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Sample records for fermented cassava pulp

  1. Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    C. Yuangklang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

  2. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  3. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using ? amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar. PMID:25832789

  4. Effects of fermented cassava pulp on dry matter intake, feed digestion, conception rate and performances of dairy heifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen crossbred Holstein Friesian heifers (307 ± 18.4 kg of body weight (BW)) were assigned to 4 treatments in randomized completely block design. Feed ingredients and compositions of experimental diets on DM basis are presented. Heifers were offered feed as TMR diets with a 10% refusal. Intakes and refusals were recorded daily. Experimental period consisted of 74 d, with 14-d adjustment period. During d 60 to 74, samples of feed offered were collected and BW was recorded. Diet composites were analyzed for CP, Fat (AOAC, 1990) NDF, ADF (Van Soest et al., 1991). Chromic oxide was used as indicator for feed. Blood samples were analyzed for BUN, Glucose. All heifers were induced by using the 2 injection protocol of Prostaglandin F2? and Pregnancy check at day 60 after injection. All data were done using the GLM procedure of SAS (1988). The experiment data suggested that intakes of DM per day were affected (P > 0.03) by amount of cassava pulp that heifer had lower feed intake as increased ratio of cassava pulp into diet. However, it did not effect body weight change among treatments and tend to improve feeding efficiency as using more cassava pulp. Diet DM and ADF digestion had no effects among treatments (average in 60.8% and 43.3%). But NDF digestion was significantly difference (P < 0.03) that increasing amount of cassava pulp increased NDF digestion. The average blood glucose and BUN levels during 1-3 h post feeding were not significant difference among treatments. Even blood glucose tended to decrease and BUN tended to increase. Number of oestrus heifers and pregnancy heifers were not significantly difference among treatments. Consequently, at the 50% of cassava pulp can use incorporative in diet without any effects on fertility. Cassava pulp was one of the main by-product feed from Agro-industry. The study showed that when increased a ratio of cassava pulp to 50% TMR.DM, it improved feed conversion ratio and feed utilization without effect on heifer fertility

  5. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

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    Wahono Sumaryono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  6. Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ganiyu, Oboh.

    2006-01-15

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

  7. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta?Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5?mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. PMID:25781881

  10. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  11. Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Prapassorn Rugthaworn; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Warunee Thanapase; Akihiko Kosugi; Takamitsu Arai; Yutaka Mori; Yoshinori Murata

    2013-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for etha...

  12. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  13. Growth inhibition of thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, in hydrolysates from cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Murata, Yoshinori; Machida, Masashi; Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Hirooka, Akiko; Thanapase, Warunee; Dangjarean, Hatairat; Ushiwaka, Satoru; Morimitsu, Kozo; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Vaithanomsat, Pilanee

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we report the inhibition of Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925 growth and ethanol fermentation in the presence of furan derivatives and weak acids (acetic acid and lactic acid) at high temperatures. Cassava pulp, obtained as the waste from starch processing, was collected from 14 starch factories located in several provinces of Thailand. At a high temperature (42 °C), the cassava pulp hydrolysate from some starch factories strongly inhibited growth and ethanol production of both K. marxianus (strain TISTR5925) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain K3). HPLC detected high levels of lactic acid and acetic acid in the hydrolysates, suggesting that these weak acids impaired the growth of K. marxianus at high temperature. We isolated Trp-requiring mutants that had reduced tolerance to acetic acid compared to the wild-type. This sensitivity to acetic acid was suppressed by supplementation of the medium with tryptophan. PMID:24781978

  14. Biochemical studies on the fermentation of cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteng-Gyang, K.; Anuonye, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some original observations have been made on the process of cassava fermentation to produce 'foofoo', a local nigerian diet. During the period of fermentation the pH of the fermenting liquor decreases from 6.1 to 3.4 at the end of the 6th day. The change in pH is uniform throughout the fermentation period. Decreases in dry weight of the fermenting cassava have been recorded; there is a very rapid decline during the third and fourth days of fermentation. Free reducing sugars decrease drastically within the first and second days. Total sugar concentration which is an indication of the starch content of the cassava also declines with fermentation time, and more so during the third and fourth days. Protein concentration in the liquor increases very rapidly during the first and second days of fermentation. It is believed that cassava protein is converted to microbial protein.

  15. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  16. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  17. Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

  18. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  19. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred ...

  20. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic...... digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m...

  1. Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes

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    P. Danvirutai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

  2. Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada / Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Djalma de, Freitas; Ana Karina Dias, Salman; Pedro de, Andrade; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Juliano José de Resende, Fernandes.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi), de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp) [...] , de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc) e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn). Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5%) da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente), quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%), a SCc (43,87 e 24,20%) e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%). Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM), neutral detergente fiber (NDF) and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA) in bovines fed diet with corn (CS), cassava meal (CMS), cassava hull (CHS), and sugar cane (SCS). The CMS, CHS and SCS were [...] ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP). Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5%) (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively) than CS (45.50, 23.75%), CHS (43.87, 24.20%) and SCS (40.76, 25.78%). For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

  3. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  4. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava waste for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pothiraj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of enzymatic and microbial saccharification of cassava waste for ethanol production was investigated and the effective parameters were optimized. The mixture of amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG resulted in a significantly higher rate of saccharification (79.6% than the amylase alone (68.7%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF yielded 6.2 g L-1 ethanol representing 64.5% of the theoretical yield. Saccharification and fermentation using pure and co-cultures of fungal isolates including Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus terreus, Saccharomyces diastaticus and Zymomonas mobilis revealed that the co-culture system involving S. diastaticus and Z. mobilis was highly suitable for the bio-conversion of cassava waste into ethanol, resulting in 20.4 g L-1 in 36 h (91.3% of the theoretical yield.

  5. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  6. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  7. Microbiological and technological aspects of cassava-starch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, J L; Zapata, E; de Fabrizio, S V; Martínez, A

    1996-01-01

    The major genera found in the microflora of fermented, sour, cassava-starch were Streptococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces with amylase activity. Lactic acid bacteria predominated whereas the presence of moulds was not significant. No coliforms were detected. Electron microscopy showed bacteria and yeasts in contact with the starch granules and signs of erosion on the granule surface. Lactic acid was the main metabolite; no oligosaccharides, maltose or glucose were detected, indicating their rapid utilization. The degree of acidification, which correlated with the decrease in viscosity and the final quality of the product, was influenced by the variable microbial ecology. PMID:24415089

  8. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and re...

  9. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  10. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an ?-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either a...

  11. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips. PMID:19771401

  12. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  13. Ammonium acetate enhances solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 using cassava as a fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Hu, Shiyuan; Chen, Jun; Shao, Lijun; He, Huiqi; Yang, Yunliu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2009-09-01

    Cassava, due to its high starch content and low cost, is a promising candidate substrate for large-scale fermentation processes aimed at producing the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). However, the solvent yield from the fermentation of cassava reaches only 60% of that achieved by fermenting corn. We have found that the addition of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) to the cassava medium significantly promotes solvent production from cassava fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018, a mutant with a high butanol ratio. When cassava medium was supplemented with 30 mM ammonium acetate, the acetone, butanol and total solvent production reached 5.0, 13.0 and 19.4 g/l, respectively, after 48 h of fermentation. This level of solvent production is comparable to that obtained from corn medium. Both ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) were required for increased solvent synthesis. We also demonstrated substantially increased acetic and butyric acid accumulation during the acidogenesis phase as well as greater acid re-assimilation during the solventogenesis period in ammonium acetate-supplemented cassava medium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcription of several genes encoding enzymes related to acidogenesis and solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 were enhanced by the addition of ammonium acetate to the cassava medium. PMID:19543929

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava to succinic acid by Escherichia coli NZN111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Ding, Shaopeng; Wang, Dezheng; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the production of succinic acid from cassava starch and raw cassava instead of glucose by Escherichia coli NZN111 was investigated. During the two-stage fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was applied in the anaerobic stage. The results showed that both the productivity and specific productivity in the process conducted at 40°C were higher than those in the cultivation conducted at 37°C. The yield of succinic acid based on the amount of added starch reached the highest level 0.86 g/g and cassava starch was almost totally hydrolyzed in the SSF process. With the improved cell density, 127.13 g/L of succinic acid was obtained. When the liquefied crude cassava powder was used directly in SSF, 106.17 g/L of succinic acid was formed. The result showed that crude cassava powder could be another cheap raw material for succinic acid formation. PMID:24787322

  15. Microbiological quality of fermented cassava flour 'kpor umilin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsav-Wua, J A; Inyang, C U; Akpapunam, M A

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted on the microbiological quality of traditionally fermented cassava flour 'kpor umilin' and a laboratory modification of the method developed with a view to upgrading the traditional process. Microbial analysis of samples from both processing methods was evaluated using standard microbiological methods. The bacterial count in the traditionally processed flours ranged from 2.7 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g, while the modified sample had a count of 3.5 x 10(2) cfu/g. The predominant flora were Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp. and coliforms such as Escherichia coli. Other isolates were Enterobacter spp. and proteus spp. The sample from the modified method had a negligible (4 MPN/100 ml) coliform count. The yeast and mould count ranged from 1.9 x 10(3) cfu/g to 3.9 x 10(5) cfu/g in the traditionally processed samples as compared with 1.5 x 10(3) cfu/g in the sample from the modified process. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Geotrichum candidum were the predominant fungi. The poor microbiological quality of 'kpor umilin', processed traditionally, calls for urgency in upgrading the processing and preservation methods as developed in this study as well as proper education of the local processors on good manufacturing practices. PMID:15369985

  16. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

  17. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureelak Rodtong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media described by potential references. Both complex and minimal media were developed when cultured at 35°C for 48 h. The isolates were tested for the presence of PHA accumulation by straining with 1% Nile blue A and observed under the fluorescence microscope at excitation wave length of 650 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM was used for comfirmation of PHA granules accumulation in bacterial cells. Alcaligenes eutrophus (TISTR 1095 and E. coli (TISTR 527 were used as the positive and negative control of PHAs-producing strain, respectively. This is the first report for the suitable media for detecting of PHAs-producing bacteria isolated from cassava pulp.

  19. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  20. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  1. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby......The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and...

  2. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nago, M.C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2...

  3. Contribution of selected fungi to the reduction of cyanogen levels during solid substrate fermentation of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, A J; Jurgens, C M; Nout, M J

    1995-07-01

    The effect of six individual strains of the dominant microflora in solid substrate fermenting cassava on cyanogen levels was examined. Six out of eight batches of disinfected cassava root pieces were incubated for 72 h after inoculation with either of the fungi Geotrichum candidum, Mucor racemosus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer, or a Bacillus sp., isolated from on-farm fermented cassava flours from Uganda. One non-inoculated batch was incubated as a reference. Levels of initial and final moisture and cyanogens were assayed. The experiment was done in quadruplicate. Incubation of disinfected root pieces reduced cyanogenic glucoside levels significantly to 62.7% (SD 2.8) of the initial value. Microbial growth resulted in significant additional reduction of the cyanogenic glucoside levels to 29.8% (SD 18.9) of the levels which were obtained after non-inoculated incubation. Among the tested strains, N. sitophila reduced cyanogenic glucoside levels most effectively, followed by R. stolonifer and R. oryzae. Of all fermented samples, both Rhizopus spp. showed highest proportion of residual cyanogens in the cyanohydrin form. Flours showed similar patterns of cyanogens as the batches they were prepared from. Cyanogenic glucoside level reduction was significantly correlated (r = 0.86) with the extent of root softening. It is concluded that both incubation and microbial activity are instrumental in reducing the potential toxicity of cassava during the solid substrate fermentation and that effectiveness varies considerably between the species of microorganisms applied. PMID:7577362

  4. Acid hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp as pretreatment for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamy, R.; Illanes, A.; Aroca, G.; Nunez, L. [Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to optimize substrate pretreatment by selectively solubilizing the hemicellulose fraction to render a cellulose-enriched fraction for further fermentation or enzyme hydrolysis. Hemicellulose hydrolyzate, usually a waste stream, is proposed to be fermented by the pentose-utilizing yeast Pichia stipitis. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) was chosen as a substance due to its low lignin content which makes substance pretreatment simpler and less expensive. Hemicellulose utilization is very important in the case of SBP, whose hemicellulose content is as high as 50%. The best conditions for SBP pretreatment were: 55 g/l of 32-50 mesh SBP, 1.1 g H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/g SBP, 90 min at 80{sup o}C and 400 rpm. Under such conditions, 86.3% and 7.8% of cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis, respectively, were obtained. (author)

  5. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  6. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezi?, Ton?i; Oros, Damir; Markovi?, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  7. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  8. EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent methanogenic stage. The experiments were carried out at the F/M ratios of 0.2, 0.61, 1.02, 2.05, 3.07, and 4.09 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS in six laboratory-scale, completely stirred, tank reactors (CSTR at mesophilic temperature (35°C. An F/M ratio of 1.02 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS resulted in the highest solid removal efficiency and VFA/COD ratio, while starch removal efficiency was still near 100 percent, and acidification was relatively high. As a further benefit, the VFA distribution was more suitable for the subsequent methanogenic fermentation stage.

  9. Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

  10. Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

  11. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of increased linamarin degradation during solid-substrate fermentation of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, A J; Bennik, M H; Nout, M J

    1995-05-01

    Several fungi and bacteria, isolated from Ugandan domestic fermented cassava, released HCN from linamarin in defined growth media. In 72 h, a Bacillus sp. decreased the linamarin to 1% of initial concentrations, Mucor racemosus to 7%, Rhizopus oryzae and R. stolonifer to 30%, but Neurospora sitophila and Geotrichum candidum hardly degraded the linamarin. Adding pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, but not linamarase, to root pieces under aseptic conditions, led to root softening and significantly lower linamarin contents. Neurospora sitophila showed no linamarase activity, in contrast to M. racemosus and Bacillus sp., both of which were less effective in root softening and decreasing the root linamarin content. The most important contribution of microorganisms to linamarin decrease in the solid-substrate fermentation of cassava is their cell-wall-degrading activity, which enhances the contact between endogenous linamarase and linamarin. PMID:24414645

  13. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, S.M.; A.M.A. Nascimento; Costa, P S; J.L.S. Moreira; Nunes, A C; J.R. Nicoli; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; R. M. D. NARDI

    2013-01-01

    Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CF...

  14. In vitro fermentation of juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) by human colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergoletto, Karla Bigetti; Costabile, Adele; Flores, Gema; Garcia, Sandra; Gibson, Glenn R

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential fermentation properties of juçara pulp, using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Effects upon major groups of the microbiota were monitored over 24h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured by HPLC. Phenolic compounds, during an in vitro simulated digestion and fermentation, were also analysed. Juçara pulp can modulate the intestinal microbiota in vitro, promoting changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifts in the production of SCFA. Fermentation of juçara pulp resulted in a significant increase in numbers of bifidobacteria after a 24h fermentation compared to a negative control. After in vitro digestion, 46% of total phenolic content still remained. This is the first study reporting the potential prebiotic effect of juçara pulp; however, human studies are necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:26593490

  15. Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Suksaman Sangyoka; Alissara Reungsang; Samart Moonamart

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COD-1 and 851.84 mL h-1, respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative...

  16. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days, respectively, when using natural fermentation.Key words: cocoa quality, fermentation, depolymerization, pectolytic.

  17. Extraction of hemicelluloses from wood in a pulp biorefinery, and subsequent fermentation into ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hemicellulosic ethanol from softwood hemicelluloses in a pulp mill. • Comparison of acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis to extract hemicelluloses. • Effects of the extraction process conditions on inhibitors concentrations. • Effects of inhibitors on fermentation. - Abstract: This study deals with the production of ethanol and paper pulp in a kraft pulp mill. The use of an acid hydrolysis or a two-step treatment composed of an autohydrolysis followed by a secondary acid hydrolysis was studied. Acid hydrolysis allowed the extraction of higher quantities of sugars but led also to higher degradations of these sugars into inhibitors of fermentation. The direct fermentation of a hydrolysate resulting from an acid hydrolysis gave excellent yields after 24 h. However, the fermentation of hydrolysates after their concentration proved to be impossible. The study of the impact of the inhibitors on the fermentations showed that organic acids, and more specifically formic acid and acetic acid were greatly involved in the inhibition

  18. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  19. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Kusmiyati (2010) Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many st...

  20. Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksaman Sangyoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COD-1 and 851.84 mL h-1, respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative broth was depleted to 150-250 mg L-1 which equivalent to 10-15% of initial glucose concentration. Repeated-batch reactor was operated at 3 different feed-in/feed-out rates i.e., 25, 50 and 75%. Results revealed that a suitable feed-in/feed out rate for production of hydrogen from cassava wastewater was at 75%. This was indicated by the highest hydrogen yield, the highest potential maximal amount of hydrogen produced, a relatively high maximum hydrogen production rate, a relatively high maximum specific hydrogen production rate and a relatively short lag time of 0.0094 mL mg-COD-1, 12,532.80 mL, 540.46 mL h-1, 3.5 mL g-VSS-1 h and 5.31 h, respectively. Major soluble metabolites were acetic and butyric acids. Our results indicated that repeated batch fermentation was more effective in producing hydrogen from cassava wastewater than batch fermentation.

  1. Diversity of Amylase-Producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” (Fermented Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI BARUS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava or “Tape” is one of traditional Indonesian fermented food. The quality of “Tape” is determined by microorganisms involved during fermentation process. It was reported that Bacillus subtilis determined the quality of cassava “Tape”. The most common way to identify species is by using 16S rRNA gene. This gene contains conserved regions as unique sequence which is relative among species. It has been widely used as a reliable molecular marker for phylogeny identification. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study diversity of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacillus spp. were isolated from “Tape” from several area in Indonesia i.e. Jakarta, Bandung, Cianjur, Subang, Rangkas Bitung, and Kediri. Amplification of 16S rRNA gene used 63f and 1387r primers. This research showed that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, twenty-six of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were divided into four groups. All isolates were identified as species either B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, or B. thuringiensis.

  2. Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

  3. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

  4. Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

  5. In vitro fermentation of cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin using fecal inoculum from cats, dogs, horses, humans, and pigs and ruminal fluid from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunvold, G D; Hussein, H S; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Reinhart, G A

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and fermentation times, OM disappearance (29.4%) and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (1.09, .41, .12, and 1.61 mmol/g of OM, respectively) were lowest (P cellulose beet pulp pulp < citrus pectin. The fermentability of different fibrous substrates by fecal or ruminal microflora from various species seems to be dependent not only on the fermentative activity of the microbial population but on other factors as well, perhaps lag time and rate of digesta passage. PMID:8655439

  6. Fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration from cassava residues: effect of pretreatment on structural characterization and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-01

    The physicochemical properties of cassava residues subjected to microwave (or steam)-heated acid pretreatment (MHAP or SHAP) were comparatively investigated to improve fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration. The hydrogen yield from cassava residues with MHAP and enzymolysis was higher (106.2 mL/g TVS) than that with SHAP and enzymolysis (102.1 mL/g TVS), whereas the subsequent methane yields showed opposite results (75.4 and 93.2 mL/g TVS). Total energy conversion efficiency increased to 24.7%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed MHAP generated numerous regular micropores (?6 ?m) and SHAP generated irregular fragments (?23 ?m) in the destroyed lignocellulose matrix. Transmission electron microscopy images showed SHAP generated wider cracks (?0.2 ?m) in delaminated cell walls than MHAP (?0.1 ?m). X-ray diffraction patterns indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity index (33.00) than SHAP (25.88), due to the deconstruction of amorphous cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity coefficient (1.20) than SHAP (1.12). PMID:25553572

  7. Yeast extract promotes phase shift of bio-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 using cassava as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Zhigang; Zheng, Junping; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Le

    2012-12-01

    When fermenting on cassava (15-25%, w/v) with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, a severe delay (18-40 h) was observed in the phase shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis, compared to the cases of fermenting on corn. By adding yeast extract (2.5 g/L-broth) into cassava meal medium when the delay appeared, the phase shift was triggered and fermentation performances were consequently improved. Total butanol concentrations/butanol productivities, compared to those with cassava substrate alone, increased 15%/80% in traditional fermentation while 86%/79% in extractive fermentation using oleyl alcohol as the extractant, and reached the equivalent levels of those using corn substrate. Analysis of genetic transcriptional levels and measurements of free amino acids in the broth demonstrated that timely and adequate addition of yeast extract could promote phase shift by increasing transcriptional level of ctfAB to 16-fold, and indirectly enhance butanol synthesis through accelerating the accumulation of histidine and aspartic acid families. PMID:23023236

  8. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL ?-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  9. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIEL MONRROY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min. A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis. The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  10. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARIEL, MONRROY; JOSÉ, RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS, TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME, BAEZA; JUANITA, FREER.

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields rang [...] ing from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

  12. Enzyme production by anaerobic fermentation of beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, K.; Arntz, H.J.

    1988-03-01

    The detailed analysis of hydrolysis of beet pulp by anaerobic mixed cultures showed that a wide range of extracellular enzymes can be found. Notably pectinases, pectin lyases, arabanases, galactanases and cellulases are secreted. Under appropriate conditions high levels of enzyme concentrations can be observed. Intermediate accumulation of oligosaccharides makes probable well known mechanisms of enzyme induction and repression. A two stage system with membrane filtration and ultrafiltration allowed for convenient production of concentrated stable enzyme solutions.

  13. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia L; de Sousa, Edinaira S O; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. PMID:25846929

  14. SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS / SACARIFICACIÓN Y FERMENTACIÓN SILMUTÁNEA DE TALLOS DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN, REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ, ZAPATA MONTOYA.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacarificación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptim [...] as de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrato en una relación sólido: líquido 1:10; el complejo enzimático Accellerase 1500 y la levadura Ethanol Red fueron evaluados a dos niveles a una temperatura de 38 ° C y pH 4.0 a escala de erlenmeyer. Se evaluaron como controles del proceso: Sacarificación fermentación simultáneas sin pretratamiento de los tallos y Sacarificación fermentación independientes de tallos pretratados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión y el modelo obtenido fue maximizado empleando algoritmos genéticos. A las condiciones óptimas identificadas en erlenmeyer fue evaluada la producción de etanol en biorreactor de 5 litros. Se obtuvo una concentración experimental de etanol de 1.88±0.04 %v/v (1.99 %v/v óptimo simulado) con una concentración de inóculo de 1.59 g/L y una concentración de enzima de 13.3 FPU/g, valor aproximadamente 4 veces mayor a la cantidad de etanol producido sin pretratamiento por sacarificación y fermentación independientes de tallos de yuca pretratados. La evaluación del proceso en biorreactor alcanzo una concentración de etanol 20% inferior a la alcanzada a escala de erlenmeyer. Abstract in english This research evaluates the effects of the inoculum size and enzymatic activity on the concentration of ethanol obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated cassava stems. Other goals for this study include the determination and validation of the optimal c [...] onditions for and the evaluation of the process of ethanol production in a bioreactor. Alkaline-pretreated cassava stems were used as the substrate in a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10; the enzymatic complex Accellerase 1500 and the yeast Ethanol Red were evaluated at two levels at a temperature of 38° C and a pH of 4.0 in an Erlenmeyer flask. The following were evaluated as process controls: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of non-pretreated stems and separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated stems. A regression analysis was conducted, and the resulting model was maximized using genetic algorithms. At the optimal conditions identified in an Erlenmeyer flask, the production of ethanol in a 5-liter bioreactor was subsequently evaluated. An experimental concentration of ethanol of 1.88±0.04% v/v (1.99% v/v simulated optimum) was obtained using an inoculum concentration of 1.59 g/L and an enzyme concentration of 13.3 FPU/g. This value was approximately four times the quantity of ethanol produced without pretreatment or by the separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava stems. The evaluation of the process in the bioreactor yielded an ethanol concentration 20% less than that reached in the Erlenmeyer flask.

  15. Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola / Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Oliveira de, Souza; Luciana Tosta, Silva; Janice Izabel, Druzian.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrat [...] ions (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

  16. Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Polyorach, S.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0...

  17. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  18. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

  19. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at t...

  20. In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Gasmi-Boubaker; M.R., Mosquera-Losada; B., Boubaker.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis [...] and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

  1. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  2. Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carolina O; Silva, Luciana T; Silva, Jaff R; López, Jorge A; Veiga-Santos, Pricila; Druzian, Janice I

    2011-03-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05), was detected in products packed in film formulations containing high concentration of additives. However, it was found that the high content of vitamin C in acerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films. PMID:21361289

  3. Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kar, Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar, Datta; Ramesh Chandra, Ray.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluat [...] e the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

  4. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  5. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank DrØscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentrationincrease of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination.

  6. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Crispim; A.M.A., Nascimento; P.S., Costa; J.L.S., Moreira; A.C., Nunes; J.R., Nicoli; F.L., Lima; V.T., Mota; R.M.D., Nardi.

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activ [...] ity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  7. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Crispim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  8. Production and anti-diabetic activity of soluble dietary fiber from apricot pulp by Trichoderma viride fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Qiaohui; Ou, Yangjie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by Trichoderma viride fermentation by using apricot pulp as the raw material. A four-factor and three-level response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions affecting the extraction rate of SDF. The optimum fermentation conditions were listed: crude enzyme volume, 9.59 mL g(-1); fermentation temperature, 43 °C; initial pH, 5.36; fermentation time, 6.47 h. Under these conditions, 15.69% yield was obtained and its relative error with the predicted theoretical value (15.87%) was 1.14%. The dietary fiber content of SDF was 84.0% whereas it was found to be 43.1% in apricot pulp flour. The anti-diabetic effect of apricot pulp SDF on rat models of diabetes was investigated. Both the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly changed in apricot pulp SDF-treated groups compared with the diabetic group (p < 0.01) after intragastric administration for 28 days. In addition, SDF elicited inhibitory effects on the ?-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 17.458 mg mL(-1). These results implied that apricot pulp SDF relieved the symptoms of diabetic rats. PMID:25882161

  9. Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutrouli, E.C.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C. This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.5 mmole of hydrogen per gram of total carbohydrates. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Dark fermentative hydrogen production from neutralized acid hydrolysates of conifer pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissilä, Marika E; Li, Ya-Chieh; Wu, Shu-Yi; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic material results in high dissolution yields. In this study, the neutralization step of concentrated acid hydrolysate of conifer pulp was optimized. Dry conifer pulp hydrolysis with 55 % H(2)SO(4) at 45 °C for 2 h resulted in total sugar yields of 22.3-26.2 g/L. The neutralization step was optimized for solid Ca(OH)(2), liquid Ca(OH)(2) or solid CaO, mixing time, and water supplementation. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.75 mol?H(2)/mol glucose was obtained with liquid Ca(OH)(2), while the use of solid Ca(OH)(2) or CaO inhibited hydrogen fermentation. Liquid Ca(OH)(2) removed sulfate to below 30 mg SO(4) (2-)/L. Further optimization of the neutralization conditions resulted in the yield of 2.26 mol?H(2)/mol glucose. PMID:23065404

  11. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pectinolytic activity of Clostridium thermocellum: Its use for anaerobic fermentation of sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinnler, H.E.; Lavigne, B.; Blachere, H.

    1986-03-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is well known for its ability to convert cellulose into ethanol and to hydrolyse hemicellulose. The present work shows its ability to hydrolyse model pectins and to use them for growth. The main products on these substrates as well as on sugar beet pulps were as follows: acetate, ethanol and methanol. Galacturonase and lyase activities were measured in the fermentation broths. As shown by the accumulation of methanol in the medium, there is a pectin esterase activity but this one seems to be very low.

  13. Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água / Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Campos, Chisté; Kelly de Oliveira, Cohen.

    Full Text Available A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros fís [...] ico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1), que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas. Abstract in english The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil) is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's ma [...] in physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1), which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

  14. Assessment of Wrap Sizes as it Affects Storage of Fufu, a Traditional Cassava Based Fermented Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Akharaiyi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fufu, a traditional Cassava based fermented food product was prepared in the Laboratory and used for the study. Due to the short time storage and transportation of this particular food from one place to another on a popular demand because of its nutritional values, three wrap sizes were adopted to assess storage improvement. In this method, 50 g, 100 and 200 g of raw fufu were wrapped before cooking for the normal 1 h. The batches were stored on a wooden tray at ambient temperature in the laboratory. Quantitative determination of microbial and chemical changes occurring in the fufu samples was studied for four weeks. Microbial counts was higher in the 200 g wrap at fourth week of storage being 8.40x104 cfu (g-1 for bacteria and 2.32x103 spore (g-1 for fungi while it was 1.35x104 cfu (g-1; 1.06x103, 1.66x103 spore (g-1 bacterial and fungal counts, respectively for 50 g and 100 g wraps. Also at fourth week of storage pH was 3.80, 4.06 and 6.15; TTA was 0.45, 1.85 and 2.56% (W/W lactic acid while moisture was 45.10, 58.40 and 70.30%, respectively for 50, 100 and 200 g wraps. In the pounded fufu at fourth week storage, colour odor, aroma and texture rating were significantly higher (p<0.05 for the 50 and 100 g wraps for overall acceptability while the 200 g wrap characters were very low thus unacceptable. This implies that smaller wrap sizes will store longer than big wrap sizes.

  15. ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Ta?k?n

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG production under solid state fermentation (SSF conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support, which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

  16. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  17. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using stan...

  18. Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

  19. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...

  20. Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2 °C day(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646 mg L(-1), propionic acid 596 mg L(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000 mg L(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

  1. Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, respectively. Rice straw was used as a roughage source. It was found that gas production from the insoluble fraction (b) of YEFECAP supplemented group was significantly higher (p0.05) on ether in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) while R:C ratio affected the IVDMD and IVOMD (psuccinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus populations in YEFECAP supplemented group were significantly higher (p0.05) as compared between the two sources of protein. Moreover, fungal zoospores and total bacteria population were significantly increased (pF. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, R. albus, methanogens and protozoal population were decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing R:C ratio. In conclusion, YEFECAP has a potential for use as a protein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants. PMID:25049924

  2. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2007-11-30

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

  3. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão / Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra, Dias; Moacir Cardoso, Elias; Maurício, Oliveira; Elizabete, Helbig.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade d [...] e expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was eva [...] luated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA). Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  4. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.; Chaipresert, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while...... predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems......., followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive...

  5. Effect of the type of concentrate, cereals vs. sugar beet pulp, on rumen fermentation, plasma concentration of methylmalonate and quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, J.; Thériez, M.; Berthelot, V.; Aurousseau, B; SAUVANT, D.

    2001-01-01

    Effet de la nature de l'aliment concentré, céréales vs. pulpes de betteraves, sur les fermentations ruminales, la concentration plasmatique en méthylmalonate et la qualité des gras de couverture d'agneaux de bergerie. Le but de ce travail était de vérifier l'effet de l'introduction de pulpes de betteraves dans le régime sur la qualité du gras de couverture des agneaux de bergerie, en s'intéressant plus particulièrement aux fermentations ruminales et aux concentrations plasmatiques en méthylma...

  6. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some molasses would appear desirable so as to stimulate favourable fermentation. This can produce silage that is both safe from potentially pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and a potential feed resource for ruminants

  7. Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of Fermented Flour `Kumkum` from Three Improved and One Local Cassava Varieties in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha N. Tanya; R. Djoulde Darman; Richard A. Ejoh; R. Mbahe; Hamidou

    2006-01-01

    Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of fermented flours `kumkum` obtained from three improved and one local cassava varieties were carried out. The varieties were from five localities of the Adamawa province, namely: Simi, Tibati, Tignere, Lokoti and Ngaoundal. Moisture, ash, crude fiber, starch content, cyanogenic glucosides and swelling ability were studied. The results showed that variety 8017 had higher moisture content than varieties 4115, 2425, and the local variety...

  8. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop...

  9. The effect of citrus pulp type on pectinase production in solid-state fermentation: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Anvari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food processing industries and solid state fermentation (SSF is an attractive technology for enzyme production. In this work, design of experimental (DOE methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (different levels of citrus pulp, initial pH of the medium, C/N ratio, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp on the pectinase production by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The results showed that citrus pulp concentration, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp were found to be the most effective factor for promoting enzyme production and the supplementation of the medium with citrus pulp caused a 23% increase in the pectinase production when compared with the basal medium. The study shows that the Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the experiments for the production of pectinase (R2 = 0.946.

  10. Optimisation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel to produce fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayitse, Richard; Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Saalia, Firibu Kwasi

    2015-12-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peels was evaluated using cellulase and beta-glucanase enzymes and their mixtures at three different enzyme loadings with time. The pH of the medium used for hydrolysis was 5 and the temperature was 50 °C. The efficiency of the hydrolysis using beta-glucanase was better than cellulase and glucose recovery of 69 % was realised when beta-glucanase dosage was increased to 10 % (v/w) at 48 h which rose to 73 % at 120 h, releasing 11.19 g/l and 12.17 g/l of glucose respectively. Less than 20 % of glucose was hydrolysed at 10 % (v/w) cellulase at 120 h releasing 2.6 g/l glucose. The optimum experimental condition for hydrolysis of cassava peel was established at 120 h when glucose recovery increased to 88 % for enzyme mixture of 5 % (v/w) cellulase + 10 % (v/w) beta-glucanase producing 14.67 g/l glucose in the hydrolysate. PMID:26384340

  11. Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

    2007-03-20

    A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production. PMID:17188771

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

  13. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  14. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

  15. Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

  16. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  17. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  18. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

  19. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

  20. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  1. In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for pH change and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations. After 8 and 16 h, pH change was greatest for scFOS (-2.0 and -3.0, respectively) and smallest for PC (0.0 and -0.1, respectively). After 16 h, CEF had a greater butyrate concentration than CHP and all the CEF:CHP blends and it was not different than PEC. The substrate × time interaction was significant for bifidobacteria (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli (P < 0.05). After 8 h, bifidobacteria was greatest for BP and lowest for PC (12.7 and 10.0 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). After 16 h, PC had the lowest and scFOS had the greatest bifidobacteria (6.7 and 13.3 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). In general, CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria populations after 8 and 16 h of fermentation when compared with BP and scFOS. After 16 h, lactobacilli populations were greatest for B1, B2, B3, BP, and scFOS, intermediate for PEC, and lowest for PC (P < 0.05). Overall, our data suggest that CEF had a butyrogenic effect and that CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations as popular prebiotic and fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs. PMID:25403197

  2. Direct fermentation of gelatinized cassava starch to acetone, butanol, and ethanol using Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2014-04-01

    The mutant strain designated as ART18, obtained from the wild-type strain Clostridium acetobutylicum PW12 treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma, showed higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than that of the wild-type strain. The production of butanol was 11.3?±?0.5 g/L, 31 % higher than that of the wild-type strain when it was used for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation in P2 medium. Furthermore, the effects of cassava flour concentration, pH regulators, and vitamins on the ABE production were also investigated. The highest butanol production of 15.8?±?0.8 g/L and butanol yield (0.31 g/g) were achieved after the above factors were optimized. When acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by ART18 was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor, the butanol production, the productivity of butanol, and the total solvent were 16.3?±?0.9, 0.19, and 0.28 g/L(/)h, respectively. These results indicate that ART18 is a promising industrial producer in ABE fermentation. PMID:24519630

  3. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

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    Magali Leonel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes.

  4. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magali, Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

  5. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  6. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  7. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijdekkers, Antonius G M; Aguirre, Marisol; Venema, Koen; Bosch, Guido; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2014-02-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated homogalacturonan oligosaccharides. Some SBPOS contained an unsaturated galacturonic acid residue at their non-reducing end. It was shown that SBPOS could be completely fermented by human and pig fecal microbiota, thereby producing butyrate yet mainly acetate and propionate as metabolites. The degradation of SBPOS by pig fecal microbiota was different and much slower compared to human fecal microbiota. In general, rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides were degraded slower than homogalacturonan oligosaccharides. Acetylation of rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides lowered the degradation rate by pig fecal microbiota but not by human fecal microbiota. No classic bifidogenic effect was shown for SBPOS using human fecal inoculum. However, several other potentially interesting modifications in the microbiota composition that can be associated with host health were observed, which are discussed. PMID:24437353

  8. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  9. Síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com resíduos de mandioca e cana-de-açúcar ensilados com polpa cítrica Efficiency of microbial protein in bovine fed with cassava residues and sugar cane ensiled with citric pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Dias Salman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos, quatro animais canulados no rúmen e duodeno foram alimentados com 4 dietas: 1- Dieta basal (DB, composta por silagem de milho (SMi e farelo de soja participando na proporção de 60% da matéria seca total das dietas à base de casca e raspa de mandioca; 2- DB + silagem de raspa de mandioca (SRp; 3- DB + silagem de casca de mandioca (SCc e 4- silagem de cana-de-açúcar (SCn, sendo as silagens SRp, SCc e SCn acrescidas da polpa cítrica peletizada como aditivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 em relação à composição das bactérias isoladas do conteúdo ruminal de animais que recebiam as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana das dietas com SMi, SRp e SCc foram maiores (P With the goal to study the microbial protein synthesis in bovines, four duodenal and ruminant canuleted animals were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed with diets formulated with: corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS or sugar cane (SCS silage. The CMS, CHS and SCS were mixed with citric pulp. The basal diet, composed by CS and soybean meal, participated in 60% of total dry matter of cassava diets. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among diets in relation to bacterial composition isolated from the animal's ruminant contents. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of diets on CS, CMS and CHS were larger (p < 0.05 (32.1; 22.2; 26.1 gN/kg of organic matter apparently rumen degraded, respectively than CS (16.4 gN/kg OMARD.

  10. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required

  11. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404?±?50.0 kg of body weight and 90?±?5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9?±?2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P?>?0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P?fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw. PMID:26205904

  12. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  13. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C A; Gomes, Fátima C O; Borelli, Beatriz M; Faria, César L L; Franco, Gloria R; Mourão, Marina M; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

    2011-04-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  14. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayara C. A. Lacerda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788 related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

  15. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inayara C. A., Lacerda; Fátima C. O., Gomes; Beatriz M., Borelli; César L. L., Faria Jr; Gloria R., Franco; Marina M., Mourão; Paula B., Morais; Carlos A., Rosa.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

  16. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

  17. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávera Camargo Prado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

  18. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.; Foko, J.; Filtenborg, Ole; Olembo, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, an...

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lyberatos, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the...... olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  20. Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P<0.01. A significant difference at P<0.05 were also detected in amonia concentration, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), protozoa counts, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. These differences were observed particularly in animals receiving ration C. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  1. Effect of the type of concentrate, cereals vs. sugar beet pulp, on rumen fermentation, plasma concentration of methylmalonate and quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Jérôme; Thériez, Michel; Bas, Pierre; Berthelot, Valérie; Aurousseau, Bernard; Sauvant, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting wheat and barley by sugar beet pulp on the quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs. Rumen fermentation and methylmalonate plasma concentration, both considered as indicators of lamb metabolism, were also studied. Forty-nine male lambs of the Lacaune dairy breed were fed from 23.6 ($\\pm$ 4.1) kg to 41.0 ($\\pm$ 1.9) kg live weight with hay and a pelleted concentrate containing either wheat and barley ...

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  3. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. PMID:16784212

  4. Influence of nitrogen source on the fermentation of fibre from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp by ruminal micro-organisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, M J; Carro, M D; López, S; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2001-12-01

    Incubations were carried out with a batch culture system to study the effects of different N sources on the fermentation by ruminal micro-organisms from Merino sheep of two fibre substrates derived from feedstuffs that differed in their fermentation rate. The substrates were neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp. N sources were ammonia (NH4Cl) and peptides (Trypticase). Three treatments were made by replacing ammonia-N with peptide-N at levels of 0 (AMMO), 33 (PEPLOW) and 66 % (PEPHIGH) of total N. There were no differences (P>0.05) between treatments in NDF degradation for both the barley straw and the sugarbeet pulp. Peptides increased (PAMMO, with PEPHIGH supporting more growth (P0.05) by the presence of peptides compared with the AMMO treatment, but values were greater for the PEPHIGH compared with the PEPLOW N source, reaching statistical significance (PAMMO treatment resulted in the greatest (P0.05) by N source. These results indicate that N forms other than ammonia are needed for maximal growth of fibre-digesting ruminal micro-organisms. PMID:11749681

  5. Chemical composition and fermentation characteristic in cassava (“Manihot” sp. silages with different proportion of grape wine residue Composição química e características fermentativas de silagens de maniçoba ("Manihot" sp. com percentuais de co-produto de vitivinícolas desidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of grapewines residue (GR levels (0, 8, 16 and 24% on the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of cassava silages were studied. PVC silos tubes were used and opened after 60 days of fermentation for chemical analyses. The design used was the completely randomized with 8 repetitions. Data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. GR inclusion in the cassava silages increased dry matter, mineral matter, ether extract and lignin. However, GR did not influence levels of neutral and acid detergent fibers, and it promoted reduction of insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergent and total carbohydrates. Dry matter in vitro digestibility increased with the inclusion of GR in the cassava silages, ranging from 44.89 to 46.05%. Silages presented good fermentative characteristics, in function of the low levels of ammonia nitrogen in percentage of total nitrogen and pH values.Foi estudado o efeito da inclusão de co-produto de vitivinícolas (CPV em proporções (0, 8, 16 e 24% sobre a composição química e características fermentativas de silagens de maniçoba (Manihot ssp.. Foram utilizados, para ensilagem, silos de tubo de PVC, abertos após 60 dias de fermentação. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 8 repetições. Constatou-se que a inclusão de CPV promoveu aumento no conteúdo de matéria seca, matéria mineral, extrato etéreo e lignina, sem influenciar os teores das fibras em detergente neutro e ácido. Promoveu redução nos teores de nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido e de carboidratos totais, além de promover aumentos na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca com maiores valores na inclusão de CPV intermediária. As silagens em estudo apresentaram características fermentativas adequadas, em função dos níveis de nitrogênio amoniacal e de pH.

  6. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I; Vouidibio Mbozo, Alain B; Thorsen, Line; Anyogu, Amarachukwu; Nielsen, Dennis S; Kobawila, Simon C; Sutherland, Jane P

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Lysinibacillus meyeri WS 4626T (98.93?%), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus XDB9T (96.95?%) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi 34hs-1T (96.94?%). The DNA-DNA relatedness of the isolate with L. meyeri LMG 26643T, L. xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41?%, 16?% and 15?%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4?, l-Lys-d-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0 and iso-C17?:?1?10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar detected. The DNA G+C content was 38?mol%. Based on the results of the phenotypic and genotypic characterization, it was concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name of Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov. is proposed. NM73T (?=?DSM 25583T?=?LMG 26837T) represents the type strain. PMID:26333923

  7. Farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante: fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e características fermentativas / Cassava meal in the elephant grass silage: carbohydrate and protein fractioning and fermentation characteristics of silage elephant grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cardoso, Oliveira; Rasmo, Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Hellenn Cardoso, Oliveira; Vitor Visintin Silva de, Almeida; Cristina Mattos, Veloso; Aires Lima, Rocha Neto; Ueslei Leonardo Cardoso, Oliveira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas, bem como as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante, sem e com emurchecimento, e acrescida de farelo de mandioca. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições no delineamento inteiramente [...] casualizado. Os fatores avaliados foram níveis de farelo de mandioca (0; 7,5; 15 e 22,5% MN) e emurchecimento (sem e com). Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50 cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro para a produção das silagens. As frações de CHO (A+B1 e B2) e as frações nitrogenadas B3 e C foram influenciadas pela associação do emurchecimento aos níveis de farelo de mandioca, o que não ocorreu com as frações nitrogenadas (A e B1+B2) das silagens. A adição de farelo de mandioca reduziu linearmente a fração C dos carboidratos. No que concerne às características fermentativas das silagens, o pH apresentou comportamento quadrático. O nitrogênio amoniacal apresentou comportamento quadrático e linear decrescente para as silagens sem e com emurchecimento, respectivamente. A utilização do farelo de mandioca reduz a fração B2 e a porção de carboidratos indisponíveis. As principais frações proteicas das silagens estudadas são as frações A e B1+B2. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca melhoram o valor nutritivo e as características fermentativas das silagens estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the fractions that compose the carbohydrates (CHO) and proteins and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage without or with wilting and added of cassava meal. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely rand [...] omized design. The factors evaluated were wilting (without and with) and cassava meal levels (0; 7.5; 15 and 22.5 % DN). PVC silos with 50cm height and 10cm diameter were used for silages production. A+B1 and B2 CHO fractions and B3 and C nitrogen fractions of silages were influenced by association of wilting with cassava meal levels, the wilting and the cassava meal inclusion had no effect on A and B1+B2 nitrogen fractions. The cassava meal addiction linearly reduced the CHO C fraction. Relative to variables inherent to silages' fermentative characteristics, pH presented quadratic behavior. Ammonia nitrogen, presented quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. The use of cassava meal reduces the B2 and unavailable carbohydrates fraction. The main protein fractions of the silages studied are A and B1 + B2 fractions. Wilting and the addition of cassava meal improved the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of the silages studied.

  8. Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate / Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina Veras, Silva; Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira, Santos; Mayara Lúcia da Costa, Leite; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sérgio, Marcellini.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar [...] a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por planejamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the con [...] centrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taking as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

  9. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S; Kaack, Karl Viggo; Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effect...... triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.......The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects...... with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of...

  10. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. QUINTERO M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

  11. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis

  12. Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

  13. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

  14. Manioc alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, V.; de Queiroz Araujo, N.; Miceli, A.; Souza e Silva, P.C.; da Silva Burle, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    EtOH was produced from dry cassava meal by first obtaining a glucose syrup by enzymic action, then fermenting the syrup with yeast. Bacillus subtilis amylase and Aspergillus awamori amyloglucosidase were prepared by growing the organisms on cassava meal. Both enzymes were used to saccharify the cassava starch to syrup. Saccharomyces cervisiae ATCC 1133 was then used in a continuous process to produce EtOH.

  15. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION / PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan E., QUINTERO M.; Alejandro, ACOSTA C.; Carlos, MEJÍA G; Rigoberto, RÍOS E.; Ana M., TORRES L..

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL) es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. [...] La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS), medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM), y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1). Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S ) de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6,5. Conclusiones: Estos resultados son comparables con los obtenidos en otros trabajos usando glucosa como fuente de carbono, y permiten considerar al jarabe de yuca como un potencial sustrato de bajo costo y alta disponibilidad para la producción de AL a escala de laboratorio, y eventualmente a escala industrial. Abstract in english Background: Lactic acid (LA) is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the [...] demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates) into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS), as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM), and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1). Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentrat

  16. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia...

  17. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

  18. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; M Bata

    2001-01-01

    Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effe...

  19. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a...

  20. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e, Silva; João Paulo Almeida dos, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sergio, Marcellini.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

  1. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked up to seven (like moderately, and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05 for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05. The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

  2. Changes in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis and its regulation with pelleted beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqing; Wang, Libin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the experiment were to investigate the variation in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and to evaluate the ability of beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground maize in order to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets (total mixed rations) during four successive periods (each of 17 d): (1) without wheat (W0); (2) with 10% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W10); (3) with 20% FGW (W20); (4) with 20% FGW and 10% pelleted BP (BP10). Inducing SARA by diet W20 decreased the daily mean ruminal pH (6.37 vs. 5.94) and the minimum ruminal pH (5.99 vs. 5.41) from baseline to challenge period. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, valerate and isovalerate increased with the W20 compared with the W0 and W10 treatments. The substitution of BP for maize increased the minimum ruminal pH and molar percentage of acetate and decreased the molar percentage of butyrate. The diets had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield, but the milk fat percentage and yield as well as the amount of fat-corrected milk was reduced in the W20 and BP10 treatments. The cows fed the W20 diet had greater milk concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:2n6c, C20:3n6, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total odd-chain FA, and lower concentrations of C18:0 and total saturated FA compared with the cows fed the W0 diet. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in ruminal fermentation, milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile are highly related to SARA induced by feeding high FGW diets, and that the substitution of BP for maize could reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows. PMID:24192077

  3. Effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp on performance, ruminal fermentation and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, A; Alikhani, M; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP) on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, plasma concentration of metabolites and milk yield of transition dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows [735 ± 26 kg of body weights and 3.5 ± 0.05 of body condition score (BCS)] were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were assigned randomly on day 28 relative to expected parturition date to one of three treatments containing (i) 0% BP, (ii) 25% BP or (iii) 50% BP substituted for barley grain on a DM basis. During the pre-partum period, DMI and energy intake were greater (P < 0.01) in cows fed the BP diet compared with cows fed the barley grain diet. During the post-partum period, substituting BP for barley grain caused a response in DMI and energy intake, with the highest amount for the 25% BP diet and lowest for the 50% BP diet (P < 0.01). Milk yield was lowest (P < 0.01) for 50% BP diet than the other treatments. During the post-partum period, cows fed the 50% BP diets had greater rumen pH, molar proportion of butyrate and acetate: propionate ratio (P < 0.01) in the rumen compared with cows fed the 0% BP diets. In addition, cows fed the BP diets had greater (P < 0.01) plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate and lower plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and blood urinary nitrogen (BUN) (P < 0.01) concentrations than cows fed the barley grain diets. Results showed that substituting BP for barley grain was effective in increasing DMI, but it did not have a significant effect on net energy balance during the post-partum period. However, replacing BP for barley grain at 50% had adverse effects on DMI, milk yield and metabolic status, as indicated by key blood metabolite concentrations. PMID:25816899

  4. Método para determinação de volume específico como padrão de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos / Method for the determination of specific volume as a quality standard for fermented cassava starch and substitutes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Hugo dos Santos, BRITO; Marney Pascoli, CEREDA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estabelecer um método para a determinação da expansão como critério de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos. Três tipos de amidos de mandioca foram avaliados: Polvilho Azedo (padrão), Expandex® e Amido Nativo. As amostras foram condicionadas diretamente em moldes de silicone e metal [...] revestido com politetrafluoretileno e forneadas sob condições controladas de temperatura 200 ºC ou 250 °C e tempo 20 ou 25 minutos. O método proposto foi avaliado pela repetitividade do volume específico (relação volume:massa) e os resultados foram comparados com os obtidos por método tradicional com manuseio dos ingredientes com água fervente e moldeamento manual em bolas, posteriormente forneadas em assadeira de alumínio untada, assadas nas mesmas condições. A seleção do melhor método levou em conta os maiores valores para volume específico (cm3 g–1) e menores variações entre as repetições. Para a fôrma de silicone, os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas condições de 200 °C e 25 min (8,89 cm3 g–1 com 1,46% de variabilidade), que proporcionou massas suficientemente resistentes ao manuseio para permitir as medidas. Para moldes de politetrafluoroetileno as melhores condições foram temperatura de 200 °C durante o tempo de 20 minutos (8,16 cm3 g–1 com 7,59% de variabilidade). A amostra de Expandex® apresentou a mesma resposta que o polvilho azedo às variáveis de temperatura de forno e tempo de assamento, porém com valores maiores. A presença residual de grânulos intactos mostrou que a gelatinização do amido não foi completa nas condições de forneamento. O método proposto apresentou facilidade na manipulação e o tempo necessário foi apenas aquele necessário para a elaboração da pasta com água e o forneamento. Abstract in english The objective was to establish a method for the determination of the expansion of cassava starch and substitutes as a quality standard. Three types of cassava starch were evaluated: Fermented Cassava Starch, Expandex® and Native Starch. The samples were put directly into silicone or metal polytetraf [...] luoroethylene moulds and baked under controlled conditions of temperature (200 or 250 °C) and time (20 or 25 minutes). The proposed method was evaluated by the repeatability of the specific volume (volume ratio:mass) and the results compared with those obtained by the traditional method, in which the ingredients were handled in boiling water, moulded into balls by hand, and subsequently baked in greased aluminium baking pans under the same conditions. The selection of the best method took into account the highest values ??for specific volume (cm3 g–1) and the least variations between repetitions. For the silicon mould, the best results were obtained under the conditions of 200 °C and 25 min (8.89 cm3 g–1 with 1.46% variability), which provided pastas sufficiently resistant to handling to allow for the taking of measurements. For the polytetrafluoroethylene moulds, the best conditions were 200 °C for 20 minutes (8.16 cm3 g–1 with 7.59% variability). The sample Expandex® showed the same response as cassava starch to the variables of oven temperature and baking time, but showed higher values. The presence of residual intact granules showed that gelatinization of the starch was not completed under the baking conditions used. The proposed method showed ease of handling and the time required was just that necessary to knead the dough with water and bake it.

  5. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca / Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Diego Soares, Mota; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; André Santos de, Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Thierry Ribeiro, Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da, Costa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados co [...] m esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Ama [...] relinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  6. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior. No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  7. Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  8. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hader I CASTAÑO P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la influencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas, partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF, proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yucaThe world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzyme dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

  9. Effect of additives on fermentation of cassava leaf silage and ruminal fluid of west african dwarf goats / Efecto de aditivos sobre la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y el fluido ruminal en cabras enanas de África Occidental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Oni; O.S., Sowande; O.O., Oni; R.Y., Aderinboye; P.A., Dele; V.O. A., Ojo; O.M., Arigbede; C.F.I., Onwuka.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para investigar los efectos de diferentes aditivos sobre la calidad de la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y sus efectos sobre los parámetros del fluido ruminal en dieciocho cabras Enanas de África occidental. Las hojas de yuca fueron ensiladas, durante 30 días, solas [...] (ECF) y con adición de 5 % de melaza (ECFM) o excretas de ponedoras en batería (ECFP) como aditivos. La adición de 5 % de melaza redujo el contenido de materia seca, 252,4 g/kg en ECF, a 238,9 g/kg en ECFM; con adición de 5 % de excretas (ECFP) la MS aumentó hasta 267,6 g/kg. El nivel de PB (207,6 g/kg en ECF) disminuyó a 198,5 g/kg en ECFM. Tanto la adición de melazas o excretas determinaron la reducción del contenido de HCN desde 98,5 g/kg en ECF (sin aditivos) a 89,3 en ECFP y 84,7 g/kg en ECFM. El pH medio del ensilaje sin aditivos (3,66) fue menor (p Abstract in english A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different additives on the fermentation quality of ensiled cassava leaves and its effects on the ruminal fluid parameters using eighteen West African dwarf goats. Cassava leaves were ensiled alone (ECF), with 5 % (w/w) molasses (ECFM) and caged lay [...] er waste (ECFP) respectively as additives for 30 days. Results of chemical composition of the additive and non-additive silages indicated that ensiling with 5 % molasses reduced the DM content from 252.4 g/kg in ECF to 238.9 g/ kg in ECFM and increased with 5 % caged layer waste (ECFP) to 267.6 g/kg. The CP content of ECF was 207.6 g/kg and this decreased to 198.5 g/kg DM in ECFM. Addition of molasses and caged layer waste caused a reduction in the HCN contents from 95.8 mg/kg in non-additive silage (ECF) to 89.3 mg/kg in ECFP and 84.7 mg/kg in ECFM. The mean pH of non-additive silage of 3.66 was significantly (p0.05) in the pH, bc and lactic acid concentration in both the non-additive and additive silages. Ammonia-nitrogen concentration (NH3-N) however, ranged significantly (p

  10. Comparison of Sweet Sorghum and Cassava for Ethanol Production by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available ?-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.

  11. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

  12. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  13. Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media

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    Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

  14. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  15. Exploration, collection and characterization of cassava landraces (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) grown in western ghats region

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagarasu, S*., Nallathambi, G., Kannan, S and Ganesan, K.N

    2014-01-01

    Fifty six land races of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu exhibited significant variability for root morphological and biochemical traits studied. Amylose and starch contents varied from 14.4 to 30.4% and 10.0 to 39.7% respectively. Among the collections, 50% landraces had yellow colour pulp, indicated the possibility for selection and gene manipulation to improve the carotenoid content of cassava tuberous roots and thereby enhance its nutritive value. The c...

  16. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Trindade; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa Barreto; Taniella Carvalho Mendes; Carlos Augusto Rosa

    1999-01-01

    The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine prod...

  17. Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian V. Brandão

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

  18. Origin of enzymes involved in detoxification and root softening during cassava retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampe, F; Brauman, A

    1995-03-01

    The origin of root softening during cassava retting was investigated in a natural retting and in a sterile fermentation. Softening only occurred in the natural retting. Although high activities of endogenous pectin methyl esterase were found in cassava extracts from both fermentations, the depolymerizing enzymes polygalacturonase, active at low pH, and pectate lyase were only found in the non-sterile retting. No cellulase or xylanase activity was observed. The role of pectinases in the softening of cassava roots was confirmedin vitro using commericial enzymes. Root softening is therefore due to the combined action of endogenous pectin methyl esterase and exogenous bacterial depolymerizing enzymes. Detoxification occurred in both fermentations, confirming that the linamarase responsible for the destruction of cassava cyanide glycosides was mainly endogenous, even though microbial ?-glucosidases may help in the detoxication. PMID:24414498

  19. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELAEZ; MARIANA, CARDONA BETANCUR; CARLOS, MEJÍA GOMEZ; ALEJANDRO, ACOSTA CÁRDENAS.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir d [...] e harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enzimático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme h [...] ydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface central composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

  20. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  1. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante / Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Laura Maria Oliveira, Borgatti; Rériton Weldert, Gomes; Roberta, Passini; Paula Marques, Meyer.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na ma [...] téria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced [...] in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  2. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica / Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Luis Fernando Simões de, Almeida; Carlos de Souza, Lucci; Laércio, Melotti; Félix Ribeiro de, Lima.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: [...] controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia. Abstract in english Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, a [...] nd Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

  3. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S; Kaack, Karl Viggo; Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. ...

  4. Pulp Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Stalk, Anne; Frese, Signe D.; Alexandersen, Kimmie W.

    2003-01-01

    Through an interdisciplinary approach based on natural and social science this project attempts to tease out some valuable lessons relating to sustainable development strategies through the case of Phoenix Pulp and Paper, which is a pulp mill located in the Province of Khon Kaen Thailand. The findings of this project are aimed for development practitioners to use in order to ensure better designed development strategies. It was presumed that this mill could reduce poverty by creating economic...

  5. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue. PMID:6756790

  6. A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.O ácido giberélico (GA3 é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de soja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B L; Dale, B E; Doran-Peterson, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct generated by the table sugar industry. Beet pulp has shown promise as a feedstock for ethanol production using enzymes to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates and engineered bacteria to ferment sugars to ethanol. In this study, sugar beet pulp underwent an ammonia pressurization depressurization (APD) pretreatment in which the pulp was exploded by the sudden evaporation of ammonia in a reactor vessel. APD was found to substantially increase hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose component, but when hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes were added, treated pulp hydrolysis was no better than the untreated control. PMID:11963856

  8. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    OpenAIRE

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini; Julio Cesar Damasceno; Francisco de Assis Fonseca Macedo; Maria Clara Melo Ferreira; Carlos Eduardo Crispim Oliveira Ramos; André Neves

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral dete...

  9. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 lo...

  10. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Lu, Qui

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen ...

  11. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05; r = 0.9288 between PUN and MUN concentrations, making possible PUN estimation from the equation: PUN (mg/dL = 0.7672*MUN (mg/dL + 7.4894. These results permit to conclude that cassava by-product meal can be used in lactating goat diets, as 30% of DM, in total replacing of corn, without problems in ruminal fermentation and protein metabolism.

  12. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L. SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L., AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por fermentação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the different times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%, differing significantly from the other treatments.

  13. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L.) SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA / PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.), AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO, NASCIMENTO; ANDREZA TAVARES, TOMÉ; JOSÉ E. URANO DE, CARVALHO; CARLOS HANS, MÜLLER.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por ferm [...] entação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%), diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Abstract in english The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the differ [...] ent times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%), differing significantly from the other treatments.

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava stems

    OpenAIRE

    HADER CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ ZAPATA MONTOYA

    2013-01-01

    La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacari? cación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptimas de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrat...

  15. Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan, Quintero; Alejandro, Acosta; Carlos, Mejía; Rigoberto, Ríos; Ana María, Torres.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

  16. Protein enrichment of cassava residue using Trichoderma pseudokoningii (ATCC 26801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayitse, Richard; Hou, Xiaoru; Laryea, Gabriel; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Solid state fermentation of cassava residue with Trichoderma pseudokoningii was conducted for 12 days. The fermentation was carried out at temperature of 24 °C and a pH of 5.0. Urea and ammonium sulphate were used as nutrient sources and moisture content varied at 60 and 70 %. Protein content of the unfermented cassava residue was increased from 8.4 to 12.5 % when urea was used with initial moisture content of 70 % w/v. This study showed that a maximum of 48.1 % protein enrichment was achieved using urea as a source of nutrient for the growth of the fungi, whiles ammonium sulphate achieved 36.9 % protein enrichment under the same condition. PMID:26695947

  17. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

  18. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  19. The effect of processing on total organic acids content and mineral availability of simulated cassava-vegetable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewusi, S R; Ojumu, T V; Falade, O S

    1999-01-01

    Changes in pH, titratable acidity and mineral content (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn) were estimated in processed cassava products while the mineral content of raw and blanched amaranthus vegetable was determined. pH of fresh cassava (6.5) decreased as total organic acid (0.07%) increased with fermentation period. Fufu and lafun had the lowest pH and the highest total organic acids contents. Fermentation of cassava increased the total calcium and iron contents, reduced magnesium level while zinc remained fairly constant in grated cassava but was reduced when soaked in water (for the preparation of fufu and lafun). Fermentation also increased the availability of these selected minerals in both cassva products and simulated cassava-vegetable diets. Blanching reduced the mineral content of amaranthus vegetable but increased mineral availability. Fermentation of cassava and blanching of vegetables play an important role in making minerals more available and these processing methods should be encouraged to potentially ameliorate the disease states associated with mineral deficiency. PMID:10540989

  20. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarte, Claudia E; Mirian Vargas; Yvonne Granfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based di...

  1. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica / Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Magali, Leonel.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o [...] uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade. Abstract in english Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fi [...] ber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  2. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bronzi de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  3. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Lazarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA, serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER of the diets and femur weight (FW of the rats were evaluated. Results: During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9, which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001. Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions: In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets.

  4. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  5. The potential of cassava as an energy crop. [NONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.K.; Kutianawala, S.M.

    1979-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is today the most widely grown of all root crops. Production figures suggest a world output of some 100 million tons per annum and around 70% of this production comes from Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire, Nigeria and India. Nevertheless many other countries have outputs running into thousands of tons. The bulk of this harvested material is consumed directly as human food. The use of cassava as a source of starch, or as an animal feedstuff, has long been of industrial interest, but the prediction that the world could face an energy crisis long before food supplies become critical, has caused a number of countries to assess cassava in an entirely new light. Thus, the starch content of cassava can, by fermentation, be turned into ethanol, a product that, apart from its value as a chemical feedstock, can be used directly as a liquid fuel. The standard automobile engine can run on a mixture of 90% petroleum: 10% ethanol with little difficulty, and with modification, the inclusion rate of alcohol can go even higher. This realization has led a number of tropical countries to consider seriously the potential of cassava as an industrial base, for even a 10% reduction in demand for imported oil represents a massive saving of foreign exchange. The fact that industrialized countries like Australia and New Zealand are moving in the same direction suggests that the carbohydrate-liquid fuel process is becoming attractive economically, as well as representing a method of conserving available fossil fuels. It would seem, therefore, an appropriate point in time to consider the potential of cassava as industrial crop. This paper aims to determine just how realistic are the aspirations of those seeking to further exploit this carbohydrate source. 24 references

  6. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  7. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Traoré, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southe...

  8. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Rawshan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

  9. Possibilities of coffee pulp for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, G.; Fernandez, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    Degradability of coffee pulp was measured using methanogenic anaerobic fermentation on a laboratory scale of 250 cubic cm, batch process, and 2.5 cubic cm, 20 cubic cm and 200 cubic cm scales in the semi-continuous process. Yields of biogas/kg ST were 0.15 cubic cm under real conditions of 0.20 cubic cm under ideal conditions. If coffee pulp is left to oxidize for 72 hours of more, no problems are experienced in processing. 18 references.

  10. Substituição do milho pela polpa de citros sobre a fermentação ruminal e protozoários ciliados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251 Corn substitution by citrus pulp on ruminal fermentation and ciliate protozoa - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados, em um delineamento em quadrado latino, 4 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio de 400 kg ± 12 kg, canulados, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos de níveis de substituição de milho por polpa de citros na fermentação ruminal e no número de protozoários ciliados. Os tratamentos consistiram nos níveis de substituição: 0%, 40%, 60% e 80%, em base seca. Foram mensurados o pH, a concentração de AGV e os protozoários ciliados no rúmen. A inclusão de polpa de citros provocou diminuição linear nos níveis de pH do líquido ruminal (p Four Nellore steers cannulated with average weight of 400 ± 12 kg were utilized in a Latin square design, to evaluate the effect of substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp on rumen fermentation. The treatments consisted of substitution levels: (0, 40, 60 and 80%, in the dry matter. The pH, volatile fatty acid and ciliate protozoa of the rumen content were evaluated. The addition of citrus pulp to the diets decreased the pH of rumen liquid (p < 0.01 linearly, the quadratic effect of the total volatile fatty acid, of prop ionic acid, butyric acid and the total ciliate protozoa number (p = 0.03; p =0.01; p = 0.02; e p < 0.01, respectively. There was linear increase of the acetate: propionate ratio (p = 0.07. The substitution of corn by citrus pulp improved rumen environment to 60% level

  11. Refining of Polysulfide Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Copur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

  12. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  13. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    A thermoalkalophilic and cellulase free xylanase produced from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a carbon source was evaluated for prebleaching of kraft pulp. The UV absorption spectrum of the compounds...

  14. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Rawshan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2009-01-01

    Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

  15. Etude microbiologique des feuilles fermentées de manioc: "Ntoba Mbodi"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouanga Kalou, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological Study of "Ntoba-Mbodi", Fermented Cassava Leaves. Some families and small processing units proceed by way of fermentation of the cassava leaves to make "ntoba mbodi", a dish with a particular taste and flavor. The fermentation process lastes 4 days and after that the product undergoes significant alteration. During fermentation, about 70% of the cyanogenic glucosides are eliminated compared to 82 to 94% by blanching, vapor cooking or sun drying. Thus fermentation can be considered as good in eliminating cyanide as these other methods. Contrary to other plant material whose fermentation leads to an increase in acidity, fermentation of cassava leaves leads to alkalinization, with the pH rising from 6.2 to 8.9. Microbiological analyses of the fermented cassava leaves reveal the unusual presence of Micrococcus varians, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus sciuri and Staphylococcus xylosus among the other usual microorganisms; however yeasts and Leuconostoc strains are not present. Among this micro-organisms, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus and Erwinia spp. play an important role in with their polysaccharolytic enzymes.

  16. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses ?-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as ?-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139

  17. Design of a Cassava Uprooting Device

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Akinwonmi; F. Andoh

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the design of a simple, efficient, cheap and affordable cassava uprooting device for local cassava growing farmers. Processes involved in uprooting cassava were found out from local farmers, studied and mechanized using bevel gears, cams and followers, chain and sprockets. The principle of moments was used as a basis for the design. The effort applied by the foot of the operator is significantly magnified to overcome the load (cassava in the ground) at the extreme end of t...

  18. Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os inoculantes foram aplicados na razão de 25 litros de solução por tonelada de forragem, contendo 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus plantarum e 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus buchneri por grama de silagem. Não houve efeito do uso de diferentes inoculantes sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, assim como no pH. Os teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, carboidratos não fibrosos, matéria mineral, extrato etéreo e o perfil de ácidos graxos não sofreram alterações significativas com a inclusão dos inoculantes. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram superiores para a silagem com Lactobacillus buchneri em relação à silagem controle. O uso de inoculantes microbianos na silagem de polpa cítrica não resulta em benefícios relacionados às perdas durante a ensilagem ou componentes nutricionais.

  19. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the f...

  20. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis. Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  1. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L.; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promisin...

  2. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  3. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  4. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  6. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Chen; Paul V. Abbott

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  7. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  8. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  9. PULP dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

  10. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  11. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  12. Qualidade fermentativa e caracterização químico-bromatológica de silagens da parte áerea e raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930 Fermentation quality and chemical and bromatological characteristics of foliage and roots of silage cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salgado Bernardino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes (0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. O emurchecimento influenciou significativamente o teor matéria seca (MS, a densidade e o pH das silagens em todas as doses de adição de raízes. A inclusão destas elevou o teor de MS em 0,128 e 0,261%, a densidade em 1,79 e 4,54 kg m-3 e, reduziu o pH em 0,0007 e 0,0062, respectivamente nas silagens emurchecidas ou não, a cada unidade percentual de adição de raízes. A exceção dos teores de fibra detergente ácida (FDA e lignina, todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram interação significativa entre o emurchecimento e a inclusão de raízes. O emurchecimento aumentou em 4,52% os teores de FDA e 12,86% os de lignina, enquanto o incremento de raízes promoveu decréscimo linear de ambos. O acréscimo de raízes reduziu linearmente os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, enquanto o emuchercimento elevou-os. O teor de PB respondeu inversamente, apresentando valores mínimos de 8,99 e 11,03 e máximos de 18,01 e 20,9% da MS, respectivamente nas silagens sem e com emurchecimento.The effects of wilting and root inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% natural matter on the chemical and bromatological composition coupled to silage fermentation parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Wilting affected significantly dry matter content (DM, density and pH values (p -3; pH values were reduced by 0.0007 and 0.0062 respectively in wilted silages or not wilted ones for every included root percentage unit. All parameters, with the exception of acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin contents, showed significant interaction between wilting and root inclusion. Wilting increased ADF and lignin contents respectively by 4.52 and 12.86%, whereas root inclusion caused a linear decrease in both. Silage root addition decreased linearly neutral detergent fiber rates and conversely wilting increased them. The opposite occurred with crude protein contents, with minimum rates 8.99 and 11.03 and maximum ones 18.01 and 20.9% DM values, respectively in silages with and without wilting.

  13. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  14. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  15. Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boboye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat flour doughs in order to test the fermentative ability of the isolates. The fermented doughs were baked and organoleptic analysis was carried out using some physical parameters namely: leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. The analysis showed that Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Geotrichum lactis and Candida robusta were best in leavening the flour doughs. Each of these isolates scored between 55 and 60% in all the attributes tested. In the sensory attributes applied, statistical analysis using ANOVA (p<0.05 and Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that about 71 and 80% of the tested isolates compared favourably with the commercial baker`s yeasts STK Royal and Saf-instant used.

  16. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Traoré, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore...

  17. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

  20. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  1. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  2. Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

  3. Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?

    OpenAIRE

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermen...

  4. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer [Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7080, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Earth Science Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Westerbergh, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin [Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7080, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Zhang, Jiaming [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Hainan Province (China); Hu, Xinwen [College of Life Science and Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Cassava is ranking as fifth among crops in global starch production. It is used as staple food in many tropical countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In China, although not yet being a staple food, cassava is of major economic importance for starch for a large area of southern China, especially in the provinces of Guangdong, Guanxi, Yunnan and Hainan. Recently, cassava-derived bioethanol production has been increasing due to its economic benefits compared to other bioethanol-producing crops in the country. We discuss here the possible potentials of cassava for bioethanol production. (author)

  5. Dental pulp tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Cavalcanti, Bruno Neves; Casagrande, Luciano; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Nör, Jacques Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  6. Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Greice Sandri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this study. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24% and in the juice (28%, with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively. The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%, and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the ?-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls.

  7. Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivana Greice, Sandri; Luciani Tastch, Piemolini-Barreto; Roselei Claudete, Fontana; Mauricio Moura da, Silveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE) produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this stu [...] dy. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24%) and in the juice (28%), with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively). The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%), and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the ?-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls.

  8. DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Sitholé

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionation studies showed that the fines fractions contained 8 to 13 times more residual lipophilic extractives than the whole pulps. Removing this fraction, which represents only a small percentage of the whole pulp, could reduce by about a half the amount of lipophilic extractives in the remaining pulp. Thus pulp fractionation appears to be a viable option to achieve further deresination of sulphite pulps.

  9. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  10. Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

  11. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Hasan Jameel,; Hou-Min Chang; Trevor Treasure; Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni Mail

    2011-01-01

    The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP), an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 F...

  12. Levaduras autóctonas con capacidad fermentativa en la producción de etanol a partir de pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia / Autoctonous yeasts having fermentation ability in producing ethanol from Musa (AAB Simmonds) plantain surplus pulp in the Córdoba department of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Oviedo Zumaqué; Cecilia, Lara Mantilla; Mauricio, Mizger Pantoja.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad fermentativa de levaduras nativas de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, para la obtención de etanol a partir de la pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds), con el objetivo de encontrar cepas eficientes. Los microorganismos utilizados correspond [...] ieron a las especies: Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii 14AD, Candida albicans y Candida guillliermondii 13AD (nativas), y una cepa comercial de referencia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73. La fermentación se realizó a diferentes concentraciones de sustrato, siendo la concentración del 40% la mejor; se evaluó la producción de etanol mediante el método colorimétrico del dicromato de potasio utilizando un equipo espectrofotómetro Lambda 11. Se observó que la levadura Candida guilliermondii 14AD nativa fue la más eficiente con una producción promedio de 3,45% v/v de etanol a las 72 horas de fermentación; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con la producción de etanol a partir de la cepa de referencia, la cual produjo 3,59% v/v. Estos resultados sugieren la existencia de levaduras nativas con capacidad para ser utilizadas en la obtención de etanol a partir de material residuo de plátano. Abstract in english Native yeasts' (Cordoba, Colombia) fermentation ability for producing ethanol from plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds) surplus pulp was evaluated; the object was to find efficient yeasts. The microorganisms used here came from the Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii (14AD), Candida albicans and Candida g [...] uillliermondii 13AD strains (native) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 (a commercial reference yeast). Fermentation was carried out on different substrate concentrations, the 40% one giving the best result; ethanol production was evaluated by the potassium dichromate colorimetric method using a Lambda 11 spectrophotometer. It was observed that the Candida guilliermondii 14AD native yeast was the most efficient, having an average 3.45% v/v ethanol production after 72 hours' fermentation. There were no statistically significant differences compared to reference yeast strain ethanol production (3.59% v/v). These results suggest that native yeasts can be used in obtaining ethanol from residual plantain matter.

  13. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  14. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  15. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Alicia, Martos; Emilce Roxana, Zubreski; Mariana, Combina; Oscar Alfredo, Garro; Roque Alberto, Hours.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectino [...] lytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  16. High-Level Butanol Production from Cassava Starch by a Newly Isolated Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Fuzhi; Huang, Jiajian; Pang, Zongwen

    2015-10-01

    A new Clostridium acetobutylicum strain, exhibiting the ability to resist butanol stress and produce butanol, was identified and named GX01. Strain GX01 can use a wide variety of carbohydrates, especially cassava starch, to produce butanol. After the optimization of culture conditions, C. acetobutylicum GX01 could produce 27.3 g/L solvent, including 17.1 g/L butanol, 7.9 g/L acetone, and 2.3 g/L ethanol, from 100 g/L cassava flour and 3 g/L soybean meal. Furthermore, when its acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was performed in 10- and 30-L bioreactors, the production of total solvent and butanol reached 29.2 and 18.3 g/L, respectively, and 28.8 and 18.8 g/L, respectively. Thus, the high level and stability of butanol production make strain GX01 a promising candidate for ABE fermentation using the low-cost cassava starch. PMID:26245261

  17. Ethanol Production from Cassava Starch by Selected Fungi from an-Koji and Saccaromycetes cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of selected fungi and S. cerevisiae was investigated. Firstly starch hydrolysis fungi were isolated and screened from tan-koji (loog-pang. Enzymatic activities of 10 isolated Rhizopus sp. strains were determined on 0.1% starch agar plate at various pH (3-10 as primary screening. Clear zone diameter was occurred at pH ranging from 3 to 8 and no response at pH 10. The highest clear zone diameter that were found from 2 strains of Rhizopus sp. #2Bu and Rhizopus sp. #3Su at pH 4 were nearly equal. Secondary screening, sugar liberated were performed at various starch concentration from these 2 fungal strains. The results showed that Rhizopus sp. #3Su was the maximum efficiency. The highest reducing sugar yield was 25.9% from 6% cassava starch medium at 72 h. Ethanol production by SSF process, the coupling process between saccharification and fermentation was developed by using co-culture of Rhizopus sp. #3Su and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5088. After 24, 48 and 72 h of saccharification period by the fungal strain, the fermentation process was begun by adding yeast inoculum. The highest ethanol production was achieved at 14.36 g L-1 after 24 h of saccharification process on 6% cassava starch medium.

  18. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not. The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis of variance results, only pH (p <0.01), duration of storage (p <0.01), population of aflatoxin-producing species (0.0001) and the chip type (p <0.05) were significantly related to aflatoxin in positive samples. A stepwise regression analysis (forward selection procedure) indicated that aflatoxin levels were significantly (p <0.01) correlated with processing practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips.

  19. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Cuihua Dong,; Zhiqiang Pang,; Jingwen Xue,; Yu Liu, Jiachuan Chen,; Rong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient ...

  20. Two-step production of gamma-aminobutyric acid from cassava powder using Corynebacterium glutamicum and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Kimani, Bernard Gitura; Xu, Meijuan; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from crop biomass such as cassava in high concentration is desirable, but difficult to achieve. A safe biotechnological route was investigated to produce GABA from cassava powder by C. glutamicum G01 and L. plantarum GB01-21. Liquefied cassava powder was first transformed to glutamic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with C. glutamicum G01, followed by biotransformation of glutamic acid to GABA with resting cells of L. plantarum GB01-21 in the reaction medium. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the maximum concentration of GABA reached 80.5 g/L with a GABA productivity of 2.68 g/L/h. This is the highest yield ever reported of GABA production from cassava-derived glucose. The bioprocess provides the added advantage of employing nonpathogenic microorganisms, C. glutamicum and L. plantarum, in microbial production of GABA from cassava biomass, which can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26115763

  1. Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udoudoh, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

  2. Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nwosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 mol mL-1 nmol-1. Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter. The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter. Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57x108 cfu g-1. pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

  3. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  4. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Abbott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment.

  5. Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Fernando, Rubio-Arroyo; Pilar, Vivanco-Loyo; Moisés, Juárez; Martha, Poisot; Guillermo, Ramírez-Galicia.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener [...] así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron para producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fer [...] mentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

  6. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  7. DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Sitholé; Salma Shirin; Xiao Zhang; Luc Lapierre; Jorge Pimentel; Mike Paice

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionat...

  8. ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarwar Jahan; Sabina Rawsan; D. A. Nasima Chowdhury; A. Al-Maruf

    2008-01-01

    Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59%) was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. A...

  9. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  10. Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Achi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dregs increased microbial activity in cassava mash, particularly the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Protein composition of garri was improved and detoxification of cyanogenic glucosides was enhanced. Inoculation adversely affected mineral composition. Organoleptic analysis showed that inoculation did not reduce acceptability of garri at p<0.05.

  11. ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59% was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87% was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.

  12. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  13. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  15. Dental pulp tissue engineering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio Fernando, Demarco; Marcus Cristian Muniz, Conde; Bruno Neves, Cavalcanti; Luciano, Casagrande; Vivien Thiemy, Sakai; Jacques Eduardo, Nör.

    Full Text Available A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo altamente especializado que possui uma restrita capacidade de regeneração, devido à sua disposição anatômica e à natureza pós-mitótica das células odontoblásticas. A remoção total da polpa, seguida da desinfecção do canal radicular e seu preenchimento com materi [...] al artificial proporciona a perda de uma significante quantidade de dentina deixando como sequela um dente não vital e enfraquecido. Entretanto, a endodontia regenerativa é um campo emergente da engenharia tecidual, que demonstrou resultados promissores utilizando células-tronco associadas à scaffolds e moléculas bioativas. Desta forma, esse artigo revisa os recentes avanços obtidos na regeneração do tecido pulpar baseado nos princípios da engenharia tecidual e fornece aos leitores informações compreensivas sobre os diferentes aspectos envolvidos na engenharia tecidual. Assim, nós especulamos que a combinação ideal de células, scaffolds e moléculas bioativas pode resultar em significantes avanços em outras áreas da pesquisa odontológica. Os dados levantados em nossa revisão demonstraram que estamos em um estágio no qual, o desenvolvimento de tecidos complexos, tais como a polpa dental, não é mais inatingível e que a próxima década será um período extremamente interessante para a pesquisa odontológica. Abstract in english Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant [...] amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.

  16. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; P. Rowlinson; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of...

  17. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. P., CEREDA; M.C.Y., MATTOS.

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be brok [...] en under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  18. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. CEREDA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯ has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  19. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and of protein. The magnitude of these changes was found to be directly related to the losses in dry matter. From the results of this research, it was concluded that the addition of forage improves the chemical characteristics of silage prepared from coffee pulp. PMID:1275634

  20. Cassava cultivars sensibility to mesotrione herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Martins Silveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable weed management is one of the main factors responsible for low mean yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz in Brazil. In this crop, mechanical weed control is the most commonly used, due to the lack of registered herbicides for cassava crop. In the search for alternatives to this problem, this work aimed to evaluate the tolerance level of cassavas cultivars to mesotrione herbicide applied in post emergence. A experiment was conducted, in green house conditions, in randomized blocks with four replications. A factorial scheme 5x5 was adopted, consisting of the combination of five dosages of mesotrione herbicides and five cassava cultivars. Intoxication of cassava plants, height, stem diameter and number of leaves of plants were evaluated weekly and 35 days after application (DAA plants were harvested for determining dry matter and leaf area.n. The highest values for visual intoxication were observed at 14 and 28 days after the herbicide application (DAA and caused by the highest doses of mesotrione herbicide. These symptoms consisted of whiteness in new leaves.  At 35 days, plants showed signals of recovery, mainly due the sprout of new leaves. The herbicide did not affected the height, stem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, roots and in total characteristics, in any of the evaluated doses. This is an evidence of cassava cultivars tolerance to mesotrione herbicide.

  1. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

  2. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  3. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  4. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  5. Direct pulp capping using biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

  6. Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease

    OpenAIRE

    O.F. Owolade; Dixon, A. G. O.; A.Y.A. Adeoti

    2006-01-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeospori...

  7. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided. PMID:25817690

  8. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone. PMID:26788301

  9. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID:23717282

  10. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EmmanuelOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breedi

  11. Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

  12. Optimization of Cassava Waste from Bioethanol Post-Production through Bioactivity Process Consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of laboratory analysis on bioethanol waste shows nutritional and anti-nutritional content (HCN. Based on it, in order to prevent environment damage then performed a bioconversion of bioethanol waste for base material of sheep forage by fermented previously using consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger to eliminate the waste anti-nutritional content and increase nutritional content. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD factorial pattern with two factors and three replications. The first factor was inoculum dose (D and the second factor was variation of tested microorganisms (M. The variables measured were HCN content and nutrient content of fermented products, that were water content, protein content and crude fiber content by proximate analysis. Furthermore, the data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, and was there significant difference analyzed further by Duncan's multiple range test of 5% level. Nutritional compositions of bioethanol waste from cassava that had been fermented by consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger experienced changes compared to before fermentation. The results showed an increase in protein level, while fiber content, water content, and HCN content were decrease. Bioethanol waste from cassava fermented by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (k3 with 2% inoculum dose had the highest protein content increase from 11.79% to 25.41% and had the lowest crude fiber content decrease from 16.4% to 12.84 %. The highest HCN decrease obtained from the fermentation of consortium Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride.

  13. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  14. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and ?-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

  15. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau.

  16. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia, Trindade; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa, Barreto; Taniella de Carvalho, Mendes; Carlos Augusto, Rosa.

    Full Text Available O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas fora [...] m testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau. Abstract in english The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ab [...] ility to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.

  17. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing. PMID:23174160

  18. Evaluation of fermentable oligosaccharides in diets fed to dogs in comparison to fiber standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelbos, I S; Fastinger, N D; Fahey, G C

    2007-11-01

    Blends of fermentable oligosaccharides in combination with nonfermentable fiber, cellulose, were evaluated for their ability to serve as dietary fibers in dog foods. Using a 6 x 6 Latin square design, 6 diets were evaluated that contained either no supplemental fiber, beet pulp, cellulose, or blends of cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and yeast cell wall added at 2.5% of the diet. Six ileal-cannulated dogs were fed 175 g of their assigned diet twice daily. Chromic oxide served as a digestibility marker. Nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial populations, fermentative end products, and immunological indices were measured. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lowest (P cellulose treatment. Crude protein digestibility was lower (P cellulose treatment had the lowest (P cellulose treatment. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli concentrations were similar for the beet pulp treatment compared with the fermentable oligosaccharide blends. Total fecal short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater for the beet pulp treatment (P cellulose treatments. The treatments containing fermentable fiber had greater (P cellulose and control treatments. Immune indices were not affected by treatment. Our results suggest that dog foods containing blends of fermentable and nonfermentable carbohydrates produce similar physiological results as dog food containing beet pulp as a fiber source. Therefore, blends of these carbohydrates could be useful substitutes for beet pulp in dog foods. PMID:17686893

  19. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.; Haggblade, S.; Brimer, Leon

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipate...

  20. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  1. A novel cassava-infecting begomovirus from Madagascar: cassava mosaic Madagascar virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimalala, Mireille; Lefeuvre, Pierre; De Bruyn, Alexandre; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Ranomenjanahary, Sahondramalala; Andrianjaka, Alice; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    Cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) are implicated in cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the main constraint to cassava production in Africa. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A and DNA-B of a newly characterized CMG found infecting cassava in Madagascar, for which we propose the tentative name cassava mosaic Madagascar virus. With the exception of two recombinant regions that resembled a CMG, we determined that the non-recombinant part of the DNA-A component is distantly related to the other CMGs. Whereas the DNA-B component possesses one recombinant region originating from an unidentified virus, the rest of the genome was seen to be closely related to members of the species East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV). Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences demonstrated that DNA-A and DNA-B components are outliers related to the clade of EACMV-like viruses and that DNA-A is related to the monopartite tomato leaf curl begomoviruses described in islands in the south-west Indian Ocean. PMID:22777180

  2. Incidence of Cassava Viral Diseases and First Identification of East African cassava mosaic virus and Indian cassava mosaic virus by PCR in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Fields in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M.D. Gumedzoe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is infected by numerous Begomoviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. In order to identify viruses responsible for the disease and characterize them, surveys were conducted in all cassava production zones in Togo. The symptom severity of these viral diseases was recorded. Foliar samples from cassava and other infected plants were collected and analysed by PCR. The results obtained reveal that the severity of the symptoms varies from one locality to another, some more severely cassava infected plants than others. The percentage of the cassava plants presenting typical mosaic symptoms varies from 55 to 85% and the percentage of cassava plants severely infected (score 4 or 5 varies from 4.9 to 36%. Molecular analyses by PCR of the viral DNA extracted from the diseased samples using specific primers revealed for the first time that African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV is not the only Begomovirus responsible of cassava mosaic disease in Togo, but two other Begomoviruses, East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV are present in Togo. Their incidence rates are 73.59, 44.62 and 4.01%, respectively for ACMV, EACMV and ICMV. Mixed infections were also identified at the rates of 39.45% in the case of (ACMV + EACMV, 1.72% for ACMV + ICMV and 1.29% when the three viruses were combined (ACMV + EACMV + ICMV.

  3. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2013-09-16

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

  4. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  5. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Cassava mosaic geminiviruses: actual knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2009-09-01

    SUMMARY Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) is one of the most devastating crop diseases and a major constraint for cassava cultivation. CMD has been reported only from the African continent and Indian subcontinent despite the large-scale cultivation of cassava in Latin America and several South-East Asian countries. Seven CMG species have been reported from Africa and two from the Indian subcontinent and, in addition, several strains have been recognized. Recombination and pseudo-recombination between CMGs give rise not only to different strains, but also to members of novel virus species with increased virulence and a new source of biodiversity, causing severe disease epidemics. CMGs are known to trigger gene silencing in plants and, in order to counteract this natural host defence, geminiviruses have evolved suppressor proteins. Temperature and other environmental factors can affect silencing and suppression, and thus modulate the symptoms. In the case of mixed infections of two or more CMGs, there is a possibility for a synergistic interaction as a result of the presence of differential and combinatorial suppressor proteins. In this article, we provide the status of recent research findings with regard to the CMD complex, present the molecular biology knowledge of CMGs with reference to other geminiviruses, and highlight the mechanisms by which CMGs have exploited nature to their advantage. PMID:19694957

  7. Design of a Cassava Uprooting Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Akinwonmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the design of a simple, efficient, cheap and affordable cassava uprooting device for local cassava growing farmers. Processes involved in uprooting cassava were found out from local farmers, studied and mechanized using bevel gears, cams and followers, chain and sprockets. The principle of moments was used as a basis for the design. The effort applied by the foot of the operator is significantly magnified to overcome the load (cassava in the ground at the extreme end of the device .The free body diagram of the frame helped to determine the average force needed to press the pedal by the foot. From the analysis, a little effort of 334.49 N can overcome about 2000 N of force and this gives a mechanical advantage of about 6. The bending moment diagram and the shear force diagrams helped to determine the part of the device which is subjected to greater force and where shear and bending can easily take place. Mild steel is used as the material for the device because it is cheap and easily available. Advantages of this design include faster uprooting with high productivity, less energy expended, reduction in the risk of health hazards of developing blisters in the palms, callus palms, arched spinal cord and waste pains over time.

  8. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  9. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  10. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sanghi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% consistency with crude xylanase (6 IU/g o.d. pulp at 60 ºC for 2 h increased the final brightness by 4.9%. The enzyme treatment reduced the chlorine consumption by 28.6% with the same brightness as in the control. A reduction in kappa number and increase in viscosity was observed after enzyme pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loosening and swelling of pulp fibers. The strength properties viz. grammage, fiber thickness, beating degree, tensile index, breaking length, tear index and double fold of the treated pulp were improved as compared to the control pulp. This study reveals the potential of B. subtilis ASH xylanase as a biobleaching agent for the paper and pulp industry.

  11. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

  12. Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C.N Fokunang; Dixon, A. G. O.; T Ikotun; E.A. Tembe; C.N.Akem; ASIEDU, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming population dep...

  13. Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especially important in the northeastern (NE) part of the country, where poverty and malnutrition rates are higher than in the rest of the country. However, despite the crop?s dietary importance, relative...

  14. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  15. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    OpenAIRE

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be directly applied in existing varieties of vegetatively propagated crops like cassava. Genetic modification requires efficient, genotype-independent regeneration methods. Plant regeneration can be a...

  16. Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic acid) dec...

  17. Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib M.A. Nassar

    2000-01-01

    All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

  18. Supplementation of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, N-balance and Urinary Purine Derivatives in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    N. Nontaso; S. Wanapat; C. Navanukroaw; C. Wachirapakorn; Wanapat, M.; Polyorach, S.

    2011-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangements in a 4x4 Latin square design to study effects of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil (CO) on rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient digestibility. Two factors were used; Factor A-Source of protein; Soy Bean Meal (SBM), Cassava Hay (CH) and factor B-non-heating of YFL+CO (YCOH) and heating of YFL+CO (at 50°C) (YCOH). Animals received four dietary treatments as follows: T1 = SBM+YCO; T2...

  19. Improving the efficiency of enzyme utilization for sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a carbohydrate-rich residue of table sugar processing. It shows promise as a feedstock for fermentable sugar and biofuel production via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. This research focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP and examined the effects of solid loading (2-10 %, dry basis), enzyme preparation, and enzyme recycle on the production of fermentable sugars. The enzyme partitioning to the solid and liquid phases during SBP enzymatic hydrolysis and loss during recycling were investigated using SDS-PAGE and Zymogram analysis. Without considering product inhibition, the cellulase added initially to the SBP hydrolysis lost only 6 % filter paper activity and negligible carboxymethyl cellulose activity upon multiple cycles of SBP hydrolysis. It was found that enzyme dosage can be reduced by 50 % while maintaining similar, and in some cases higher fermentable sugar yield. The removal of hydrolysis products will further improve enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP for biofuel production. PMID:22580744

  20. Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Owolade

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis in selected cassava genotypes. A complete diallel mating scheme including reciprocals of nine resistant and susceptible genotypes of cassava were evaluated in the field over a period of two planting seasons. The combining ability analysis revealed that both the additive and nonadditive gene effects were present. Crosses between the resistant lines and susceptible genotypes showed intermediate disease reaction to CAD suggesting a polygenic system of resistance to the disease. The significant maternal and specific reciprocal differences among the parents and crosses indicated that maternal and/or cytoplasmic inheritance is involved in the reaction of cassava genotypes to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. The significant genotype X environment interaction suggested lack of stability in the development of lesions/cankers on cassava stems. Therefore, recurrent selection would be appropriate for accumulating genes for resistance to CAD in cassava and progeny performance may not be based on their parents performance per se.

  1. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:26220821

  2. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Hattori, F.; Inoue, H.

    1979-02-17

    In alcohol manufacture by the modified amylo process, addition of a saccharifying amylase preparation of dextrose equivalent > 95% reduces the saccharification period and raises the alcohol yield. Thus, 2.5 kg potato mash was diluted to 7 l, steamed, and inoculated with Rhizopus delemar and Aspergillus oryzae. Aeration with or without amylase and subsequent fermentation with yeast gave 94.1 or 92.8% alcohol in 85 hours, respectively.

  3. Electric pulp testing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Chandler, N P

    2008-05-01

    Electric pulp testing (EPT) has been available for more than a century and used in dental practices worldwide. This article provides an overview of this diagnostic aid. The PubMed database from 1953 was used initially; the reference list for pulp testing featured 1071 articles, and for EPT identified 121 papers. A forward search was undertaken on these articles and using selected author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, while older textbooks on endodontics, operative dentistry and pain revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically. A short account of the innervation of the pulp is followed by an historic overview. Clinical considerations discussed include tooth isolation, glove wearing and tester electrode placement. Orthodontic treatment, pacemaker wearing and patient medications are considered. Research applications are also discussed. While EPT is valuable, no single pulp testing technique can reliably diagnose all pulp conditions. Careful collection of patient history regarding the problem tooth and prudent use of appropriate radiographs are also helpful. The shortcomings of electric tests, especially in the case of immature and concussed teeth, must be understood. The demeanour of the patient and the responses given by control teeth also require careful consideration. PMID:18298572

  4. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of ?-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% ?-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  5. Fermentation Characteristics of Rice Crop Residue-Based Silage Treated by Epiphytic and Commercial LAB

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B; B. Tj. Hariadi; Alimuddin; D. Y. Seseray

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control;...

  6. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s). PMID:15907080

  7. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  8. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane da Cunha, Salata; Magali, Leonel; Fernanda Rossi Moretti, Trombini; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture) and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed) on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A centra [...] l composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*), and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%), low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%), and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C) and screw speed (230rpm), it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  9. Study on the development of methanogenic microflora during anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Labat, M.; Garcia, Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01

    The pattern of increase in cell number in 12 different groups of bacteria was studied during anaerobic digestion of enzymatically prehydrolysed sugar beet pulp in a 70-1 fermentor with sequential feeding over a period of 130 days. Glucose-fermenting bacteria accounted for 90 % of the total microflora as estimated by direct epifluorescence. Strictly anaerobic bacteria were largely dominant ; only 10 % were methanogens. Sulphate-reducing bacteria accounted for 0.1 % of the total microflora. The...

  10. Reinforcement ability of mechanical pulp fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the reasons why the long fibres of mechanical pulp do not seem to reinforce paper as effectively as chemical reinforcement pulp. A preliminary laboratory trial showed that artificially increasing the average fibre length of TMP pulp by adding long fibres extracted from the same pulp increased the tear index, but decreased the tensile strength, internal bond strength and the fracture energy. Increasing the average fibre strength with chemical (N...

  11. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  12. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  13. Dietary fibre and fermentability characteristics of root crops and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallillin, Aida C; Trinidad, Trinidad P; Raterta, Ruby; Dagbay, Kevin; Loyola, Anacleta S

    2008-09-01

    The dietary fibre and fermentability characteristics of local root crops and legumes were determined. Total, soluble and insoluble fibre were determined in six root crops (kamote, gabi, potato, tugi, ube, cassava) and ten legumes (mungbean, soyabean, peanut, pole sitao, cowpea, chickpea, green pea, lima bean, kidney bean and pigeon pea) using Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. The dietary fibre from test foods was isolated and fermented in vitro using human faecal inoculum simulating conditions in the human colon. The SCFA, e.g. acetate, propionate, butyrate, produced after fibre fermentation was measured using HPLC. The dietary fibre content of root crops ranged from 4.6 to 13.5 g/100 g while legumes ranged from 20.9 to 46.9 g/100 g, suggesting that root crops and legumes are good sources of dietary fibre. Significant amounts of SCFA were produced after in vitro fermentation of the fibre isolate of both root crops and legumes. The best sources (as mmol/g fibre isolate) of acetate among the legumes were pole sitao (5.6 (sem 0.5)) and mungbean (5.3 (sem 0.1)) and among the root crops, tugi (2.5 (sem 0.4)) and cassava (2.4 (sem 0.1)); of propionate, kidney bean (7.2 (sem 1.5)) and pigeon pea (3.3 (sem 0.2)) for legumes, and tugi (1.8 (sem 0.2)) for root crops; and of butyrate, peanut (6.0 (sem 0.2)) and cowpea (5.4 (sem 0.2)) for legumes, and tugi (0.8 (sem 0.0)) and cassava (0.8 (sem 0.0)) for root crops. In conclusion, root crops and legumes are good sources of dietary fibre and produced SCFA after fibre fermentation, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA production after in vitro fermentation can be estimated using human faecal inoculum and can be used to model the human colon. PMID:18331664

  14. Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs

  15. Progress made in FEC transformation of cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Raemakers, K.; Schreuder, M.; Pereira, I.; Munyikwa, T.; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    In cassava friable embryogenic callus (FEC) has been used to obtain transgenic plants using particle bombardment, electroporation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. FEC cultures have been obtained in 6 of the 10 tested genotypes. In all genotypes FEC could be regenerated into plants, however the efficiency differed between the genotypes. Almost all plants regenerated from 6 months old FEC cultures of TMS604444, Adira 4, Thai 5 and M7 were morphological similar to control plants. However, in R60 ...

  16. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahekar S; Kale R

    2013-01-01

    The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this...

  17. Modeling and Optimising the Growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae During Gathotan Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI PURWANDARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gathotan is fungal fermented cassava, and a raw material for a Javanese snack called ‘gathot’. This type of food is now hardly to find, and the process of making gathotan is relatively lack of process control, leads to failure in process. To make gathotan, peeled cassava tubers are left on the ground or roof for several weeks or months until they become black inside an important characteristic of gathotan. This work aims to improve gathotan fermentation by optimizing fermentation process. The effect of incubation temperature and time, inoculum level, soaking time, and drying, on the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the main gathotan fungus, in cassava tubers was studied. Experimental design was set up according to response surface methodology. Five parameters measured were pH, titratable acidity, and fungal growth. Results showed that incubation temperature affected pH in linear (P<0.01 and quadratic functions (P<0.05. Titratable acidity was not affected by any treatment. Fungal growth was significantly affected by incubation time (P<0.01 or inoculum level (P<0.05, and interaction of several factors: incubation time and incubation temperature (P<0.05 or drying time (P<0.01. Optimization model indicated that incubation temperature at 34.5°C for 2.4 days, soaking for 26.4 hours, drying time of 3.7 hours at 40°C, and inoculum level of 2% resulted in maximum growth of L. theobromae in gathotan.

  18. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; José L. Gomide,; Luiz C. A. Barbosa,; Célia R. A. Maltha,; Fernando José Borges Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH) and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP)-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash) was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the afo...

  20. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Hamzeh; Ali Abyaz; Mahsa O-Sadat Mirfatahi Niaraki; Ali Abdulkhani

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  1. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase.

  2. Optimization of Ethanol Production Process from Cassava Starch by Surface Response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, López Zamora; José Amir, González Calderón; Evangelina, Trujillo Vázquez; Eusebio, Bolaños Reynoso.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo muestra el estudio del proceso optimización de obtención de etanol a partir del almidón de yuca, mediante el planteamiento de un diseño 2² con tres puntos centrales y usando un software estadístico para analizar los resultados. Esta metodología fue aplicada tanto para la etapa de sac [...] arificación del almidón de yuca mediante hidrólisis ácida como para la etapa de fermentación empleando Socchoromyces cerevisioe. A partir de los datos experimentales de la hidrólisis ácida, se propone un modelo cinético de primer orden el cual presentó un error promedio del 1.87 % con respecto a la regresión cuadrática obtenida. El desarrollo de un proceso semi-contínuo mostró una conversión del 89.84 % del almidón inicialmente considerado, obteniéndose una concentración final de etanol del 49.76 % Alc/vol. Abstract in english This work shows the study of the optimization process for producing ethanol from cassava starch based on 2² experimental designs with three central points and using statistical software. This methodology was applied to the stage of saccharification of cassava starch by acid hydrolysis as well as to [...] the stage of fermentation using Socchoromyces cerevisioe. From the experimental data of acid hydrolysis, we proposed a first-order kinetic model which presented an average error of 1.87 % compared to the quadratic regression obtained. The development of a semicontinuous process showed a 89.84 % conversion of starch initially considered, yielding an ethanol concentration of 49.76 % Alc/vol.

  3. Avaliação da farinha de mandioca e do fubá de milho como substratos para a obtenção de bebida fermento-destilada / Evaluation of cassava and corn flours as substrates for alcoholic distilled beverage production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. M., Demiate; M., Leonel; S., Damasceno; K. C., Maeda; C.L.C. de, Lima; M.M., Sartori; M. P., Cereda.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca e o fubá de milho foram avaliados como matérias-primas alternativas na obtenção de uma bebida fermento-destilada, visando gerar informações úteis à aplicação industrial. Os substratos foram caracterizados e comparou-se a eficiência da mosturação, o perfil de açúcares no mosto, [...] bem como as curvas de fermentação dos substratos. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo de amido foi de 78,1 % para o fubá de milho e 92,7 % para a farinha de mandioca. Quanto ao rendimento da mosturação foi de 57, 4 % para o milho e 66,4 % para a mandioca, sendo que o perfil de açúcares no mosto demonstrou que 95 % dos açúcares presentes no mosto de mandioca foi glicose e o restante pequenas porcentagens de dextrinas e maltose. Já o perfil do mosto de milho apresentou cerca de 85 % de glicose , 10 % de dextrinas e cerca de 4 % de maltose. Para o processo fermentativo, observou -se que o consumo de açúcares no mosto de mandioca foi mais rápido que no mosto de milho. Abstract in english Cassava and corn flours were evaluated as alternative raw-materials for production of a fermented and distilled drink. The objective of this work was to generate information for technological application. Both flours were characterized and starch hydrolysis efficiency, sugar profile and fermentation [...] pattern were compared. The results obtained showed that starch content of corn flour was 78.1% and for cassava flour 92.7%. Starch hydrolysis yield was 57.4% for corn and 66.4% for cassava and the sugar profiles in the hydrolysates showed that 95% of total sugar present in cassava hydrolysate was glucose and the remaining fraction was represented by dextrins and maltose. For corn hydrolysate 85% of total sugar was glucose, 10% dextrins and around 4% maltose. The fermentative process was evaluated by measuring the velocity of sugar consumption which for cassava hydrolysate was higher than for corn hydrolysate.

  4. GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

  5. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  6. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  7. REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto I. Korpinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

  8. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

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    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath. Setelah suhu mencapai 630C, kantung plastik diambil kemudian ditambah hidrogen peroksida sebanyak 4% dari pulp kering dan aquadest sehingga mencapai konsistensi 5%. Campuran dimasukkan kedalam water bath untuk dipanaskan lebih lanjut hingga 2 jam. Hal yang sama dilakukan pada berbagai kadar hidrogen peroksida, waktu dan pH. Pada akhir proses, pulp dipisahkan dengan filtratnya dan dicuci dengan aquades. Filtrat yang diperoleh dianalisa sisa hidrogen peroksidanya. Pulp yang diperoleh dianalisa derajat putih, kekuatan serat serta bilangan kappanya. Maksimum derajat putih yang bisa dicapai adalah 62,1% ISO, bilangan kappa 6,86 dan fiber strength 1,02 kg/15mm yang dicapai pada pemakaian H2O2 16%, pH 11 selama 5 jam. Pencapaian ini hampir sama dengan hasil yang dicapai ketika penambahan H2O2 4%. Ketidak efektifan pemakaian H2O2 disini disebabkan oleh adanya beberapa metal ion yang ada di dalam pulp yang bertindak sebagai katalisator terjadinya reaksi dekomposisi dari H2O2 membentuk oksigen dan air yang tidak efektif dalam memberikan efek terhadap proses pemutihan. Untuk meningkatkan bleach ability dari hydrogen peroksida, perlu dilakukan treatment awal untuk mengeluarkan metal ion dari pulp.

  9. Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Abbasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

  10. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  11. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; P.I. Ater

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  12. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

  13. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes. PMID:25707473

  14. Cassava genetic transformation and its application in breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zheng, Qijie; Ma, Qiuxiang; Gadidasu, Kranthi Kumar; Zhang, Peng

    2011-07-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones. Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality, building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide. PMID:21564542

  15. Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  16. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  17. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21–24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  18. ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requejo,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm, using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, ?-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

  19. NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF THE WASTE OF SACCHARIFICATION PROCESS FROM CASSAVA BAGASSE ON THE LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Ali-Mursyid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy value of the waste of saccharification process from cassava bagasse (WSPCB on the laying hens. Twenty ISA-Brown laying hens at the age of 72 weeks were randomly distributed into three feeding treatments which consisted of cassava bagase (CB, WSPCB of solid state fermentation method (WSPCB-SSF, and WSPCB of sub merged fermentation method (WSPCB-SmF. All of the hens were fasted for 24 hours and 15 of them were fed with CB, WSPCB-SSF and WSPCB-SmF (five hens for each test-diet. The other five hens were still fasted. Then, all of the hens were fasted again and their excreta were collected during 48 hours. The nutrient digestibilities which were measured consisted of the Apparent and True Digestibility of Dry matter (ADDM and TDDM, Crude Fiber (ADCF and TDCF, Starch (ADS and TDS, and the Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy (AME and TME. The result of this research showed that the saccharification process generated the solid waste with the nutrient digestibility value (ADDM, TDDM, ADS, TDS, AME, and TME which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of CB. The crude fiber digestibility value of the WSPCB has an oposite phenomenon in which the ADCF and TDCF of WSPCB-SmF were greater than CB. In conclusion, the nutrient digestibility value, except for ADCF and TDCF, of the WSPCB on the laying hens were lower in value than those CB.

  20. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production. PMID:26002147

  1. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  2. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.; Haggblade, S.; Brimer, Leon

    2011-01-01

    perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  3. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2002-10-01

    To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P H. griseus > V. variegata; P pulp and citrus pectin (P beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs. PMID:12368398

  4. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low. PMID:24500620

  5. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  6. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  7. Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca / Cooking time and texture of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Vilela, Talma; Selma Bergara, Almeida; Rozana Moreira Pereira, Lima; Henrique Duarte, Vieira; Pedro Amorim, Bebert.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes for [...] am cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento); GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte) e análise de correlação de Pearson (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Ja [...] neiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time), GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance) and Pearson's correlation analysis (p

  8. Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement of cassava marketing efficiency and development.

  9. Novos clones de mandioca obtidos por cruzamento entre cultivares / New clones of cassava obtained by crossing cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nélson C., Schmidt; Araken S., Pereira.

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o comportamento de alguns cruzamentos entre os cultivares Mantiqueira e Cafelha de Manihot esculenta CRANTZ. Fez-se o plantio de linhas alternadas desses clones para obtenção dos cruzamentos. Foram realizadas durante quatro anos observações sobre o comportamento dos cruzamentos obtidos e [...] , no grupo citado no quadro 1, destacaram-se os de números 17 e 50 com relação ao stand final, produtividade e resistência às moléstias. A comparação desses clones foi sempre feita com o 'Mantiqueira', considerado como o tratamento testemunha. Foram tão produtivos quanto o 'Mantiqueira', possuindo, no entanto, película clara, feloderma e polpa brancos, o que constitui grande vantagem do ponto de vista industrial. Abstract in english The behavior of six clones of Manihot esculenta cv. Mantiqueira (sweet cassava) X cv. Cafelha (bitter cassava) was analysed. The clones N. 17 and N. 50 were selected on the basis of four years of observations on final stand, productivity and resistance to diseases and pests. The new clones showed to [...] be as productive as 'Mantiqueira' however, their root skin, phelloderm and pulp are white and consequently are of higher industrial value. Concerning disease resistance the results showed that the clones N. 17 and N. 50 were as good as the Mantiqueira cultivars and better than the other four clones.

  10. Novos clones de mandioca obtidos por cruzamento entre cultivares New clones of cassava obtained by crossing cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélson C. Schmidt

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o comportamento de alguns cruzamentos entre os cultivares Mantiqueira e Cafelha de Manihot esculenta CRANTZ. Fez-se o plantio de linhas alternadas desses clones para obtenção dos cruzamentos. Foram realizadas durante quatro anos observações sobre o comportamento dos cruzamentos obtidos e, no grupo citado no quadro 1, destacaram-se os de números 17 e 50 com relação ao stand final, produtividade e resistência às moléstias. A comparação desses clones foi sempre feita com o 'Mantiqueira', considerado como o tratamento testemunha. Foram tão produtivos quanto o 'Mantiqueira', possuindo, no entanto, película clara, feloderma e polpa brancos, o que constitui grande vantagem do ponto de vista industrial.The behavior of six clones of Manihot esculenta cv. Mantiqueira (sweet cassava X cv. Cafelha (bitter cassava was analysed. The clones N. 17 and N. 50 were selected on the basis of four years of observations on final stand, productivity and resistance to diseases and pests. The new clones showed to be as productive as 'Mantiqueira' however, their root skin, phelloderm and pulp are white and consequently are of higher industrial value. Concerning disease resistance the results showed that the clones N. 17 and N. 50 were as good as the Mantiqueira cultivars and better than the other four clones.

  11. Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phengpricha, N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

  12. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.; Sablah, Mawuli

    processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality...... and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF....

  13. Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

  14. Cellulosic pulp from "Leucaena diversifolia" by soda–ethanol pulping process

    OpenAIRE

    López Baldovín, Francisco; Pérez Muñoz, Antonio; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; García Gómez, M. M.; Férnandez Martínez, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A selection of the best wood raw materials for cellulose pulp and papermaking from five varieties of the Leucaena has been made (Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena collinsii and three varieties of Leucaena leucocephala) with growth periods of one, two and three years. In accordance with biomass production and the features of the raw materials and cellulose pulp obtained, L. diversifolia in its second year of growth was selected as the most suitable material for pulp and papermaking. Pulping of L...

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali/peracetic acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Song, Yuanquan; Liu, Dehua

    2011-09-10

    The enzymatic digestibility of alkali/peracetic acid (PAA)-pretreated bagasse was systematically investigated. The effects of initial solid consistency, cellulase loading and addition of supplemental ?-glucosidase on the enzymatic conversion of glycan were studied. It was found the alkali-PAA pulp showed excellent enzymatic digestibility. The enzymatic glycan conversion could reach about 80% after 24 h incubation when enzyme loading was 10 FPU/g solid. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results indicated that the pulp could be well converted to ethanol. Compared with dilute acid pretreated bagasse (DAPB), alkali-PAA pulp could obtain much higher ethanol and xylose concentrations. The fermentation broth still showed some cellulase activity so that the fed pulp could be further converted to sugars and ethanol. After the second batch SSF, the fermentation broth of alkali-PAA pulp still kept about 50% of initial cellulase activity. However, only 21% of initial cellulase activity was kept in the fermentation broth of DAPB. The xylose syrup obtained in SSF of alkali-PAA pulp could be well converted to 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae CGMCC 1.9131. PMID:22112569

  16. Tailoring dissolving pulp properties using steam explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Antti-Einari

    2014-01-01

    In recent years demand of dissolving grade pulp has grown together with the interest in man-made cellulosic fibers. In this research, steam explosion (SE) was studied as a purification technique in manufacture of high purity dissolving pulp. It was hypothesized that steam explosion could extract hemicellulose from chemical pulp as well as improve accessibility and reactivity of cellulose with a concurrent reduction in degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose. The goal of this study was to a...

  17. Photon migration in pulp and paper

    OpenAIRE

    Saarela, J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The thesis clearly demonstrates that photon migration measurements allow characterization of pulp and paper properties, especially the fines and filler content of pulp, and the basis weight, thickness and porosity of paper. Pulp and paper are materials with a worldwide significance. Their properties strongly depend on the manufacturing process used. For efficient process control, the employed monitoring and measuring has to be fast. Therefore it is worthwhile to try to develop...

  18. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  19. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  20. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and ?- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an ?-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% ?-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  1. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H.O.

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  2. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  3. Study of survival time in pulp export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the time for a country to survive exporting pulp, using a Cox regression model. Covariates being used included data about population, Gross Domestic Product, total exports of forest products as an aggregate, pulp production and balance of trade for pulp, economic markets and blocks, and geographic regions. To select and check the most significant covariates, a proposal formulated by Collet (1994 was used. It was concluded that survival analysis via the Cox regression model proved to be a powerful tool for predicting the survival of a country exporting pulp; around 80% of countries that have pulp in their list of exports continue to export the commodity; out of the fifteen covariates selected for fitting the Cox model, four explain the model and two were found significant in explaining the survival of a country exporting pulp; international trade agreements were more significant in the Cox regression model than classes of macroeconomic forest indicators and geographic location; covariates explaining the odds of a country exporting pulp to survive, according to the hazard ratio, were, in descending order, integration between ECLAC and European Union, be a member of the European Union (V07 and be a member of ECLAC (V6; Brazil has 3.5 times as much chance of survival exporting pulp through an integration between ECLAC and the European Union than a country that is not a part of such integration; the probability that Brazil will survive exporting pulp is greater than the probability that Asian countries will.

  4. Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

  5. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

  6. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  7. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  8. Pengaruh Penambahan Alkali Terhadap Karakteristik Bioplastik Tepung Porang -Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhan Sultoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan bioplastik terus dilakukan guna mengurangi dampak pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh sampah plastik nondegradable. Pati merupakan bahan yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan dasar bioplastik, termasuk pati porang dan cassava. Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan alkali (NaOH dan KOH terhadap karakteristik bioplastik tepung porang-cassava, dengan variasi komposisi massa cassava terhadap tepung porang sebesar 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% dan 50%. Karakteristik film bioplastik didapatkan dengan pengujian tarik, pengujian swelling, pengujian FTIR dan pengujian biodegradabilitas. Sampel bioplastik yang sesuai dengan standar yakni dengan penambahan NaOH tanpa penambahan cassava  yang memiliki  kekuatan tarik sebesar 0,7 MPa; derajat penggembungan 15,72% dan dapat terurai dalam 3 hari, dengan laju degradasi sebesar 0,035 gr/hari.

  9. Molecular characterisation of a distinct South African cassava infecting geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrie, L C; Palmer, K E; Rybicki, E P; Rey, M E

    1998-01-01

    African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) are whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs) which are widespread in cassava in Africa and cause serious yield losses. Recently, a new geminivirus affecting cassava in South Africa (SACMV) has been reported. In this work SACMV was found to have DNA-A and DNA-B components. Comparisons of amino acid sequences of the putative coat protein, and nucleotide sequences of the common region and a 687-bp DNA B fragment of SACMV with other WTGs, showed that SACMV clustered with the Old World subgroup of the Begomovirus genus of geminiviruses. Despite its bipartite nature, SACMV was most closely related to monopartite TYLCVs, but was sufficiently different to justify designating it as a distinct virus. In serological studies, SACMV grouped biologically with EACMV isolates. PMID:9856107

  10. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  11. Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Oluitan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the cassava farmers were married, literate and of about 35 years meaning that more young people were into cassava cultivation in Ile-Ife. Also, the farmers had an average of 8 members per household. The results of the regression analysis revealed that 97% of the variations in the marketed surplus of cassava were explained by the variables in the model. The result also revealed that the quantity of cassava output in kg and the family size had positive and significant effects on the marketed surplus while losses, quantity of cassava consumed in kg, payments in kind in kg, size of land in hectares had negative effects on the marketed surplus. The elasticity of marketed surplus was 1.6 meaning that the supply response was elastic indicating that the higher the price of cassava output in kg the more the quantity of cassava that will be supplied.

    Key words: Cassava Farmers; Market supply response; Nigeria; Osun State

  12. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  13. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutions 

  14. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljaji? Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  15. Enhanced butanol production from cassava with Clostridium acetobutylicum by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bo; Qian, Yi; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Pang, Zong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    To obtain strains exhibiting high levels of solvent tolerance and butanol production, wild type strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum butanol-producing strain GX01 and Lactobacillus mucosae butanol-tolerant strain M26 were subjected to mutagenesis combining N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction with genome shuffling. After four successive rounds of genome shuffling, the C. acetobutylicum shuffled strain GS4-3 showing greater levels of fermentation performances (such as secreting a higher level of amylase, improving the thermal stability, and possessing greater environmental robustness) compared to the wild type strains was isolated. As a result, after optimization of culture conditions, mutant GS4-3 produced 32.6 g/L of total solvent, 20.1 g/L of butanol production, and 0.35 g/L/h of butanol productivity, which were, respectively, increased by 23.5, 23.3, and 40.0 % than the wild-type strain GX01, in a 10 L bioreactor. The enhanced production of butanol and tolerance of solvent of mutant associated with GS4-3 make it promising for acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation from cassava (Manihot esculenta). Compared to the parental strain (blue), the shuffled strain exhibited the more excellent performances for butanol production from different carbon sources. PMID:26925615

  16. Biodegradable films made from raw and acetylated cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio D. S. Larotonda; Kátia N. Matsui; Valdir Soldi; João B. LAURINDO

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out to produce biodegradable films from cassava starch. Two alternatives were investigated. In the first, films were obtained by starch gelatinization followed by thermopressing and glycerol was used at different concentrations as a plasticizer. In the second, starch acetate films were obtained by solubilization of cassava starch acetate in organic solvents, followed by casting on a glass plate and drying at room temperature. The films obtained by gelatinization were tran...

  17. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enete, AA.; Igbokwe, EM.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of p...

  18. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  19. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  20. Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib M.A. Nassar; Marco André R. Vieira; Clibas Vieira; Dario Gratapaglia

    1998-01-01

    Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.A Apomixia mantém a heterose e evita a transmissão de patógenos sistêmicos que acompanham a propagação vege...

  1. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 2...

  2. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg; Haikara, A.; Lemola, E.; Laitila, A.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosp...

  3. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

  4. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  5. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava. PMID:26547558

  6. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Acetate Derivative Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Retnowati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to observe the possibility of application of microwave heating in the acetylation of cassava starch and to study the physicochemical properties of the starch acetate obtained. The acetylation was carried out by mixing native cassava starch with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide of a certain weight ratio in a sealed container. The mixture was then sprayed with ethanol and heated using microwave power. The Degree of Substitution (DS, Reaction Efficiency (RE and some physical properties of the acetylated starches were then analyzed. It was found that microwave assisted acetylation of cassava starch using chloroacetic acid can be done in a very short reaction time. The highest DS and RE obtained were 0.045 and 0.051%, respectively. Acetylation of cassava starch reduced gel hardness during storage. Acetylation also inhibits the retrogradation of starch gel. Cassava starch acetylation changed starch molecular motion, resulting in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Amylopectin retrogradation was not significantly reduced, indicating that the degrees of modification of the starches in this study were too low to cause enough steric hindrance to prevent retrogradation. The modifications were done on native starch granules; they took place preferentially on the amylose fraction, not the amylopectin fraction, thus leaving amylopectin retrogradation was mostly unaffected. It can be concluded that microwave heating can be applied in the acetylation of cassava starch to obtain significant changes of the properties of starch.

  7. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  9. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance.

  10. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  11. Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM y de fuerza atómica (AFM. Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glicerina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente. El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos.An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and glycerine, were processed at 120(0C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode. Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

  12. Effects of the kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel Cardoso de, Angelis-Pereira; Maria de Fátima Píccolo, Barcelos; Mariana Séfora Bezerra, Sousa; Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro, Pereira.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterole [...] mic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. [Protein enrichment of sugar beet bagasse for fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illanes, A; Schaffeld, G

    1982-01-01

    Leached beet pulp is a plentiful waste in the sugar beet industry in Chile, reaching 100.000 metric tons per year on a dry basis. It represents an interesting substrate for protein upgrading through fermentation by cellulolytic organisms, because of the high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, with small amounts of protein and lignin (Table 1). The fermentation of leached beet pulp by the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was studied under carbon limitation, with the celluloses as the only carbon and energy source. Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium sulphate and the medium was supplemented with other mineral salts as required for growth. Results on the kinetics of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, level of reducing sugars in the medium, mycelial growth and production of cellulolytic enzymes are presented. Mycelial growth and related parameters were evaluated by an indirect method, based on nitrogen balances during fermentation. A yield of 0.26 g. of dry cell/g. of cellulosic substrate consumed and productivity of 0.095 g. of dry cell per liter per hour were obtained and compared with reported results on similar systems. After 40 to 45 hours of fermentation, approximately 80% of the cellulose and 45% of the hemicellulose were degraded (Fig. 2). Both, exoglucanase and endoglucanase, were induced; endoglucanase was growth associated, while exoglucanase appeared later in the growth phase, reaching its maximum activity in the stationary phase (Fig. 3). The product obtained was 30% protein and only 40 to 45% residual fiber, mostly hemicellulose. Mild acid hydrolysis has been successful in degrading hemicellulose but not cellulose, in the leached beet pulp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6965247

  14. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  15. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

  16. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  17. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  18. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry Amido de mandioca na indústria brasileira de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  19. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Harvey, Jagger J. W.; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    While the physiological basis of cassava drought tolerance has been characterized, evaluation of the molecular responses to drought stress remains largely unexplored. This study provides an initial characterization of the molecular response of cassava to drought stress resembling field conditions. The candidate drought tolerance genes in cassava identified in this study can be used as expression-based markers of drought tolerance in cassava or be tested in the context of breeding and engineer...

  20. Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC and 120oC respectively.The best of white dextrin which had the highest solubility of 36.1 per cent was used to formulate the adhesive.

  1. Stem cells of the dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells of the dental pulp are a population of postnatal stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential. These cells are derived from the neural ectomesenchyme, similar to most craniofacial tissues, and specific niches in the pulp have been identified. Since the isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and stem cells from exfoliating deciduous teeth (SHED, numerous studies have attempted to define and characterize these cells, and embryonic stem cell features have been reported in both DPSC and SHED. These cells have a vast repertoire of differentiation - osteogenic, odontogenic, myogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic, and melanocytic, and have even demonstrated transdifferentiation to corneal cells and islet cells of pancreas. The combined advantages of multipotency/pluripotency and the relative ease of access of pulp tissue for autologous use render DPSC/ SHED attractive options in regenerative dentistry and medicine. This review gives a bird?s eye view of current knowledge with respect to stem cells from the dental pulp.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutnan, M; Drtil, M; Mrafkova, L

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a by-product of sugar production and consists mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Its composition is suitable for biological degradation. A possible alternative for the utilization of this material (besides cattle feeding) can be anaerobic methanogenic degradation. It has an additional advantage--biogas production. Beet pulp was treated by a two-step anaerobic process. The first step consisted of hydrolysis and acidification. The second step was methanogenesis. In this paper, observation of the process of anaerobic degradation and determination of optimal parameters is discussed. A laboratory-scale model for sugar beet pulp anaerobic biodegradation was operated. Results of model performance have shown very good pulp digestion characteristics. In addition, high efficiency removal of organic matter was achieved. Methane yield was over 0.360 m3 kg(-1) dried pulp and excess sludge production was 0.094 g per gram COD added. PMID:11432579

  3. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  4. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses. PMID:26481161

  5. Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1

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    Tofino Adriana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

  6. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  7. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  9. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  10. Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Budiyono

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

  11. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

    2006-01-01

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

  12. PULP AND FIBER CHARACTERIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW AND EUCALUPTUS PULPS - A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchuan Guo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The response to refining of wheat straw and eucalyptus pulps as well as the relationships between refining, fiber properties, and paper properties are described in this paper. Pulps were bleached applying different bleaching sequences and thereafter refined to varying degrees. Pulp and fiber properties were investigated and set into relation to the final sheet properties. The results show that wheat straw pulps respond to refining more easily than eucalyptus pulps and that the differences are due mainly to morphological and ultrastructural differences as well as fines content and xylan content. The development of strength properties of the different pulps was found to be strongly correlated to the number of dislocations, i.e. weak points in the fiber wall, as well as to the morphological appearance of the pulp fibers after refining. A higher initial number and a faster development of dislocations together with the creation of large amounts of fines explain the slower and lower development of strength properties of wheat straw pulps than of eucalyptus pulps. Removal of fines from wheat straw pulps improved not only the drainability of the pulp suspension but also the mechanical and optical sheet properties. This indicates that the fines in the wheat straw pulps act mainly as filler with low bonding properties. The fact that fractionated D(EOPD wheat straw pulps can deliver good mechanical sheet properties at very good drainability with no or only minor refining is very interesting when evaluating the potential of replacing or partially replacing eucalyptus with domestic Chinese raw materials in furnishes for production of different paper products.

  13. In vitro fermentation of structural carbohydrate-rich feeds using faecal inoculum from pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven feeds were tested in vitro using faecal inoculum from pigs. Sugar beet pulp, wheat bran, soybean hulls, grapecake, glutamic beet pulp, citrus by-product and fructo-oligo - saccharides (FOS were fermented for 96 h. Cumulative gas production was measured as indicator of the fermentation kinetics. At the end of incubation organic matter disappearance and fermentation end-products (short-chain fatty acids and NH3 were also measured. The gas production profiles were fitted with a multiphasic model. Significant differences were detected between grapecake and FOS: the very low gas production for the first one was probably due to the high lignin and tannins contents of this by-product, while the higher organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV and organic matter disappearance (OMD values for FOS were due to the high soluble fibre proportion. Soybean hulls and citrus by-product, showed similar values of degradability and gas production and were characterised by different fermentation profiles. Grapecake showed the lower fermentation, while citrus by-product was characterized high gas and short-chain fatty acids production. These characteristics could be particularly useful to optimize the caecum-colon fermentation in order to obtain a high butyrate acid production.

  14. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically. PMID:19944597

  15. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Orblin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells, usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS. The surface charge and surface area of pulp fine substrates were measured by methylene blue sorption-XPS analysis and nitrogen adsorption combined with mercury porosimetry, respectively. The driving force behind polyelectrolyte adsorption was the amount of the surface anionic charge, whereas surface area appeared to be of less importance. Based on a comparison of solid-liquid and XPS sorption isotherms, different polyelectrolyte conformations were suggested, depending on the types of fines: A flatter conformation and partial cell-wall penetration of polyelectrolytes on kraft fines from freshly prepared pulp, and a more free conformation with extended loops and tails on lignocellulosic fines from recycled pulp. Additionally, ToF-SIMS imaging proved that recycled pulp fines contained residual de-inking chemicals (primarily palmitic acid salts that possibly hinder the electrostatic interactions with polyelectrolytes.

  16. Study on the development of methanogenic microflora during anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labat, M.; Garcia, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The pattern of increase in cell number in 12 different groups of bacteria was studied during anaerobic digestion of enzymatically prehydrolysed sugar beet pulp in a 70-l fermentor with sequential feeding over a period of 130 days. Glucose-fermenting bacteria accounted for 90% of the total microflora as estimated by direct epifluorescence. Strictly anaerobic bacteria were largely dominant; only 10% were methanogens. Sulphatereducing bacteria accounted for 0.1% of the total microflora. The yield of biogas was compared with the numbers of bacteria.

  17. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

  18. Effect of Intercropping and Organic Manures on Weed Control and Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mohamed Amanullah; A. Alagesan; K. Vaiyapuri; K. Sathyamoorthi; S. Pazhanivelan

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of intercropping and organic manures on weed control and performance of cassava at Veterinary College and Research Institute Farm, Namakkal during 2001 and 2002. The popular hybrid of cassava H 226 was tried as test crop. Three intercropping systems viz., sole cassava, cassava + maize (var. African tall) and cassava + cowpea (var. CO 5) were assigned to main plots. Six organic manurial treatments viz., FYM (25 t ha-1), Poultry manure (10...

  19. Molecular evidence for diverse populations of cassava-infecting begomoviruses in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Rey, M E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe results obtained from screening field populations of begomoviruses from infected cassava from six countries in southern Africa. It was found that African cassava mosaic virus occurs in five of the six countries (except Angola), East African cassava mosaic virus is present in five countries (except Zambia) and South African cassava mosaic virus was detected only in South Africa and Swaziland. In addition, we report for the first time in southern Africa, the appearance of the Ugandan variant virus (UgV) which was found frequently in mixed infections with other cassava-infecting begomoviruses. PMID:11699964

  20. Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2012-10-01

    Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

  1. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  2. Determination of the water sorption isotherms for cassava flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner André dos Santos Conceição

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a nourishing food and widely consumed in Brazil in the form of flour. However, it is necessary a more detailed study of the physical-chemical properties of the cassava flour and thus optimize its processing steps such as drying. The objective of this work was to obtain the water sorption isotherms for the cassava flour at different temperatures. For this aim, experiments were carried out using the static method with saturated saline solutions at 30, 40, 60 and 70°C. The data obtained were adjusted on available literature equations using the software MATLAB R2007b. The results indicate that the temperature ranging from 40 to 70°C does not significantly influence the cassava flour equilibrium moisture. It was also found  that both Halsey and Smith's isotherm can be used to predict the cassava flour equilibrium moisture. Furthermore, it was observed a small variation in the equilibrium moisture for water activity ranging from 0 to 0.8.

  3. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Yelick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  4. On the beating of reinforcement pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Eero

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the effect of reinforcement pulp beating on the strength of mechanical pulp-dominated paper. The main purpose of reinforcement pulp beating is to improve the runnability of paper. The first objective of this study was to maximize the runnability related strength properties by beating. It was assumed that the flaw-resisting ability of paper correlates with the runnability of the dry paper web. In-plane fracture properties were assumed ...

  5. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. PMID:26456453

  6. Dehydrated chicory pulp as an alternative soluble fibre source in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maertens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fibre (SF is an important nutrient to enhance fermentative activity and gut health in rabbits. The main source of SF in rabbit diets is sugar beet pulp (SBP, whereas, due to its high content of SF (34%, dried chicory pulp (ChP could be an alternative to SBP. In a fattening trial with 192 hybrid weanlings 32 d old weighing 837±45 g, chicory pulp was used in replacement of SBP to study effects on production performances and slaughter characteristics. Rabbits were fed one of 4 iso-energetic (9.65 MJ digestible energy/kg and isonitrogenous (15.6% crude protein diets: a negative control (NC diet with a low dietary SF content (7.3%, a positive control diet with quite a high SBP level (13.5% and SF content (10.6% and 2 diets with respectively 10% and 20% of chicory pulp (ChP10: 9.9% SF and ChP20: 13.7% SF. The SF content was measured as the difference between total dietary fibre and neutral detergent fibre, the latter corrected for ash and protein content. Each dietary treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 4 rabbits. Weight gain was high (on av. 54 g/d and comparable for the NC, SBP and ChP diets. However, feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05 with the ChP20 diet compared to the NC diet (2.88 vs. 2.97. Mortality was low and not influenced by the dietary treatment. Slaughter data were very similar and no effect of the SF level on caecal weight or slaughter yield was observed. It was concluded that chicory pulp is a good alternative soluble fibre source in balanced diets for rabbits and can be used at least up to 20% inclusion rate.

  7. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  8. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Israel González,; Sami Boufi; Maria Angels Pèlach; Manel Alcalà; Fabiola Vilaseca; Pere Mutjé

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these di...

  9. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling TAS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7] of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%. The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity; one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the probable importance of this part of Africa as a source of diversity and evolutionary change both during the early stages of the relationship between CMGs and cassava and in more recent times. The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent.

  10. Pulp testers and pulp testing with particular reference to the use of dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, E H

    1977-08-01

    Pulp testing is mandatory before any operative procedures, invaluable in the diagnosis of pain and is an essential adjunct in the interpretation of radiolucent areas. Methods of pulp testing are reviewed and the use of dry ice for this purpose is discussed in detail. Limitations of pulp testing are considered. Vitality tests are of only limited use in traumatized teeth. The results are only qualitative and not quantitative. PMID:277144

  11. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers. PMID:23325479

  12. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  13. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Igile Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

  14. Asian fungal fermented food

    OpenAIRE

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegetables, meat and fish. This chapter focuses on some representative foods, their traditional manufacturing, the major fungi involved in the fermentation, the biochemical changes taking place during fe...

  15. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  16. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

  17. Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Fokunang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming population depending on the crop for their livelihood. This paper reviews the importance of the crop in terms of food security, CAD disease symptoms, epidemiology, yield losses and the possible control options within the frame work of integrated pest management systems (IPMS.

  18. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Zehong; Ma, Fangfang; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Allen, Doug K; Brutnell, Thomas P; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Li, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    To examine the interactions of starch and sugar metabolism on photosynthesis in cassava, a heat-girdling treatment was applied to petioles of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the beginning of the light cycle, inhibited photosynthesis, and affected intracellular sugar levels. RNA-seq analysis of heat-treated and control plants revealed significantly decreased expression of genes related to photosynthesis, as well as N-metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, expression of genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondria electron transport components, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes were induced. These studies reveal a dynamic transcriptional response to perturbation of sink demand in a single leaf, and provide useful information for understanding the regulations of cassava under sink or source limitation. PMID:25672661

  19. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails. PMID:15630627

  20. Non dimensional analysis of cassava transient drying in packing beds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Santamaria; N., Durango; A., Bula; M., Sanjuan.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient mass transfer process is analyzed for cassava drying (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in a pack bed. Experiments were performed in a thermally insulated radial dryer, considering cylindrical pieces of non peeled cassava with three different thicknesses: 4, 6, and 8 mm. The void fractions conside [...] red were 0.22, 0.49, 0.64 and 0.66, while the temperature values were 50ºC and 70ºC. The humidity removed from the cassava was measured from 10 pieces randomly selected at the beginning of the process. These pieces were weighed every 15 minutes during a three hours period. From the data gathered a non linear regression model was attained as a function of non dimensional numbers, which is valid for the following ranges: 700?Re?1900, 10000?Sc?31000, 0

  1. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  2. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  3. Influence of Nutrients Utilization and Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Lactic Acid by Homolactic Fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    S.T. Ogunbanwo; B.M. Okanlawon

    2009-01-01

    Homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolated from retted cassava ware screened for the production of lactic acid, pH survival and influence of nutrients utilization and cultivation conditions on the production of lactic acid by fermentation. All the Lactobacillus species isolated produced little quantity of lactic acid when grown at 30 °C in normal De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth. However, a temperature of 40 °C at initial pH of 5.5 in constituted MRS medium with 6% (w/v) carbon con...

  4. Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

  5. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, G.T.-J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been d...

  6. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G T-J; Garcia-Godoy, F

    2014-05-30

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been developed-termed revitalization or revascularization. Histologic studies from animal and human teeth receiving revitalization have shown that pulp regeneration is difficult to achieve. In tissue engineering, there are 2 approaches to regeneration tissues: cell based and cell free. The former involves transplanting exogenous cells into the host, and the latter does not. Revitalization belongs to the latter approach. A number of crucial concepts have not been well discussed, noted, or understood in the field of regenerative endodontics in terms of pulp/dentin regeneration: (1) critical size defect of dentin and pulp, (2) cell lineage commitment to odontoblasts, (3) regeneration vs. repair, and (4) hurdles of cell-based pulp regeneration for clinical applications. This review article elaborates on these missing concepts and analyzes them at their cellular and molecular levels, which will in part explain why the non-cell-based revitalization procedure is difficult to establish pulp/dentin regeneration. Although the cell-based approach has been proven to regenerate pulp/dentin, such an approach will face barriers-with the key hurdle being the shortage of the current good manufacturing practice facilities, discussed herein. PMID:24879576

  7. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  8. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  9. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  10. Electrically conductive bioplastics from cassava starch

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro A., Arrieta; Piedad F., Gañán; Samith E., Márquez; Robin, Zuluaga.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, biofilmes condutores foram sintetizados através de soluções de 100 mL de água com 3 g de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) e quantidades diferentes de glicerina, glutaraldeído, polietilenoglicol e perclorato de lítio. Estes filmes foram caracterizados por espectrosco [...] pia de impedância eletroquímica (EIS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectrometria de reflexão total atenuada no infravermelho com transforma de Fourier (ATR-FTIR), termogravimetria (TG). Os resultados mostraram que os biofilmes com quantidades mais elevadas de perclorato de lítio possuem valores maiores de condutividade e as diferenças morfológica e molecular foram observadas como sendo um resultado das proporções adicionadas dos compostos em cada uma das rotas de preparação Abstract in english In the current work, conductor biofilms were synthesized by means of solutions of 100 mL of water with 3 g of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and different amounts of glycerin, glutaraldehyde, polyethyleneglycol and lithium perchlorate. These biofilms were characterized through electr [...] ochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR?FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Results showed that biofilms with higher amount of lithium perchlorate portray higher values of conductivity and morphological and molecular differences could be observed as a result of the added proportions of the compounds in each one of the trials.

  11. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch / Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.M., DEMIATE; A.C., BARANA; M.P., CEREDA; G., WOSIACKI.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste dire [...] tamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado com coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g), acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g), propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g) e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g), presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural. Abstract in english Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected [...] in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g), acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g), propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g) and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g), that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  12. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. DEMIATE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste diretamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado com coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g, acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g, propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g, presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural.

  13. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young leaves, leaf vein colour, colour of mature stems, colour of root pulp and number of leaf lobes. They however, differ with respect to colour of unexpanded apical and first fully expanded leaves, shape of central leaf lobe and colour of phellem and phellogen of the roots (au).

  14. Influence of Fermentation Methods on Neutral Detergent Fiber Degradation Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, D; Mertens, D R; Weisbjerg, M R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 fermentation methods, in situ (IS) in 4 lactating cows (average pH of 5.8), in vitro (IVn) with media pH of 6.8, or in vitro (IVa) with media pH adjusted to 6.0 using citric acid, on fiber degradation parameters was studied using feeds ground to different particle sizes. Corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS), barley grain (B), sugar beet pulp (BP), and rapeseed cake (RC) were ground using a shear mill. Silages were ground through 8-, 4-, 2-, or 1-mm screens, B and BP through 4-, 2-...

  15. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet pulp silage and vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemi?ski, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Results of sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) and vinasse (mixed in weight ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) co-fermentation, obtained in this study, provide evidence that addition of too high amount of vinasse into the SBPS decreases biogas yields. The highest biogas productivity (598.1mL/g VS) was achieved at the SBPS-vinasse ratio of 3:1 (w/w). Biogas yields from separately fermented SBPS and vinasse were by 13% and 28.6% lower, respectively. It was found that enzymatic pretreatment of SBPS before methane fermentation that caused partial degradation of component polysaccharides, considerably increased biogas production. The highest biogas yield (765.5mL/g VS) was obtained from enzymatic digests of SBPS-vinasse (3:1) blend (27.9% more than from fermentation of the counterpart blend, which was not treated with enzymes). The simulation of potential biogas production from all the aforementioned mixtures using the Gompertz equation showed fair fit to the experimental results. PMID:25618496

  16. Ferment in Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  17. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SriramRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  18. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  19. ORANGE BAGASSE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE AND LACCASE BY BOTRYOSPHAERIA RHODINA MAMB-05 IN SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen C. Giese; Robert F. H. Dekker; Aneli M. Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1) occurred in SSF with...

  20. Citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Induction of high yielding mutants with the help of radiation, combination treatments, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conidia of the citric acid fermenting fungal mutant Aspergillus niger 14/20 was subjected to the gamma radiation treatment. Mutants giving higher total titrable acid values than their parent strain were selected and tested under varied environmental and cultural conditions. After screening of about 2000 mutants, two of them with the highest yield of citric acid in molasses medium (62-76 mg/ml) were selected for further experiments. Further step-wise improvements of these strains are feasible, and radiation is a potential mutagen for the selection of better strains of microorganisms for the industrial use. The cassava starch has been found to be a fairly good substract for citric acid fermentation under the solid state condition and also when mixed with molasses in surface culture condition. Agro-industrial residues such as bagasse, rice straw and saw-dust could be used as a support for the fermentation of sugars to citric acid under the solid state conditions. The use of mixed culture method (amylolytic + citric acid fermenting organisms) had not been found to improve the citric acid fermentation from cassava as a basic substrate. (author). 2 refs

  1. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  2. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Asogwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

  3. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  4. Effects of hydrothermal pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemi?ski, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska-Wentel, M; Cyran, M

    2014-08-01

    The effect of Liquid Hot Water treatment conditions on the degree of sugar beet pulp (SBP) degradation was studied. The SBP was subjected to hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 120 to 200 °C. The relationship between processing temperature and parameters of liquid and solid fractions of resulting hydrolysates as well as the efficiency of their methane fermentation was determined. The highest concentration of free glucose (3.29 mg ml(-1)) was observed when the hydrolysis was conducted at 160 °C (it was 4-fold higher than that after processing at 120 °C). Total acids and aldehydes concentrations in the liquid fractions were increased from 0.005 mg ml(-1) for the untreated SBP to 1.61 mg ml(-1) after its processing at 200 °C. Parameters of the hydrolysates obtained by the LHW treatment decided of the efficiency of methane fermentation. The highest cumulative methane yield (502.50 L CH? kg(-1)VS) was obtained from the sugar beet pulp hydrolysate produced at 160 °C. PMID:24907578

  5. Effect of microwave irradiation on xylanase production from wheat bran and biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldesenbet, Fantahun; Virk, Antar Puneet; Gupta, Naveen; Sharma, Prince

    2012-05-01

    Microwave irradiation (MWI) was used as pretreatment of wheat bran and eucalyptus kraft pulp to examine its effect on xylanase production by Bacillus halodurans FNP 135 using solid state fermentation and biobleaching with xylanase, respectively. Irradiation of wheat bran under optimized conditions (600 W, 6 min, and 20 % consistency) resulted in 56.8, and 31.7 % increase in xylanase yield and water absorbance of wheat bran and 17.3 % reduction in reducing sugars content. Optimized MWI of kraft pulp at 850 W, 2 min, and 20 % consistency led to 0.9 % increase in brightness, 10 % decrease in kappa number, 7.7 % increase in water absorbance, 4.6 % decrease in tear factor, 0.9 % increase in burst factor, and 7.5 % increase in viscosity. Also, MWI enhanced xylanase-mediated biobleaching by increasing brightness (1.1 %) and decreasing kappa number (14.3 %) and leading to a total of about 20 % reduction in chlorine consumption. MWI is an economical, efficient, and environment-friendly pretreatment of wheat bran and pulp for enhanced enzyme yield and rapid heating, respectively. PMID:22528655

  6. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-10-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400?mg?L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3?g?L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45?h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53?cm(3)?h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400?g?L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation. PMID:25885093

  7. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate ?max and half saturation constant

  8. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast