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Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM) and Crude Protein (CP) degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis) of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in...

Yuangklang, C.; Traiyakun, S.; Kaewwongsa, W.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Paengkoum, P.

2011-01-01

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Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

2009-05-15

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Supplementation Levels of Palm Oil in Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Culture Fermented Cassava Pulp on Rumen Fermentation and Average Daily Gain in Crossbred Native Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine, two-years old of crossbred native cattle were used to examine the effects of supplementation levels of palm oil in yeast culture fermented cassava pulp on rumen fermentation and average daily gain. The cows were randomly allocated in a complete randomized design and three replicates (animals per treatment. The first group (control was fed on a yeast fermented cassava pulp without palm oil (YFCP0, The second group was fed yeast fermented cassava pulp + palm oil at 1% (YFCP1and third groups was fed yeast fermented cassava pulp + palm oil at 2% (YFCP2, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment diets at 2%BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that supplementation of dietary treatment on feed intake, ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG and cost production were significantly different and had highest in cattle receiving YFCP2 than those fed YFCP1, YFCP0 diets (633.1, 614.5 and 511.1 g/day of ADG and 0.92, 0.81, 0.73 US$/kgBW of cost production, respectively. The populations of bacteria and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by levels of palm oil supplementation. Especially, supplementation of YFCP2 in cattle had highest increase populations of bacteria and fungi zoospore than those fed YFCP1 and YFCP0 but decreased protozoal populations. Therefore, supplementation levels of palm oil at 2% in Yeast Culture Fermented Cassava Pulp (YFCP1 as supplement diets with rice straw as roughage source could highest improved ruminal fermentation efficiency, average daily gain including increase populations of bacteria and fungi zoospores, but decreased protozoal populations in rumen of crossbred native cattle.

Sittisak Khampa

2011-01-01

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Enrichment Value of Yeast-malate Fermented Cassava Pulp and Cassava Hay as Protein Source Replace Soybean Meal in Concentrate on Rumen Ecology in Crossbred Native Cattle  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study was to evaluate the influence supplementation levels of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Pulp (YMFCP) replace soybean meal in concentrate on feed-intake, Average Dairy Gain (ADG), rumen ecology and blood metabolites in crossbred native cattle. Five, two years of female crossbred native cattles weighing at 25010 kg were randomly assigned according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean rat...

Uthai Koatdoke; Sommas Ittharat; Sittisak Khampa

2011-01-01

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Enrichment Value of Yeast-malate Fermented Cassava Pulp and Cassava Hay as Protein Source Replace Soybean Meal in Concentrate on Rumen Ecology in Crossbred Native Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to evaluate the influence supplementation levels of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Pulp (YMFCP replace soybean meal in concentrate on feed-intake, Average Dairy Gain (ADG, rumen ecology and blood metabolites in crossbred native cattle. Five, two years of female crossbred native cattles weighing at 25010 kg were randomly assigned according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean ratio at 0:100%; T2 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean ratio at 25:75%; T3 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean ratio at 50:50%; T4 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean ratio at 75:25%, T5 = supplementation of YMFCP replace soybean ratio at 100:0%, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.0%BW. All cows were fed ad libitum of rice straw with water and a mineral salt block. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and average daily gain were significantly different for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by supplementation levels of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Pulp (YMFCP replace soybean meal in concentrate. Moreover, supplementation levels of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Pulp (YMFCP replace soybean meal ratio at 50:50% in concentrate with rice straw as roughage source could highest improved ruminal fermentation efficiency, average daily gain including increase populations of bacteria and fungi zoospores, but decreased protozoal populations in rumen of crossbred native cattle.

Uthai Koatdoke

2011-01-01

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CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS  

OpenAIRE

Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?...

Wahono Sumaryono; Dyah Primarini; Sumarno; Nonot Soewarno; Djuma’ali

2011-01-01

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Effects of fermented cassava pulp on dry matter intake, feed digestion, conception rate and performances of dairy heifer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen crossbred Holstein Friesian heifers (307 ± 18.4 kg of body weight (BW)) were assigned to 4 treatments in randomized completely block design. Feed ingredients and compositions of experimental diets on DM basis are presented. Heifers were offered feed as TMR diets with a 10% refusal. Intakes and refusals were recorded daily. Experimental period consisted of 74 d, with 14-d adjustment period. During d 60 to 74, samples of feed offered were collected and BW was recorded. Diet composites were analyzed for CP, Fat (AOAC, 1990) NDF, ADF (Van Soest et al., 1991). Chromic oxide was used as indicator for feed. Blood samples were analyzed for BUN, Glucose. All heifers were induced by using the 2 injection protocol of Prostaglandin F2? and Pregnancy check at day 60 after injection. All data were done using the GLM procedure of SAS (1988). The experiment data suggested that intakes of DM per day were affected (P > 0.03) by amount of cassava pulp that heifer had lower feed intake as increased ratio of cassava pulp into diet. However, it did not effect body weight change among treatments and tend to improve feeding efficiency as using more cassava pulp. Diet DM and ADF digestion had no effects among treatments (average in 60.8% and 43.3%). But NDF digestion was significantly difference (P < 0.03) that increasing amount of cassava pulp increased NDF digestion. The average blood glucose and BUN levels during 1-3 h post feeding were not significant difference amongng were not significant difference among treatments. Even blood glucose tended to decrease and BUN tended to increase. Number of oestrus heifers and pregnancy heifers were not significantly difference among treatments. Consequently, at the 50% of cassava pulp can use incorporative in diet without any effects on fertility. Cassava pulp was one of the main by-product feed from Agro-industry. The study showed that when increased a ratio of cassava pulp to 50% TMR.DM, it improved feed conversion ratio and feed utilization without effect on heifer fertility

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CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

Wahono Sumaryono

2011-11-01

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Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

Ganiyu, Oboh.

2006-01-15

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Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

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Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

12

Comparative Assessment of Fermentation Techniques in the Processing of Fufu, a Traditional Fermented Cassava Product  

OpenAIRE

Fufu is a traditional Nigerian fermented cassava food product. Due to the production of objectionable odour that is disliked by many people, two improved techniques were used to ferment cassava and its performance compared with that of the traditional process. In one process, cassava fufu was produced involving the steeping of cassava tubers for 48h followed by grating and fermenting for another 48h. Another technique involved grating cassava tubers, dewatering/fermentation for 24h bef...

Achi, O. K.; Akomas, N. S.

2006-01-01

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Efficient utilization of cassava pulp for succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122.  

Science.gov (United States)

A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 was efficiently utilized for succinate production from cassava pulp during batch separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) under simple anaerobic conditions. Succinate concentration of 41.46 ± 0.05 g/L with yield and productivity of 82.33 ± 0.14 g/100 g dry pulp and 0.84 ± 0.02 g/L/h was obtained. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), hydrolysis of 12 % (w/v) cassava pulp with an enzyme loading of 2 % AMG + 3 % Cel (v/w) at pH 6.5 was optimized at 39 °C. Succinate concentration of 80.86 ± 0.49 g/L with a yield of 70.34 ± 0.37 g/100 g dry pulp and a productivity of 0.84 ± 0.01 g/L/h was attained using E. coli KJ122. Fed-batch SSF significantly enhanced succinate concentration to 98.63 ± 0.12 g/L at yield and productivity of 71.64 ± 0.97 g/100 g dry pulp and 1.03 ± 0.01 g/L/h. This result indicated an efficient and economical succinate production from cassava pulp using SHF and SSF by the use of E. coli KJ122. PMID:25030337

Sawisit, Apichai; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

2015-01-01

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Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925  

OpenAIRE

Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for eth...

Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Prapassorn Rugthaworn; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Warunee Thanapase; Akihiko Kosugi; Takamitsu Arai; Yutaka Mori; Yoshinori Murata

2013-01-01

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Influence of Exogenous Microbial Enzyme Supplements in Layer Breeder Diets Containing Cassava Pulp  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to examine the benefits of using cassava pulp in layer breeder diet. Six hundred and eight female and sixty four male Hisex Layer Breeders at 22 weeks of age were distributed into four different diets (a Control, Control+enzyme, Cassava pulp and Cassava pulp+enzyme). Inclusion of 10% cassava pulp and exogenous enzyme (Catazyme-P®) did not significantly affect egg production during the period of assessment (23-37 weeks of age). There were no appare...

Chauynarong, N.; Iji, P. A.

2013-01-01

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Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

2011-04-15

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Fermentation of cassava and other vegetable substances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fermentation consists of a process in which a mucoraceous fungus of the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, or Acrinomucor or a fungus of the genus Monilia is fermented on a solid or paste like substrate which is a mixture of an edible protein-deficient vegetable material known as cassava, of which the carbohydrate is mainly starch and a compound containing N in nonproteinaceous form and assimilable by the fungus to synthesize protein. Thus, tubers obtained from M. esculenta (M. utilissima are peeled, dried, and ground to give a tapioca flour. The N source is prepared by dissolving 45.8g NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and 8 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ in 200 to 300 ml distilled H/sub 2/O and to this is added inculum, 15 ml of a spore suspension of R stolonifer. The mixture is stirred into 1 kg of milled cassava flour and 300 ml of H/sub 2/O is added, so that the final moisture level is 45 +- 3%. The pH is 5.4 to 6.7 and the mixture is mixed with a machine for 10 to 12 minutes to give a stiff paste. The dough is extruded as a spaghetti 3 to 5 mm diam and strands are cut into 10 cm lengths. The strands are packed into shallow fermentation trays, which are covered with a loose fitting Al lid and placed in fermentor. Temperature is kept at 30/sup 0/ and relative humidity is kept at 95 to 97% for 72 hours. Fermentation is stopped by cooking or by deep freezing. The protein content is raised by the process from 0.2 to 4%. The initial toxicity of the cassava is also reduced.

Stanton, W.R.; Wallbridge, A.J.

1972-06-07

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Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

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Nutrient Enrichment of Cassava Starch Industry By-Product Using Rumen Microorganism as Inoculums Source  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to nutrient enriched of cassava starch industry by-product using fermentation method. The experimental design was 2 x 3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factor A was kind of cassava starch industry by-product (cassava pulp and cassava peel) and combine with factor B (unfermented, naturally fermented and rumen microorganism fermented). The results revealed that the interaction between cassava starch industry by-product and fermentation method...

Songsak Chumpawadee; Sirilak Soychuta

2009-01-01

20

Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (°C and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 °C and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

2013-10-01

21

Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

22

Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation / Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mandioca (Manihot esculenta) é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresc [...] a e raspas) por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM) e de polpa fresca (PF) foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their pr [...] oducts (fresh pulp and chips). Both cassava chip (CC) and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR) samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p

Krisada, Boonnop; Metha, Wanapat; Ngarmnit, Nontaso; Sadudee, Wanapat.

2009-10-01

23

Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber. Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were washed, peeled, grated and aseptically inoculated with pure strains of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyce cerevisae in nutrient solution respectively, before allowing them to ferment aerobically for 3 days. The fermented mash was subsequently dried and milled into cassava flour. Subsequently, the proximate, mineral and the antinutrinet composition of the cassava flour were determined. The results of the study revealed that the unfermented flour from low-cyanide cassava variety had higher protein, fibre, ash, fat, Ca, Na and K; while those produced from medium-cyanide variety, had higher antinutrinet (tannin, cyanide & phytate), Zn, Mg and Fe content. However, solid substrate fermentation of the cassava mash using Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae respectively caused a significant (P 0.05) in the ability of the fungi to decrease the antinutrient (except phytate) of the cassava flour. Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. In conclusion, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low antinutrient content and more susceptible to micro-fungi nutrient enrichment and detoxification than medium-cyanide variety. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisae was more efficient in the nutrient enrichment of the cassava flour than Rhizopus oryzae. PMID:18087867

Oboh, G; Oladunmoye, M K

2007-01-01

24

Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

P. Danvirutai

2010-01-01

25

Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada / Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi), de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp) [...] , de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc) e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn). Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5%) da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente), quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%), a SCc (43,87 e 24,20%) e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%). Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM), neutral detergente fiber (NDF) and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA) in bovines fed diet with corn (CS), cassava meal (CMS), cassava hull (CHS), and sugar cane (SCS). The CMS, CHS and SCS were [...] ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP). Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5%) (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively) than CS (45.50, 23.75%), CHS (43.87, 24.20%) and SCS (40.76, 25.78%). For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Djalma de, Freitas; Ana Karina Dias, Salman; Pedro de, Andrade; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Juliano José de Resende, Fernandes.

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Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi, de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp, de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5% da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente, quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%, a SCc (43,87 e 24,20% e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%. Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, neutral detergente fiber (NDF and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA in bovines fed diet with corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS, and sugar cane (SCS. The CMS, CHS and SCS were ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP. Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5% (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively than CS (45.50, 23.75%, CHS (43.87, 24.20% and SCS (40.76, 25.78%. For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

Roselene Nunes da Silveira

2002-01-01

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Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation  

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Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

Alese M. Colehour

2014-07-01

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Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

2014-01-01

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Comparative Assessment of Fermentation Techniques in the Processing of Fufu, a Traditional Fermented Cassava Product  

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Full Text Available Fufu is a traditional Nigerian fermented cassava food product. Due to the production of objectionable odour that is disliked by many people, two improved techniques were used to ferment cassava and its performance compared with that of the traditional process. In one process, cassava fufu was produced involving the steeping of cassava tubers for 48h followed by grating and fermenting for another 48h. Another technique involved grating cassava tubers, dewatering/fermentation for 24h before re-steeping for another 48h. Quantitative determination of microbial, chemical and sensory changes that occurred during a 96h-fermentation period was studied. The dominant microflora was a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus spp and yeasts. The microflora was more diverse and with higher counts in the traditional product after 24h. Initial counts were 8.88log c.f.u./g whereas the respective counts in samples grated prior to fermentation or soaked and grated were 6.32 and 8.55. It then increased to 9.24log c.f.u/g after 48h fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae counts increased during the first 48h but fell below detectable levels after 72h in the traditional product and after 24h in the modified process. The pH decreased from 6.8 to 4.3 in the traditional process and from 6.6 to 4.2 in the modified process. The titratable acidity increased from 0.36 to 4.0% (w/w lactic acid in the traditional product and from 0.24 to 1.0%, respectively, in the modified process. Grated mash fermentation reduced the cyanogenic glycosides content by 85.5% in 72h compared with 79.5% in the traditional fermented product. Odour and flavour ratings were significantly higher (p< 0.05 for the modified process. There was no difference in colour or texture due to the processing method. Fermentation of grated cassava produces a more acceptable product.

O.K. Achi

2006-01-01

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The contribution of moulds and yeasts to the fermentation of 'agbelima' cassava dough.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agbelima, a fermented cassava meal widely consumed in Ghana, Togo and Benin, is produced by fermenting grated cassava with one of several types of traditional cassava dough inoculum. During fermentation a smooth textured sour dough is produced, the toxicity of cassava is reduced and there is a build up of volatile aroma compounds. Four types of inocula were included in the present investigation. In one type moulds were found to form a dominant part of the microbiota, the species present being Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. nodulum, Geotrichum candidum and a basidiomycete. All these moulds were found to possess cellulase activity which was responsible for the hydrolysis of cassava tuber cellulose during fermentation leading to a breakdown of the coarse texture of cassava dough. The yeasts Candida krusei, C. tropicalis and Zygosaccharomyces spp. were present in high numbers in the four types of inocula including the moudly inoculum. The yeasts C. tropicalis and some strains of Zygosaccharomyces, all of which possessed cellulase activity, were also found to contribute to the modification of cassava texture during fermentation. All yeasts and moulds exhibited linamarase activity and were therefore capable of breaking down the cyanogenic glucosides present in cassava. PMID:9351208

Amoa-Awua, W K; Frisvad, J C; Sefa-Dedeh, S; Jakobsen, M

1997-09-01

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Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis  

OpenAIRE

Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an ?-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either ...

Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Franc?oise; Bertrand, Jean-claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

1980-01-01

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Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol  

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Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

P. Diakabana

2014-10-01

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Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.  

OpenAIRE

Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

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Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2010-01-01

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Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp  

OpenAIRE

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media d...

Sureelak Rodtong; Hathairat Urairong; Onuma Chansatein

2012-01-01

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Co-fermentation of Cassava/Cowpea/Carrot to Produce Infant Complementary Food of Improved Nutritive Quality  

OpenAIRE

This study conducted co-fermentation of cassava 50%, cowpea 30% and carrot 20% w/w for the production of infant complementary food. Analyses on proximate, minerals, amino acids and ?-carotenoid contents were carried out using standard methods. Cassava ogi had lower crude protein content than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. Leucine and lysine contents were comparable in both samples. Crude protein, total amino acids values increased. Cassava ogi had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ...

Oyarekua, Mojisola A.

2009-01-01

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Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

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EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY  

OpenAIRE

Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio) on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent m...

Xinying Wang,; Shuting Zhang; Jing Wang; Xiaoyan Yu,; Xuebin Lu

2012-01-01

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Co-fermentation of Cassava/Cowpea/Carrot to Produce Infant Complementary Food of Improved Nutritive Quality  

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Full Text Available This study conducted co-fermentation of cassava 50%, cowpea 30% and carrot 20% w/w for the production of infant complementary food. Analyses on proximate, minerals, amino acids and ?-carotenoid contents were carried out using standard methods. Cassava ogi had lower crude protein content than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. Leucine and lysine contents were comparable in both samples. Crude protein, total amino acids values increased. Cassava ogi had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. The K/Na ratio was lower in both samples than recommended ratio of 0.60. Values of essential minerals in both samples met the requirement for 9-11 months. Methionine plus cystine, histidine and isoleucine values were higher in cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi than cassava ogi. The carotenoid value in co-fermented mixture was comparable to RDA from complementary food value for 11-23 months infant. Co-fermentation of cassava/cowpea/carrots gave values of improved nutritional quality than fermented cassava ogi.

Mojisola A. Oyarekua

2009-01-01

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Mechanical Semolining of Fermented Cassava Dough on Physicochemical and Sensory Characterises of Produced Attiéké  

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Full Text Available emolining for attiéké production is traditionally manufactured physically by hand in wooden device. The end cooked attiéké obtained is subjected to low sensory and physicochemical qualities. For avoiding its variability and enhancing high quality end product, influence of mechanical semolining of fermented cassava dough during attiéké manufactured is carried out in this study for cottage industry; industrial and household can all benefits. Experimentally 4500 g of cassava are being prepared into cassava mash which is mechanically semolined in triplicate. During the process, 25 angle tilts deviation of the machine (SI are being investigated. For each angle tilt experienced cassava dough is differently study according to the water content, inocula level adjunction and fermentation time. Samples were collected for total sugar content, cyanide content, starch content, total solid content, and grain size physical chemical and sensory analysis. As compared to traditional control, the semolina grain sizes (1.52±0.04 and 1.82±0.02 mm are attained from 26.3 to 31.6 angle tilt intervals. Consequently when cassava mash run about 52 % of the moister content, 10 or 12% amount of inocula loaded and 12 or 24 hrs of fermenting paste. Interestingly at these the optimal semolina size grain is 1.32±0.02 especially at 31° angle tilt deviation, and comparatively fitted to traditional grain sizes taken as a control. Singularly when cassava dough is left for fermenting 12 or 24 hours, the semolina grain size collapsed between 1.12±0.13 and 1.35±0.07 diameters. But when it loaded with 10 to 12% amount the semolina grain sizes get from 1.19 ± 0.06 to 1.27 ± 0.04. Finally the attiéké obtain after mechanical semolining is evaluated having very good sensory quality compared to the traditional attiéké control as regards grain sizes and homogeneity even for fresh or cooked semolina one. In conclusion, mechanical semolining is achieved in condition that cassava dough was loaded at 10% amount of inoculation and, left to ferment 12 hours. A final semolina end product could be obtained when cassava mash is moisten at 52% of solid content and semolined at 31° angle tilt deviation. Semolinor technology innovation in attiéké production could enhance attiéké texture and safety qualities so that household and industry can all benefits

Pierre Martial Thierry Akely

2014-08-01

41

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g(-1) VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop

2010-01-01

42

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

2010-08-15

43

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

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Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

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EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY  

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Full Text Available Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent methanogenic stage. The experiments were carried out at the F/M ratios of 0.2, 0.61, 1.02, 2.05, 3.07, and 4.09 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS in six laboratory-scale, completely stirred, tank reactors (CSTR at mesophilic temperature (35°C. An F/M ratio of 1.02 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS resulted in the highest solid removal efficiency and VFA/COD ratio, while starch removal efficiency was still near 100 percent, and acidification was relatively high. As a further benefit, the VFA distribution was more suitable for the subsequent methanogenic fermentation stage.

Xinying Wang,

2012-01-01

46

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, ?-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction. A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process: after its addition to the reaction media, a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed. At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h). PMID:22761249

Collares, Renata M; Miklasevicius, Luiza V S; Bassaco, Mariana M; Salau, Nina P G; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bisognin, Dilson A; Terra, Lisiane M

2012-07-01

47

Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during the fermentation. Exophiala dermatidis, often associated with blastomycosis, was found in the mass before inoculation and during the initial stages of the fermentation. Examination of these indigenous fermented foods may provide clues as to how food production and preservation can be expanded and thereby contribute to improve nutrition in native tribes in the region.

Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.

2007-01-01

48

Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

2009-10-15

49

Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2009-02-15

50

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

OpenAIRE

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 ...

Crispim, S. M.; Nascimento, A. M. A.; Costa, P. S.; Moreira, J. L. S.; Nunes, A. C.; Nicoli, J. R.; Lima, F. L.; Mota, V. T.; Nardi, R. M. D.

2013-01-01

51

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars*  

OpenAIRE

This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, ?-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was con...

Collares, Renata M.; Miklasevicius, Luiza V. S.; Bassaco, Mariana M.; Salau, Nina P. G.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Bisognin, Dilson A.; Terra, Lisiane M.

2012-01-01

52

Uji Nilai Nutrisi Kulit Ubi Kayu yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger (Nutrient Value Test of Cassava Tuber Skin Fermented by Aspergillus niger)  

OpenAIRE

Cassava tuber skin is a by-product of cassava chip industry, fermented by using mixed mineral (solid media) and Aspergillus niger. The objectives of this research was to know the increasing of nutrient value of cassava tuber skin toward the period of fermentation and several level of inoculums giving Aspergillus niger. The experiment was using completely randomized experimental of factorial design with 12 treatment and 3 replication with several level Aspergillus niger giving was: 0...

Mirwandhono, Edhy; Bachari, Irawati; Situmorang, Darwanto

2010-01-01

53

Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

OpenAIRE

Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite...

Kar Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar Datta; Ramesh Chandra Ray

2010-01-01

54

The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC, Cassava Pellets (CP and Cassava Residue pulp (CR on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05 on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava products but similar to maize diet. Body weight, viscosity of the ileal digesta, digestibility of non starch polysaccharides, crude protein and dry matter as well as energy utilization, concentrations of lactic, succinic and total short chain fat acid in ileal were generally lower on diets containing the CC, CP and CR than on the diet containing maize with weight of birds on the CP being the lowest (p<0.05 over the 21 days growth period. However, the relative weight of the gizzard and small intestine at both 7 and 21 days of age was increased (p<0.05 on diets containing the cassava products while the weight of the bursa was reduced. Feed/Gain ratio over day 1-14 or 21 days was better (p<0.01 on the maize based diets than on the CC and CR based diets The concentrations of valeric, lactic and succinic acids in the caeca were lower (p<0.05 in chickens on the cassava containing diets than on the maize containing diet but the reverse was the case for formic, acetic and butyric acids.

Mingan Choct

2012-01-01

55

Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

56

Diversity of Amylase-Producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” (Fermented Cassava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented cassava or “Tape” is one of traditional Indonesian fermented food. The quality of “Tape” is determined by microorganisms involved during fermentation process. It was reported that Bacillus subtilis determined the quality of cassava “Tape”. The most common way to identify species is by using 16S rRNA gene. This gene contains conserved regions as unique sequence which is relative among species. It has been widely used as a reliable molecular marker for phylogeny identification. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study diversity of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacillus spp. were isolated from “Tape” from several area in Indonesia i.e. Jakarta, Bandung, Cianjur, Subang, Rangkas Bitung, and Kediri. Amplification of 16S rRNA gene used 63f and 1387r primers. This research showed that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, twenty-six of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were divided into four groups. All isolates were identified as species either B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, or B. thuringiensis.

TATI BARUS

2013-06-01

57

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Artocarpus altilis Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out on to assess the effect of fermentation on proximate composition of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour with the aim of expanding its use. Flours of unfermented and fermented A. altilis pulp were produced and standard procedures used to determine their proximate and mineral composition. Fermentation resulted in marginal increase in crude protein (from 3.80-4.43% and ash (from 2.37-2.38% content whereas, there was a marginal decrease in crude fibre (from 3.12-3.00% and carbohydrate (from 79.24-76.71% content. Fermentation resulted in significant decrease in calcium, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents of A. altilis flour. However, magnesium content was not affected by fermentation. This study shows that A. altilis pulp flour has good carbohydrate and mineral content and may therefore, be used as staples, to provide the energy and mineral needs of consumers. They would be useful in ensuring food security if promoted.

W.O. Ellis

2011-01-01

58

High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

2015-03-01

59

Use of Fermented Potato Pulp in Diets Fed to Lactating Sows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented potato pulp is a by-product obtained from the potato-starch industry. There could be great economical and environmental advantages if it could be exploited for use as a new feed resource. This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary effect of adding 5% fermented potato pulp to diets fed to lactating sows on sow and litter performance, blood metabolites and hormones. On day 110 of gestation, 80 mixed parity sows (256.0±4.3 kg BW and 3.2±0.2 parity were moved into a farrowing room and allotted to one of two corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp in a completely random design experiment. Each treatment had 40 replicates and the sows were fed the dietary treatments until weaning following 28 days of lactation. Sow lactation weight loss tended to decrease (p = 0.09 and feed intake tended to increase (p = 0.06 when sows were fed fermented potato pulp. The weaning to estrus interval was shorter (p = 0.05 and litter weight gain was also higher (p = 0.03 for sows fed fermented potato pulp. Dietary treatments did not affect plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor I and follicle-stimulating hormone. Sows fed fermented potato pulp had higher (p = 0.02 plasma urea nitrogen and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.01 than sows fed the control diet. Feeding potato pulp tended to decrease (p = 0.06 creatinine and increase (p = 0.07 estradiol concentrations in sows plasma. These results demonstrate that feeding lactating sows diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp had a positive effect on sow and litter performance.

Xiangshu Piao

2011-01-01

60

Biodegradation of Cyanogenic Glycoside of Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz Via Fermentation as A Mean of Ruminant Feed Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of ruminants must always be followed by forage sources as its feed. The usage of agro industrial by-product like cassava leaves is one of steps that can be conducted. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of leaves-of-bitter-cassava fermentation using a mixture of Aspergillus niger-cattle bolus on the concentrations of HCN, crude protein, digestibilities of dry matter and organic matters. Experimental method was used in this study, using completely randomized design with six treatments namely fresh and wilted leaves of bitter cassava, added with Aspergillus niger and 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of cattle bolus, each of which was repeated four times. The results showed that the mixture of Aspergillus niger-cattle bolus in cassava leaves had a highly significant effect on HCN, crude protein, dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The conclusion of this research is that fermentation of leaves of bitter cassava with 6% of Aspergillus niger and cattle bolus is able to degrade cyanogenic glycoside and increase digestibility. (Animal Production 13(1:18-23 (2011Key Words: cassava leaves, glycoside, Aspergillus, cattle-bolus.

Caribu Hadi Prayitno

2011-01-01

61

Effect of Operational Parameters on Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel to an Enriched Animal Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology based on the Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD was employed to determine the effects of process conditions on the production of an enriched animal feed from cassava peel by a locally isolated white rot fungus Panus tigrinus (M609RQY. Seventeen experimental runs based on three parameters (pH, inoculum size and moisture content as designated by FCCD were carried out under solid state fermentation. The effect of these parameters on lignin degradation in cassava peel was evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results showed that, only moisture content exerted a highly significant effect (p<0.01 on lignin degradation. The optimum parameter combination was found at 70% v/w of moisture content, 6% v/w inoculum size and pH of 5.30. Under this optimum, 50.62% lignin loss was obtained. This study presents a viable option to the management of cassava peel for production of value-added-product animal feed.

Md. Zahangir Alam

2012-01-01

62

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

OpenAIRE

In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG) production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG ...

Evrim Ta?k?n; Rengin Eltem; Esra Soyak

2010-01-01

63

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

64

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

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Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.

2010-01-01

65

Fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration from cassava residues: Effect of pretreatment on structural characterization and fermentation performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical properties of cassava residues subjected to microwave (or steam)-heated acid pretreatment (MHAP or SHAP) were comparatively investigated to improve fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration. The hydrogen yield from cassava residues with MHAP and enzymolysis was higher (106.2mL/g TVS) than that with SHAP and enzymolysis (102.1mL/g TVS), whereas the subsequent methane yields showed opposite results (75.4 and 93.2mL/g TVS). Total energy conversion efficiency increased to 24.7%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed MHAP generated numerous regular micropores (?6?m) and SHAP generated irregular fragments (?23?m) in the destroyed lignocellulose matrix. Transmission electron microscopy images showed SHAP generated wider cracks (?0.2?m) in delaminated cell walls than MHAP (?0.1?m). X-ray diffraction patterns indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity index (33.00) than SHAP (25.88), due to the deconstruction of amorphous cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity coefficient (1.20) than SHAP (1.12). PMID:25553572

Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2015-03-01

66

Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL ?-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

KUSMIYATI

2010-01-01

67

The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

68

Blood Biochemistry and Haematology of Weaner Rabbits Fed Sundried, Ensiled and Fermented Cassava Peel Based Diets  

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Full Text Available Twenty four New Zealand white X Chinchilla weaner bucks aged between 7 and 8 weeks and averaging 0.9kg in weight were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and used in a 12-week feeding trial to evaluate the blood biochemistry and haematology of rabbits fed sun-dried, ensiled and fermented cassava peel based diets. The test diets designated A, B, C and D were Completely Randomized . Diet A, the control, was a 16.18% CP (crude protein weaner ration formulated from maize, maize offals, soya bean meal, blood meal, oyster shell, bone meal, vitamin premix and common salt. Diets B, C and D were also weaner rations of respectively 16.10, 16.20 and 16.08% CP in which 10% maize of the control diet was replaced respectively with sun-dried, ensiled and fermented cassava peels. The diets were roughly iso-caloric. The haematological components of study included packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cells (WBC, neutrophil (N and lymphocytes (L. Biochemical parameters were serum creatinine, urea, bilirubin (total and conjugated, serum glutamic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, eosinophil and blood sugar. Liver and kidney weights were also monitored. Results showed that PCV, WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes were affected (P< 0.05 by experimental diets. Also affected (P< 0.05 were bilirubin, SGPT and SGOT. Serum creatinine, urea and eosinophil were however not affected (P>0.05 by treatment diets. Liver and kidney weights also did not differ (P>0.05 among rabbits fed different dietary treatments.

F.O. Ahamefule

2006-01-01

69

SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS / SACARIFICACIÓN Y FERMENTACIÓN SILMUTÁNEA DE TALLOS DE YUCA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacarificación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptim [...] as de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrato en una relación sólido: líquido 1:10; el complejo enzimático Accellerase 1500 y la levadura Ethanol Red fueron evaluados a dos niveles a una temperatura de 38 ° C y pH 4.0 a escala de erlenmeyer. Se evaluaron como controles del proceso: Sacarificación fermentación simultáneas sin pretratamiento de los tallos y Sacarificación fermentación independientes de tallos pretratados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión y el modelo obtenido fue maximizado empleando algoritmos genéticos. A las condiciones óptimas identificadas en erlenmeyer fue evaluada la producción de etanol en biorreactor de 5 litros. Se obtuvo una concentración experimental de etanol de 1.88±0.04 %v/v (1.99 %v/v óptimo simulado) con una concentración de inóculo de 1.59 g/L y una concentración de enzima de 13.3 FPU/g, valor aproximadamente 4 veces mayor a la cantidad de etanol producido sin pretratamiento por sacarificación y fermentación independientes de tallos de yuca pretratados. La evaluación del proceso en biorreactor alcanzo una concentración de etanol 20% inferior a la alcanzada a escala de erlenmeyer. Abstract in english This research evaluates the effects of the inoculum size and enzymatic activity on the concentration of ethanol obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated cassava stems. Other goals for this study include the determination and validation of the optimal c [...] onditions for and the evaluation of the process of ethanol production in a bioreactor. Alkaline-pretreated cassava stems were used as the substrate in a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10; the enzymatic complex Accellerase 1500 and the yeast Ethanol Red were evaluated at two levels at a temperature of 38° C and a pH of 4.0 in an Erlenmeyer flask. The following were evaluated as process controls: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of non-pretreated stems and separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated stems. A regression analysis was conducted, and the resulting model was maximized using genetic algorithms. At the optimal conditions identified in an Erlenmeyer flask, the production of ethanol in a 5-liter bioreactor was subsequently evaluated. An experimental concentration of ethanol of 1.88±0.04% v/v (1.99% v/v simulated optimum) was obtained using an inoculum concentration of 1.59 g/L and an enzyme concentration of 13.3 FPU/g. This value was approximately four times the quantity of ethanol produced without pretreatment or by the separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava stems. The evaluation of the process in the bioreactor yielded an ethanol concentration 20% less than that reached in the Erlenmeyer flask.

HADER, CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN, REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ, ZAPATA MONTOYA.

2013-08-01

70

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to arm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

71

The Effect of Adding “Tape Singkong” (Fermented Cassava) Juice on the Characteristics of Fermented Milk  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding “Tape Singkong” juice on the characteristic of fermented milk. In the study 4000 ml of milk was used and divided into 20 cups (200 ml/cup). A completely randomized design that consist of five treatments with four replications was used to analyze the data. The treatment are the giving tape singkong juice as much as 0% (A), 22.5% (B), 5% (C), 7.5% (D) and 10% (E) into the milk that contained 2% of Lactobacillus acidophilus. The variab...

Elly Roza; Aritonang, Salam N.; Sri Novalina

2012-01-01

72

Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluat [...] e the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

Kar, Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar, Datta; Ramesh Chandra, Ray.

2010-04-01

73

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.

Nampoothiri K. Madhavan

1999-01-01

74

Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps  

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Full Text Available Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

Carolina Oliveira de Souza

2012-01-01

75

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

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Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

S.M. Crispim

2013-01-01

76

Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are juxtaposed with market penetration and saturation. PMID:18273654

Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

2008-05-01

77

Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

OpenAIRE

Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l), inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass) and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C). In order to est...

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

2012-01-01

78

In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis [...] and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

A., Gasmi-Boubaker; M.R., Mosquera-Losada; B., Boubaker.

79

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02

80

Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour  

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Full Text Available A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros físico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1, que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas.The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's main physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1, which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

Renan Campos Chisté

2011-01-01

81

Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

82

Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentrationincrease of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination.

Haagensen, Frank DrØscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

2009-01-01

83

Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

2009-11-15

84

Solid state fermented potato pulp can be used as poultry feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Potato pulp is the industrial waste produced during starch extraction from potatoes. Its discharge has become an environmental pollution problem and a decisive cost factor due to stricter environmental legislation and associated expense in the potato starch industry. 2. To date, little information has been provided regarding the nutritive value and any possible toxic effects of potato pulp for poultry feed. 3. In the present paper, a model was developed to assess potato pulp for use as a new poultry feed, which will help starch factories to decrease waste discharge. 4. First, a solid-state fermentation technique to change potato pulp to poultry feed is briefly described; then, the major nutrient compositions of this feed are analysed; lastly, related toxicological effects are studied and the safety of the feed assessed. 5. The results indicated that no unintended effects were found on layer quails during a 30-d feeding study, and the new feed initially showed its safety for poultry in our assessment procedure. However, additional work on limiting nutrients analysis, appetite depressant effects, and egg-laying in a large-scale experiment is required to further establish the findings. PMID:20461584

Wang, T Y; Wu, Y H; Jiang, C Y; Liu, Y

2010-04-01

85

Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. PMID:23827441

Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-09-01

86

Economically enhanced succinic acid fermentation from cassava bagasse hydrolysate using Corynebacterium glutamicum immobilized in porous polyurethane filler.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immobilized fermentation system, using cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) and mixed alkalis, was developed to achieve economical succinic acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. The C. glutamicum strains were immobilized in porous polyurethane filler (PPF). CBH was used efficiently as a carbon source instead of more expensive glucose. Moreover, as a novel method for regulating pH, the easily decomposing NaHCO3 was replaced by mixed alkalis (NaOH and Mg(OH)2) for succinic acid production by C. glutamicum. Using CBH and mixed alkalis in the immobilized batch fermentation system, succinic acid productivity of 0.42gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained from 35gL(-1) glucose of CBH, which is similar to that obtained with conventional free-cell fermentation with glucose and NaHCO3. In repeated batch fermentation, an average of 22.5gL(-1) succinic acid could be obtained from each batch, which demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized C. glutamicum cells. PMID:25463799

Shi, Xinchi; Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Zhao, Nan; Ying, Hanjie

2014-10-01

87

Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch  

OpenAIRE

The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the...

Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima; Odinei Hess Gonçalves; Milena Veronezi Silva Silva; Heron de Oliveira dos Santos Lima

2011-01-01

88

Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.  

OpenAIRE

Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (M...

Katagiri, N.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishida, T.

1995-01-01

89

Xanthan from sulphuric acid treated tapioca pulp: influence of acid concentration on xanthan fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthan gum was produced by fermentation of sulphuric acid pre-treated tapioca pulp. Effect of sulphuric acid concentration (0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0%) on xanthan fermentation was investigated. Maximum xanthan yield (7.1g/l) was obtained with 0.5% sulphuric acid pre-treatment. Further, increase in sulphuric acid concentration caused formation of inhibitory substance and lowered xanthan yield. The product was confirmed as xanthan using FTIR, (1)H NMR analyses. Viscosity was measured by Brookfield viscometer and the molecular weight was determined from the intrinsic viscosity. The results confirmed that the yield and quality of xanthan produced were strongly influenced by the acid concentration. PMID:24507334

Gunasekar, V; Reshma, K R; Treesa, Greeshma; Gowdhaman, D; Ponnusami, V

2014-02-15

90

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

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Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG production under solid state fermentation (SSF conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support, which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

Evrim Ta?k?n

2010-02-01

91

Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

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Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

2012-01-01

92

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

OpenAIRE

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Fre?de?ric; Gobert, William; Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

93

Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang

2013-01-01

94

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content usin...

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2011-01-01

95

Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, respectively. Rice straw was used as a roughage source. It was found that gas production from the insoluble fraction (b) of YEFECAP supplemented group was significantly higher (pprotein source had no effect (p>0.05) on ether in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) while R:C ratio affected the IVDMD and IVOMD (p0.05) as compared between the two sources of protein. Moreover, fungal zoospores and total bacteria population were significantly increased (pprotein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants. PMID:25049924

Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A

2014-01-01

96

Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property  

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Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade de expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação.Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was evaluated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA. Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias

2007-12-01

97

Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão / Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade d [...] e expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was eva [...] luated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA). Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

Alvaro Renato Guerra, Dias; Moacir Cardoso, Elias; Maurício, Oliveira; Elizabete, Helbig.

2007-12-01

98

Supplementation of Cassava and Durian Hull Fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Rumen Fermentation and Average Daily Gain in Crossbred Native Cattle  

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Full Text Available Ten, two-years old of crossbred native cattle weighing about at 25020 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive two groups of supplemental dietary treatments by receiving YFCP1 + YFCP2 (T1 and YFCRR + YFDH (T2. The cows were offered the treatment diets at 2%BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using pair t-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that supplementation of dietary treatment on feed intake was non-significantly different, while average daily gain (ADG and rumen microorganisms especially bacteria and fungi zoospores were significant different and cattle in heifer fed YFCRR + YFDH (T2 treatments and received YFCP1 + YFCP2 (T1 (646.4 and 533.2 g/d. In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were non-significantly different. Supplementation of T2 could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore higher than those fed T1, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen. The results indicate that supplementation of yeast fermented cassava and durian hull as supplement diets with rice straw as roughage source could improve ruminal fermentation efficiency, average daily gain in crossbred native cattle.

Anusorn Cherdthong

2011-01-01

99

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

100

Pectinase-hyperproducing mutants of Aspergillus niger C28B25 for solid-state fermentation of coffee pulp  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to improve mold strains for the production of pectinases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of coffee pulp. A screening of 248 strains, isolated in Mexico's coffee-growing areas, permitted us to select a wild strain of #Aspergillus niger$ which in 72 h attains a peak production of 27.7 U ml-1(138 U g-1 dry pulp) of pectinase measured by viscosimetry. Though the use of a selective culture medium with low water activity (aw = 0.954) with 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) it was pos...

Antier, Philip; Minjares, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice; Viniegra-gonzalez, G.

1993-01-01

101

Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

Smith Yimmongkol

2009-10-01

102

Effect of soluble and insoluble fibers within the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp by human gut bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to study the in vitro fermentation of chicory root pulp (CRP) and ensiled CRP (ECRP) using human fecal inoculum. Analysis of carbohydrate levels in fermentation digests showed that 51% of all CRP carbohydrates were utilized after 24 h of fermentation. For ECRP, having the same cell wall polysaccharide composition as CRP, but with solubilization of 4 times more of CRP pectin due to ensiling, the fermentation was quicker than with CRP as 11% more carbohydrates were utilized within the first 12 h. The level of fiber utilization for ECRP after 24 h was increased by 8% compared to CRP. This effect on fiber utilization from ECRP seemed to arise from (i) increased levels of soluble pectin fibers (arabinan, homogalacturonan, and galactan) and (ii) ahypothesized more open structure of the remaining cell walls in ECRP, which was more accessible to degradation than the CRP cell wall network. PMID:24967835

Ramasamy, Uttara S; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

2014-07-16

103

Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

Flavio Martins Montenegro

2008-12-01

104

Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis / Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As resp [...] ostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente), sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial. Abstract in english This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central [...] composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically) without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

Flavio Martins, Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues, Gomes-Ruffi; Cláudia Aparecida, Vicente; Fernanda Paula, Collares-Queiroz; Caroline Joy, Steel.

2008-12-01

105

Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase se in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some molasses would appear desirable so as to stimulate favourable fermentation. This can produce silage that is both safe from potentially pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and a potential feed resource for ruminants

106

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

2010-12-15

107

The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

Budi Haryanto

2001-05-01

108

Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

109

The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

M Bata

1999-05-01

110

Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems.

Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.

2010-01-01

111

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of traditional amylase fermentation practice on cassava in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among 200 Aspergillus and Rhizopus were collected from Bangkok MIRCEN, laboratories and Industries. Fungi N2, A26B, W337 and Aw are the highest amylolytic fungi in our screening test. After irradiation at 50-99 percent killing doses, only Aw showed the improvement of amylolytic activity called A-W - M1 and Aw - M2. The optimum environment of these mutants were pH 4.5, temperature at 30 deg. C and the moisture content at 45 percent. The mutant Aw - M1 grows faster than Aw - M2 before 3.5 day. At 4 days of incubation Aw - M2 gave higher glucosamine content at 205.5 mg. per 1 g of the mold bran. MnSO4 at 0.03 percent gave more sporulation of these mutants. The mutants Aw - M2 and Aw - M1 gave higher protein content in the mold bran and potato dextrose both respectively. The kinetics of the fermentation process of the mutants showed that Aw - M1 and Aw - M2 gave the highest raw starch digestion and glucoamylase activity at 396.35 mg. sugar and 1,458.01 unit per 1 g mold bran at 3 and 4 days respectively. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

112

Determination of the Glycemic Indices of Three Different Cassava Granules (Garri and the Effect of Fermentation Period on Their Glycemic Responses  

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Full Text Available Three Garri samples (A, B, C from the same cassava specie (Manihot utillsima produced at different fermentation time (24, 48 and 72 h were evaluated for Glycemic Indices (G.I. Oral glucose-D was used as standard food. Proximate analysis including the dietary fibre and glycemic carbohydrate were determined using standard methods. Result showed that dietary fibre decreased with length of fermentation giving values as 15.75, 10.85 and 7.60 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Glycemic carbohydrate increased with length of fermentation giving values as 63.57, 69.11 and 73.05 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Fermentation time affected the glycemic indices of the foods. The G.I values increased from 62, 67 and 73 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Results showed that sample A and B were intermediate GI foods while sample C was a high GI food. The mean glycemic responses of the samples showed significant difference (p>0.05. The co-efficient of variation for the standard food was 26%.

N.C. Ihediohanma

2011-01-01

113

KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR) OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar) Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp  

OpenAIRE

Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of biop...

Supli Effendi, M.

2002-01-01

114

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

OpenAIRE

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

115

Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

2014-01-01

116

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2005-06-01

117

Post Fermentation Quality Changes in Bobozi Produced from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz and the Effects of Sodium Metabisulphite Soaking in Combination with Refrigeration  

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Full Text Available Changes in the microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of bobozi (African snack produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz during processing and the effects of sodium metabisulphite or in combination with refrigeration at 10oC were investigated results shows that the bioload increased from 0.3 x 101cfu/g to 1.04 x 105 at the 96th hours of fermentation and thereafter decreased gradually. Post fermentation soaking in 5% sodium metabisulphite decongest and reduced the bioload to 0.9 x 101 cfu/g. Extended storage of 48hrs fermented samples indicates slightly high count which peaked at 1.11 x 104 at 21st day of storage for samples stored at ambient temperature (30?2oC whereas the bioload of refrigerated (10oC samples were stable all through the 28 days of storage. Six bacteria genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Corynebacterium, E Coli, Klebsiella and Salmonella and few fungi genera (Candida, Geotrichum, Aspergillus and Penicillum dominated the preboiling and fermentation phase while (3 three bacteria genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus and three (3 fungi group (Geotrichum, Aspergillus, and Penicillum dominated the post fermentation and extended storage phase. However, E coli, Klebsialla and Salmonella were eliminated after boiling and were not detected after 24hour of fermentation. The PH decreased from 4.58?0.01 to 3.75?0.02 at the end of the fermentation period. Although slight increase as to 4.31?0.02 was recorded after soaking in Sodium metabisulphite. Further decreased to 3.61?0.01 was recorded in samples held at 30?2oC whereas it was fairly stable in refrigerated samples all through the storage period. However, reverse pattern of changes was observed and recorded in the titratable acidity. Steady increase from 31.20?0.5 to 46.6?0.4 was recorded for the moisture content at the end of the fermentation period. Slight increase was recorded in the post fermented sample held at 30?2oC. Nevertheless, sample stored at 10oC were fairly stable. The hydrocyanic acid decreased through out the processing and storage period. Overall sensory acceptability scores shows that refrigerated samples were highly acceptable even though freshly prepared samples were preferred.

I.S. Ogiehor

2004-01-01

118

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

Flávera Camargo Prado

2005-06-01

119

Strategies for developing the cassava industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (authorassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

120

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG pr...

Swain, Manas R.; Shaktimay Kar; Ray, Ramesh C.

2009-01-01

121

Cinética de fermentação in vitro de silagens da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the silage shoots of cassava  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arra [...] njado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). O material foi ensilado em silos experimentais de PVC, sendo abertos após 56 dias de fermentação. Amostras das silagens foram coletadas e submetidas à pré-secagem, moídas e em seguida procedeu-se ensaio de produção de gases in vitro. As leituras de pressão dos gases produzidos durante as fermentações foram realizadas às 0; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 e 96 horas após o início das incubações. As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. O maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS ocorreu nos tempos entre zero e 24 horas. As maiores produções de gases por hora foram obtidas aproximadamente às 48 horas de fermentação para a variedade Olho Roxo na fração planta inteira. As silagens das diferentes variedades e frações da parte aérea de mandioca apresentaram o mesmo potencial de produção de gases. Entretanto, as silagens da variedade Amarelinha nas frações da parte aérea terço superior e sobras de plantio apresentaram melhores degradabilidades efetiva e potencial. Abstract in english The objective of this work to determine Kinetics of ruminal fermentation of silages of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, arranged in a 4x3 fact [...] orial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho Roxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant). The material was ensiled in mini-silos of PVC, being opened after 56 days of fermentation. Silage samples were collected and submitted to pre-dried, ground and then proceeded to test gas production in vitro. The pressure readings of the gases produced during fermentations were performed at 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubations. Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases. The major ruminal DM disappearance occurred in times between zero and 24 hours. The highest yields of gas per hour were obtained at approximately 48 hours of fermentation for variety in Shiner fraction entire plant. The silages of different varieties and fractions of cassava shoots have the same potential for gas production. However, silage variety of Hopscotch fractions in the upper third of shoot and leftover planting have better effective degradability and potential.

Kléria Maria Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Vanice Mendes de, Souza; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Malber Natham Nobre de, Palma; Geanderson Walder Vieira da Silva, Silva; Ana Paula da Silva, Antunes.

2013-03-01

122

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

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Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes.

Magali Leonel

2011-06-01

123

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

Magali, Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Martha Maria, Mischan.

2011-06-01

124

In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for pH change and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations. After 8 and 16 h, pH change was greatest for scFOS (-2.0 and -3.0, respectively) and smallest for PC (0.0 and -0.1, respectively). After 16 h, CEF had a greater butyrate concentration than CHP and all the CEF:CHP blends and it was not different than PEC. The substrate × time interaction was significant for bifidobacteria (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli (P < 0.05). After 8 h, bifidobacteria was greatest for BP and lowest for PC (12.7 and 10.0 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). After 16 h, PC had the lowest and scFOS had the greatest bifidobacteria (6.7 and 13.3 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). In general, CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria populations after 8 and 16 h of fermentation when compared with BP and scFOS. After 16 h, lactobacilli populations were greatest for B1, B2, B3, BP, and scFOS, intermediate for PEC, and lowest for PC (P < 0.05). Overall, our data suggest that CEF had a butyrogenic effect and that CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations as popular prebiotic and fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs. PMID:25403197

de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

2015-01-01

125

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

Inayara C. A., Lacerda; Fátima C. O., Gomes; Beatriz M., Borelli; César L. L., Faria Jr; Gloria R., Franco; Marina M., Mourão; Paula B., Morais; Carlos A., Rosa.

2011-06-01

126

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

2010-04-15

127

Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P<0.01. A significant difference at P<0.05 were also detected in amonia concentration, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), protozoa counts, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. These differences were observed particularly in animals receiving ration C. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

128

KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

M. Supli Effendi

2002-08-01

129

Nutritive Value, Toxicological and Hygienic Quality of Some Cassava Based Products Consumed in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc") were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±25 ppm), cassava chips (73.85±11 ppm) and a little less in fermented cassava paste ("Batons de manioc") (63.1±5 ppm). The average total protein content was very low (2.9±0.5% in cassava chips,...

Djoulde Darman Roger; Essia Ngang Jean-Justin; Etoa François-xavier

2007-01-01

130

Cinética de fermentação in vitro de fenos da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the hay shoots of cassava  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal dos fenos de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, arranjado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro [...] variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. Foram avaliadas a produção cumulativa de gases, as frações solúvel e insolúvel potencialmente degradável da MS, a taxa de degradação da MS, as degradabilidades potencial e efetiva da MS, a fração indegradável da MS, o potencial máximo de produção de gases, a taxa de produção de gases e o tempo de colonização. A produção de gases aumentou tendendo a se estabilizar por volta de 48 horas e observou-se um maior desaparecimento da matéria seca entre o tempo zero e 24 horas de fermentação. Os valores de produção cumulativa de gases (PCG) dos fenos analisados tiveram uma produção máxima de 50 ml ao final das 96 horas de fermentação. O feno do terço superior da variedade Amarelinha, por apresentar melhores degradabilidade potencial (64,17%) e efetiva (55,65%) da matéria seca e maior potencial máximo de produção de gases (35,69 mL/g de MS), em relação às demais variedades, demonstra superioridade nutricional. Abstract in english Aimed to evaluate thekinetics of ruminal fermentation of hays of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, arranged in a 4x3 factorial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinh [...] a, Sabará, OlhoRoxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant) Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases.Were evaluated the cumulative gas production, potentially degradable insoluble fraction and soluble fraction of MS, the degradation rate of DM, the potential and effective degradability of DM, the undegradable fraction of DM, the maximum potential gas production, the rate gas production and colonization time.There was an increase in gas production with a tendency of stabilization around a 48 hours period and a greater decrease in dry matter between zero and 24 hours fermentation period. The values of cumulative gas production (PCG) hay analyzed had a maximum output of 50 mL at the end of 96 hours of fermentation.The hay of Amarelinha's superior third was considered the most nutritional kind due to its betters degradability potential (64.17%), effective dry matter (55.65%), and greater maximal potential of gas production(35.69 mL / g DM) when compared to the other varieties studied.

Kléria Maria de Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Silvio Humberto Cardoso de, Almeida Filho; Laís Matos, Oliveira; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Ana Cássia Rodrigues de, Aguiar; Criszoel Ferreira, Souza; Cláudia Ribeiro, Antunes.

2014-09-01

131

Supplementation of Malate Level and Cassava Hay in High-Quality Feed Block on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency and Digestibility of Nutrients in Lactating Dairy Cows  

OpenAIRE

Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay ...

Sittisak Khampa; Songsak Chumpawadee; Metha Wanapat

2009-01-01

132

Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica / Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT) e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc), de raspa (SRpPc) e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc) ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP). A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com [...] farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS) dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4). A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB) (% PV) foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33), SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30) e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27) em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19), respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%), matéria orgânica (66,9%) e energia bruta (64,3%) para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR) e intestinal (CDI) da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido) apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5), SRpPc (39,3) e SCnPc (37,0), sobre a SCcPc (20,0). A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos. Abstract in english The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp), cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp) and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp) silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS) and soybean meal composed 60% [...] of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ) steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM) fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP) intake (%LW) of CS (2.47 and 0.33), ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30) and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27) were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19). The dry matter (65.0%), organic matter (66.9%), and the gross energy (64.3%) total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%). The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC) and intestinal (IDC) digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%), the CrSCp (39.3%), and the ScSCp (37.0%) were higher than ChSCp (20.0%). The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

Djalma de, Freitas; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; João Paulo Guimarães, Soares; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Pedro de, Andrade.

1531-15-01

133

Farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante: fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e características fermentativas / Cassava meal in the elephant grass silage: carbohydrate and protein fractioning and fermentation characteristics of silage elephant grass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas, bem como as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante, sem e com emurchecimento, e acrescida de farelo de mandioca. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições no delineamento inteiramente [...] casualizado. Os fatores avaliados foram níveis de farelo de mandioca (0; 7,5; 15 e 22,5% MN) e emurchecimento (sem e com). Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50 cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro para a produção das silagens. As frações de CHO (A+B1 e B2) e as frações nitrogenadas B3 e C foram influenciadas pela associação do emurchecimento aos níveis de farelo de mandioca, o que não ocorreu com as frações nitrogenadas (A e B1+B2) das silagens. A adição de farelo de mandioca reduziu linearmente a fração C dos carboidratos. No que concerne às características fermentativas das silagens, o pH apresentou comportamento quadrático. O nitrogênio amoniacal apresentou comportamento quadrático e linear decrescente para as silagens sem e com emurchecimento, respectivamente. A utilização do farelo de mandioca reduz a fração B2 e a porção de carboidratos indisponíveis. As principais frações proteicas das silagens estudadas são as frações A e B1+B2. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca melhoram o valor nutritivo e as características fermentativas das silagens estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the fractions that compose the carbohydrates (CHO) and proteins and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage without or with wilting and added of cassava meal. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely rand [...] omized design. The factors evaluated were wilting (without and with) and cassava meal levels (0; 7.5; 15 and 22.5 % DN). PVC silos with 50cm height and 10cm diameter were used for silages production. A+B1 and B2 CHO fractions and B3 and C nitrogen fractions of silages were influenced by association of wilting with cassava meal levels, the wilting and the cassava meal inclusion had no effect on A and B1+B2 nitrogen fractions. The cassava meal addiction linearly reduced the CHO C fraction. Relative to variables inherent to silages' fermentative characteristics, pH presented quadratic behavior. Ammonia nitrogen, presented quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. The use of cassava meal reduces the B2 and unavailable carbohydrates fraction. The main protein fractions of the silages studied are A and B1 + B2 fractions. Wilting and the addition of cassava meal improved the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of the silages studied.

Aline Cardoso, Oliveira; Rasmo, Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Hellenn Cardoso, Oliveira; Vitor Visintin Silva de, Almeida; Cristina Mattos, Veloso; Aires Lima, Rocha Neto; Ueslei Leonardo Cardoso, Oliveira.

1020-10-01

134

Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate / Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar [...] a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por planejamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the con [...] centrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taking as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

Izabel Cristina Veras, Silva; Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira, Santos; Mayara Lúcia da Costa, Leite; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sérgio, Marcellini.

2013-09-01

135

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

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Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V. Brandão

2010-09-01

136

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

137

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

138

Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation between predicted and measured by the reference methods values (R (2) between 0.789 and 0.997), and adequate values of the ratio between the standard deviation of the reference methods and the standard errors of infrared PLS models relative performance determinant (RPD) (greater than 3 for majority of the models). Use of IR for ethanol quantification showed similar and even better results to the obtained with the discrete chemical data, especially in the case of mid-IR models, where ethanol concentration can be estimated with a RMSEV equal to 1.9 g?L(-1). These results could facilitate the analysis of high number of samples required in the evaluation and optimization of the processes. PMID:23070712

Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

2012-12-01

139

High level expression of a recombinant xylanase by Pichia pastoris NC38 in a 5 L fermenter and its efficiency in biobleaching of bagasse pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genetically modified XynA gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus was expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of GAP promoter. P. pastoris expressed greater levels of xylanase (160 IU ml(-1)) on BMGY medium without zeocin after 56 h. The xylanase production by recombinant P. pastoris was scaled up in a 5L fermenter containing 1% glycerol and the highest xylanase production of 139 IU ml(-1) was observed after 72 h. Further studies carried out in fermenter under controlled pH (5.5) yielded a maximum xylanase production of 177 IU ml(-1) after 72 h. The biobleaching efficacy of crude xylanase was also evaluated on bagasse pulp and a brightness of 47.4% was observed with 50 IU of crude xylanase used per gram of pulp, which was 2.1 points higher in brightness than the untreated samples. Reducing sugars (24.8 mg g(-1)) and UV absorbing lignin-derived compounds values were considerably higher with xylanase treated samples. PMID:21852117

Birijlall, Natasha; Manimaran, Ayyachamy; Kumar, Kuttanpillai Santhosh; Permaul, Kugen; Singh, Suren

2011-10-01

140

Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

2006-01-01

141

Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.

2010-01-01

142

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA  

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Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

Joan E. QUINTERO M.

2012-12-01

143

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

2010-09-01

144

Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Science.gov (United States)

Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA. PMID:25049491

Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

2012-01-01

145

International training course on solid state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

The strain #Rhizopus formosa$ 28422 was selected from the stock of ten strains from genera #Rhizopus$, for their capacity to attack raw cassava starch by solid substrate fermentation and showed the highest growth in this substrate. The optimal substrate composition, estimated by surface response design experiments, was 10% cassava bagasse, 10% soybean flour and 80% cassava flour. Optimal fermentation conditions were temperature, 32°C, moisture, 64%, initial pH, 6.5 and inoculum rate, 10exp6 ...

Rodriguez-leon, J. A.; Stertz, S. C.; Soccol, S. R.; Raimbault, Maurice

1998-01-01

146

Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculant and beet pulp addition on fermentation characteristics and in vitro ruminal digestion of vegetable residue silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and treatments were designed as control silage without additive or with BP (30% fresh matter basis), LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5mg/kg, fresh matter basis), and BP+LAB. In vitro incubation was performed using rumen fluid mixed with McDougall's artificial saliva (at a ratio of 1:4, vol/vol) at 39°C for 6h to determine the ruminal fermentability of the vegetable residue silages. These vegetable residues contained high levels of crude protein (20.6-22.8% of DM) and moderate levels of neutral detergent fiber (22.7-33.6% of DM). In all silages, the pH sharply decreased and lactic acid increased, and the growth of bacilli, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts was inhibited by the low pH at the early stage of ensiling. The silage treated with BP or LAB had a lower pH and a higher lactic acid content than the control silage. After 6h of incubation, all silages had relatively high DM digestibility (38.6-44.9%); in particular, the LAB-inoculated silage had the highest DM digestibility and the lowest methane production. The vegetable residues had high nutritional content and high in vitro DM digestibility. Also, both the addition of a LAB inoculant and moisture adjustment with BP improved the fermentation quality of the vegetable residue silages. In addition, LAB increased DM digestibility and decreased ruminal methane production. PMID:21787927

Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshida, N; Tohno, M; Uegaki, R; Nonaka, K; Terada, F

2011-08-01

147

Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

148

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets / Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Forragens com alta umidade e baixa concentração de carboidratos solúveis, como é o caso dos capins tropicais, podem conduzir a condições desfavoráveis para a produção de silagens de qualidade satisfatória. Esse estudo objetivou conhecer o perfil fermentativo e microbiológico de silagens de capim-Mar [...] andu [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu], colhido com 58 dias de crescimento, aditivadas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP),. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen, tendo a silagem atingindo densidade de 900 kg m-3. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três proporções de PCP (0, 50 e 100 g kg-1 em relação a matéria natural) e sete tempos de abertura após a ensilagem (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias). A presença de PCP aumentou os teores de CHOs em 15 a 20%, reduziu o pH (5,3 para 4,2) e diminuiu as concentrações de N-NH3. Houve crescimento da população de enterobactérias somente durante o primeiro dia de fermentação (média 3 UFC g-1), pequeno desenvolvimento de clostrideos (média 0,5 UFC g-1) e dominância de bactérias homo em relação às heterofermentativas, para os três tratamentos estudados. A adição de polpa cítrica durante a ensilagem do capim-Marandu foi benéfica, podendo ser recomendada desde que haja benefício econômico na sua adoção. Abstract in english High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria [...] brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity of 900 kg m-3. Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of fresh forage) and seven times (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days) after sealing. PCP inclusion increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations by 15 to 20% and reduced pH (5.3 to 4.2) and N-NH3 levels of experimental silages. An increase of the population size of the enterobacterium (mean of 3 CFU g-1) was observed only at the first day of fermentation, small growth (mean 0.5 of CFU g-1) of clostridium and the dominance of homo in relation to hetero-fermentative bacteria. Citric pulp addition during Marandu-grass ensilage was benefic, its utilization being recommended, especially when associated with economical advantages.

Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Andréia Luciane, Moreira.

2005-06-01

149

Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava  

OpenAIRE

This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat fl...

Boboye, B.; Dayo-owoyemi, I.

2009-01-01

150

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira=Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22 e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22 with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Priscila Aparecida Suman

2011-10-01

151

Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated potato fiber (CF), insoluble potato fiber (IF), soluble fiber (SF), or cellulose (CEL) ad libitum for 4.5 weeks to study weight change and induce diabetic conditions. This was followed by 16 days of slightly restricted feeding, for the measurement of fecal organic matter digestibility, fecal dry matter, urinary glucose excretion, and fasting blood glucose. Finally, the rats were euthanized 2 hours postprandial for measurement of postprandial glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, and cecal fermentation pattern to assess any relation between digestion processes and hematological risk markers. Diet SF had higher fecal organic matter digestibility and led to a significantly larger pool of organic acids with a higher proportion of propionate than the other diets. There was no difference in hematological parameters except for a small but significant reduction in postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.

Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S

2007-01-01

152

Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e, Silva; João Paulo Almeida dos, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sergio, Marcellini.

2011-03-01

153

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column / Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextros [...] e Equivalent value), a taxa de conversão máxima (~34%) foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O meio enriquecido com nutrientes resultou em um acúmulo de 21 g/L de ácido glutâmico, com uma elevada (66,3%) taxa de conversão da glicose em ácido glutâmico (baseada em glicose consumida e em uma taxa de conversão teórica de 81,74%). As condições mais favoráveis, levando à uma máxima produção, foram pH 7.5, temperatura 30°C e agitação de 180 rpm. Quando a fermentação foi conduzida em um reator do tipo descontinuo alimentado, onde a concentração de açúcares redutores era mantida em 5% w/v, foram obtidos 25.0 g/L de glutamato após 40 h (16% a mais do que no modo descontinuo). Para a recuperação e purificação do ácido glutâmico, foi utilizada a separação por cromatografia com resina de troca inônica. O ácido foi posteriormente cristalizado e separado, levando-se em consideração a sua baixa solubilidade no ponto isoelétrico (pH 3.2). Abstract in english Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE ( [...] Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).

K. Madhavan, Nampoothiri; Ashok, Pandey.

1999-07-01

154

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior. No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

2011-07-01

155

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca / Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados co [...] m esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Ama [...] relinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Álvaro Diego Soares, Mota; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; André Santos de, Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Thierry Ribeiro, Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da, Costa.

1466-14-01

156

Cinética e parâmetros de fermentação ruminal in vitro de silagens de parte aérea e raízes de mandioca / Kinetic parameters and in vitro rumen fermentation of cassava foliage and roots silages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes 0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a cinética e os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. A produção acumulada de gases (PAG) às 96 horas de incubação foi influenciada significativamente (P[...] 0,05) pela interação emurchecimento versus inclusão de raízes. Para a PAG, houve elevação linear de 1,88mL a cada unidade percentual de raiz adicionada às silagens não emurchecidas e efeito quadrático nas silagens emurchecidas, com produção máxima de 226mL de gases, com a inclusão de 30,5% de raízes. A degradabilidade verdadeira in vitro da MS (DVIMS) das silagens apresentou significância (P Abstract in english The effects of wilting and roots inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% fresh matter) on rumen fermentation kinetics and parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Total gas production (TGP) after 96 hours of incubation was significantly influenced (P [...] oots inclusion. TGP was linearly increased by 1.88 mL for each percent unit of root added to the wilted silage, whereas, for wilted ones, a quadratic effect was observed, with a maximum gas cumulative output of 226 mL for 30.5% roots addition. The true DM degradability of silages in vitro (IVTDMD) showed significance (P

C.F.P.G., Silva; M.P., Figueiredo; M.S., Pedreira; F.S., Bernardino; D.H., Farias; J.A.G., Azêvedo.

1639-16-01

157

Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

158

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse / Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG) por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: períod [...] o de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial [...] medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.

Manas R., Swain; Shaktimay, Kar; Ramesh C., Ray.

2009-09-01

159

Changes in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis and its regulation with pelleted beet pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the experiment were to investigate the variation in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and to evaluate the ability of beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground maize in order to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets (total mixed rations) during four successive periods (each of 17 d): (1) without wheat (W0); (2) with 10% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W10); (3) with 20% FGW (W20); (4) with 20% FGW and 10% pelleted BP (BP10). Inducing SARA by diet W20 decreased the daily mean ruminal pH (6.37 vs. 5.94) and the minimum ruminal pH (5.99 vs. 5.41) from baseline to challenge period. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, valerate and isovalerate increased with the W20 compared with the W0 and W10 treatments. The substitution of BP for maize increased the minimum ruminal pH and molar percentage of acetate and decreased the molar percentage of butyrate. The diets had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield, but the milk fat percentage and yield as well as the amount of fat-corrected milk was reduced in the W20 and BP10 treatments. The cows fed the W20 diet had greater milk concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:2n6c, C20:3n6, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total odd-chain FA, and lower concentrations of C18:0 and total saturated FA compared with the cows fed the W0 diet. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in ruminal fermentation, milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile are highly related to SARA induced by feeding high FGW diets, and that the substitution of BP for maize could reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows. PMID:24192077

Guo, Yongqing; Wang, Libin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

2013-12-01

160

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la influencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas, partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF, proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yucaThe world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzyme dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I CASTAÑO P

2008-07-01

161

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF) / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la inf [...] luencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas), partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF), proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores) y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yuca Abstract in english The world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzy [...] me dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation) process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I, CASTAÑO P; Carlos E, MEJIA G.

2008-07-01

162

Comparison of Sweet Sorghum and Cassava for Ethanol Production by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available ?-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.

N. Nadir

2009-01-01

163

Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips  

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Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

2003-12-01

164

Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

2011-04-01

165

Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

Metha Wanapat

2007-01-01

166

Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

167

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir d [...] e harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enzimático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme h [...] ydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface central composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

HADER, CASTAÑO PELAEZ; MARIANA, CARDONA BETANCUR; CARLOS, MEJÍA GOMEZ; ALEJANDRO, ACOSTA CÁRDENAS.

2011-10-01

168

Cassava as a food.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue. PMID:6756790

Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

1982-01-01

169

Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage  

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Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis. Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

2005-08-01

170

Detoxification and Consumption of Cassava Based Foods in South West Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta was introduced in Ethiopia around 1960‘s. But the consumption was not practiced until 1984. Currently the plant is being distributed throughout the country as a tool to tackle food insecurity. However, the distribution is not supported by proved food preparation techniques for optimal processing to increase nutrient density and eliminate the toxin. Hence, development of suitable detoxification methods and optimal food processing without affecting consumers acceptance is essential. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the existing processing technologies in order to identify effective methods for reducing the cyanide content and improve nutritional quality of cassava based foods. Primary and secondary data were collected from four cassava producing and consuming districts of south west Ethiopia using Focus Group Discussion (FGD, key informants interview and review of written documents. Processing methods such as washing, boiling, drying and fermenting with flour of cereals were evaluated to increase nutritional content and reduce cyanide level. Laboratory and kitchen trial of cassava mix with cereals at two levels were conducted to evaluate the toxin content and nutritional value of products. In this study solar drying and fermentation were found to be the best methods in totally removing the cyanide content of cassava. The results show that both cassava mix are suitable (at 95%CI for Anebabero, Injera, Dabbo (Bread and porridge preparation. Cereal blends improve nutritional quality of cassava based foods.

Birhanu Wodajo

2012-01-01

171

SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS  

OpenAIRE

La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacari? cación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptimas de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron uti...

Ez, Hader Casta U. D. O. Pel U. C.; JUAN REALES ALFARO; Zapata Montoya, Jos U. C.

2013-01-01

172

Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

Joan, Quintero; Alejandro, Acosta; Carlos, Mejía; Rigoberto, Ríos; Ana María, Torres.

2012-12-01

173

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

Bull, Simon E

2015-01-01

174

Cassava For Space Diet  

Science.gov (United States)

Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

175

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9279 Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira  

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Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22 e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22 with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Magali Leonel

2011-09-01

176

Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp  

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Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

Mariusz Lesiecki

2012-03-01

177

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada / Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 [...] e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were [...] harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Rogério Marchiori, Coan; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gisela Rojas, Garcia; Ruben Pablo, Schocken- Iturrino; Daniel de Souza, Ferreira; Flávio Dutra de, Resende; Felipe do Amaral, Gurgel.

1502-15-01

178

The potential of cassava as an energy crop. [NONE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is today the most widely grown of all root crops. Production figures suggest a world output of some 100 million tons per annum and around 70% of this production comes from Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire, Nigeria and India. Nevertheless many other countries have outputs running into thousands of tons. The bulk of this harvested material is consumed directly as human food. The use of cassava as a source of starch, or as an animal feedstuff, has long been of industrial interest, but the prediction that the world could face an energy crisis long before food supplies become critical, has caused a number of countries to assess cassava in an entirely new light. Thus, the starch content of cassava can, by fermentation, be turned into ethanol, a product that, apart from its value as a chemical feedstock, can be used directly as a liquid fuel. The standard automobile engine can run on a mixture of 90% petroleum: 10% ethanol with little difficulty, and with modification, the inclusion rate of alcohol can go even higher. This realization has led a number of tropical countries to consider seriously the potential of cassava as an industrial base, for even a 10% reduction in demand for imported oil represents a massive saving of foreign exchange. The fact that industrialized countries like Australia and New Zealand are moving in the same direction suggests that the carbohydrate-liquid fuel process is becoming attractive economically, as well as representing a method of conserving available fossil fuels. It would seem, therefore, an appropriate point in time to consider the potential of cassava as industrial crop. This paper aims to determine just how realistic are the aspirations of those seeking to further exploit this carbohydrate source. 24 references

Robinson, R.K.; Kutianawala, S.M.

1979-09-01

179

Feeding cassava foliage to sheep  

OpenAIRE

The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

Hue, Khuc Thi

2012-01-01

180

Energy-Efficient Production of Cassava-Based Bio-Ethanol  

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Full Text Available Fuel ethanol is an important renewable and sustainable fuel, produced in China by fermentation of mostly corn, wheat and cassava feedstock. Fermentation produces an ethanol-lean broth (10 to 12 vol%. Ethanol is recovered by distillation, followed by a molecular sieve drying beyond the azeo-tropic point. The distillation and molecular sieve operations consume most of the total energy used, with the steam consumption currently being ~1.8 kg/kg ethanol, including 0.5 kg/kg ethanol in the final molecular sieve stage during regeneration. The objectives of the paper are fourfold: 1 firstly to study the distillation process of a large-scale cassava-based fuel ethanol production (200,000 tons per year, by field measurements and by using an Aspen Plus V8.2 simulation, with and without energy integration of condensers and reboilers, resulting in a distillation steam consumption of ~1.3 kg/kg ethanol; 2 secondly, to examine the effects of using Very High Gravity (VHG fer-mentation of cassava meal mash. By using VHG fermentation, the ethanol concentration in the fermenter broth is significantly increased, to about 19 vol% (15.4 wt%. The steam consumption is then reduced to ~0.94 kg/kg, representing a considerable saving in comparison with the current operation. Applying VHG fermentation needs minor additional investment, rapidly recovered through the energy savings and the smaller size of equipment; 3 thirdly, to assess the application of a hybrid operation, where pervaporation will be used to selectively and continuously remove ethanol from the fermenter broth, thus slightly increasing the fermentation yield by reducing the risk of ethanol inhibition, whilst producing an ehtanol-rich permeate (about 30 wt%; and finally 4 to demonstrate that the production cost of cassava-based ethanol can substantially be reduced by applying the proposed improvements.

Qian Kang

2014-10-01

181

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

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Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Luciana Bronzi de Souza

2010-09-01

182

Manipulation of Rumen Ecology by Malate and Cassava Hay in High-Quality Feed Block in Dairy Steers  

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Full Text Available Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.0% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. However, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

183

Development of Cassava Digger and Conveyor Units  

OpenAIRE

Aims: To design and develop the cassava digging and preparing unit and the conveying unit for the Cassava Harvester Machine. Study Design: Efficiency data. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Khon Kaen University, between September 2011 and February 2012. Methodology: The Cassava Digging and Preparing Unit, and the Cassava Conveyor Unit were constructed. The Cassava Digging and Preparing Unit were functional tested on three digging an...

Thangdee, Danuwat; Wongpichet, Seree

2012-01-01

184

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves  

OpenAIRE

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

Lima, Elaine C. S.; Feijo, Ma?rcia B. S.; Freitas, Maria C. J.; Dos Santos, Edna R.; Sabaa-srur, Armando U. O.; Moura, Luciana S. M.

2012-01-01

185

Exploration, collection and characterization of cassava landraces (Manihot esculenta Crantz. grown in western ghats region  

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Full Text Available Fifty six land races of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu exhibited significant variability for root morphological and biochemical traits studied. Amylose and starch contents varied from 14.4 to 30.4% and 10.0 to 39.7% respectively. Among the collections, 50% landraces had yellow colour pulp, indicated the possibility for selection and gene manipulation to improve the carotenoid content of cassava tuberous roots and thereby enhance its nutritive value. The cluster analysis revealed two major clusters and three minor clusters based on outer skin, cortex and pulp colours, texture and taste. The wide genetic diversity suggests that the evaluated germplasm can be used to identifying superior genotypes towards high yield with improved nutritive value.

Kanagarasu, S1*., Ganeshram, S1., Prem Joshua, J2 and John Joel, A1

2014-06-01

186

Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the vill a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

187

Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida [...] os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when sub [...] mitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

Eduardo Zambello de, Pinho; Ciniro, Costa; Mario De Beni, Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos, Silveira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani; Sheila Zambello de, Pinho.

188

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers...

Igile Godwin, O.; Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Mgbeje, B. I. A.

2013-01-01

189

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA PULP  

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Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

Sabina Rawshan

2009-08-01

190

Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review  

OpenAIRE

Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitativ...

EmmanuelOkogbenin; TimLSetter; MoragFerguson; HernanCeballos; MartinFregene

2013-01-01

191

Cassava processing, consumption and dietary cyanide exposure  

OpenAIRE

Cassava is a major component of the diet of more than half a billion people in the tropics. Cassava is an important crop in the farming system in the tropics because it can be intercropped with many other crops, and yields well in poor soils. Cassava roots contain cyanogenic glucosides that release cyanide when hydrolysed during processing or when consumed. Several methods of processing cassava roots have been developed to reduce the content of cyanogenic glucosides and prod...

Onabolu, Adeyinka

2001-01-01

192

Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

193

Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

194

Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV...

Vanderschuren, Herve?; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Zainuddin, Ima M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2012-01-01

195

Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it id turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

196

Studies on Residual Hydrocyanic Acid (HCN in Garri Flour Made from Cassava (Manihot Spp.  

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Full Text Available Garri flour was produced from mashed cassava (Manihot spp roots, which had been subjected to fermentation for time periods of between 6 and 72 h. The hydrocyanic acid content of each batch was estimated by spectrophotometric alkaline picrate method. White and yellow garri flour samples procured from markets in Abia State, Nigeria were also analyzed for their HCN contents using the above-mentioned method. The HCN content decreased significantly with the length of fermentation period of the grated cassava mash. Levels of residual HCN were also significantly influenced by the source and type of garri flour (whether white or yellow. The white garri flour had higher HCN levels than the yellow.

S.A. Odoemelam

2005-01-01

197

Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

2009-09-01

198

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

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Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Yalcin Copur

2007-01-01

199

A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

200

Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively. PMID:15135588

Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

2004-05-15

201

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

202

Energy-Efficient Production of Cassava-Based Bio-Ethanol  

OpenAIRE

Fuel ethanol is an important renewable and sustainable fuel, produced in China by fermentation of mostly corn, wheat and cassava feedstock. Fermentation produces an ethanol-lean broth (10 to 12 vol%). Ethanol is recovered by distillation, followed by a molecular sieve drying beyond the azeo-tropic point. The distillation and molecular sieve operations consume most of the total energy used, with the steam consumption currently being ~1.8 kg/kg ethanol, including 0.5 kg/kg ethanol in the final ...

Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Jan Baeyens; Raf Dewil; Tianwei Tan

2014-01-01

203

Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

2013-12-01

204

Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava  

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Full Text Available This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat flour doughs in order to test the fermentative ability of the isolates. The fermented doughs were baked and organoleptic analysis was carried out using some physical parameters namely: leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. The analysis showed that Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Geotrichum lactis and Candida robusta were best in leavening the flour doughs. Each of these isolates scored between 55 and 60% in all the attributes tested. In the sensory attributes applied, statistical analysis using ANOVA (p<0.05 and Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that about 71 and 80% of the tested isolates compared favourably with the commercial baker`s yeasts STK Royal and Saf-instant used.

B. Boboye

2009-01-01

205

Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

2015-01-01

206

Resistant starch in cassava products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

207

Resistant starch in cassava products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

2014-06-01

208

Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making  

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Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

Sergio Henao Osorio

2010-05-01

209

The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log10 CFU/g to 9 log10 CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log10 CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log10 CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (< 5% each).

Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2009-01-01

210

The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each). PMID:19493582

Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

2009-07-31

211

Xylose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fermentation of xylose and xylulose with yeasts, bacteria and fungi as well as the combination of yeasts and bacterial xylose isomerase, has been reviewed. Methods to measure oxygenation in fermentation with yeasts are compared and the relationship between pentose metabolism in yeasts and oxygenation during fermentation is discussed. The influence of substrate concentration, substrate specificity, pH, temperature, inhibitors and other additives in yeast fermentation have been summarized. Batch fermentation has been compared to continuous fermentation, fermentation with cell recirculation and immobilization. The fermentation of lignocellulose and lignocellulose hydrolysates with bacteria, yeasts and fungi has also been reviewed. Product concentration, product yield and productivity have been compared with values generally achieved in batch fermentation of hexoses: 50 g l/sup -1/, 0.5, and 2 g l/sup -1/ h/sup -1/.

Skoog, Kerstin; Hahn-Haegerdal, Baerbel

1988-02-01

212

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

OpenAIRE

Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

2005-01-01

213

Production of ethanol from guava pulp by yeast strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guava pulp used for ethanol production by three yeast strains contained 10% (w/v) total sugars and was pH 4.1. Ethanol production at the optimum sugar concentration of 10%, at pH 4.1 and 30{sup o}C was 1.5%, 3.6% and 3.9% (w/v) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 1972, Isolate-1 and Isolate-2, respectively, at 60 h fermentation. Higher sugar concentrations at 15 and 20% were inhibitory for ethanol production by all test cultures. The maximum production of ethanol at optimum natural sugar concentration (10%) of guava pulp, was 5.8% (w/v) at pH 5.0 by Isolate-2 over 36 h fermentation, which was only slightly more than the quantity of ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5.0%) and Isolate-1 (5.3%) over 36 and 60 h fermentation, respectively. (Author)

Srivastava, S.; Modi, D.R.; Garg, S.K. [Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad (India)

1997-06-01

214

Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

Siswo Sumardiono

2010-12-01

215

Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

Nurhayati

2008-01-01

216

Power generation from cassava alcohol wastewater: effects of pretreatment and anode aeration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava alcohol wastewater produced from the bioethanol production industry is carbohydrate-rich wastewater with large quantities of insoluble organic compounds. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used for electricity recovery and pollutants removal from this wastewater. Different pretreatment methods (solid-liquid separation, ultrasonication, pre-fermentation) and anode-aeration modes were explored in MFCs aimed to enhance the efficiency of power generation and pollutants removal. Pre-fermentation was found to be the most effective pretreatment method. A maximum power density of 437.13 ± 15.6 mW/m(2) and TCOD removal of 62.5 ± 3.5% were achieved using the pre-fermented wastewater, 150 and 20% higher than the un-pretreated control. Aeration in anode chamber could promote the hydrolysis of organic matter and production of VFAs in the raw wastewater, and increase TCOD removal and power density. Pre-fermentation coupled with halfway anode aeration may be a feasible strategy to enhance power generation and pollutants removal from the cassava wastewater in MFCs. PMID:24842224

Quan, Xiangchun; Tao, Kun; Mei, Ying; Jiang, Xiaoman

2014-11-01

217

Ethanol fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

1981-01-01

218

Ethanol Production from Cassava Starch by Selected Fungi from an-Koji and Saccaromycetes cereviseae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of selected fungi and S. cerevisiae was investigated. Firstly starch hydrolysis fungi were isolated and screened from tan-koji (loog-pang. Enzymatic activities of 10 isolated Rhizopus sp. strains were determined on 0.1% starch agar plate at various pH (3-10 as primary screening. Clear zone diameter was occurred at pH ranging from 3 to 8 and no response at pH 10. The highest clear zone diameter that were found from 2 strains of Rhizopus sp. #2Bu and Rhizopus sp. #3Su at pH 4 were nearly equal. Secondary screening, sugar liberated were performed at various starch concentration from these 2 fungal strains. The results showed that Rhizopus sp. #3Su was the maximum efficiency. The highest reducing sugar yield was 25.9% from 6% cassava starch medium at 72 h. Ethanol production by SSF process, the coupling process between saccharification and fermentation was developed by using co-culture of Rhizopus sp. #3Su and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5088. After 24, 48 and 72 h of saccharification period by the fungal strain, the fermentation process was begun by adding yeast inoculum. The highest ethanol production was achieved at 14.36 g L-1 after 24 h of saccharification process on 6% cassava starch medium.

Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak

2010-01-01

219

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not. The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis of variance results, only pH (p <0.01), duration of storage (p <0.01), population of aflatoxin-producing species (0.0001) and the chip type (p <0.05) were significantly related to aflatoxin in positive samples. A stepwise regression analysis (forward selection procedure) indicated that aflatoxin levels were significantly (p <0.01) correlated with processing practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips.

Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.

2009-01-01

220

Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

Udoudoh, P. J.

2011-12-01

221

Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

2011-02-15

222

Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine  

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Full Text Available This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dregs increased microbial activity in cassava mash, particularly the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Protein composition of garri was improved and detoxification of cyanogenic glucosides was enhanced. Inoculation adversely affected mineral composition. Organoleptic analysis showed that inoculation did not reduce acceptability of garri at p<0.05.

O.K. Achi

2009-01-01

223

PULP dead or alive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal

2011-12-01

224

ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE  

OpenAIRE

Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59%) was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity....

Sarwar Jahan, M.; Sabina Rawsan; Nasima Chowdhury, D. A.; Al-maruf, A.

2008-01-01

225

Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

226

Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing aLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

227

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7]) of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa...

Tas, Aveling; Jp, Legg; Ndunguru J; Thompson G; Cm, Fauquet

2005-01-01

228

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

2005-08-01

229

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained olig [...] osaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

Geovana Rocha Plácido, Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do, Canto; Edna Regina, Amante; Valdir, Soldi.

2005-08-01

230

Cassava Processing: Safety and Protein Fortification  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in tropical regions, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cassava as a human food is a good source of energy as it has a comparable high energy density of about 610 kJ/100 g fresh root. The crop has growth advantages and production can take place in soil where other crops such as maize, sorghum and sweet potatoes cannot grow. In the region, cassava is used mainly by the farmers themselves as a subsistence crop b...

Tivana, Lucas

2012-01-01

231

Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

Science.gov (United States)

A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava. PMID:20336312

Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

2010-05-01

232

LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be brok [...] en under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

M. P., CEREDA; M.C.Y., MATTOS.

233

LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯ has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

M. P. CEREDA

1996-01-01

234

Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times. PMID:16347193

Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A

1986-10-01

235

Effects of Inoculum Size on Solid-Phase Fermentation of Fodder Beets for Fuel Ethanol Production  

OpenAIRE

This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

Gibbons, William R.; Westby, Carl A.

1986-01-01

236

The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

237

Technical and economical evaluation of the alcohol production from cassava fibrous waste using pectinase as a complementary enzyme; Avaliacao tecnico-economica da producao de etanol de farelo de mandioca, utilizando pectinase como enzima complementar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava fibrous waste is generated during starch manufactured as a solid waste used mainly for animal feeding. The process of the alcohol production from cassava fibrous waste using pectinase as a complementary enzyme in the hydrolysis process was technically and economically analyzed in this work. The addition of nutrients on the fermentation wort was also analyzed. The fibrous waste, the final fibrous residue after hydrolysis and the fermentation wort were characterized in their physical-chemistry composition and profile of sugars. The cassava fibrous waste had 80% starch, 11.5% fiber, 1.14% ash, 0,85% protein and 0.45% of the sugars. In the hydrolysis process it was obtained a conversion of 86.31 of initial starch and 80% of the total sugars yield considered as 100%. The solid fibrous residue generated after hydrolysis had 37% of the starch, 30% of total sugars and 30% of fibers in dry basis. The data indicated that 75% of the raw material was hydrolyzed. The fermentation wort had 13 deg Brix of extract and it was not necessary to concentrate it. The data showed that the maximum of alcohol is formed after 48 h of fermentation and the addition of nutrients reduced the fermentation time in 8 hours. There was not expressive difference in the fermentation yield with and without addition of nutrients. The average yield of the conversion starch to alcohol was 51.6%. The cost analysis indicated that this process is economically possible. (author)

Leonel, Magali; Cereda, Marney P. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

1998-06-01

238

Molecular characterization of cassava mosaic geminiviruses in Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a basic staple food crop in Tanzania. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) constitutes a major limiting factor to cassava production in the country. This study was undertaken to characterize the CMGs occurring in Tanzania using molecular techniques and to map their geographical distribution to generate information on which the formulation of control measures can be based. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) a...

Ndunguru, Joseph

2006-01-01

239

Supplementation Levels of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation of level concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in cattle. Four, rumen fistulated cattle with initial body weight of 400 ? 10kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were concentrate cassava chip based offering at 0, 1, 2 and 3 % BW with urea-treated rice straw fed ad libitum. It was found that ruminal pH was significantly decreased with increase of concentrate. Volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration in the rumen was significantly different among treatments. In addition, a molar proportion of propionate was higher in supplemented groups at 2 and 3 % BW (P< 0.05, leading to significantly decreased acetate:propionate ratio. Furthermore, microbial N supply was significantly improved and was highest at 2 %BW supplementation. The efficiency of rumen microbial-N synthesis based on organic matter (OM truly digested in the rumen was highest in level of concentrate supplementation at 2 %BW (80 % of cassava chip in diets. Moreover, the total protozoal counts were significantly increased, while fungal zoospores were dramatically decreased in cattle receiving increased levels of concentrate. In conclusion, cassava chip can be use as energy source at 80% in concentrate and supplementation of concentrate at 2 %BW with urea-treated rice straw as roughage could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in cattle.

S. Khampa

2006-01-01

240

EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

Cuihua Dong,

2012-07-01

241

Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines  

Science.gov (United States)

Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2006-05-30

242

Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

243

Nutrient Composition of Cassava Offals and Cassava Sievates Collected from Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cassava offals and cassava sievates collected from 5 locations in Edo State, Nigeria. Following sun-drying (30-35oC), the cassava by-products were analyzed for protein, fibre, carbohydrate, cyanide, ash and fat. The results revealed that the DM for the sievates ranged between 87.06 and 91.88%; (P (1.02 - 1.07%); EE (0.50 - 0.84%); and CF (3.01 - 3.25%). Others were ash (between 1.74 and 2.01%), Carboh...

Nwokoro; Smart O.; Vaikosen, S. E.; Bamgbose, A. M.

2005-01-01

244

Production of Cocoyam, Cassava and Wheat Flour Composite Rock Cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate and sensory analysis of the cassava-cocoyam supplemented wheat flour rock cake has been made. This was done to investigate the nutritional value and the general acceptability of the cassava flour and cocoyam flour supplemented rock cake. The proximate analysis indicate that the moisture content, ash and the carbohydrate increase with increasing cassava and cocoyam flour concentration. Generally the ash content of composite rock cakes increases as the level of supplementation increases implying that the inorganic nutrients in the composite rock cake is richer than that of wheat rock cake. It is observed from the organoleptic analysis that generally, whole wheat rock cake and cassava and cocoyam supplemented rock cake with cassava and cocoyam flour up to 30% is preferred to rock cake with cassava and cocoyam flour beyond 30%. Thus cassava and cocoyam flour can be used to substitute for wheat flour up to about 30%.

Rita Elsie Sanful

2010-01-01

245

[Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and of protein. The magnitude of these changes was found to be directly related to the losses in dry matter. From the results of this research, it was concluded that the addition of forage improves the chemical characteristics of silage prepared from coffee pulp. PMID:1275634

Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

1976-03-01

246

High productivity fermentation for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-productivity fermentation of sugars, starches and cellulose into ethanol to serve as a supplement to liquid fuels is discussed. Processes involved in the pretreatment of raw materials, including the hydrolysis of starch and cellulose, are examined, and criteria for the selection of yeasts and bacteria for fermentation are considered. Developments in fermentor design resulting in improved operation and higher productivity by the use of cell recycle and continuous operation are reviewed, and the results of preliminary studies indicating the advantages of using the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis rather than yeasts are presented. It is also shown that considerable cost reductions may be achieved by the use of ethanol-tolerant organisms which can ferment to 12 vol %, as less steam is required for distillation. Estimates are presented of the costs of ethanol production from cassava, sugar beets and sugar cane in the Australian context, and it is concluded that the development of high-productivity continuous fermentation with cell recycle offers considerable potential for cost reductions in medium to large scale ethanol production.

Rogers, P.L.

1979-10-01

247

Solid-state fermentation of carob pods for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of ethanol from carob pods by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The maximal ethanol concentration (160[+-]3 g/kg dry pods), ethanol productivity (6.7[+-]0.2 g/kg per hour), ethanol yield (40[+-]1.8%), biomass concentration (7.5[+-]0.4x10[sup 8] cells/g carob pulp) and fermentation efficiency (80[+-]2%) were obtained at an inoculum amount of 3%, a particle size of 0.5 mm, a moisture level of 70%, a pH of 4.5 and a temperature of 30 C. Under the same fermentation conditions both sterilized and non-sterilized carob pods pulp gave the same maximum ethanol concentration. (orig.)

Roukas, T. (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-05-01

248

MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS  

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Full Text Available

The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

Kátia N. MATSUI

2009-07-01

249

Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum  

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Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

2014-01-01

250

Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite / Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia pl [...] asmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (P Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk urea n [...] itrogen (MUN) concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch (S) but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P

Gisele Fernanda, Mouro; Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Francisco Assis Fonseca de, Macedo; Kátia Cilene, Guimarães; Claudete Regina, Alcalde; Rosemeri Aparecida, Ferreira; Paulo Emílio Fernandes, Prohmann.

1840-18-01

251

MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS  

OpenAIRE

The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were imp...

Matsui, Ka?tia N.; Larotonda, Fa?bio D. S.; Pires, Alfredo T. N.; Laurindo, Joa?o B.

2009-01-01

252

The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa  

OpenAIRE

The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission b...

Mohammed, I. U.; Abarshi, M. M.; Muli, B.; Hillocks, R. J.; Maruthi, M. N.

2012-01-01

253

The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

2009-10-01

254

High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

255

Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener [...] así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron para producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fer [...] mentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

Manuel Fernando, Rubio-Arroyo; Pilar, Vivanco-Loyo; Moisés, Juárez; Martha, Poisot; Guillermo, Ramírez-Galicia.

2011-12-01

256

Dental pulp tissue engineering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo altamente especializado que possui uma restrita capacidade de regeneração, devido à sua disposição anatômica e à natureza pós-mitótica das células odontoblásticas. A remoção total da polpa, seguida da desinfecção do canal radicular e seu preenchimento com materi [...] al artificial proporciona a perda de uma significante quantidade de dentina deixando como sequela um dente não vital e enfraquecido. Entretanto, a endodontia regenerativa é um campo emergente da engenharia tecidual, que demonstrou resultados promissores utilizando células-tronco associadas à scaffolds e moléculas bioativas. Desta forma, esse artigo revisa os recentes avanços obtidos na regeneração do tecido pulpar baseado nos princípios da engenharia tecidual e fornece aos leitores informações compreensivas sobre os diferentes aspectos envolvidos na engenharia tecidual. Assim, nós especulamos que a combinação ideal de células, scaffolds e moléculas bioativas pode resultar em significantes avanços em outras áreas da pesquisa odontológica. Os dados levantados em nossa revisão demonstraram que estamos em um estágio no qual, o desenvolvimento de tecidos complexos, tais como a polpa dental, não é mais inatingível e que a próxima década será um período extremamente interessante para a pesquisa odontológica. Abstract in english Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant [...] amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.

Flávio Fernando, Demarco; Marcus Cristian Muniz, Conde; Bruno Neves, Cavalcanti; Luciano, Casagrande; Vivien Thiemy, Sakai; Jacques Eduardo, Nör.

257

The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava  

Science.gov (United States)

The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

258

The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

2012-03-01

259

Supplementation of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, N-balance and Urinary Purine Derivatives in Beef Cattle  

OpenAIRE

Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangements in a 4x4 Latin square design to study effects of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil (CO) on rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient digestibility. Two factors were used; Factor A-Source of protein; Soy Bean Meal (SBM), Cassava Hay (CH) and factor B-non-heating of YFL+CO (YCOH) and heating of YFL+CO (at 50°C) (YCOH). Animals received four dietary treatments as follows: T1 = SBM+YCO; T...

Nontaso, N.; Wanapat, S.; Navanukroaw, C.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Wanapat, M.; Polyorach, S.

2011-01-01

260

Direct pulp capping using biodentine  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus). On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pul...

Popovi?-Baji? Marijana; Danilovi? Vesna; Proki? Branislav; Proki? Bogomir; Jokanovi? Vukoman; Živkovi? Slavoljub

2014-01-01

261

Modeling pulp fiber suspension rheology  

OpenAIRE

Rheological properties of pulp suspensions play a very important role in the industry, mainly due to the consumption of energy for transporting pulp among the different parts of the paper mill. In this work, we determined the rheology of long- and short-fiber bleached kraft pulp suspensions by using a new rotational viscometer especially designed for their analysis. The experimental rheograms were adjusted to the Herschel-Bulkley model. We established the dependence of the rheological p...

Ventura, Carla; Blanco, Angeles; Negro, Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo; Garcia, Fernando; Rasteiro, Maria

2007-01-01

262

Studies on the Cold Resistance of Cassava  

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Full Text Available Methods: SC124 and Fuxuan 01, two cold-resistant cassava cultivars and Nanzhi199 and SC205, another two cold-sensitive cassava cultivars were studied under low temperature stress. Aims: in order to explore the hardy physiological characters of different cassava cultivars. Results: Results showed that under low temperature stress, the cell membrane permeability of the tested cassavas increased, the increase ranges in the cold-sensitive cultivars were more obvious than those in the strong cold resistance ones; the MAD contents in leaves were in a rise-fall sequence while the MAD contents in the cold-sensitive cultivars were much higher than those in the cold-resistant ones; under low temperature stress, the SOD and POD activities in leaves of cold-sensitive cultivars dropped greater than those in the strong cold-resistant ones; the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble liquid protein in leaves increased more seemingly in the cold-resistant cultivars than in the cold-sensitive ones. The contents of soluble sugar and soluble liquid protein in leaves were in a rise-fall trend as the temperature dropped and time elapsed. There was a dramatic decline in the chlorophyll contents and water ratios in leaves under the low temperature stress, more seemingly in the weak cold resistance cultivars than in the stronger ones. Conclusions: It was obvious that there was a close relation between the cold resistance and the cell membrane permeability, MDA contents, SOD and POD activities and the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein in different cassava cultivars. And those physiological characters could be used as indexes of cold resistance.

Xinglu Luo

2012-04-01

263

Production of ethanol, pulp fibre and animal feed from low grade hardwoods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utilization of hardwoods is limited because most vessels and ray (parenchyma) cells are very short and not valuable for paper making. In a new catalyzed nitric acid hardwood pulping process the long fibre fraction is recovered, bleached and used to produce a good quality paper pulp. About 70% of the wood fibre can be recovered for sale as pulp with the remaining 30% as short fibres used to produce ethanol. The process does not require expensive high temperature and pressure equipment because the acid concentration and pulping temperatures are relatively low and the process takes place at atmospheric pressure. The process is environmentally friendly because it is possible to bleach the pulp fibres without using chlorine, consequently avoiding the production of environmental hazards such as dioxins. In addition, options exist for recovering used acid and ammonia bleaching agent for the production of either microbial protein for animal feed or as an ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The short fibre fraction is enzymatically hydrolyzed to liberate the wood sugars which are simultaneously fermented by yeasts to produce ethanol. The sugars left in the used acid and wash waters are used as a substrate for the growth of an acid-tolerant yeast-like fungus Scytalidium acidophilum, thereby producing fungal protein animal feed supplement, while removing the biochemical oxygen demand of the waste water. Pulp and ethanol production data and pulp quality data from both bench-scale experiment and pilot plant are presented. A preliminary economic assessment is included. 43 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

Wilson, J.J.; Gauthier, Y.

1990-12-01

264

[Anaerobic solid-phase fermentation of plant substrates by Bacillus subtilis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid-phase growth of Bacillus subtilis 8130 on cellulose-rich plant substrates (presscakes or pulp) under hypoxic conditions was accompanied by cellulose depolymerization, protein hydrolysis, and degradation of other plant components, including some processes of mixed-type carbohydrate fermentation. The bacterial fermentation yielded propionic, butyric, and hexanoic acids and butyric acid derivatives. The bacterial metabolism and fermentation degree can be characterized by the proportions of fatty acids in the reaction mixture. The product of sea buckthorn cake fermentation has a good sorption quality. PMID:19235512

Ushakova, N A; Brodski?, E S; Kozlova, A A; Nifatov, A V

2009-01-01

265

Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

I.U. Odoemenem

2011-09-01

266

Direct pulp capping using biodentine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

Popovi?-Baji? Marijana

2014-01-01

267

Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization  

OpenAIRE

Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

2012-01-01

268

Production of Cocoyam, Cassava and Wheat Flour Composite Rock Cake  

OpenAIRE

The proximate and sensory analysis of the cassava-cocoyam supplemented wheat flour rock cake has been made. This was done to investigate the nutritional value and the general acceptability of the cassava flour and cocoyam flour supplemented rock cake. The proximate analysis indicate that the moisture content, ash and the carbohydrate increase with increasing cassava and cocoyam flour concentration. Generally the ash content of composite rock cakes increases as the level of supplementation inc...

Rita Elsie Sanful; Sophia Darko

2010-01-01

269

CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL  

OpenAIRE

In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml...

Lois Larbie; Claude Fiifi Hayford; Elsie Effah Kaufmann

2012-01-01

270

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

OpenAIRE

All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.

2000-01-01

271

Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition  

OpenAIRE

The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic aci...

Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

2010-01-01

272

Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor  

OpenAIRE

The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition c...

Ibeje, A. O.

2013-01-01

273

Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis in selected cassava genotypes. A complete diallel mating scheme including reciprocals of nine resistant and susceptible genotypes of cassava were evaluated in the field over a period of two planting seasons. The combining ability analysis revealed that both the additive and nonadditive gene effects were present. Crosses between the resistant lines and susceptible genotypes showed intermediate disease reaction to CAD suggesting a polygenic system of resistance to the disease. The significant maternal and specific reciprocal differences among the parents and crosses indicated that maternal and/or cytoplasmic inheritance is involved in the reaction of cassava genotypes to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. The significant genotype X environment interaction suggested lack of stability in the development of lesions/cankers on cassava stems. Therefore, recurrent selection would be appropriate for accumulating genes for resistance to CAD in cassava and progeny performance may not be based on their parents performance per se.

O.F. Owolade

2006-03-01

274

Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

2013-01-01

275

Batch Fermentation Kinetics of Pullulan from Aureobasidium pullulans Using Low Cost Substrates  

OpenAIRE

Batch pullulan fermentation kinetics of Aureobasidium pullulans from different low cost substrates was studied. In order to economize the process, different cheaper substrates such as cashew fruit juice, bakery waste, cassava flour and maize flour were attempted as a sole carbon source for the production of pullulan. A glucose based defined medium was used for comparison purposes. The higher yield of pullulan and increased uptake rate of substrate was noticed due to the rich con...

Thirumavalavan, K.; Manikkandan, T. R.; Dhanasekar, R.

2008-01-01

276

Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong. PMID:24747716

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

2014-06-16

277

Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s). PMID:15907080

Ray, R C

2004-10-01

278

Accelerated coffee pulp composting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost. PMID:10423839

Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

1999-02-01

279

Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic potential (CNp). Processed products from Luapula showed a low CNp,

Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.

2011-01-01

280

Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture) and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed) on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A centra [...] l composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*), and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%), low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%), and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C) and screw speed (230rpm), it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

Cristiane da Cunha, Salata; Magali, Leonel; Fernanda Rossi Moretti, Trombini; Martha Maria, Mischan.

2014-09-01

281

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

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Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

2011-05-01

282

Fate of mucilage cell wall polysaccharides during coffee fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of a 20-h fermentation on cell wall polysaccharides from the mucilage of pulped coffee beans were examined and compared to those of unfermented beans, on alcohol insoluble residues (AIRs), their hot-water-soluble crude pectic substances (PECTs), and their hot-water-insoluble residues (RESs). Yields and compositions were very similar: AIRs, which consisted of approximately 30% highly methylated pectic substances, approximately 9% cellulose, and approximately 15% neutral noncellulosic polysaccharides, exhibited no apparent degradation. However, PECTs from fermented beans were shown to have undergone a slight reduction of their intrinsic viscosity and weight-average molecular weight by capillary viscosimetry and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. After fermentation, hot-water-insoluble pectic substances of RES exhibited partial de-esterification. Removal of coffee bean mucilage by natural fermentation seems to result from a restricted pectolysis, the mechanism of which remains to be elucidated. PMID:11714359

Avallone, S; Guiraud, J P; Guyot, B; Olguin, E; Brillouet, J M

2001-11-01

283

Avaliação da farinha de mandioca e do fubá de milho como substratos para a obtenção de bebida fermento-destilada Evaluation of cassava and corn flours as substrates for alcoholic distilled beverage production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca e o fubá de milho foram avaliados como matérias-primas alternativas na obtenção de uma bebida fermento-destilada, visando gerar informações úteis à aplicação industrial. Os substratos foram caracterizados e comparou-se a eficiência da mosturação, o perfil de açúcares no mosto, bem como as curvas de fermentação dos substratos. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo de amido foi de 78,1 % para o fubá de milho e 92,7 % para a farinha de mandioca. Quanto ao rendimento da mosturação foi de 57, 4 % para o milho e 66,4 % para a mandioca, sendo que o perfil de açúcares no mosto demonstrou que 95 % dos açúcares presentes no mosto de mandioca foi glicose e o restante pequenas porcentagens de dextrinas e maltose. Já o perfil do mosto de milho apresentou cerca de 85 % de glicose , 10 % de dextrinas e cerca de 4 % de maltose. Para o processo fermentativo, observou -se que o consumo de açúcares no mosto de mandioca foi mais rápido que no mosto de milho.Cassava and corn flours were evaluated as alternative raw-materials for production of a fermented and distilled drink. The objective of this work was to generate information for technological application. Both flours were characterized and starch hydrolysis efficiency, sugar profile and fermentation pattern were compared. The results obtained showed that starch content of corn flour was 78.1% and for cassava flour 92.7%. Starch hydrolysis yield was 57.4% for corn and 66.4% for cassava and the sugar profiles in the hydrolysates showed that 95% of total sugar present in cassava hydrolysate was glucose and the remaining fraction was represented by dextrins and maltose. For corn hydrolysate 85% of total sugar was glucose, 10% dextrins and around 4% maltose. The fermentative process was evaluated by measuring the velocity of sugar consumption which for cassava hydrolysate was higher than for corn hydrolysate.

I. M. Demiate

1997-08-01

284

YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. PMID:25475331

Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula

2015-04-01

285

Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using wastewater in solid state fermentation for eliciting plant disease resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

An elicitor of plant disease resistance, pectinase, was produced by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus niger. Sugar beet pulp was used as carbon source and the wastewater from monosodium glutamate production was used as nitrogen and water source. The composition of the fermentation medium was: 11 ml concentrated wastewater (containing NH3-N 38.2 mg/ml), sugar beet pulp 10 g, Na2HPO4.12H2O 0.2 g, KH2PO4 0.04 g in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The fermentation temperature was 30 degrees C and the relative humidity of the air was 75-90%. The maximum production of pectinase was reached after 96 h cultivation. The crude pectinase extracted from the fermented materials could elicit disease resistance in cucumber and tomato seedlings. PMID:15207294

Bai, Z H; Zhang, H X; Qi, H Y; Peng, X W; Li, B J

2004-10-01

286

Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase.

Wang, Wen; Xie, Li

2012-01-01

287

The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions  

OpenAIRE

The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1...

Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Rounsley, Steve

2012-01-01

288

GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

289

Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

290

Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

291

Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

Alissara Reungsang

2007-01-01

292

Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

293

An Ex-ante economic evaluation of genetically modified cassava in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic potential and opportunities for introducing Genetically Modified (GM) cassava that is Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) resistant and has improved starch properties in South Africa. The level of cassava production in South Africa is limited and thus a study on a new technology for this crop may seem strange. However, with innovations like the CMV resistance trait or amylose free cassava starch, cassava production in South Africa can possib...

Mudombi, Charity Ruramai

2010-01-01

294

Modelling potential ?-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava  

OpenAIRE

Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its ?-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the ...

Katz, Josh M.; La Frano, Michael R.; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J.

2013-01-01

295

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

2013-01-01

296

Evaluation of Trace Elements and Total Antioxidant Status in Nigerian Cassava Processors  

OpenAIRE

The consumption and export cassava or cassava product is on the increase, thus more Nigerians are involved in the planting and processing of cassava stems and tubers respectively. Tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and diabetes Mellitus (DM) are among the cassava-cyanide induced conditions in rural Nigerians that engaged in processing and consumption of cassava products. TAN and DM are associated with certain trace elements, therefore this study determines the levels of trace elements (Mg, Fe, ...

Arinola, O. G.; Nwozo, S. O.; Ajiboye, J. A.; Oniye, A. H.

2008-01-01

297

An Ex-ante economic evaluation of genetically modified cassava in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic potential and opportunities for introducing Genetically Modified (GM) cassava that is Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) resistant and has improved starch properties in South Africa. The level of cassava production in South Africa is limited and thus a study on a new technology for this crop may seem strange. However, with innovations like the CMV resistance trait or amylose free cassava starch, cassava production in South Africa can possib...

Mudombi, Charity Ruramai

2010-01-01

298

NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF THE WASTE OF SACCHARIFICATION PROCESS FROM CASSAVA BAGASSE ON THE LAYING HENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy value of the waste of saccharification process from cassava bagasse (WSPCB on the laying hens. Twenty ISA-Brown laying hens at the age of 72 weeks were randomly distributed into three feeding treatments which consisted of cassava bagase (CB, WSPCB of solid state fermentation method (WSPCB-SSF, and WSPCB of sub merged fermentation method (WSPCB-SmF. All of the hens were fasted for 24 hours and 15 of them were fed with CB, WSPCB-SSF and WSPCB-SmF (five hens for each test-diet. The other five hens were still fasted. Then, all of the hens were fasted again and their excreta were collected during 48 hours. The nutrient digestibilities which were measured consisted of the Apparent and True Digestibility of Dry matter (ADDM and TDDM, Crude Fiber (ADCF and TDCF, Starch (ADS and TDS, and the Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy (AME and TME. The result of this research showed that the saccharification process generated the solid waste with the nutrient digestibility value (ADDM, TDDM, ADS, TDS, AME, and TME which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of CB. The crude fiber digestibility value of the WSPCB has an oposite phenomenon in which the ADCF and TDCF of WSPCB-SmF were greater than CB. In conclusion, the nutrient digestibility value, except for ADCF and TDCF, of the WSPCB on the laying hens were lower in value than those CB.

W.M. Ali-Mursyid

2011-12-01

299

Pulp and paper industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pulp and paper industry has played a major role in Finland with regards to energy use, technological development and the economy. Finland's market share in printing and writing paper exports is 25%. Finnish companies now figure among the world's biggest pulp and paper enterprises through international consolidations. Finnish equipment manufacturers, control system suppliers and consulting engineering firms are also global players. Rapid technological changes have taken place in the unit sizes of main process equipment or whole production lines. Environmental effects have been reduced significantly, e.g. biological oxygen demand load has been reduced from 530 000 to 18 000 t/a in the last 30 years, even though the production of paper and board has tripled. Competitiveness in the future depends on the supply of raw material, energy use, environmental issues as well as on the development of information and communication technology (ICT) for transferring and storing information. The growth rate of paper products has been closely interconnected with economic development. The average annual increase in the production volume has been 2-3%, whereas the real price of products has followed a declining trend. The first indication of the effects of ICT is seen in the reduced newsprint demand in the US market. It is foreseen that the use of cut-size office papers will increase, together with individual printing. Global growth in the demand for paper products is expected to slow down but not to cease because of this development. Forest growth in Finland currently exceeds annual harvesting. Taking into account the changes in forest ownership, taxation principles and forest land protection, an increase in harvesting of 5-10% is feasible. The amount of imported wood is expected to increase also in the future. Utilisation of the available fibre supply has to be further optimised in terms of endproduct properties. Since the investment in a new production line is already in the region of 400 million euros, the development of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies should not increase the investment cost. Whereas the overall energy efficiency has improved in the past, the electricity intensity has increased. Turning the latter trend around poses a clear challenge for the future. The main approaches include developments in mechanical pulping, higher consistency processing along the pulp and paper production line, accurately dimensioned and controlled pumping as well as advanced process control and energy management systems. Reduction of fresh water intake and new sidestream processing techniques will improve environmental efficiency. Two scenarios are presented. In the Base scenario, the price and availability of electricity favour only a modest capacity increase, resulting in paper and board production of 15 Mt/a and electricity use of 28 TWh/a in 2030. In the Mechanical scenario, high-quality wood-containing papers dominate. The available amounts of wood species dictate the production of different paper grades. The reduction in specific electricity consumption equates to 4% from current figures. With paper and board production of 17 Mt/a, this will result in electricity consumption of 30 TWh/a. If a major breakthrough takes place in TMP production which reduces the specific electricity consumption by 30%, electricity consumption will almost remain at the present level.

Viinikainen, S.; Nousiainen, I.; Edelman, K.; Manninen, J.

2002-07-01

300

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

301

Pulp and paper mill solid wastes as substrates for single-cell protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated the upgrading of some typical pulp and paper mill solid wastes into protein-enriched animal feed using the cellulolytic fungus Chaetomium cellulolyticum. The waste residues used were six different primary clarifier sludges and a sample of tertiary centricleaner rejects. These were obtained from mills whose modes of operation spanned the range typically in present-day usage: groundwood, sulfite, semichemical, Kraft, and thermomechanical pulping, with and without bleaching. Crude protein production from the solid waste residues is compared to that obtainable from fermentation of untreated or caustic-pretreated sawdusts. Some of these waste residues, especially the Kraft pulp mill rejects, appear to be promising sources of substrate for single-cell protein production. In these preliminary findings, up to 28% dry weight crude protein content of the product has been obtained at specific growth rates of up to 0.12 hr/sup -1/ on direct utilization of the wastes.

Pamment, N.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

1979-04-01

302

Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P H. griseus > V. variegata; P variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs. PMID:12368398

Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

2002-10-01

303

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

304

Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

Enete, AA.

2008-01-01

305

The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

306

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

307

Regulation of starch synthesis in cassava  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop, one of the world’s most important but under-exploited staple food crops and source of income. It is a high starch producer with levels between 73.7 and 84.9% of its total storage root dry weight. Increasingly, there is a need for diverse novel starches for both food and non-food applications. In response, sbeII encoding starch branching enzyme II was cloned. The relationship between spatial-temporal expression patterns of starch synthesis g...

Baguma, Yona

2004-01-01

308

IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

Chun-Han Ko

2011-02-01

309

Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

1984-07-01

310

Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

Phengpricha, N.

1980-01-01

311

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

Bureenok, S.; Yuangklang, C.; Vasupen, K.; Schonewille, J. T.; Kawamoto, Y.

2012-01-01

312

The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

2012-09-01

313

Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region. This emphasizes the pivotal role played by the vector in both pandemics and the urgent need to identify effective and sustainable strategies for controlling whiteflies on cassava. PMID:21549776

Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

2011-08-01

314

Evaluation of Moisture, Total Cyanide and Fiber Contents of Garri Produced from Cassava (Manihot utilissima Varieties Obtained from Awassa in Southern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculent crantz as one of the most important root crops in Sub-Saharan Africa plays a vital role in the diet of many African countries especially the grass root people, being the major source of daily carbohydrate intake. Traditionally processed staple foods from cassava are available in Western and some Eastern African countries, such as garri, foofoo, boiled cassava meal, etc. Several varieties of M. Utilissima obtained from Awassa, Ethiopia, were processed, fermented and converted into garri. The moisture, total cyanide and fibre contents of the processed garri were analyzed. The results showed that the moisture, total cyanide and fiber contents varied from 26.12-40.02 %, 1.51-2.81 mg HCN/100 g and 1.80-2.40% respectively. The largest reduction in cyanide content (41% between the third and fourth day fermentation was found in the MM 96/5280 variety which had an increase of 32% fiber content when compared with other varieties. These results compared favorably with similar garri products obtained from Ghana and Nigeria. The ease of preparation and potential nutritional value resulting from fermentation, the low moisture, cyanide and improved fiber contents found, indicate the suitability of the garri products as nutritional food items. The Kello44/72 and MM96/5280 varieties with the lowest cyanide and comparable fiber contents are most suitable. In order to enrich the nutritional contents of the garri product, fortification with leguminous plants or fish is recommended so as to make it more suitable as an alternative food product to injera in Ethiopia.

S.E. Enidiok

2008-01-01

315

Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

Monica I. Cutrignelli

2013-01-01

316

Pemanfaatan Pelepah dan Abu Janjang Kelapa Sawit Dalam Pembuatan Papan Semen Pulp (Pulp Cement Board)  

OpenAIRE

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memanfaatkan limbah pelepah dan abu janjang kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku pembuatan papan semen pulp (pulp cement board) dan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbandingan pulp dengan semen serta pengaruh penambahan abu janjang kelapa sawit terhadap mutu papan semen pulp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Lab. Mekanisasi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) Faktorial. Pengujian ini dil...

Riza, Fakhruddin

2012-01-01

317

Dissolving pulp from jute stick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of ?-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% ?-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

2015-01-22

318

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. PMID:21569940

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-08-01

319

Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

Adriana Cristina Ferrari

2014-02-01

320

CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml and 0.00625g/ml. Additionally there was little or no significant change in Na, K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Mn, and Cu concentrations upon immersion in SBF as observed over a one week period at a temperature of 37°C. These initial results suggest cassava fibre may be considered for biomaterial applications following more extensive characterisation.

Lois Larbie

2012-07-01

321

Fermentation and food  

Science.gov (United States)

This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

322

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

2003-01-01

323

Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

2013-01-01

324

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

2006-11-01

325

Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the cassava farmers were married, literate and of about 35 years meaning that more young people were into cassava cultivation in Ile-Ife. Also, the farmers had an average of 8 members per household. The results of the regression analysis revealed that 97% of the variations in the marketed surplus of cassava were explained by the variables in the model. The result also revealed that the quantity of cassava output in kg and the family size had positive and significant effects on the marketed surplus while losses, quantity of cassava consumed in kg, payments in kind in kg, size of land in hectares had negative effects on the marketed surplus. The elasticity of marketed surplus was 1.6 meaning that the supply response was elastic indicating that the higher the price of cassava output in kg the more the quantity of cassava that will be supplied.

Key words: Cassava Farmers; Market supply response; Nigeria; Osun State

R. O. Oluitan

2012-06-01

326

Stem Cells of the Dental Pulp  

OpenAIRE

 Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) can be found within the cell rich zone of dental pulp. These stem cells, under specific stimuli, differentiate into many cell types which have wide therapeutic applications.   The dental stem cells are derived from both deciduous and permanent teeth. The viable dental stem cells are very simple to collect, without any mortality and morbidity. Dental pulp stem cells can be obtained from the patient’s vital pulp with the help of stem cell markers, whic...

Mahboobe Dehghani

2014-01-01

327

Response of Local Cassava Varieties in Uganda to Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease  

OpenAIRE

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) resistant varieties have been used to manage CMD in Uganda. In spite the availability of a number of CMD resistant cultivars, several local landraces are continually grown in Uganda because they possess certain desirable traits, which may not have been fully met by the resistant varieties. Field based trials were setup to evaluate the response to CMD of some landraces that became prominent after the 1990s CMD pandemic. Experiments were located in areas where CM...

Adriko, J.; Sserubombwe, W. S.; Adipala, E.; Bua, A.; Edema, R.

2012-01-01

328

High solids fermentation reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01

329

Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

OpenAIRE

Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.A Apomixia mantém a heterose e evita a transmissão de patógenos sistêmicos que acompanham a propaga...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.; Vieira, Marco Andre? R.; Clibas Vieira; Dario Gratapaglia

1998-01-01

330

Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

331

In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture  

OpenAIRE

Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

Ogero, Kwame O.; Mburugu, Gitonga N.; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

2012-01-01

332

Isoenzymatic variability of cassava accessions from different regions in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, and is widely cultivated in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the isoenzymatic variability of 200 cassava accessions from the germplasm bank of Embrapa Amazonia Oriental. Seven groups were formed according to their origin: 1-Amazonas, 2-Amapa, 3-Bahia, 4-Para, 5-Rondonia, 6-Various, for accessions with a maximum of three individuals per place of origin, and 7 - Accessions of indefinite origin. The access...

Cabral Betânia Lúcia Rocha; Souza Joelson Araújo de; Ando Akihiko; Veasey Elizabeth Ann; Cardoso Eloisa Maria Ramos

2002-01-01

333

The symptom and genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses infecting cassava in East Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements. PMID:22454639

Mohammed, I U; Abarshi, M M; Muli, B; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

2012-01-01

334

REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES  

OpenAIRE

Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP) and pressurised groundwood (PWG) pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW...

Korpinen, Risto I.; Fardim, Pedro E.

2009-01-01

335

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

336

Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

Cock, J.H.

1982-11-19

337

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

Science.gov (United States)

The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

338

[Protein enrichment of sugar beet bagasse for fermentation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Leached beet pulp is a plentiful waste in the sugar beet industry in Chile, reaching 100.000 metric tons per year on a dry basis. It represents an interesting substrate for protein upgrading through fermentation by cellulolytic organisms, because of the high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, with small amounts of protein and lignin (Table 1). The fermentation of leached beet pulp by the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was studied under carbon limitation, with the celluloses as the only carbon and energy source. Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium sulphate and the medium was supplemented with other mineral salts as required for growth. Results on the kinetics of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, level of reducing sugars in the medium, mycelial growth and production of cellulolytic enzymes are presented. Mycelial growth and related parameters were evaluated by an indirect method, based on nitrogen balances during fermentation. A yield of 0.26 g. of dry cell/g. of cellulosic substrate consumed and productivity of 0.095 g. of dry cell per liter per hour were obtained and compared with reported results on similar systems. After 40 to 45 hours of fermentation, approximately 80% of the cellulose and 45% of the hemicellulose were degraded (Fig. 2). Both, exoglucanase and endoglucanase, were induced; endoglucanase was growth associated, while exoglucanase appeared later in the growth phase, reaching its maximum activity in the stationary phase (Fig. 3). The product obtained was 30% protein and only 40 to 45% residual fiber, mostly hemicellulose. Mild acid hydrolysis has been successful in degrading hemicellulose but not cellulose, in the leached beet pulp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6965247

Illanes, A; Schaffeld, G

1982-01-01

339

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred la...

Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

2012-01-01

340

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI  

OpenAIRE

In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

Chand Bandna

2012-01-01

341

Virus-host interactions in the cassava brown streak disease pathosystem  

OpenAIRE

The research seeks to understand the virus-host plant interactions for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) caused by two viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) of the genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The diversity of six CBSD isolates from the endemic (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania) and the recently developed epidemic areas (Uganda) of the disease in eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties differing in virus resistanc...

Mohammed, Ibrahim Umar

2012-01-01

342

Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry Amido de mandioca na indústria brasileira de alimentos  

OpenAIRE

Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

2011-01-01

343

Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

2010-08-15

344

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

345

Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%). PMID:18226892

González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

2008-09-01

346

Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

Adenle Ademola A

2012-08-01

347

Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

348

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1% and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%. The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6 above other silages (4.1. The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Aureliano José Vieira Pires

2009-01-01

349

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at pH 6.0 and 59 degrees C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge, yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were substrate dependent: 55 degrees C, pH 6.0 for alpha-cellulose, and 55 degrees C, pH 5.5 for the pulp mill sludge. In the SSF with alpha-cellulose, the overall yield of acetate was strongly influenced by the enzyme loading. In a fed-batch operation of SSF with alpha-cellulose, an overall acetic acid yield of 60 wt% was obtained. Among the factors limiting the yields were incomplete digestion by the enzyme and the end-product inhibition. In the SSF of pulp mill sludge, inhibitors present in the sludge severely limited bacterial action. A large accumulation of glucose developed over the entire process, changing the intended SSF operation into a separate hydrolysis and fermentation operation. Despite a long lag phase of microbial growth, a terminal yield of 85% was obtained with this substrate. PMID:10849850

Borden, J R; Lee, Y Y; Yoon, H H

2000-01-01

350

Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

B Budiyono

2012-03-01

351

Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

2012-01-01

352

Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

2006-01-01

353

Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

2012-04-01

354

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% co...

Ashwani Sanghi; Neelam Garg; Kalika Kuhar; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Gupta, Vijay K.

2009-01-01

355

Effect of Intercropping and Organic Manures on Weed Control and Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)  

OpenAIRE

Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of intercropping and organic manures on weed control and performance of cassava at Veterinary College and Research Institute Farm, Namakkal during 2001 and 2002. The popular hybrid of cassava H 226 was tried as test crop. Three intercropping systems viz., sole cassava, cassava + maize (var. African tall) and cassava + cowpea (var. CO 5) were assigned to main plots. Six organic manurial treatments viz., FYM (25 t ha-1), Poultry...

Mohamed Amanullah, M.; Alagesan, A.; Vaiyapuri, K.; Sathyamoorthi, K.; Pazhanivelan, S.

2006-01-01

356

Nutritious value of co-products of the cassava Valor nutritivo de co-produtos da mandioca  

OpenAIRE

The present study evaluated the chemical composition, protein and total carbohydrates content, energy estimative of industrial co-products of cassava from the North of Brazil (cassava scraping, cassava co-products flower, cassava mass and the superior third of cassava silage STSRM). The results were evaluated by description of the statistical analysis. Highest mean values were found for STSRM Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF). Variation values occurred in protein content, t...

André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães; Elyzabeth da Cruz Cardoso; Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira; Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira; Elieldo Lameira Brito

2007-01-01

357

Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

358

Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

2012-10-01

359

Asian fungal fermented food  

OpenAIRE

In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegetables, meat and fish. This chapter focuses on some representative foods, their traditional manufacturing, the major fungi involved in the fermentation, the biochemical changes taking place during fe...

Nout, M. J. R.; Aidoo, K. E.

2010-01-01

360

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

361

Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-08-01

362

Commercialisation of Traditional Crops: Are Cassava Production and Utilisation Promotion Efforts Bearing Fruit in Kenya?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving food security has been an elusive goal for many economies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Among the strategies being pursued to achieve this goal is agribusiness development through strengthening smallholder farmers’ entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of traditional crops production and utilisation. Cassava has been identified as a high value traditional crop that has enormous industrial value. In Kenya, it has been promoted by the government and other interested organisations. However, despite the efforts, cassava has not evolved from subsistence to a commercial crop that can be relied on in the fight against food insecurity. This paper examines the level of adoption of cassava commercialisation technologies by smallholder farmers in Kenya. It is based on a study conducted in Ngata Division of Nakuru District Kenya where 99 smallholder household heads who are members of cassava common interest groups were interviewed and stakeholder discussions held. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and stakeholder discussions analysed thematically. Though cassava was grown by 57% of the households, very few (6.1% engaged in entrepreneurial activities involving cassava, selling only the raw tubers. Cassava tended to be grown by older farmers as compared to younger farmers. Smallholder farmers encountered challenges in cassava production, cassava utilisation and cassava commercialisation. For cassava to contribute towards food security, a market-oriented approach that focuses on empowering farmers for entrepreneurial action may need to be considered.

Milcah W. Mulu-Mutuku

2013-06-01

363

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

Zainuddin Ima M

2012-07-01

364

Influence of Nutrients Utilization and Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Lactic Acid by Homolactic Fermenters  

OpenAIRE

Homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolated from retted cassava ware screened for the production of lactic acid, pH survival and influence of nutrients utilization and cultivation conditions on the production of lactic acid by fermentation. All the Lactobacillus species isolated produced little quantity of lactic acid when grown at 30 °C in normal De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth. However, a temperature of 40 °C at initial pH of 5.5 in constituted MRS medium with 6% (w/v) c...

Ogunbanwo, S. T.; Okanlawon, B. M.

2009-01-01

365

Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

2014-01-01

366

Synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells in pulp regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Regeneration of the tissues to replace diseased, missing and traumatized dentin/pulp requires combining the recent progress in stem cell and tissue engineering research. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are considered as a promising population of cells in regenerative dentistry and shown to be able to produce dentin/pulp-like tissues following implantation in-vivo. Securing a good blood supply is critical in pulp regeneration, however, this is a challenging task due to the unique structure of t...

Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal

2014-01-01

367

EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS  

OpenAIRE

Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md. Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

2010-01-01

368

Non dimensional analysis of cassava transient drying in packing beds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Transient mass transfer process is analyzed for cassava drying (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in a pack bed. Experiments were performed in a thermally insulated radial dryer, considering cylindrical pieces of non peeled cassava with three different thicknesses: 4, 6, and 8 mm. The void fractions conside [...] red were 0.22, 0.49, 0.64 and 0.66, while the temperature values were 50ºC and 70ºC. The humidity removed from the cassava was measured from 10 pieces randomly selected at the beginning of the process. These pieces were weighed every 15 minutes during a three hours period. From the data gathered a non linear regression model was attained as a function of non dimensional numbers, which is valid for the following ranges: 700?Re?1900, 10000?Sc?31000, 0

H., Santamaria; N., Durango; A., Bula; M., Sanjuan.

2011-01-01

369

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Cassava Peel-Cassava Leaf Meal Based Diets in South Eastern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks averaging 8.0 kg and aged 6-8 months were used to determine the intake and digestibility of cassava peel-cassava leaf meal based diets. The four diets (A, B, C and D) were formulated to contain cassava peel, palm kernel cake, brewers’ dried grain, bone meal, soya bean meal, common salt and 0, 10, 20 and 30% cassava leaf meal respectively. The diets were assigned individually to the four animals in metabolism cages in a 4x4 Latin square design experiment. ...

Ukanwoko, A. I.; Ahamefule, F. O.; Ukachukwu, S. N.

2009-01-01

370

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

OpenAIRE

This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J. A. F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

2012-01-01

371

Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp  

OpenAIRE

The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an...

Lachenal, D.; Bajpai, P. K.; Mishra, S. P.; Sharma, N.; Anand, A.; Bajpai, P.

2006-01-01

372

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES  

OpenAIRE

Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells), usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The...

Elina Orblin; Pedro Fardim

2011-01-01

373

Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

1995-07-01

374

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

2011-06-10

375

Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

2011-02-15

376

Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to ices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

377

Disassembly of African cassava mosaic virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant-infecting geminiviruses encapsidate their single-stranded DNA genome in characteristic twinned particles that are unique among viruses. These particles are formed by joining two incomplete T=1 icosahedra. African cassava mosaic virions were purified by density-gradient centrifugation from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants and analysed for their stability with respect to pH changes and heat treatment by using electron microscopy. Negative staining and rotary shadowing revealed stable virions as well as isolated capsomeres between pH 4.0 and 8.5. At pH 9.0 and above, particles disintegrated, whereas they mainly aggregated at a pH below 6.0. Heating the preparations to 55 degrees C and above resulted in the complete loss of any discernible structure. A low proportion (approx. 10 %) of particles ejected their DNA within the pH range of 6.0-8.5. Most virions released their DNA at the top (15.9 %) or the shoulder (71.4 %) of the twin particles and only 12.7 % at the waist. Compared with the expected numbers of pentameric capsomeres at the top (9 %), the shoulder (45.5 %) or the waist (45.5 %), the results revealed a preferential DNA release from the top and shoulder of the geminate particle. PMID:18632975

Kittelmann, Katharina; Jeske, Holger

2008-08-01

378

Electrically conductive bioplastics from cassava starch  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, biofilmes condutores foram sintetizados através de soluções de 100 mL de água com 3 g de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) e quantidades diferentes de glicerina, glutaraldeído, polietilenoglicol e perclorato de lítio. Estes filmes foram caracterizados por espectrosco [...] pia de impedância eletroquímica (EIS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectrometria de reflexão total atenuada no infravermelho com transforma de Fourier (ATR-FTIR), termogravimetria (TG). Os resultados mostraram que os biofilmes com quantidades mais elevadas de perclorato de lítio possuem valores maiores de condutividade e as diferenças morfológica e molecular foram observadas como sendo um resultado das proporções adicionadas dos compostos em cada uma das rotas de preparação Abstract in english In the current work, conductor biofilms were synthesized by means of solutions of 100 mL of water with 3 g of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and different amounts of glycerin, glutaraldehyde, polyethyleneglycol and lithium perchlorate. These biofilms were characterized through electr [...] ochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR?FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Results showed that biofilms with higher amount of lithium perchlorate portray higher values of conductivity and morphological and molecular differences could be observed as a result of the added proportions of the compounds in each one of the trials.

Alvaro A., Arrieta; Piedad F., Gañán; Samith E., Márquez; Robin, Zuluaga.

1170-11-01

379

Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

380

Modeling Wine Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

381