Peterschmitt, M.; Traore, O.; Gumedzoe, Y. M. D.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the C...

  13. Halophilic anaerobic fermentative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, Anniina T; Karp, Matti T

    2011-04-10

    In hypersaline environments bacteria are exposed to a high osmotic pressure caused by the surrounding high salt concentrations. Halophilic microorganisms have specific strategies for balancing the osmotic pressure and surviving in these extreme conditions. Halophilic fermentative bacteria form taxonomically and phylogenetically a coherent group mainly belonging to the order Halanaerobiales. In this review, halophilic anaerobic fermentative bacteria in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny, special characteristics, survival strategies, and potential for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of branches, such as production of hydrogen, are discussed. PMID:20804793

  14. Chemical evaluation of pulp and residue pulp of organic blackberry, cv. Tupy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalany Menezes Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pulp and the residue pulp of blackberry (Rubus spp, cultivar Tupy, produced in organic system. The concentrations of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TTA, TSS/TTA and vitamin C were analysed. The results of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins ranged from 41.94 to 91.23 and from 103.00 to 150.32 mg/100 g, respectively. For both samples SST resulted in 8.60, 8.00 and 7.85 °Brix fruit, pulp and residue pulp respectively. ATT ranged from 0.286 to 0.315 g/citric acid L, and for whole fruit and pulp residue, respectively. The content of vitamin C was lower for the residue pulp analysis. The values of TSS and TTA did not differ significantly by Tukey test (p> 0.05. From these results we can make the inference that the residue pulp of blackberry cv. Tupy, produced in an organic system, has the amount of anthocyanins and compounds that can be used by the industry as a source for food enrichment.

  15. Pulp and dentin tissue engineering and regeneration: current progress

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, George TJ

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue is vulnerable to infection. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial rubber-like material is employed to treat the infection – commonly known as root-canal therapy. Regeneration of pulp tissue has been difficult as the tissue is encased in dentin without collateral blood supply except from the root apical end. However, with the advent of the concept of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, regenera...

  16. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    OpenAIRE

    PIVA, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are ...

  17. In situ proliferation and differentiation of macrophages in dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Yukikatsu; Otsuka, Hirotada; Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Manabe, Atsufumi; Nonaka, Naoko; NAKAMURA, MASANORI

    2011-01-01

    The presence of macrophages in dental pulp is well known. However, whether these macrophages proliferate and differentiate in the dental pulp in situ, or whether they constantly migrate from the blood stream into the dental pulp remains unknown. We have examined and compared the development of dental pulp macrophages in an organ culture system with in vivo tooth organs to clarify the developmental mechanism of these macrophages. The first mandibular molar tooth organs from ICR mice aged betwe...

  18. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a...

  19. Protein concentrate obtainment from leaves and aerial part cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantzObtenção de concentrado protéico de folhas e parte aérea da mandioca (ManihotesculentaCrantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Lima da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of cassava, constituted by leaves, stalk sand stems, are considered as agro-industrial waste, so, they are thrown away during roots crop. This material has content of protein, vitamin and mineral; therefore, it can be used as a dietary supplement for food industries. Thus, alternatives have come to extract protein from leaves and remove toxic agent sand anti-nutrients that make part of their composition. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating yield, mineral composition and functional properties of protein concentrates from leaves and aerial part of cassava. During the extraction of proteins, the following tested methods were:(1 isoelectric precipitation; (2 natural fermentation for five days; (3 fermentation for 48 hours and (4 fermentation for 48 hours, followed by pH adjustment. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used, the studied factors were the products (leaves and shoots and the method of protein extraction (four methods, with three replications. From the results, it was observed that Method1 provided the highest yields of protein concentrate and protein extraction for cassava leaves, however, there was no significant difference among the extraction methods for the aerial part of cassava. The values of Fe, Mn and Zn increased in protein concentrates obtained both in leaves and the aerial part of cassava, especially for Method 3. The capacities of absorbing water and oil from protein concentrates were considered high for the four studied methods, thus, indicating a good application in food products.As partes aéreas da mandioca, representadas pelas folhas, hastes e caules, constituem-se como resíduos agroindustriais por serem desperdiçadas na colheita das raízes. Esse material possui valor protéico, vitaminas e mineiras, propiciando sua utilização como suplemento alimentar nas indústrias alimentícias. Alternativas neste sentido surgem para extrair a proteína das folhas e eliminar os agentes tóxicos e antinutricionais naturalmente presentes em sua composição. Neste contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar rendimento, composição mineral e propriedades funcionais de concentrados protéicos, obtidos de folhas e parte aérea de mandioca. Na extração das proteínas, foram testados os métodos de (1 Precipitação Isoelétrica, (2 Fermentação Natural por 5 dias, (3 Fermentação por 48 horas e (4 Fermentação por 48 horas, seguida de ajuste de pH. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial 2x4, sendo os fatores o tipo de material (folhas e parte aérea e o método de extração de proteína (quatro métodos, com três repetições. O Método 1 proporcionou os maiores rendimentos de concentrado protéico e extração de proteína das folhas de mandioca, porém, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os métodos de extração para a parte aérea da mandioca. Os teores de Fe, Mn e Zn aumentaram nos concentrados protéicos da parte aérea da mandioca, com destaque para o Método 3. As capacidades de absorção de água e de óleo dos concentrados protéicos foram elevadas para os quatro métodos avaliados, indicando boa aplicação em produtos alimentícios.

  20. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft. PMID:15627556

  1. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect. PMID:17597624

  2. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260 Food and Drugs...Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Using a High-Density Oligomicroarray under Drought Stress in Various Genotypes of Cassava: An Important Tropical Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Morosawa, Taeko; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishitani, Manabu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Despite its global importance, the development of cassava microarray tools has not been well established. Here, we describe the development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide Agilent microarray representing ?20 000 cassava genes and how it can be applied to expression profiling under drought stress using three cassava genotyp...

  4. Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Paice, M G; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn...

  5. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ was performed in a cylinder glass bioreactor at a temperature of 30ºC and pH 5 during a 27-day period. The stability of the fermentation process at dilution rate (D of 0.025 h-1 and 0.05 h-1 was evaluated. The yeast-SBP system was shown to be stable for over a 15-day period at the dilution rate of 0.025 h-1, while the dilution rate of 0.05 h-1 was found to be unsuitable due to the intensive yeast leaching from the support. At D of 0.025 h-1 the maximum sugar utilization (Su, ethanol concentration (P, volumetric ethanol productivity (Qp, ethanol yield (Yp/s and fermentation efficiency were 97.1%, 54.7 g/l, 2.3 g/lh, 0.498 g/g and 97.6%, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  6. Envejecimiento de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrios de Yuca y Nativos de Papa por Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica / Ageing of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harold A, Acosta; Héctor S, Villada; Pedro A, Prieto.

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se determinó la topografía de almidones termoplásticos (TPS) agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, mediante microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM), durante un periodo de 120 días de almacenamiento. Mezclas de almidones agrios (fermentados) de yuca y nativo de papa, y glicerina, se procesaron [...] en un extrusor de husillo sencillo. Láminas de TPS agrio de yuca (SCTPS) y nativo de papa (NPTPS), se observaron y midieron por AFM (en modo contacto). Sus superficies mostraron incremento en rugosidad y partes lisas solo a altos contenidos de plastificante, pero SCTPS siempre tuvo menor rugosidad que NPTPS, debido a la fermentación natural del almidón agrio. Estos cambios se relacionaron con el tamaño, la forma del gránulo y particularmente con el contenido de plastificante. Los NPTPS de mayor rugosidad presentaron separación de fases a los 120 días, dada la retrogradación de las moléculas del almidón, que tienden a formar cristalitos. Estos resultados indican que el almidón agrio de yuca puede retardar la retrogradación de almidones termoplásticos, lo cual es importante durante el desarrollo de nuevos empaques biodegradables. Abstract in english This study reports on the topography of thermoplastic starches (TPS) from sour cassava and native potato using atomic force microscopy (AFM), over a 120 day-storage period. Mixtures of sour cassava (fermented) and native potato starches plus glycerine, were processed using a single-screw extruder. S [...] our cassava thermoplastic starch (SCTPS) and native potato thermoplastic starch (NPTPS) films were observed and measured by AFM (in contact mode). Their surfaces showed increased rugosity, and smooth parts only at high plasticizer content. However, SCTPS always had lower rugosity than NPTPS, due to the natural fermentation of sour cassava starch. These changes were related to starch granule size and shape, and particularly to plasticizer content. NPTPS with higher rugosity presented phase separation at 120 days, due to retrogradation of starch molecules which tended to form crystallites. These findings indicated that sour cassava starch can lower TPS retrogradation which is important in the development of biodegradable packaging.

  7. Fermentation in a Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    This is a hands-on inquiry activity using zip-lock plastic bags that allows students to observe the process of fermentation and the challenge of producing ethanol from cellulosic sources. Students are asked to predict outcomes and check their observations with their predictions. Teachers can easily adapt to materials and specific classroom issues.

  8. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

  9. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  10. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  11. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  12. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  13. Ethnobotany, Morphology and Genotyping of Cassava Germplasm from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Herselman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to collect and characterise Malawian cassava germplasm using ethnobotany, morphological and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. Exploration of accessions with the help of indigenous knowledge was done. Ninety three accessions collected from farmers fields and commercial programs were planted and morphologically characterised at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (Malawi. A subsample of 28 accessions was used for DNA fingerprinting. Preferences of farmers for traits in cassava varieties were diverse according to use and areas. Ethnobotany revealed wide genetic diversity in the germplasm, as did morphological characterisation, but morphological characterisation failed to uniquely differentiate all analysed accessions. AFLP markers showed narrow genetic diversity but managed to distinguish all accessions. Hence, there is need to use all three techniques at different levels to identify genetic diversity.

  14. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH?and ABTS?+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH? scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS?+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  15. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Improvements in pulp properties by alkali preextraction and subsequent kraft pulping with controlling H-factor and alkali charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyujeong Sim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the processing conditions for obtaining improved pulp properties from the kraft pulping process with an alkali pre-extraction stage. Before the kraft pulping, a pre-extraction of hemicelluloses from mixed hardwood chips was performed with two different alkali concentrations (3% and 12% as Na2O at 150 °C for 90 minutes. The kraft pulping of the pre-extracted chips was then conducted in two ways: with either the H-factor alone controlled or with both the H-factor and the alkali charge controlled. When the chips were pre-extracted with the 3% alkali charge and with the kraft pulping controlled to an H-factor of 500, the yield and properties of the pulp were higher than those of the reference kraft pulp. The 12% alkali pre-extraction and kraft pulping resulted in a low yield of screened pulp. However, when the alkali charge and the H-factor were adjusted together, the pulp yield remained constant and the pulp properties improved in comparison to the reference pulp for both the 3 and 12% cases.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava genotypes from the northeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Terezinha Feitosa; João Luíz Pinheiro Bastos; Luíz Ferreira Aguiar Ponte; Thiago Lustosa Jucá; Francisco de Assis de Paiva Campos

    2007-01-01

    A method for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in eight cassava genotypes from northeastern Brazil is described. The explants used were shoot apexes isolated both from in vitro grown plants and from shoots that sprouted from stem cuttings. Somatic embryogenesis was achieved in high frequencies by the addition in the induction medium of the auxin picloram over a wide range of concentrations. Green cotyledons of primary somatic embryos were used as explants to induce somatic (cyclic) secon...

  18. Cyanogen removal from cassava roots during sun-drying.

    OpenAIRE

    Essers, A. J.; Grift, R. M.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Linamarin levels in sun-drying cassava root pieces showed an exponential decrease, parallel with the moisture loss, and stabilized when moisture levels reached about 15%. Linamarin degradation in thin root segments was significantly slower and less complete than in thick ones. Disinfected longitudinal root halves, oven-dried at 40 °C for 24 h, had significantly higher residual linamarin levels than the matched ones subjected to humid incubation at 25 °C. Interrupting for one or two days the...

  19. Extraction, Properties and Utilization Potentials of Cassava Seed Oil