WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermented cassava pulp

  1. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  2. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using ? amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar. PMID:25832789

  3. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahono Sumaryono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  4. Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ganiyu, Oboh.

    2006-01-15

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

  5. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  7. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta?Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5?mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. PMID:25781881

  8. Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Prapassorn Rugthaworn; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Warunee Thanapase; Akihiko Kosugi; Takamitsu Arai; Yutaka Mori; Yoshinori Murata

    2013-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for etha...

  9. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  10. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  11. Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 ?. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (? and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 ? and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

  12. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  13. Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

  14. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  15. Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation / Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krisada, Boonnop; Metha, Wanapat; Ngarmnit, Nontaso; Sadudee, Wanapat.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca (Manihot esculenta) é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresc [...] a e raspas) por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM) e de polpa fresca (PF) foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their pr [...] oducts (fresh pulp and chips). Both cassava chip (CC) and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR) samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p

  16. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred ...

  17. Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada / Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Djalma de, Freitas; Ana Karina Dias, Salman; Pedro de, Andrade; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Juliano José de Resende, Fernandes.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi), de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp) [...] , de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc) e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn). Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5%) da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente), quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%), a SCc (43,87 e 24,20%) e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%). Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM), neutral detergente fiber (NDF) and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA) in bovines fed diet with corn (CS), cassava meal (CMS), cassava hull (CHS), and sugar cane (SCS). The CMS, CHS and SCS were [...] ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP). Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5%) (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively) than CS (45.50, 23.75%), CHS (43.87, 24.20%) and SCS (40.76, 25.78%). For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

  18. Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Danvirutai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

  19. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  20. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  1. Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisada Boonnop

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips. Both cassava chip (CC and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresca e raspas por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM e de polpa fresca (PF foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p < 0.01 em proteínas (30,4% em RM e 13,5% in PF e conteúdo de gorduras (5,8% em RM e 3,0% in PF. Os subprodutos de mandioca fermentados por S. cerevisiae apresentaram baixos conteúdos de ácido hidrocianídrico (RM, 0,5 mg kg-1 e PF 47,3 mg kg-1. Houve aumento considerável de lisina nas raspas fermentadas (RMF. Valores aceitáveis de cor, textura e aroma das raspas de mandioca enriquecidas formam obtidos após 132 de bioprocessamento. Sugere-se que a RMF pode ser nutricionalmente melhorada para alimentação animal pelo uso de S. cerevisiae.

  2. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and re...

  3. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activi...

  4. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an ?-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either a...

  5. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  6. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips. PMID:19771401

  7. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  8. Ammonium acetate enhances solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 using cassava as a fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Hu, Shiyuan; Chen, Jun; Shao, Lijun; He, Huiqi; Yang, Yunliu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2009-09-01

    Cassava, due to its high starch content and low cost, is a promising candidate substrate for large-scale fermentation processes aimed at producing the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). However, the solvent yield from the fermentation of cassava reaches only 60% of that achieved by fermenting corn. We have found that the addition of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) to the cassava medium significantly promotes solvent production from cassava fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018, a mutant with a high butanol ratio. When cassava medium was supplemented with 30 mM ammonium acetate, the acetone, butanol and total solvent production reached 5.0, 13.0 and 19.4 g/l, respectively, after 48 h of fermentation. This level of solvent production is comparable to that obtained from corn medium. Both ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) were required for increased solvent synthesis. We also demonstrated substantially increased acetic and butyric acid accumulation during the acidogenesis phase as well as greater acid re-assimilation during the solventogenesis period in ammonium acetate-supplemented cassava medium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcription of several genes encoding enzymes related to acidogenesis and solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 were enhanced by the addition of ammonium acetate to the cassava medium. PMID:19543929

  9. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. PMID:24274475

  10. Mechanical Semolining of Fermented Cassava Dough on Physicochemical and Sensory Characterises of Produced Attiéké

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Martial Thierry Akely

    2014-01-01

    emolining for attiéké production is traditionally manufactured physically by hand in wooden device. The end cooked attiéké obtained is subjected to low sensory and physicochemical qualities. For avoiding its variability and enhancing high quality end product, influence of mechanical semolining of fermented cassava dough during attiéké manufactured is carried out in this study for cottage industry; industrial and household can all benefits. Experimentally 4500 g of cassava are ...

  11. Microbiological quality of fermented cassava flour 'kpor umilin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsav-Wua, J A; Inyang, C U; Akpapunam, M A

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted on the microbiological quality of traditionally fermented cassava flour 'kpor umilin' and a laboratory modification of the method developed with a view to upgrading the traditional process. Microbial analysis of samples from both processing methods was evaluated using standard microbiological methods. The bacterial count in the traditionally processed flours ranged from 2.7 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g, while the modified sample had a count of 3.5 x 10(2) cfu/g. The predominant flora were Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp. and coliforms such as Escherichia coli. Other isolates were Enterobacter spp. and proteus spp. The sample from the modified method had a negligible (4 MPN/100 ml) coliform count. The yeast and mould count ranged from 1.9 x 10(3) cfu/g to 3.9 x 10(5) cfu/g in the traditionally processed samples as compared with 1.5 x 10(3) cfu/g in the sample from the modified process. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Geotrichum candidum were the predominant fungi. The poor microbiological quality of 'kpor umilin', processed traditionally, calls for urgency in upgrading the processing and preservation methods as developed in this study as well as proper education of the local processors on good manufacturing practices. PMID:15369985

  12. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

  13. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureelak Rodtong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media described by potential references. Both complex and minimal media were developed when cultured at 35°C for 48 h. The isolates were tested for the presence of PHA accumulation by straining with 1% Nile blue A and observed under the fluorescence microscope at excitation wave length of 650 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM was used for comfirmation of PHA granules accumulation in bacterial cells. Alcaligenes eutrophus (TISTR 1095 and E. coli (TISTR 527 were used as the positive and negative control of PHAs-producing strain, respectively. This is the first report for the suitable media for detecting of PHAs-producing bacteria isolated from cassava pulp.

  15. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nago, M.C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2...

  16. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  17. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  18. Mechanical Semolining of Fermented Cassava Dough on Physicochemical and Sensory Characterises of Produced Attiéké

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Martial Thierry Akely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available emolining for attiéké production is traditionally manufactured physically by hand in wooden device. The end cooked attiéké obtained is subjected to low sensory and physicochemical qualities. For avoiding its variability and enhancing high quality end product, influence of mechanical semolining of fermented cassava dough during attiéké manufactured is carried out in this study for cottage industry; industrial and household can all benefits. Experimentally 4500 g of cassava are being prepared into cassava mash which is mechanically semolined in triplicate. During the process, 25 angle tilts deviation of the machine (SI are being investigated. For each angle tilt experienced cassava dough is differently study according to the water content, inocula level adjunction and fermentation time. Samples were collected for total sugar content, cyanide content, starch content, total solid content, and grain size physical chemical and sensory analysis. As compared to traditional control, the semolina grain sizes (1.52±0.04 and 1.82±0.02 mm are attained from 26.3 to 31.6 angle tilt intervals. Consequently when cassava mash run about 52 % of the moister content, 10 or 12% amount of inocula loaded and 12 or 24 hrs of fermenting paste. Interestingly at these the optimal semolina size grain is 1.32±0.02 especially at 31° angle tilt deviation, and comparatively fitted to traditional grain sizes taken as a control. Singularly when cassava dough is left for fermenting 12 or 24 hours, the semolina grain size collapsed between 1.12±0.13 and 1.35±0.07 diameters. But when it loaded with 10 to 12% amount the semolina grain sizes get from 1.19 ± 0.06 to 1.27 ± 0.04. Finally the attiéké obtain after mechanical semolining is evaluated having very good sensory quality compared to the traditional attiéké control as regards grain sizes and homogeneity even for fresh or cooked semolina one. In conclusion, mechanical semolining is achieved in condition that cassava dough was loaded at 10% amount of inoculation and, left to ferment 12 hours. A final semolina end product could be obtained when cassava mash is moisten at 52% of solid content and semolined at 31° angle tilt deviation. Semolinor technology innovation in attiéké production could enhance attiéké texture and safety qualities so that household and industry can all benefits

  19. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  20. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezi?, Ton?i; Oros, Damir; Markovi?, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  1. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  2. EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent methanogenic stage. The experiments were carried out at the F/M ratios of 0.2, 0.61, 1.02, 2.05, 3.07, and 4.09 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS in six laboratory-scale, completely stirred, tank reactors (CSTR at mesophilic temperature (35°C. An F/M ratio of 1.02 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS resulted in the highest solid removal efficiency and VFA/COD ratio, while starch removal efficiency was still near 100 percent, and acidification was relatively high. As a further benefit, the VFA distribution was more suitable for the subsequent methanogenic fermentation stage.

  3. Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

  4. Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

  5. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  6. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, S.M.; A.M.A. Nascimento; Costa, P S; J.L.S. Moreira; Nunes, A C; J.R. Nicoli; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; R. M. D. NARDI

    2013-01-01

    Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CF...

  7. In vitro fermentation of juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) by human colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergoletto, Karla Bigetti; Costabile, Adele; Flores, Gema; Garcia, Sandra; Gibson, Glenn R

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential fermentation properties of juçara pulp, using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Effects upon major groups of the microbiota were monitored over 24h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured by HPLC. Phenolic compounds, during an in vitro simulated digestion and fermentation, were also analysed. Juçara pulp can modulate the intestinal microbiota in vitro, promoting changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifts in the production of SCFA. Fermentation of juçara pulp resulted in a significant increase in numbers of bifidobacteria after a 24h fermentation compared to a negative control. After in vitro digestion, 46% of total phenolic content still remained. This is the first study reporting the potential prebiotic effect of juçara pulp; however, human studies are necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:26593490

  8. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days, respectively, when using natural fermentation.Key words: cocoa quality, fermentation, depolymerization, pectolytic.

  9. Effect of Scent Leaf (Occimum viridis) on Cyanide Content of Fermented Cassava and the Sensory Quality of its Fufu Meal

    OpenAIRE

    I. Onyesom

    2010-01-01

    One kilogram of freshly harvested cassava samples were fermented with varying amounts (1.0, 2.0,3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g) of scent leaf (Occimum viridis), for one to five days. The effect of fermentation with theseamounts of the spice on the loss of cyanide present in cassava, and the organoleptic acceptability of theresulting fufu meal prepared from fermented product was investigated. It was observed that cassavafermentation with the spice enhanced detoxification by increasing cyanide loss during ...

  10. Extraction of hemicelluloses from wood in a pulp biorefinery, and subsequent fermentation into ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hemicellulosic ethanol from softwood hemicelluloses in a pulp mill. • Comparison of acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis to extract hemicelluloses. • Effects of the extraction process conditions on inhibitors concentrations. • Effects of inhibitors on fermentation. - Abstract: This study deals with the production of ethanol and paper pulp in a kraft pulp mill. The use of an acid hydrolysis or a two-step treatment composed of an autohydrolysis followed by a secondary acid hydrolysis was studied. Acid hydrolysis allowed the extraction of higher quantities of sugars but led also to higher degradations of these sugars into inhibitors of fermentation. The direct fermentation of a hydrolysate resulting from an acid hydrolysis gave excellent yields after 24 h. However, the fermentation of hydrolysates after their concentration proved to be impossible. The study of the impact of the inhibitors on the fermentations showed that organic acids, and more specifically formic acid and acetic acid were greatly involved in the inhibition

  11. Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

    OpenAIRE

    Kar Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar Datta; Ramesh Chandra Ray

    2010-01-01

    Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite...

  12. Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksaman Sangyoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COD-1 and 851.84 mL h-1, respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concentration in fermentative broth was depleted to 150-250 mg L-1 which equivalent to 10-15% of initial glucose concentration. Repeated-batch reactor was operated at 3 different feed-in/feed-out rates i.e., 25, 50 and 75%. Results revealed that a suitable feed-in/feed out rate for production of hydrogen from cassava wastewater was at 75%. This was indicated by the highest hydrogen yield, the highest potential maximal amount of hydrogen produced, a relatively high maximum hydrogen production rate, a relatively high maximum specific hydrogen production rate and a relatively short lag time of 0.0094 mL mg-COD-1, 12,532.80 mL, 540.46 mL h-1, 3.5 mL g-VSS-1 h and 5.31 h, respectively. Major soluble metabolites were acetic and butyric acids. Our results indicated that repeated batch fermentation was more effective in producing hydrogen from cassava wastewater than batch fermentation.

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Ta?k?n; Rengin Eltem; Esra Soyak

    2010-01-01

    In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG) production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG ...

  14. Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

  15. Diversity of Amylase-Producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” (Fermented Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI BARUS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava or “Tape” is one of traditional Indonesian fermented food. The quality of “Tape” is determined by microorganisms involved during fermentation process. It was reported that Bacillus subtilis determined the quality of cassava “Tape”. The most common way to identify species is by using 16S rRNA gene. This gene contains conserved regions as unique sequence which is relative among species. It has been widely used as a reliable molecular marker for phylogeny identification. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study diversity of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacillus spp. were isolated from “Tape” from several area in Indonesia i.e. Jakarta, Bandung, Cianjur, Subang, Rangkas Bitung, and Kediri. Amplification of 16S rRNA gene used 63f and 1387r primers. This research showed that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, twenty-six of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were divided into four groups. All isolates were identified as species either B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, or B. thuringiensis.

  16. Fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration from cassava residues: effect of pretreatment on structural characterization and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-01

    The physicochemical properties of cassava residues subjected to microwave (or steam)-heated acid pretreatment (MHAP or SHAP) were comparatively investigated to improve fermentative hydrogen and methane cogeneration. The hydrogen yield from cassava residues with MHAP and enzymolysis was higher (106.2 mL/g TVS) than that with SHAP and enzymolysis (102.1 mL/g TVS), whereas the subsequent methane yields showed opposite results (75.4 and 93.2 mL/g TVS). Total energy conversion efficiency increased to 24.7%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed MHAP generated numerous regular micropores (?6 ?m) and SHAP generated irregular fragments (?23 ?m) in the destroyed lignocellulose matrix. Transmission electron microscopy images showed SHAP generated wider cracks (?0.2 ?m) in delaminated cell walls than MHAP (?0.1 ?m). X-ray diffraction patterns indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity index (33.00) than SHAP (25.88), due to the deconstruction of amorphous cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated MHAP caused a higher crystallinity coefficient (1.20) than SHAP (1.12). PMID:25553572

  17. Yeast extract promotes phase shift of bio-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 using cassava as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Zhigang; Zheng, Junping; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Le

    2012-12-01

    When fermenting on cassava (15-25%, w/v) with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, a severe delay (18-40 h) was observed in the phase shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis, compared to the cases of fermenting on corn. By adding yeast extract (2.5 g/L-broth) into cassava meal medium when the delay appeared, the phase shift was triggered and fermentation performances were consequently improved. Total butanol concentrations/butanol productivities, compared to those with cassava substrate alone, increased 15%/80% in traditional fermentation while 86%/79% in extractive fermentation using oleyl alcohol as the extractant, and reached the equivalent levels of those using corn substrate. Analysis of genetic transcriptional levels and measurements of free amino acids in the broth demonstrated that timely and adequate addition of yeast extract could promote phase shift by increasing transcriptional level of ctfAB to 16-fold, and indirectly enhance butanol synthesis through accelerating the accumulation of histidine and aspartic acid families. PMID:23023236

  18. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL ?-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

  20. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARIEL, MONRROY; JOSÉ, RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS, TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME, BAEZA; JUANITA, FREER.

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields rang [...] ing from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  1. KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIEL MONRROY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min. A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis. The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

  2. Effects of carbohydrates from citrus pulp and hominy feed on microbial fermentation in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, P; Bach, A; Stern, M D; Hall, M B

    2001-10-01

    Eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) on fermentation by ruminal microorganisms. Citrus pulp and hominy feed were added to a basal diet as sources of NDSC, with citrus pulp providing neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF) in the form of pectic substances and with hominy feed in the form of starch. The basal diet contained 26.7% corn silage, 6.0% alfalfa hay and 3.8% cottonseed hulls on a DM basis. The dried citrus pulp diet contained on a DM basis 17.2% CP, 34.7% NDF, 33.7% NDSC, and 14.4% NDSF, whereas the hominy feed diet contained 17.9% CP, 33.2% NDF, 35.9% NDSC, and 8.8% NDSF. Organic matter, DM, and NDF and ADF digestion were not affected by source of carbohydrate. Ammonia N concentration was greater (P protein synthesis was greater (P = 0.055) for the dried citrus pulp diet than for the hominy feed diet (30.6 vs 27.8 g of bacterial N/kg of OM truly digested). Results from this experiment indicate that NDSF from citrus pulp can provide similar sources of energy compared with starch from hominy feed to support ruminal microbial growth. PMID:11721852

  3. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia L; de Sousa, Edinaira S O; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. PMID:25846929

  4. SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA STEMS / SACARIFICACIÓN Y FERMENTACIÓN SILMUTÁNEA DE TALLOS DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELÁEZ; JUAN, REALES ALFARO; JOSÉ, ZAPATA MONTOYA.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La investigación evalúa el efecto del tamaño de inóculo y la actividad enzimática sobre la concentración de etanol obtenido a través de la estrategia de proceso Sacarificación y fermentación simultáneas de tallos de yuca pretratados con álcalis. La determinación y validación de las condiciones óptim [...] as de producción de etanol y la evaluación del proceso en biorreactor fueron también objeto de esta investigación. Tallos de yuca con pretratamiento alcalino fueron utilizados como sustrato en una relación sólido: líquido 1:10; el complejo enzimático Accellerase 1500 y la levadura Ethanol Red fueron evaluados a dos niveles a una temperatura de 38 ° C y pH 4.0 a escala de erlenmeyer. Se evaluaron como controles del proceso: Sacarificación fermentación simultáneas sin pretratamiento de los tallos y Sacarificación fermentación independientes de tallos pretratados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión y el modelo obtenido fue maximizado empleando algoritmos genéticos. A las condiciones óptimas identificadas en erlenmeyer fue evaluada la producción de etanol en biorreactor de 5 litros. Se obtuvo una concentración experimental de etanol de 1.88±0.04 %v/v (1.99 %v/v óptimo simulado) con una concentración de inóculo de 1.59 g/L y una concentración de enzima de 13.3 FPU/g, valor aproximadamente 4 veces mayor a la cantidad de etanol producido sin pretratamiento por sacarificación y fermentación independientes de tallos de yuca pretratados. La evaluación del proceso en biorreactor alcanzo una concentración de etanol 20% inferior a la alcanzada a escala de erlenmeyer. Abstract in english This research evaluates the effects of the inoculum size and enzymatic activity on the concentration of ethanol obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated cassava stems. Other goals for this study include the determination and validation of the optimal c [...] onditions for and the evaluation of the process of ethanol production in a bioreactor. Alkaline-pretreated cassava stems were used as the substrate in a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10; the enzymatic complex Accellerase 1500 and the yeast Ethanol Red were evaluated at two levels at a temperature of 38° C and a pH of 4.0 in an Erlenmeyer flask. The following were evaluated as process controls: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of non-pretreated stems and separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated stems. A regression analysis was conducted, and the resulting model was maximized using genetic algorithms. At the optimal conditions identified in an Erlenmeyer flask, the production of ethanol in a 5-liter bioreactor was subsequently evaluated. An experimental concentration of ethanol of 1.88±0.04% v/v (1.99% v/v simulated optimum) was obtained using an inoculum concentration of 1.59 g/L and an enzyme concentration of 13.3 FPU/g. This value was approximately four times the quantity of ethanol produced without pretreatment or by the separate saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava stems. The evaluation of the process in the bioreactor yielded an ethanol concentration 20% less than that reached in the Erlenmeyer flask.

  5. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

  6. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

    2012-01-01

    Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l), inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass) and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C). In order to esti...

  7. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at t...

  8. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  9. In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Gasmi-Boubaker; M.R., Mosquera-Losada; B., Boubaker.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis [...] and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

  10. Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola / Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Oliveira de, Souza; Luciana Tosta, Silva; Janice Izabel, Druzian.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrat [...] ions (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

  11. Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kar, Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar, Datta; Ramesh Chandra, Ray.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluat [...] e the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

  12. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Crispim; A.M.A., Nascimento; P.S., Costa; J.L.S., Moreira; A.C., Nunes; J.R., Nicoli; F.L., Lima; V.T., Mota; R.M.D., Nardi.

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activ [...] ity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  13. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Crispim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  14. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  15. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank DrØscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentrationincrease of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination.

  16. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  17. Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carolina O; Silva, Luciana T; Silva, Jaff R; López, Jorge A; Veiga-Santos, Pricila; Druzian, Janice I

    2011-03-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05), was detected in products packed in film formulations containing high concentration of additives. However, it was found that the high content of vitamin C in acerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films. PMID:21361289

  18. Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutrouli, E.C.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C. This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.5 mmole of hydrogen per gram of total carbohydrates. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água / Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Campos, Chisté; Kelly de Oliveira, Cohen.

    Full Text Available A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros fís [...] ico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1), que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas. Abstract in english The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil) is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's ma [...] in physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1), which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

  1. ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Ta?k?n

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG production under solid state fermentation (SSF conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support, which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

  2. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  3. Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; de Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

  4. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.; Chaipresert, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylog...

  5. Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Oliveira de Souza; Luciana Tosta Silva; Janice Izabel Druzian

    2012-01-01

    Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among...

  6. Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2 °C day(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646 mg L(-1), propionic acid 596 mg L(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000 mg L(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

  7. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

  8. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40?, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions. PMID:23727799

  9. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão / Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra, Dias; Moacir Cardoso, Elias; Maurício, Oliveira; Elizabete, Helbig.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade d [...] e expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was eva [...] luated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA). Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  10. Pectinase-hyperproducing mutants of Aspergillus niger C28B25 for solid-state fermentation of coffee pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Antier, Philip; Minjares, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice (ed.); Viniegra-Gonzalez, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve mold strains for the production of pectinases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of coffee pulp. A screening of 248 strains, isolated in Mexico's coffee-growing areas, permitted us to select a wild strain of #Aspergillus niger$ which in 72 h attains a peak production of 27.7 U ml-1(138 U g-1 dry pulp) of pectinase measured by viscosimetry. Though the use of a selective culture medium with low water activity (aw = 0.954) with 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) it was pos...

  11. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some molasses would appear desirable so as to stimulate favourable fermentation. This can produce silage that is both safe from potentially pathogenic microorganisms such as coliforms and a potential feed resource for ruminants

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of Fermented Flour `Kumkum` from Three Improved and One Local Cassava Varieties in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha N. Tanya; R. Djoulde Darman; Richard A. Ejoh; R. Mbahe; Hamidou

    2006-01-01

    Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of fermented flours `kumkum` obtained from three improved and one local cassava varieties were carried out. The varieties were from five localities of the Adamawa province, namely: Simi, Tibati, Tignere, Lokoti and Ngaoundal. Moisture, ash, crude fiber, starch content, cyanogenic glucosides and swelling ability were studied. The results showed that variety 8017 had higher moisture content than varieties 4115, 2425, and the local variety...

  13. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Fátima C. O. Gomes; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr., César L. L.; Gloria R. Franco; Mourão, Marina M.; Paula B. Morais; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank ac...

  14. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis / Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavio Martins, Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues, Gomes-Ruffi; Cláudia Aparecida, Vicente; Fernanda Paula, Collares-Queiroz; Caroline Joy, Steel.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As resp [...] ostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente), sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial. Abstract in english This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central [...] composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically) without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

  15. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

  16. Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp. during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anihouvi VB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC, pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl concentration, type of salt were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%. Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05 increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

  17. Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; de Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  19. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic aci...

  20. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems.

  1. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  2. Efeito da fermentação na qualidade de "chips" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Effect of fermentation on the quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Kitagawa, Grizotto; Hilary Castle de, Menezes.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da fermentação natural da mandioca, isoladamente, ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, na crocância dos "chips". As fatias de mandioca, oriundas de raízes previamente descascadas e limpas foram imersas em água potável a 30ºC durante períodos de 8h e 24h e de [...] pois fritas. As raízes inteiras, descascadas e limpas, foram mantidas nas mesmas condições, porém por períodos mais longos: 24h, 30h e 48h, após os quais as raízes foram fatiadas e fritas. A fermentação natural foi conduzida sem a adição de qualquer agente fermentativo, imergindo uma parte de fatias ou de raízes de mandioca em quatro partes de água potável a 30ºC, em estufa com controle de temperatura. Outras variáveis estudadas foram: variedades de mandioca e o formato das fatias. O efeito dos tratamentos foi avaliado com base na fraturabilidade dos "chips", medidos em Analisador de Textura TA.XT2. O formato das fatias pareceu ser um fator importante, pois afetou as características de textura dos "chips", além dos tratamentos propriamente ditos. O formato retangular das fatias, apesar do aspecto atrativo, foi considerado inadequado para a fabricação dos "chips", sendo sugerido o formato redondo. Foi verificado que a fermentação natural das raízes inteiras ou cortadas em fatias, isoladamente ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, foi considerada uma técnica inadequada para tornar os "chips" de mandioca mais crocantes, visto que promoveram, na maioria dos casos, aumento na dureza comparado aos "chips" obtidos do controle. Estas observações foram válidas para todas as variedades estudadas: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 e IAC 14. Abstract in english It was investigated the effect of natural fermentation of cassava, alone or combined with cooking in boiling water on the crispness of cassava chips. The thin slices of cassava, originally from previously peeled and cleaned roots were submerged in drinkable water at 30ºC during periods of 8h and 24h [...] . The whole cassava roots, also peeled and cleaned were submitted on the same conditions, but for longer periods: 24h, 30h and 48h, after those roots were sliced and fried. The natural fermentation was conducted without any fermentative agent, only submerging one part of thin slices or whole roots into four parts of drinkable water at 30ºC in a controlled temperature incubator. The other variables studied were: cassava variety and slice format. The effect of the treatments was evaluated, based on the friability of the chips as measured by the Texture Analyzer TA.XT2. The format of the slices appeared to be an important factor, because it affected texture characteristics of the chips, as well as the actual treatments. The rectangular format, although attractive, was considered inadequate for the manufacture of chips, the round format being suggested as more suitable. It was shown that the natural fermentation of the whole roots or cut into thin slices, alone or combined with boiling was considered an inadequate technique to obtain crispness cassava chips, since in general, such treatments increased the hardness of the chips, as compared to the untreated samples. This observations were valuable from all the studied varieties: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 and IAC 14.

  3. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

  4. Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

  5. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  6. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  7. Nuclear techniques in the improvement of traditional amylase fermentation practice on cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 200 Aspergillus and Rhizopus were collected from Bangkok MIRCEN, laboratories and Industries. Fungi N2, A26B, W337 and Aw are the highest amylolytic fungi in our screening test. After irradiation at 50-99 percent killing doses, only Aw showed the improvement of amylolytic activity called A-W - M1 and Aw - M2. The optimum environment of these mutants were pH 4.5, temperature at 30 deg. C and the moisture content at 45 percent. The mutant Aw - M1 grows faster than Aw - M2 before 3.5 day. At 4 days of incubation Aw - M2 gave higher glucosamine content at 205.5 mg. per 1 g of the mold bran. MnSO4 at 0.03 percent gave more sporulation of these mutants. The mutants Aw - M2 and Aw - M1 gave higher protein content in the mold bran and potato dextrose both respectively. The kinetics of the fermentation process of the mutants showed that Aw - M1 and Aw - M2 gave the highest raw starch digestion and glucoamylase activity at 396.35 mg. sugar and 1,458.01 unit per 1 g mold bran at 3 and 4 days respectively. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

  9. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

  10. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  11. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  12. In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for pH change and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations. After 8 and 16 h, pH change was greatest for scFOS (-2.0 and -3.0, respectively) and smallest for PC (0.0 and -0.1, respectively). After 16 h, CEF had a greater butyrate concentration than CHP and all the CEF:CHP blends and it was not different than PEC. The substrate × time interaction was significant for bifidobacteria (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli (P < 0.05). After 8 h, bifidobacteria was greatest for BP and lowest for PC (12.7 and 10.0 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). After 16 h, PC had the lowest and scFOS had the greatest bifidobacteria (6.7 and 13.3 log10 cfu/tube, respectively). In general, CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria populations after 8 and 16 h of fermentation when compared with BP and scFOS. After 16 h, lactobacilli populations were greatest for B1, B2, B3, BP, and scFOS, intermediate for PEC, and lowest for PC (P < 0.05). Overall, our data suggest that CEF had a butyrogenic effect and that CEF, CHP, and their blends had similar bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations as popular prebiotic and fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs. PMID:25403197

  13. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. C., Prado; L. P. S., Vandenberghe; A. L., Woiciechowski; J. A., Rodrígues-León; C. R., Soccol.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB). Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caus [...] ed by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB) were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  14. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  15. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávera Camargo Prado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

  16. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magali, Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

  17. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijdekkers, Antonius G M; Aguirre, Marisol; Venema, Koen; Bosch, Guido; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2014-02-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated homogalacturonan oligosaccharides. Some SBPOS contained an unsaturated galacturonic acid residue at their non-reducing end. It was shown that SBPOS could be completely fermented by human and pig fecal microbiota, thereby producing butyrate yet mainly acetate and propionate as metabolites. The degradation of SBPOS by pig fecal microbiota was different and much slower compared to human fecal microbiota. In general, rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides were degraded slower than homogalacturonan oligosaccharides. Acetylation of rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides lowered the degradation rate by pig fecal microbiota but not by human fecal microbiota. No classic bifidogenic effect was shown for SBPOS using human fecal inoculum. However, several other potentially interesting modifications in the microbiota composition that can be associated with host health were observed, which are discussed. PMID:24437353

  18. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404?±?50.0 kg of body weight and 90?±?5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9?±?2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P?>?0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P?rice straw. PMID:26205904

  19. Cinética de fermentação in vitro de silagens da parte aérea de mandioca / Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the silage shoots of cassava

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kléria Maria Souza, Marques; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Vanice Mendes de, Souza; Daniel Ananias de Assis, Pires; Malber Natham Nobre de, Palma; Geanderson Walder Vieira da Silva, Silva; Ana Paula da Silva, Antunes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arra [...] njado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superior, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). O material foi ensilado em silos experimentais de PVC, sendo abertos após 56 dias de fermentação. Amostras das silagens foram coletadas e submetidas à pré-secagem, moídas e em seguida procedeu-se ensaio de produção de gases in vitro. As leituras de pressão dos gases produzidos durante as fermentações foram realizadas às 0; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 e 96 horas após o início das incubações. As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. O maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS ocorreu nos tempos entre zero e 24 horas. As maiores produções de gases por hora foram obtidas aproximadamente às 48 horas de fermentação para a variedade Olho Roxo na fração planta inteira. As silagens das diferentes variedades e frações da parte aérea de mandioca apresentaram o mesmo potencial de produção de gases. Entretanto, as silagens da variedade Amarelinha nas frações da parte aérea terço superior e sobras de plantio apresentaram melhores degradabilidades efetiva e potencial. Abstract in english The objective of this work to determine Kinetics of ruminal fermentation of silages of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, arranged in a 4x3 fact [...] orial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho Roxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant). The material was ensiled in mini-silos of PVC, being opened after 56 days of fermentation. Silage samples were collected and submitted to pre-dried, ground and then proceeded to test gas production in vitro. The pressure readings of the gases produced during fermentations were performed at 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubations. Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases. The major ruminal DM disappearance occurred in times between zero and 24 hours. The highest yields of gas per hour were obtained at approximately 48 hours of fermentation for variety in Shiner fraction entire plant. The silages of different varieties and fractions of cassava shoots have the same potential for gas production. However, silage variety of Hopscotch fractions in the upper third of shoot and leftover planting have better effective degradability and potential.

  20. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  1. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  2. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inayara C. A., Lacerda; Fátima C. O., Gomes; Beatriz M., Borelli; César L. L., Faria Jr; Gloria R., Franco; Marina M., Mourão; Paula B., Morais; Carlos A., Rosa.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

  3. Síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com resíduos de mandioca e cana-de-açúcar ensilados com polpa cítrica Efficiency of microbial protein in bovine fed with cassava residues and sugar cane ensiled with citric pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Dias Salman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos, quatro animais canulados no rúmen e duodeno foram alimentados com 4 dietas: 1- Dieta basal (DB, composta por silagem de milho (SMi e farelo de soja participando na proporção de 60% da matéria seca total das dietas à base de casca e raspa de mandioca; 2- DB + silagem de raspa de mandioca (SRp; 3- DB + silagem de casca de mandioca (SCc e 4- silagem de cana-de-açúcar (SCn, sendo as silagens SRp, SCc e SCn acrescidas da polpa cítrica peletizada como aditivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 em relação à composição das bactérias isoladas do conteúdo ruminal de animais que recebiam as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana das dietas com SMi, SRp e SCc foram maiores (P With the goal to study the microbial protein synthesis in bovines, four duodenal and ruminant canuleted animals were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed with diets formulated with: corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS or sugar cane (SCS silage. The CMS, CHS and SCS were mixed with citric pulp. The basal diet, composed by CS and soybean meal, participated in 60% of total dry matter of cassava diets. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among diets in relation to bacterial composition isolated from the animal's ruminant contents. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of diets on CS, CMS and CHS were larger (p < 0.05 (32.1; 22.2; 26.1 gN/kg of organic matter apparently rumen degraded, respectively than CS (16.4 gN/kg OMARD.

  4. Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P<0.01. A significant difference at P<0.05 were also detected in amonia concentration, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), protozoa counts, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy. These differences were observed particularly in animals receiving ration C. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  5. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.; Foko, J.; Filtenborg, Ole; Olembo, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, an...

  6. Effect of the type of concentrate, cereals vs. sugar beet pulp, on rumen fermentation, plasma concentration of methylmalonate and quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Jérôme; Thériez, Michel; Bas, Pierre; Berthelot, Valérie; Aurousseau, Bernard; Sauvant, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting wheat and barley by sugar beet pulp on the quality of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs. Rumen fermentation and methylmalonate plasma concentration, both considered as indicators of lamb metabolism, were also studied. Forty-nine male lambs of the Lacaune dairy breed were fed from 23.6 ($\\pm$ 4.1) kg to 41.0 ($\\pm$ 1.9) kg live weight with hay and a pelleted concentrate containing either wheat and barley ...

  7. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  9. Influence of nitrogen source on the fermentation of fibre from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp by ruminal micro-organisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, M J; Carro, M D; López, S; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2001-12-01

    Incubations were carried out with a batch culture system to study the effects of different N sources on the fermentation by ruminal micro-organisms from Merino sheep of two fibre substrates derived from feedstuffs that differed in their fermentation rate. The substrates were neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp. N sources were ammonia (NH4Cl) and peptides (Trypticase). Three treatments were made by replacing ammonia-N with peptide-N at levels of 0 (AMMO), 33 (PEPLOW) and 66 % (PEPHIGH) of total N. There were no differences (P>0.05) between treatments in NDF degradation for both the barley straw and the sugarbeet pulp. Peptides increased (PAMMO, with PEPHIGH supporting more growth (P0.05) by the presence of peptides compared with the AMMO treatment, but values were greater for the PEPHIGH compared with the PEPLOW N source, reaching statistical significance (PAMMO treatment resulted in the greatest (P0.05) by N source. These results indicate that N forms other than ammonia are needed for maximal growth of fibre-digesting ruminal micro-organisms. PMID:11749681

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  11. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. PMID:16784212

  12. Farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante: fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas e características fermentativas / Cassava meal in the elephant grass silage: carbohydrate and protein fractioning and fermentation characteristics of silage elephant grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cardoso, Oliveira; Rasmo, Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira, Pires; Hellenn Cardoso, Oliveira; Vitor Visintin Silva de, Almeida; Cristina Mattos, Veloso; Aires Lima, Rocha Neto; Ueslei Leonardo Cardoso, Oliveira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos e as proteínas, bem como as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante, sem e com emurchecimento, e acrescida de farelo de mandioca. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições no delineamento inteiramente [...] casualizado. Os fatores avaliados foram níveis de farelo de mandioca (0; 7,5; 15 e 22,5% MN) e emurchecimento (sem e com). Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50 cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro para a produção das silagens. As frações de CHO (A+B1 e B2) e as frações nitrogenadas B3 e C foram influenciadas pela associação do emurchecimento aos níveis de farelo de mandioca, o que não ocorreu com as frações nitrogenadas (A e B1+B2) das silagens. A adição de farelo de mandioca reduziu linearmente a fração C dos carboidratos. No que concerne às características fermentativas das silagens, o pH apresentou comportamento quadrático. O nitrogênio amoniacal apresentou comportamento quadrático e linear decrescente para as silagens sem e com emurchecimento, respectivamente. A utilização do farelo de mandioca reduz a fração B2 e a porção de carboidratos indisponíveis. As principais frações proteicas das silagens estudadas são as frações A e B1+B2. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca melhoram o valor nutritivo e as características fermentativas das silagens estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the fractions that compose the carbohydrates (CHO) and proteins and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage without or with wilting and added of cassava meal. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely rand [...] omized design. The factors evaluated were wilting (without and with) and cassava meal levels (0; 7.5; 15 and 22.5 % DN). PVC silos with 50cm height and 10cm diameter were used for silages production. A+B1 and B2 CHO fractions and B3 and C nitrogen fractions of silages were influenced by association of wilting with cassava meal levels, the wilting and the cassava meal inclusion had no effect on A and B1+B2 nitrogen fractions. The cassava meal addiction linearly reduced the CHO C fraction. Relative to variables inherent to silages' fermentative characteristics, pH presented quadratic behavior. Ammonia nitrogen, presented quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. The use of cassava meal reduces the B2 and unavailable carbohydrates fraction. The main protein fractions of the silages studied are A and B1 + B2 fractions. Wilting and the addition of cassava meal improved the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of the silages studied.

  13. Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian V. Brandão

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

  14. Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate / Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina Veras, Silva; Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira, Santos; Mayara Lúcia da Costa, Leite; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sérgio, Marcellini.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar [...] a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por planejamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the con [...] centrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taking as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

  15. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a drop in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis

  16. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. QUINTERO M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

  17. Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

  18. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION / PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan E., QUINTERO M.; Alejandro, ACOSTA C.; Carlos, MEJÍA G; Rigoberto, RÍOS E.; Ana M., TORRES L..

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL) es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. [...] La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS), medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM), y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1). Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S ) de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6,5. Conclusiones: Estos resultados son comparables con los obtenidos en otros trabajos usando glucosa como fuente de carbono, y permiten considerar al jarabe de yuca como un potencial sustrato de bajo costo y alta disponibilidad para la producción de AL a escala de laboratorio, y eventualmente a escala industrial. Abstract in english Background: Lactic acid (LA) is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the [...] demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates) into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS), as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM), and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1). Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentrat

  19. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia...

  20. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated potato fiber (CF), insoluble potato fiber (IF), soluble fiber (SF), or cellulose (CEL) ad libitum for 4.5 weeks to study weight change and induce diabetic conditions. This was followed by 16 days of slightly restricted feeding, for the measurement of fecal organic matter digestibility, fecal dry matter, urinary glucose excretion, and fasting blood glucose. Finally, the rats were euthanized 2 hours postprandial for measurement of postprandial glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, and cecal fermentation pattern to assess any relation between digestion processes and hematological risk markers. Diet SF had higher fecal organic matter digestibility and led to a significantly larger pool of organic acids with a higher proportion of propionate than the other diets. There was no difference in hematological parameters except for a small but significant reduction in postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.

  1. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; M Bata

    2001-01-01

    Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effe...

  2. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

  3. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Alves Oliveira, Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e, Silva; João Paulo Almeida dos, Santos; Danielle Gomes, Santana; Meirielly Lima, Almeida; Paulo Sergio, Marcellini.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

  4. Changes in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis and its regulation with pelleted beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqing; Wang, Libin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the experiment were to investigate the variation in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and to evaluate the ability of beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground maize in order to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets (total mixed rations) during four successive periods (each of 17 d): (1) without wheat (W0); (2) with 10% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W10); (3) with 20% FGW (W20); (4) with 20% FGW and 10% pelleted BP (BP10). Inducing SARA by diet W20 decreased the daily mean ruminal pH (6.37 vs. 5.94) and the minimum ruminal pH (5.99 vs. 5.41) from baseline to challenge period. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, valerate and isovalerate increased with the W20 compared with the W0 and W10 treatments. The substitution of BP for maize increased the minimum ruminal pH and molar percentage of acetate and decreased the molar percentage of butyrate. The diets had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield, but the milk fat percentage and yield as well as the amount of fat-corrected milk was reduced in the W20 and BP10 treatments. The cows fed the W20 diet had greater milk concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:2n6c, C20:3n6, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total odd-chain FA, and lower concentrations of C18:0 and total saturated FA compared with the cows fed the W0 diet. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in ruminal fermentation, milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile are highly related to SARA induced by feeding high FGW diets, and that the substitution of BP for maize could reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows. PMID:24192077

  5. Método para determinação de volume específico como padrão de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos / Method for the determination of specific volume as a quality standard for fermented cassava starch and substitutes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Hugo dos Santos, BRITO; Marney Pascoli, CEREDA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estabelecer um método para a determinação da expansão como critério de qualidade do polvilho azedo e sucedâneos. Três tipos de amidos de mandioca foram avaliados: Polvilho Azedo (padrão), Expandex® e Amido Nativo. As amostras foram condicionadas diretamente em moldes de silicone e metal [...] revestido com politetrafluoretileno e forneadas sob condições controladas de temperatura 200 ºC ou 250 °C e tempo 20 ou 25 minutos. O método proposto foi avaliado pela repetitividade do volume específico (relação volume:massa) e os resultados foram comparados com os obtidos por método tradicional com manuseio dos ingredientes com água fervente e moldeamento manual em bolas, posteriormente forneadas em assadeira de alumínio untada, assadas nas mesmas condições. A seleção do melhor método levou em conta os maiores valores para volume específico (cm3 g–1) e menores variações entre as repetições. Para a fôrma de silicone, os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas condições de 200 °C e 25 min (8,89 cm3 g–1 com 1,46% de variabilidade), que proporcionou massas suficientemente resistentes ao manuseio para permitir as medidas. Para moldes de politetrafluoroetileno as melhores condições foram temperatura de 200 °C durante o tempo de 20 minutos (8,16 cm3 g–1 com 7,59% de variabilidade). A amostra de Expandex® apresentou a mesma resposta que o polvilho azedo às variáveis de temperatura de forno e tempo de assamento, porém com valores maiores. A presença residual de grânulos intactos mostrou que a gelatinização do amido não foi completa nas condições de forneamento. O método proposto apresentou facilidade na manipulação e o tempo necessário foi apenas aquele necessário para a elaboração da pasta com água e o forneamento. Abstract in english The objective was to establish a method for the determination of the expansion of cassava starch and substitutes as a quality standard. Three types of cassava starch were evaluated: Fermented Cassava Starch, Expandex® and Native Starch. The samples were put directly into silicone or metal polytetraf [...] luoroethylene moulds and baked under controlled conditions of temperature (200 or 250 °C) and time (20 or 25 minutes). The proposed method was evaluated by the repeatability of the specific volume (volume ratio:mass) and the results compared with those obtained by the traditional method, in which the ingredients were handled in boiling water, moulded into balls by hand, and subsequently baked in greased aluminium baking pans under the same conditions. The selection of the best method took into account the highest values ??for specific volume (cm3 g–1) and the least variations between repetitions. For the silicon mould, the best results were obtained under the conditions of 200 °C and 25 min (8.89 cm3 g–1 with 1.46% variability), which provided pastas sufficiently resistant to handling to allow for the taking of measurements. For the polytetrafluoroethylene moulds, the best conditions were 200 °C for 20 minutes (8.16 cm3 g–1 with 7.59% variability). The sample Expandex® showed the same response as cassava starch to the variables of oven temperature and baking time, but showed higher values. The presence of residual intact granules showed that gelatinization of the starch was not completed under the baking conditions used. The proposed method showed ease of handling and the time required was just that necessary to knead the dough with water and bake it.

  6. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca / Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Diego Soares, Mota; Vicente Ribeiro, Rocha Júnior; André Santos de, Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos, Reis; Thierry Ribeiro, Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro, Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da, Costa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados co [...] m esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Ama [...] relinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  7. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior. No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem. A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  8. Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse / Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manas R., Swain; Shaktimay, Kar; Ramesh C., Ray.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG) por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: períod [...] o de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial [...] medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.

  9. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder. PMID:20627717

  10. Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2010-06-01

    Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (ppigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. PMID:20138509

  11. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF) / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hader I, CASTAÑO P; Carlos E, MEJIA G.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la inf [...] luencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas), partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF), proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores) y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yuca Abstract in english The world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzy [...] me dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation) process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

  12. Effect of additives on fermentation of cassava leaf silage and ruminal fluid of west african dwarf goats / Efecto de aditivos sobre la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y el fluido ruminal en cabras enanas de África Occidental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Oni; O.S., Sowande; O.O., Oni; R.Y., Aderinboye; P.A., Dele; V.O. A., Ojo; O.M., Arigbede; C.F.I., Onwuka.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para investigar los efectos de diferentes aditivos sobre la calidad de la fermentación de ensilaje de hojas de yuca y sus efectos sobre los parámetros del fluido ruminal en dieciocho cabras Enanas de África occidental. Las hojas de yuca fueron ensiladas, durante 30 días, solas [...] (ECF) y con adición de 5 % de melaza (ECFM) o excretas de ponedoras en batería (ECFP) como aditivos. La adición de 5 % de melaza redujo el contenido de materia seca, 252,4 g/kg en ECF, a 238,9 g/kg en ECFM; con adición de 5 % de excretas (ECFP) la MS aumentó hasta 267,6 g/kg. El nivel de PB (207,6 g/kg en ECF) disminuyó a 198,5 g/kg en ECFM. Tanto la adición de melazas o excretas determinaron la reducción del contenido de HCN desde 98,5 g/kg en ECF (sin aditivos) a 89,3 en ECFP y 84,7 g/kg en ECFM. El pH medio del ensilaje sin aditivos (3,66) fue menor (p Abstract in english A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different additives on the fermentation quality of ensiled cassava leaves and its effects on the ruminal fluid parameters using eighteen West African dwarf goats. Cassava leaves were ensiled alone (ECF), with 5 % (w/w) molasses (ECFM) and caged lay [...] er waste (ECFP) respectively as additives for 30 days. Results of chemical composition of the additive and non-additive silages indicated that ensiling with 5 % molasses reduced the DM content from 252.4 g/kg in ECF to 238.9 g/ kg in ECFM and increased with 5 % caged layer waste (ECFP) to 267.6 g/kg. The CP content of ECF was 207.6 g/kg and this decreased to 198.5 g/kg DM in ECFM. Addition of molasses and caged layer waste caused a reduction in the HCN contents from 95.8 mg/kg in non-additive silage (ECF) to 89.3 mg/kg in ECFP and 84.7 mg/kg in ECFM. The mean pH of non-additive silage of 3.66 was significantly (p0.05) in the pH, bc and lactic acid concentration in both the non-additive and additive silages. Ammonia-nitrogen concentration (NH3-N) however, ranged significantly (p

  13. Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

  14. Comparison of Sweet Sorghum and Cassava for Ethanol Production by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available ?-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.

  15. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  16. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca / Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Kitagawa, Grizotto; Hilary Castle de, Menezes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores [...] potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente) para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente) para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados. Abstract in english Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consume [...] rs of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control) chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly) for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately) for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

  17. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

  18. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Trindade; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa Barreto; Taniella Carvalho Mendes; Carlos Augusto Rosa

    1999-01-01

    The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine prod...

  19. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  20. Exploration, collection and characterization of cassava landraces (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) grown in western ghats region

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagarasu, S*., Nallathambi, G., Kannan, S and Ganesan, K.N

    2014-01-01

    Fifty six land races of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu exhibited significant variability for root morphological and biochemical traits studied. Amylose and starch contents varied from 14.4 to 30.4% and 10.0 to 39.7% respectively. Among the collections, 50% landraces had yellow colour pulp, indicated the possibility for selection and gene manipulation to improve the carotenoid content of cassava tuberous roots and thereby enhance its nutritive value. The c...

  1. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HADER, CASTAÑO PELAEZ; MARIANA, CARDONA BETANCUR; CARLOS, MEJÍA GOMEZ; ALEJANDRO, ACOSTA CÁRDENAS.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir d [...] e harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enzimático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme h [...] ydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface central composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

  2. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis. Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  3. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante / Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Laura Maria Oliveira, Borgatti; Rériton Weldert, Gomes; Roberta, Passini; Paula Marques, Meyer.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na ma [...] téria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced [...] in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  4. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  5. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica / Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues; Luis Fernando Simões de, Almeida; Carlos de Souza, Lucci; Laércio, Melotti; Félix Ribeiro de, Lima.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: [...] controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia. Abstract in english Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, a [...] nd Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

  6. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS, cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia.Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp. and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

  7. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S; Kaack, Karl Viggo; Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. ...

  8. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  9. Performance of High-Yielding Cassava Varieties in Terms of Quantity of Gari per Unit of Labor in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Nweke, RI.; Tollens, EF.

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares the quantifies of gari produced per unit of labor from high-yielding and local varieties of cassava in Nigeria. Gari is a cassava-based granule obtained by roasting fermented cassava paste. It is widely consumed in Nigeria and many other West African countries. The results of the study show that, although high-yielding cassava varieties are superior to local varieties in terms of fresh roots per unit area, the difference in terms of gari (kg) per unit labor (person-day) be...

  10. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 lo...

  11. Pulp Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Stalk, Anne; Frese, Signe D.; Alexandersen, Kimmie W.

    2003-01-01

    Through an interdisciplinary approach based on natural and social science this project attempts to tease out some valuable lessons relating to sustainable development strategies through the case of Phoenix Pulp and Paper, which is a pulp mill located in the Province of Khon Kaen Thailand. The findings of this project are aimed for development practitioners to use in order to ensure better designed development strategies. It was presumed that this mill could reduce poverty by creating economic...

  12. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Lu, Qui

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen ...

  13. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05; r = 0.9288 between PUN and MUN concentrations, making possible PUN estimation from the equation: PUN (mg/dL = 0.7672*MUN (mg/dL + 7.4894. These results permit to conclude that cassava by-product meal can be used in lactating goat diets, as 30% of DM, in total replacing of corn, without problems in ruminal fermentation and protein metabolism.

  14. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L. SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L., AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por fermentação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the different times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%, differing significantly from the other treatments.

  15. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L.) SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA / PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.), AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO, NASCIMENTO; ANDREZA TAVARES, TOMÉ; JOSÉ E. URANO DE, CARVALHO; CARLOS HANS, MÜLLER.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por ferm [...] entação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%), diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Abstract in english The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the differ [...] ent times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%), differing significantly from the other treatments.

  16. Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan, Quintero; Alejandro, Acosta; Carlos, Mejía; Rigoberto, Ríos; Ana María, Torres.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

  17. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

  18. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  19. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica / Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Bronzi de, Souza; Magali, Leonel.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o [...] uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade. Abstract in english Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fi [...] ber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  20. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bronzi de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

  1. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  2. The potential of cassava as an energy crop. [NONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.K.; Kutianawala, S.M.

    1979-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is today the most widely grown of all root crops. Production figures suggest a world output of some 100 million tons per annum and around 70% of this production comes from Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire, Nigeria and India. Nevertheless many other countries have outputs running into thousands of tons. The bulk of this harvested material is consumed directly as human food. The use of cassava as a source of starch, or as an animal feedstuff, has long been of industrial interest, but the prediction that the world could face an energy crisis long before food supplies become critical, has caused a number of countries to assess cassava in an entirely new light. Thus, the starch content of cassava can, by fermentation, be turned into ethanol, a product that, apart from its value as a chemical feedstock, can be used directly as a liquid fuel. The standard automobile engine can run on a mixture of 90% petroleum: 10% ethanol with little difficulty, and with modification, the inclusion rate of alcohol can go even higher. This realization has led a number of tropical countries to consider seriously the potential of cassava as an industrial base, for even a 10% reduction in demand for imported oil represents a massive saving of foreign exchange. The fact that industrialized countries like Australia and New Zealand are moving in the same direction suggests that the carbohydrate-liquid fuel process is becoming attractive economically, as well as representing a method of conserving available fossil fuels. It would seem, therefore, an appropriate point in time to consider the potential of cassava as industrial crop. This paper aims to determine just how realistic are the aspirations of those seeking to further exploit this carbohydrate source. 24 references

  3. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Traoré, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southe...

  4. Substituição do milho pela polpa de citros sobre a fermentação ruminal e protozoários ciliados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251 Corn substitution by citrus pulp on ruminal fermentation and ciliate protozoa - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados, em um delineamento em quadrado latino, 4 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio de 400 kg ± 12 kg, canulados, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos de níveis de substituição de milho por polpa de citros na fermentação ruminal e no número de protozoários ciliados. Os tratamentos consistiram nos níveis de substituição: 0%, 40%, 60% e 80%, em base seca. Foram mensurados o pH, a concentração de AGV e os protozoários ciliados no rúmen. A inclusão de polpa de citros provocou diminuição linear nos níveis de pH do líquido ruminal (p Four Nellore steers cannulated with average weight of 400 ± 12 kg were utilized in a Latin square design, to evaluate the effect of substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp on rumen fermentation. The treatments consisted of substitution levels: (0, 40, 60 and 80%, in the dry matter. The pH, volatile fatty acid and ciliate protozoa of the rumen content were evaluated. The addition of citrus pulp to the diets decreased the pH of rumen liquid (p < 0.01 linearly, the quadratic effect of the total volatile fatty acid, of prop ionic acid, butyric acid and the total ciliate protozoa number (p = 0.03; p =0.01; p = 0.02; e p < 0.01, respectively. There was linear increase of the acetate: propionate ratio (p = 0.07. The substitution of corn by citrus pulp improved rumen environment to 60% level

  5. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Metha WANAPAT; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of p...

  6. Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Zambello de, Pinho; Ciniro, Costa; Mario De Beni, Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos, Silveira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani; Sheila Zambello de, Pinho.

    Full Text Available A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida [...] os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when sub [...] mitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

  7. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    A thermoalkalophilic and cellulase free xylanase produced from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a carbon source was evaluated for prebleaching of kraft pulp. The UV absorption spectrum of the compounds...

  8. Refining of Polysulfide Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Copur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

  9. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the f...

  10. Studies on the Cold Resistance of Cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Xinglu Luo; Qiufeng Huang

    2012-01-01

    Methods: SC124 and Fuxuan 01, two cold-resistant cassava cultivars and Nanzhi199 and SC205, another two cold-sensitive cassava cultivars were studied under low temperature stress. Aims: in order to explore the hardy physiological characters of different cassava cultivars. Results: Results showed that under low temperature stress, the cell membrane permeability of the tested cassavas increased, the increase ranges in the cold-sensitive cultivars were more obvious than those in the strong cold ...

  11. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  12. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  13. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  15. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  16. Féculas fermentadas na fabricação de biscoitos: estudo de fontes alternativas / Fermented starch in the biscuit manufacturing: alternative sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joelma, PEREIRA; César F., CIACCO; Evódio Ribeiro, VILELA; A. Lucrécia de S., TEIXEIRA.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O polvilho azedo tem sido utilizado como matéria-prima para muitos produtos da culinária brasileira, principalmente na fabricação de biscoitos. Visando a investigação de outras fontes além do polvilho azedo comercial para a confecção destes biscoitos, féculas de araruta, batata inglesa, batata-baroa [...] e de mandioca foram extraídas e fermentadas. As féculas fermentadas apresentaram características próximas às do polvilho azedo. Os biscoitos produzidos a partir da fécula fermentada de batata inglesa não se expandiram, e, ficaram muito duros e os biscoitos produzidos a partir das féculas fermentadas de araruta e de batata-baroa, tiveram boa aceitação pelos consumidores, podendo ser usados na fabricação de biscoitos, da mesma forma que a fécula fermentada de mandioca. Abstract in english The fermented cassava starch has been used as raw material for many products of the Brazilian culinary mainly in the biscuit manufacturing. Starch of arrowroot, english potato, baroa-potato and cassava were extracted and fermented in order to investigate other fermented starch sources for manufactur [...] ing biscuits. The fermented starch showed characteristics similar to those of commercial fermented cassava starch. The biscuits manufactured from the fermented starch of english potato didn’t expand and was very hard and the biscuits manufactured from the fermented starch of arrowroot and of baroa-potato were approved by the consumers and can be used in the biscuit manufacturing the same way as the fermented cassava starch.

  17. Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

  18. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  19. Qualidade fermentativa e caracterização químico-bromatológica de silagens da parte áerea e raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930 Fermentation quality and chemical and bromatological characteristics of foliage and roots of silage cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salgado Bernardino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes (0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. O emurchecimento influenciou significativamente o teor matéria seca (MS, a densidade e o pH das silagens em todas as doses de adição de raízes. A inclusão destas elevou o teor de MS em 0,128 e 0,261%, a densidade em 1,79 e 4,54 kg m-3 e, reduziu o pH em 0,0007 e 0,0062, respectivamente nas silagens emurchecidas ou não, a cada unidade percentual de adição de raízes. A exceção dos teores de fibra detergente ácida (FDA e lignina, todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram interação significativa entre o emurchecimento e a inclusão de raízes. O emurchecimento aumentou em 4,52% os teores de FDA e 12,86% os de lignina, enquanto o incremento de raízes promoveu decréscimo linear de ambos. O acréscimo de raízes reduziu linearmente os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, enquanto o emuchercimento elevou-os. O teor de PB respondeu inversamente, apresentando valores mínimos de 8,99 e 11,03 e máximos de 18,01 e 20,9% da MS, respectivamente nas silagens sem e com emurchecimento.The effects of wilting and root inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% natural matter on the chemical and bromatological composition coupled to silage fermentation parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Wilting affected significantly dry matter content (DM, density and pH values (p -3; pH values were reduced by 0.0007 and 0.0062 respectively in wilted silages or not wilted ones for every included root percentage unit. All parameters, with the exception of acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin contents, showed significant interaction between wilting and root inclusion. Wilting increased ADF and lignin contents respectively by 4.52 and 12.86%, whereas root inclusion caused a linear decrease in both. Silage root addition decreased linearly neutral detergent fiber rates and conversely wilting increased them. The opposite occurred with crude protein contents, with minimum rates 8.99 and 11.03 and maximum ones 18.01 and 20.9% DM values, respectively in silages with and without wilting.

  20. Energy-Efficient Production of Cassava-Based Bio-Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Jan Baeyens; Raf Dewil; Tianwei Tan

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol is an important renewable and sustainable fuel, produced in China by fermentation of mostly corn, wheat and cassava feedstock. Fermentation produces an ethanol-lean broth (10 to 12 vol%). Ethanol is recovered by distillation, followed by a molecular sieve drying beyond the azeo-tropic point. The distillation and molecular sieve operations consume most of the total energy used, with the steam consumption currently being ~1.8 kg/kg ethanol, including 0.5 kg/kg ethanol in the final ...

  1. Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

  2. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  3. Evaluation of the Proximate, Pasting and Sensory Characteristics of Cassava Flour (Fufu) Fortified with Pigeon Pea Flour

    OpenAIRE

    S.S. Akoja; A.O. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The nutritious value of Fufu-fermented cassava flour was improved through supplementation with 10, 20, 30 and 40% pigeon pea flour and the products were subjected to proximate composition, pasting characteristics and sensory tests, with 100% cassava flour as control. The results showed that the pigeon pea Fufu flour contained 7.70% protein, 0.27% fat, 1.08% ash at 10% level of inclusion and this increased to 16.45, 0.54 and 1.24% for protein, fat and ash respectively at 40% level of inclusion...

  4. PULP dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

  5. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  6. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  7. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

  10. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  11. Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Fernando, Rubio-Arroyo; Pilar, Vivanco-Loyo; Moisés, Juárez; Martha, Poisot; Guillermo, Ramírez-Galicia.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener [...] así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron para producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fer [...] mentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

  12. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer [Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7080, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Earth Science Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Westerbergh, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin [Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7080, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Zhang, Jiaming [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Hainan Province (China); Hu, Xinwen [College of Life Science and Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Cassava is ranking as fifth among crops in global starch production. It is used as staple food in many tropical countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In China, although not yet being a staple food, cassava is of major economic importance for starch for a large area of southern China, especially in the provinces of Guangdong, Guanxi, Yunnan and Hainan. Recently, cassava-derived bioethanol production has been increasing due to its economic benefits compared to other bioethanol-producing crops in the country. We discuss here the possible potentials of cassava for bioethanol production. (author)

  13. Levaduras autóctonas con capacidad fermentativa en la producción de etanol a partir de pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia / Autoctonous yeasts having fermentation ability in producing ethanol from Musa (AAB Simmonds) plantain surplus pulp in the Córdoba department of Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Oviedo Zumaqué; Cecilia, Lara Mantilla; Mauricio, Mizger Pantoja.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad fermentativa de levaduras nativas de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, para la obtención de etanol a partir de la pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds), con el objetivo de encontrar cepas eficientes. Los microorganismos utilizados correspond [...] ieron a las especies: Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii 14AD, Candida albicans y Candida guillliermondii 13AD (nativas), y una cepa comercial de referencia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73. La fermentación se realizó a diferentes concentraciones de sustrato, siendo la concentración del 40% la mejor; se evaluó la producción de etanol mediante el método colorimétrico del dicromato de potasio utilizando un equipo espectrofotómetro Lambda 11. Se observó que la levadura Candida guilliermondii 14AD nativa fue la más eficiente con una producción promedio de 3,45% v/v de etanol a las 72 horas de fermentación; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con la producción de etanol a partir de la cepa de referencia, la cual produjo 3,59% v/v. Estos resultados sugieren la existencia de levaduras nativas con capacidad para ser utilizadas en la obtención de etanol a partir de material residuo de plátano. Abstract in english Native yeasts' (Cordoba, Colombia) fermentation ability for producing ethanol from plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds) surplus pulp was evaluated; the object was to find efficient yeasts. The microorganisms used here came from the Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii (14AD), Candida albicans and Candida g [...] uillliermondii 13AD strains (native) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 (a commercial reference yeast). Fermentation was carried out on different substrate concentrations, the 40% one giving the best result; ethanol production was evaluated by the potassium dichromate colorimetric method using a Lambda 11 spectrophotometer. It was observed that the Candida guilliermondii 14AD native yeast was the most efficient, having an average 3.45% v/v ethanol production after 72 hours' fermentation. There were no statistically significant differences compared to reference yeast strain ethanol production (3.59% v/v). These results suggest that native yeasts can be used in obtaining ethanol from residual plantain matter.

  14. Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivana Greice, Sandri; Luciani Tastch, Piemolini-Barreto; Roselei Claudete, Fontana; Mauricio Moura da, Silveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE) produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this stu [...] dy. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24%) and in the juice (28%), with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively). The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%), and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the ?-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls.

  15. Xanthan gum production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate with Xanthomonas campestris using alternative sources of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Soccol, Carlos R; Rocha, Saul N; Pandey, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Cassava bagasse was hydrolyzed using HCl and the hydrolysate was used for the production of xanthan gum using a bacterial culture of Xanthomonas campestris. Cassava bagasse hydrolysate with an initial concentration of approx 20 g of glucose/L proved to be the best substrate concentration for xanthan gum production. Among the organic and inorganic nitrogen sources tested to supplement the medium-urea, yeast extract, peptone, potassium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate-potassium nitrate was most suitable. Ammonium sulfate was the least effective for xanthan gum production, and it affected sugar utilization by the bacterial culture. In media with an initial sugar concentration of 48.6 and 40.4 g/L, at the end of fermentation about 30 g/L of sugars was unused. Maximum xanthan gum (about 14 g/L) was produced when fermentation was carried out with a medium containing 19.8 g/L of initial reducing sugars supplemented with potassium nitrate and fermented for 72 h, and it remained almost the same until the end of fermentation (i.e., 96 h). PMID:15304758

  16. Pulp and periapical pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Piotto Leonardi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

  17. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Hasan Jameel,; Hou-Min Chang; Trevor Treasure; Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni Mail

    2011-01-01

    The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP), an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 F...

  18. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  19. Ethanol Production from Cassava Starch by Selected Fungi from an-Koji and Saccaromycetes cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of selected fungi and S. cerevisiae was investigated. Firstly starch hydrolysis fungi were isolated and screened from tan-koji (loog-pang. Enzymatic activities of 10 isolated Rhizopus sp. strains were determined on 0.1% starch agar plate at various pH (3-10 as primary screening. Clear zone diameter was occurred at pH ranging from 3 to 8 and no response at pH 10. The highest clear zone diameter that were found from 2 strains of Rhizopus sp. #2Bu and Rhizopus sp. #3Su at pH 4 were nearly equal. Secondary screening, sugar liberated were performed at various starch concentration from these 2 fungal strains. The results showed that Rhizopus sp. #3Su was the maximum efficiency. The highest reducing sugar yield was 25.9% from 6% cassava starch medium at 72 h. Ethanol production by SSF process, the coupling process between saccharification and fermentation was developed by using co-culture of Rhizopus sp. #3Su and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5088. After 24, 48 and 72 h of saccharification period by the fungal strain, the fermentation process was begun by adding yeast inoculum. The highest ethanol production was achieved at 14.36 g L-1 after 24 h of saccharification process on 6% cassava starch medium.

  20. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Alicia, Martos; Emilce Roxana, Zubreski; Mariana, Combina; Oscar Alfredo, Garro; Roque Alberto, Hours.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectino [...] lytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  1. High-Level Butanol Production from Cassava Starch by a Newly Isolated Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Fuzhi; Huang, Jiajian; Pang, Zongwen

    2015-10-01

    A new Clostridium acetobutylicum strain, exhibiting the ability to resist butanol stress and produce butanol, was identified and named GX01. Strain GX01 can use a wide variety of carbohydrates, especially cassava starch, to produce butanol. After the optimization of culture conditions, C. acetobutylicum GX01 could produce 27.3 g/L solvent, including 17.1 g/L butanol, 7.9 g/L acetone, and 2.3 g/L ethanol, from 100 g/L cassava flour and 3 g/L soybean meal. Furthermore, when its acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was performed in 10- and 30-L bioreactors, the production of total solvent and butanol reached 29.2 and 18.3 g/L, respectively, and 28.8 and 18.8 g/L, respectively. Thus, the high level and stability of butanol production make strain GX01 a promising candidate for ABE fermentation using the low-cost cassava starch. PMID:26245261

  2. DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Sitholé

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionation studies showed that the fines fractions contained 8 to 13 times more residual lipophilic extractives than the whole pulps. Removing this fraction, which represents only a small percentage of the whole pulp, could reduce by about a half the amount of lipophilic extractives in the remaining pulp. Thus pulp fractionation appears to be a viable option to achieve further deresination of sulphite pulps.

  3. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not. The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis of variance results, only pH (p <0.01), duration of storage (p <0.01), population of aflatoxin-producing species (0.0001) and the chip type (p <0.05) were significantly related to aflatoxin in positive samples. A stepwise regression analysis (forward selection procedure) indicated that aflatoxin levels were significantly (p <0.01) correlated with processing practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips.

  4. Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udoudoh, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

  5. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  6. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  7. Sensorial Analysis of Wines from Malpighia glabra L. Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida; Roberto Rodrigues de Souza; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Elias Basile Tambourgi

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to make the sensorial analysis of Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) wines. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix) and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma) of wines; which were measured on hedonic scale, to obtain the best condition for manufacturing wine from Barbados cherry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used
    for fermentation. Results showed that Ba...

  8. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  9. Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Achi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dregs increased microbial activity in cassava mash, particularly the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Protein composition of garri was improved and detoxification of cyanogenic glucosides was enhanced. Inoculation adversely affected mineral composition. Organoleptic analysis showed that inoculation did not reduce acceptability of garri at p<0.05.

  10. Effects of Inoculum Size on Solid-Phase Fermentation of Fodder Beets for Fuel Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, William R.; Westby, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  11. DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Sitholé; Salma Shirin; Xiao Zhang; Luc Lapierre; Jorge Pimentel; Mike Paice

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionat...

  12. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  13. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; P. Rowlinson; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of...

  14. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  16. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and of protein. The magnitude of these changes was found to be directly related to the losses in dry matter. From the results of this research, it was concluded that the addition of forage improves the chemical characteristics of silage prepared from coffee pulp. PMID:1275634

  17. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. P., CEREDA; M.C.Y., MATTOS.

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be brok [...] en under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  18. Dental pulp tissue engineering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio Fernando, Demarco; Marcus Cristian Muniz, Conde; Bruno Neves, Cavalcanti; Luciano, Casagrande; Vivien Thiemy, Sakai; Jacques Eduardo, Nör.

    Full Text Available A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo altamente especializado que possui uma restrita capacidade de regeneração, devido à sua disposição anatômica e à natureza pós-mitótica das células odontoblásticas. A remoção total da polpa, seguida da desinfecção do canal radicular e seu preenchimento com materi [...] al artificial proporciona a perda de uma significante quantidade de dentina deixando como sequela um dente não vital e enfraquecido. Entretanto, a endodontia regenerativa é um campo emergente da engenharia tecidual, que demonstrou resultados promissores utilizando células-tronco associadas à scaffolds e moléculas bioativas. Desta forma, esse artigo revisa os recentes avanços obtidos na regeneração do tecido pulpar baseado nos princípios da engenharia tecidual e fornece aos leitores informações compreensivas sobre os diferentes aspectos envolvidos na engenharia tecidual. Assim, nós especulamos que a combinação ideal de células, scaffolds e moléculas bioativas pode resultar em significantes avanços em outras áreas da pesquisa odontológica. Os dados levantados em nossa revisão demonstraram que estamos em um estágio no qual, o desenvolvimento de tecidos complexos, tais como a polpa dental, não é mais inatingível e que a próxima década será um período extremamente interessante para a pesquisa odontológica. Abstract in english Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant [...] amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.

  19. Cassava cultivars sensibility to mesotrione herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Martins Silveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable weed management is one of the main factors responsible for low mean yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz in Brazil. In this crop, mechanical weed control is the most commonly used, due to the lack of registered herbicides for cassava crop. In the search for alternatives to this problem, this work aimed to evaluate the tolerance level of cassavas cultivars to mesotrione herbicide applied in post emergence. A experiment was conducted, in green house conditions, in randomized blocks with four replications. A factorial scheme 5x5 was adopted, consisting of the combination of five dosages of mesotrione herbicides and five cassava cultivars. Intoxication of cassava plants, height, stem diameter and number of leaves of plants were evaluated weekly and 35 days after application (DAA plants were harvested for determining dry matter and leaf area.n. The highest values for visual intoxication were observed at 14 and 28 days after the herbicide application (DAA and caused by the highest doses of mesotrione herbicide. These symptoms consisted of whiteness in new leaves.  At 35 days, plants showed signals of recovery, mainly due the sprout of new leaves. The herbicide did not affected the height, stem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, roots and in total characteristics, in any of the evaluated doses. This is an evidence of cassava cultivars tolerance to mesotrione herbicide.

  20. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

  1. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  2. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  3. Evaluation of the cariogenic potential of cassava flours from the Amazonian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo Vieira, J M; Rebelo, M A B; Cury, J A

    2002-01-01

    Cassava flour is the main dietary carbohydrate source in the Amazonian region. The cariogenic potentials of the two main kinds of cassava flour - 'seca' and 'd'água' - were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. A sweet made from a regional fruit (cupuaçú) and a species of local fish (tambaqui) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. For in vivo evaluation of dental plaque acidogenicity, the study had a crossover design, in four legs, with 19 volunteers in four treatment groups. Dental plaque pH was determined by the microtouch method before and for 60 min after food consumption. For in vitro evaluation, stimulated saliva of each volunteer was incubated with the food and pH variation was determined over 4 h. Carbohydrates were chemically determined in the flours and the majority was found to be water-insoluble. In vivo, plaque pH decreased significantly after the consumption of the sweet (p 0.05). In vitro, the flours were slowly fermented by bacteria present in saliva. The in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that, in the form that the main cassava flours from the Amazonian region of Brazil are customarily eaten, they may be considered to have no or very low cariogenicity. PMID:12459614

  4. Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease

    OpenAIRE

    O.F. Owolade; Dixon, A. G. O.; A.Y.A. Adeoti

    2006-01-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeospori...

  5. Direct pulp capping using biodentine

    OpenAIRE

    Popovi?-Baji? Marijana; Danilovi? Vesna; Proki? Branislav; Proki? Bogomir; Jokanovi? Vukoman; Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus). On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pul...

  6. Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

  7. Direct pulp capping using biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi?-Baji? Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

  8. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2013-09-16

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

  9. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau.

  10. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia, Trindade; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa, Barreto; Taniella de Carvalho, Mendes; Carlos Augusto, Rosa.

    Full Text Available O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas fora [...] m testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau. Abstract in english The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ab [...] ility to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.

  11. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  12. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  13. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and ?-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

  14. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  15. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Hattori, F.; Inoue, H.

    1979-02-17

    In alcohol manufacture by the modified amylo process, addition of a saccharifying amylase preparation of dextrose equivalent > 95% reduces the saccharification period and raises the alcohol yield. Thus, 2.5 kg potato mash was diluted to 7 l, steamed, and inoculated with Rhizopus delemar and Aspergillus oryzae. Aeration with or without amylase and subsequent fermentation with yeast gave 94.1 or 92.8% alcohol in 85 hours, respectively.

  16. Supplementation of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, N-balance and Urinary Purine Derivatives in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    N. Nontaso; S. Wanapat; C. Navanukroaw; C. Wachirapakorn; Wanapat, M.; Polyorach, S.

    2011-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangements in a 4x4 Latin square design to study effects of Yeast Fermented Liquid (YFL) and Coconut Oil (CO) on rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient digestibility. Two factors were used; Factor A-Source of protein; Soy Bean Meal (SBM), Cassava Hay (CH) and factor B-non-heating of YFL+CO (YCOH) and heating of YFL+CO (at 50°C) (YCOH). Animals received four dietary treatments as follows: T1 = SBM+YCO; T2...

  17. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  18. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.; Haggblade, S.; Brimer, Leon

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipate...

  19. Design of a Cassava Uprooting Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Akinwonmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the design of a simple, efficient, cheap and affordable cassava uprooting device for local cassava growing farmers. Processes involved in uprooting cassava were found out from local farmers, studied and mechanized using bevel gears, cams and followers, chain and sprockets. The principle of moments was used as a basis for the design. The effort applied by the foot of the operator is significantly magnified to overcome the load (cassava in the ground at the extreme end of the device .The free body diagram of the frame helped to determine the average force needed to press the pedal by the foot. From the analysis, a little effort of 334.49 N can overcome about 2000 N of force and this gives a mechanical advantage of about 6. The bending moment diagram and the shear force diagrams helped to determine the part of the device which is subjected to greater force and where shear and bending can easily take place. Mild steel is used as the material for the device because it is cheap and easily available. Advantages of this design include faster uprooting with high productivity, less energy expended, reduction in the risk of health hazards of developing blisters in the palms, callus palms, arched spinal cord and waste pains over time.

  20. Fermentation Characteristics of Rice Crop Residue-Based Silage Treated by Epiphytic and Commercial LAB

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B; B. Tj. Hariadi; Alimuddin; D. Y. Seseray

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control;...

  1. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-06-16

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong. PMID:24747716

  2. Improving the efficiency of enzyme utilization for sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a carbohydrate-rich residue of table sugar processing. It shows promise as a feedstock for fermentable sugar and biofuel production via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. This research focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP and examined the effects of solid loading (2-10 %, dry basis), enzyme preparation, and enzyme recycle on the production of fermentable sugars. The enzyme partitioning to the solid and liquid phases during SBP enzymatic hydrolysis and loss during recycling were investigated using SDS-PAGE and Zymogram analysis. Without considering product inhibition, the cellulase added initially to the SBP hydrolysis lost only 6 % filter paper activity and negligible carboxymethyl cellulose activity upon multiple cycles of SBP hydrolysis. It was found that enzyme dosage can be reduced by 50 % while maintaining similar, and in some cases higher fermentable sugar yield. The removal of hydrolysis products will further improve enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP for biofuel production. PMID:22580744

  3. Dietary fibre and fermentability characteristics of root crops and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallillin, Aida C; Trinidad, Trinidad P; Raterta, Ruby; Dagbay, Kevin; Loyola, Anacleta S

    2008-09-01

    The dietary fibre and fermentability characteristics of local root crops and legumes were determined. Total, soluble and insoluble fibre were determined in six root crops (kamote, gabi, potato, tugi, ube, cassava) and ten legumes (mungbean, soyabean, peanut, pole sitao, cowpea, chickpea, green pea, lima bean, kidney bean and pigeon pea) using Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. The dietary fibre from test foods was isolated and fermented in vitro using human faecal inoculum simulating conditions in the human colon. The SCFA, e.g. acetate, propionate, butyrate, produced after fibre fermentation was measured using HPLC. The dietary fibre content of root crops ranged from 4.6 to 13.5 g/100 g while legumes ranged from 20.9 to 46.9 g/100 g, suggesting that root crops and legumes are good sources of dietary fibre. Significant amounts of SCFA were produced after in vitro fermentation of the fibre isolate of both root crops and legumes. The best sources (as mmol/g fibre isolate) of acetate among the legumes were pole sitao (5.6 (sem 0.5)) and mungbean (5.3 (sem 0.1)) and among the root crops, tugi (2.5 (sem 0.4)) and cassava (2.4 (sem 0.1)); of propionate, kidney bean (7.2 (sem 1.5)) and pigeon pea (3.3 (sem 0.2)) for legumes, and tugi (1.8 (sem 0.2)) for root crops; and of butyrate, peanut (6.0 (sem 0.2)) and cowpea (5.4 (sem 0.2)) for legumes, and tugi (0.8 (sem 0.0)) and cassava (0.8 (sem 0.0)) for root crops. In conclusion, root crops and legumes are good sources of dietary fibre and produced SCFA after fibre fermentation, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA production after in vitro fermentation can be estimated using human faecal inoculum and can be used to model the human colon. PMID:18331664

  4. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  5. Modeling and Optimising the Growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae During Gathotan Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI PURWANDARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gathotan is fungal fermented cassava, and a raw material for a Javanese snack called ‘gathot’. This type of food is now hardly to find, and the process of making gathotan is relatively lack of process control, leads to failure in process. To make gathotan, peeled cassava tubers are left on the ground or roof for several weeks or months until they become black inside an important characteristic of gathotan. This work aims to improve gathotan fermentation by optimizing fermentation process. The effect of incubation temperature and time, inoculum level, soaking time, and drying, on the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the main gathotan fungus, in cassava tubers was studied. Experimental design was set up according to response surface methodology. Five parameters measured were pH, titratable acidity, and fungal growth. Results showed that incubation temperature affected pH in linear (P<0.01 and quadratic functions (P<0.05. Titratable acidity was not affected by any treatment. Fungal growth was significantly affected by incubation time (P<0.01 or inoculum level (P<0.05, and interaction of several factors: incubation time and incubation temperature (P<0.05 or drying time (P<0.01. Optimization model indicated that incubation temperature at 34.5°C for 2.4 days, soaking for 26.4 hours, drying time of 3.7 hours at 40°C, and inoculum level of 2% resulted in maximum growth of L. theobromae in gathotan.

  6. Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Abbasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

  7. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIATE I.M.; A.C. BARANA; Cereda, M.P.; G. WOSIACKI

    1999-01-01

    Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refract...

  8. Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especially important in the northeastern (NE) part of the country, where poverty and malnutrition rates are higher than in the rest of the country. However, despite the crop?s dietary importance, relative...

  9. Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C.N Fokunang; Dixon, A. G. O.; T Ikotun; E.A. Tembe; C.N.Akem; ASIEDU, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming population dep...

  10. Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Ibeje

    2013-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition ch...

  11. Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic acid) dec...

  12. Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib M.A. Nassar

    2000-01-01

    All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

  13. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    OpenAIRE

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be directly applied in existing varieties of vegetatively propagated crops like cassava. Genetic modification requires efficient, genotype-independent regeneration methods. Plant regeneration can be a...

  14. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  15. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:26220821

  16. Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Owolade

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis in selected cassava genotypes. A complete diallel mating scheme including reciprocals of nine resistant and susceptible genotypes of cassava were evaluated in the field over a period of two planting seasons. The combining ability analysis revealed that both the additive and nonadditive gene effects were present. Crosses between the resistant lines and susceptible genotypes showed intermediate disease reaction to CAD suggesting a polygenic system of resistance to the disease. The significant maternal and specific reciprocal differences among the parents and crosses indicated that maternal and/or cytoplasmic inheritance is involved in the reaction of cassava genotypes to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. The significant genotype X environment interaction suggested lack of stability in the development of lesions/cankers on cassava stems. Therefore, recurrent selection would be appropriate for accumulating genes for resistance to CAD in cassava and progeny performance may not be based on their parents performance per se.

  17. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s). PMID:15907080

  18. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Milji? Uroš D.; Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ) w...

  19. Study on the development of methanogenic microflora during anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Labat, M.; Garcia, Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01

    The pattern of increase in cell number in 12 different groups of bacteria was studied during anaerobic digestion of enzymatically prehydrolysed sugar beet pulp in a 70-1 fermentor with sequential feeding over a period of 130 days. Glucose-fermenting bacteria accounted for 90 % of the total microflora as estimated by direct epifluorescence. Strictly anaerobic bacteria were largely dominant ; only 10 % were methanogens. Sulphate-reducing bacteria accounted for 0.1 % of the total microflora. The...

  20. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-05-01

    To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

  1. Avaliação da farinha de mandioca e do fubá de milho como substratos para a obtenção de bebida fermento-destilada / Evaluation of cassava and corn flours as substrates for alcoholic distilled beverage production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. M., Demiate; M., Leonel; S., Damasceno; K. C., Maeda; C.L.C. de, Lima; M.M., Sartori; M. P., Cereda.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca e o fubá de milho foram avaliados como matérias-primas alternativas na obtenção de uma bebida fermento-destilada, visando gerar informações úteis à aplicação industrial. Os substratos foram caracterizados e comparou-se a eficiência da mosturação, o perfil de açúcares no mosto, [...] bem como as curvas de fermentação dos substratos. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo de amido foi de 78,1 % para o fubá de milho e 92,7 % para a farinha de mandioca. Quanto ao rendimento da mosturação foi de 57, 4 % para o milho e 66,4 % para a mandioca, sendo que o perfil de açúcares no mosto demonstrou que 95 % dos açúcares presentes no mosto de mandioca foi glicose e o restante pequenas porcentagens de dextrinas e maltose. Já o perfil do mosto de milho apresentou cerca de 85 % de glicose , 10 % de dextrinas e cerca de 4 % de maltose. Para o processo fermentativo, observou -se que o consumo de açúcares no mosto de mandioca foi mais rápido que no mosto de milho. Abstract in english Cassava and corn flours were evaluated as alternative raw-materials for production of a fermented and distilled drink. The objective of this work was to generate information for technological application. Both flours were characterized and starch hydrolysis efficiency, sugar profile and fermentation [...] pattern were compared. The results obtained showed that starch content of corn flour was 78.1% and for cassava flour 92.7%. Starch hydrolysis yield was 57.4% for corn and 66.4% for cassava and the sugar profiles in the hydrolysates showed that 95% of total sugar present in cassava hydrolysate was glucose and the remaining fraction was represented by dextrins and maltose. For corn hydrolysate 85% of total sugar was glucose, 10% dextrins and around 4% maltose. The fermentative process was evaluated by measuring the velocity of sugar consumption which for cassava hydrolysate was higher than for corn hydrolysate.

  2. Mechanisms of thermomechanical pulp refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illikainen, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain new information about mechanisms of thermomechanical pulp refining in the inner area of a refiner disc gap by studying inter-fibre refining and by calculating the distribution of energy consumption in the refiner disc gap. The energy consumption of thermomechanical pulping process is very high although theoretically a small amount of energy is needed to create new fibre surfaces. Mechanisms of refining have been widely studied in order to understand the high energy consumption of the process, however, phenomena in the inner area of disc gap has had less attention. It is likely that this important position is causing high energy consumption due to the high residence time of pulp located there. The power distribution as a function of the refiner disc gap was calculated in this work. The calculation was based on mass and energy balances, as well as temperature and consistency profiles determined by mill trials. The power distribution was found to be dependent on segment geometry and the refining stage. However, in the first stage refiner with standard refiner segments, a notable amount of power was consumed in the inner area of the disc gap. Fibre-to-fibre refining is likely to be the most important mechanism in the inner area of disc gap from the point of view of energy consumption. In this work the inter-fibre refining was studied using equipment for shear and compression. Fibre-to-fibre refining was found to be an effective way to refine fibres from coarse pulp to separated, fibrillated and peeled fibres if frictional forces inside the compressed pulp were high enough. It was proposed that high energy of today's thermomechanical pulping process could derive from too low frictional forces that heated pulp and evaporated water without any changes in fibre structure. The method to calculate power distribution and results of fibre-to-fibre refining experiments may give ideas for developing today's thermomechanical pulp refiners' or for developing totally new energy saving mechanical pulping processes. (orig.)

  3. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane da Cunha, Salata; Magali, Leonel; Fernanda Rossi Moretti, Trombini; Martha Maria, Mischan.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture) and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed) on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A centra [...] l composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*), and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%), low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%), and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C) and screw speed (230rpm), it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  4. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  5. Electric pulp testing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Chandler, N P

    2008-05-01

    Electric pulp testing (EPT) has been available for more than a century and used in dental practices worldwide. This article provides an overview of this diagnostic aid. The PubMed database from 1953 was used initially; the reference list for pulp testing featured 1071 articles, and for EPT identified 121 papers. A forward search was undertaken on these articles and using selected author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, while older textbooks on endodontics, operative dentistry and pain revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically. A short account of the innervation of the pulp is followed by an historic overview. Clinical considerations discussed include tooth isolation, glove wearing and tester electrode placement. Orthodontic treatment, pacemaker wearing and patient medications are considered. Research applications are also discussed. While EPT is valuable, no single pulp testing technique can reliably diagnose all pulp conditions. Careful collection of patient history regarding the problem tooth and prudent use of appropriate radiographs are also helpful. The shortcomings of electric tests, especially in the case of immature and concussed teeth, must be understood. The demeanour of the patient and the responses given by control teeth also require careful consideration. PMID:18298572

  6. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle enhanced the substrate utilization and improved the buffer capacity. Further increase the CES fraction led to changed VFA distribution and more hydrogen consumption. FISH analysis revealed that both hydrogen producing bacteria and hydrogen consuming bacteria were enriched after CES recycled, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase.

  7. Optimization of Ethanol Production Process from Cassava Starch by Surface Response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, López Zamora; José Amir, González Calderón; Evangelina, Trujillo Vázquez; Eusebio, Bolaños Reynoso.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo muestra el estudio del proceso optimización de obtención de etanol a partir del almidón de yuca, mediante el planteamiento de un diseño 2² con tres puntos centrales y usando un software estadístico para analizar los resultados. Esta metodología fue aplicada tanto para la etapa de sac [...] arificación del almidón de yuca mediante hidrólisis ácida como para la etapa de fermentación empleando Socchoromyces cerevisioe. A partir de los datos experimentales de la hidrólisis ácida, se propone un modelo cinético de primer orden el cual presentó un error promedio del 1.87 % con respecto a la regresión cuadrática obtenida. El desarrollo de un proceso semi-contínuo mostró una conversión del 89.84 % del almidón inicialmente considerado, obteniéndose una concentración final de etanol del 49.76 % Alc/vol. Abstract in english This work shows the study of the optimization process for producing ethanol from cassava starch based on 2² experimental designs with three central points and using statistical software. This methodology was applied to the stage of saccharification of cassava starch by acid hydrolysis as well as to [...] the stage of fermentation using Socchoromyces cerevisioe. From the experimental data of acid hydrolysis, we proposed a first-order kinetic model which presented an average error of 1.87 % compared to the quadratic regression obtained. The development of a semicontinuous process showed a 89.84 % conversion of starch initially considered, yielding an ethanol concentration of 49.76 % Alc/vol.

  8. Rumen degradability of dehydrated beet pulp and dehydrated citrus pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jose; González, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The rumen degradation of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of 10 samples of dehydrated beet pulp (DBP) and 2 samples of dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) were studied in three rumen cannulated wethers using nylon bag and rumen outflow rate techniques. The animals were fed with a mixed diet of prairie hay and concentrate (2:1 on DM) at an intake level of 40 g DM.kg BW-0.75. The effective degradability (ED) values of all feeds of each group were estimated from the rumen outflow rate determined ...

  9. Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs

  10. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahekar S; Kale R

    2013-01-01

    The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this...

  11. Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  12. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low. PMID:24500620

  13. Reinforcement ability of mechanical pulp fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the reasons why the long fibres of mechanical pulp do not seem to reinforce paper as effectively as chemical reinforcement pulp. A preliminary laboratory trial showed that artificially increasing the average fibre length of TMP pulp by adding long fibres extracted from the same pulp increased the tear index, but decreased the tensile strength, internal bond strength and the fracture energy. Increasing the average fibre strength with chemical (N...

  14. GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

  15. REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES

    OpenAIRE

    Risto I. Korpinen; Pedro E. Fardim

    2009-01-01

    Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP) and pressurised groundwood (PWG) pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW...

  16. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Hamzeh; Ali Abyaz; Mahsa O-Sadat Mirfatahi Niaraki; Ali Abdulkhani

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  17. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; José L. Gomide,; Luiz C. A. Barbosa,; Célia R. A. Maltha,; Fernando José Borges Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH) and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP)-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash) was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the afo...

  18. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

  19. Cassava genetic transformation and its application in breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zheng, Qijie; Ma, Qiuxiang; Gadidasu, Kranthi Kumar; Zhang, Peng

    2011-07-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones. Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality, building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide. PMID:21564542

  20. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes. PMID:25707473

  1. ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requejo,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm, using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, ?-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

  2. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  3. REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto I. Korpinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

  4. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  5. Statistical optimization of bioprocess parameters for enhanced gallic acid production from coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoite, Roopali N; Navya, P N; Murthy, Pushpa S

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was produced by microbial biotransformation of coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum. Gallic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design. Process parameters such as pH, moisture, and fermentation period were considered for optimization. Among the various fungi isolated from coffee by-products, Penicillium verrucosum produced 35.23 µg/g of gallic acid on coffee pulp as sole carbon source in solid-state fermentation. The optimum values of the parameters obtained from the RSM were pH 3.32, moisture 58.40%, and fermentation period of 96 hr. Gallic acid production with an increase of 4.6-fold was achieved upon optimization of the process parameters. The results optimized could be translated to 1-kg tray fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and spectral studies such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that the bioactive compound isolated was gallic acid. Thus, coffee pulp, which is available in enormous quantity, could be used for the production of value-added products that can find avenues in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. PMID:23464918

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali/peracetic acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Song, Yuanquan; Liu, Dehua

    2011-09-10

    The enzymatic digestibility of alkali/peracetic acid (PAA)-pretreated bagasse was systematically investigated. The effects of initial solid consistency, cellulase loading and addition of supplemental ?-glucosidase on the enzymatic conversion of glycan were studied. It was found the alkali-PAA pulp showed excellent enzymatic digestibility. The enzymatic glycan conversion could reach about 80% after 24 h incubation when enzyme loading was 10 FPU/g solid. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results indicated that the pulp could be well converted to ethanol. Compared with dilute acid pretreated bagasse (DAPB), alkali-PAA pulp could obtain much higher ethanol and xylose concentrations. The fermentation broth still showed some cellulase activity so that the fed pulp could be further converted to sugars and ethanol. After the second batch SSF, the fermentation broth of alkali-PAA pulp still kept about 50% of initial cellulase activity. However, only 21% of initial cellulase activity was kept in the fermentation broth of DAPB. The xylose syrup obtained in SSF of alkali-PAA pulp could be well converted to 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae CGMCC 1.9131. PMID:22112569

  7. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  8. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance.

  9. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong.

  10. Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-08-01

    To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. PMID:21569940

  11. Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca / Cooking time and texture of cassava roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Vilela, Talma; Selma Bergara, Almeida; Rozana Moreira Pereira, Lima; Henrique Duarte, Vieira; Pedro Amorim, Bebert.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes for [...] am cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento); GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte) e análise de correlação de Pearson (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Ja [...] neiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time), GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance) and Pearson's correlation analysis (p

  12. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  13. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  14. Novos clones de mandioca obtidos por cruzamento entre cultivares / New clones of cassava obtained by crossing cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nélson C., Schmidt; Araken S., Pereira.

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o comportamento de alguns cruzamentos entre os cultivares Mantiqueira e Cafelha de Manihot esculenta CRANTZ. Fez-se o plantio de linhas alternadas desses clones para obtenção dos cruzamentos. Foram realizadas durante quatro anos observações sobre o comportamento dos cruzamentos obtidos e [...] , no grupo citado no quadro 1, destacaram-se os de números 17 e 50 com relação ao stand final, produtividade e resistência às moléstias. A comparação desses clones foi sempre feita com o 'Mantiqueira', considerado como o tratamento testemunha. Foram tão produtivos quanto o 'Mantiqueira', possuindo, no entanto, película clara, feloderma e polpa brancos, o que constitui grande vantagem do ponto de vista industrial. Abstract in english The behavior of six clones of Manihot esculenta cv. Mantiqueira (sweet cassava) X cv. Cafelha (bitter cassava) was analysed. The clones N. 17 and N. 50 were selected on the basis of four years of observations on final stand, productivity and resistance to diseases and pests. The new clones showed to [...] be as productive as 'Mantiqueira' however, their root skin, phelloderm and pulp are white and consequently are of higher industrial value. Concerning disease resistance the results showed that the clones N. 17 and N. 50 were as good as the Mantiqueira cultivars and better than the other four clones.

  15. Novos clones de mandioca obtidos por cruzamento entre cultivares New clones of cassava obtained by crossing cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélson C. Schmidt

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o comportamento de alguns cruzamentos entre os cultivares Mantiqueira e Cafelha de Manihot esculenta CRANTZ. Fez-se o plantio de linhas alternadas desses clones para obtenção dos cruzamentos. Foram realizadas durante quatro anos observações sobre o comportamento dos cruzamentos obtidos e, no grupo citado no quadro 1, destacaram-se os de números 17 e 50 com relação ao stand final, produtividade e resistência às moléstias. A comparação desses clones foi sempre feita com o 'Mantiqueira', considerado como o tratamento testemunha. Foram tão produtivos quanto o 'Mantiqueira', possuindo, no entanto, película clara, feloderma e polpa brancos, o que constitui grande vantagem do ponto de vista industrial.The behavior of six clones of Manihot esculenta cv. Mantiqueira (sweet cassava X cv. Cafelha (bitter cassava was analysed. The clones N. 17 and N. 50 were selected on the basis of four years of observations on final stand, productivity and resistance to diseases and pests. The new clones showed to be as productive as 'Mantiqueira' however, their root skin, phelloderm and pulp are white and consequently are of higher industrial value. Concerning disease resistance the results showed that the clones N. 17 and N. 50 were as good as the Mantiqueira cultivars and better than the other four clones.

  16. Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

  17. Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phengpricha, N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

  18. On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2012-06-01

    Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

  19. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

  20. Cellulosic pulp from "Leucaena diversifolia" by soda–ethanol pulping process

    OpenAIRE

    López Baldovín, Francisco; Pérez Muñoz, Antonio; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; García Gómez, M. M.; Férnandez Martínez, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A selection of the best wood raw materials for cellulose pulp and papermaking from five varieties of the Leucaena has been made (Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena collinsii and three varieties of Leucaena leucocephala) with growth periods of one, two and three years. In accordance with biomass production and the features of the raw materials and cellulose pulp obtained, L. diversifolia in its second year of growth was selected as the most suitable material for pulp and papermaking. Pulping of L...

  1. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljaji? Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  2. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutions 

  3. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  4. Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM y de fuerza atómica (AFM. Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glicerina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente. El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos.An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and glycerine, were processed at 120(0C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode. Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

  5. Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Oluitan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the cassava farmers were married, literate and of about 35 years meaning that more young people were into cassava cultivation in Ile-Ife. Also, the farmers had an average of 8 members per household. The results of the regression analysis revealed that 97% of the variations in the marketed surplus of cassava were explained by the variables in the model. The result also revealed that the quantity of cassava output in kg and the family size had positive and significant effects on the marketed surplus while losses, quantity of cassava consumed in kg, payments in kind in kg, size of land in hectares had negative effects on the marketed surplus. The elasticity of marketed surplus was 1.6 meaning that the supply response was elastic indicating that the higher the price of cassava output in kg the more the quantity of cassava that will be supplied.

    Key words: Cassava Farmers; Market supply response; Nigeria; Osun State

  6. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  7. Study of survival time in pulp export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the time for a country to survive exporting pulp, using a Cox regression model. Covariates being used included data about population, Gross Domestic Product, total exports of forest products as an aggregate, pulp production and balance of trade for pulp, economic markets and blocks, and geographic regions. To select and check the most significant covariates, a proposal formulated by Collet (1994 was used. It was concluded that survival analysis via the Cox regression model proved to be a powerful tool for predicting the survival of a country exporting pulp; around 80% of countries that have pulp in their list of exports continue to export the commodity; out of the fifteen covariates selected for fitting the Cox model, four explain the model and two were found significant in explaining the survival of a country exporting pulp; international trade agreements were more significant in the Cox regression model than classes of macroeconomic forest indicators and geographic location; covariates explaining the odds of a country exporting pulp to survive, according to the hazard ratio, were, in descending order, integration between ECLAC and European Union, be a member of the European Union (V07 and be a member of ECLAC (V6; Brazil has 3.5 times as much chance of survival exporting pulp through an integration between ECLAC and the European Union than a country that is not a part of such integration; the probability that Brazil will survive exporting pulp is greater than the probability that Asian countries will.

  8. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and ?- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an ?-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% ?-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  9. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  10. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.; Sablah, Mawuli

    2006-01-01

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They m...

  11. Biodegradable films made from raw and acetylated cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio D. S. Larotonda; Kátia N. Matsui; Valdir Soldi; João B. LAURINDO

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out to produce biodegradable films from cassava starch. Two alternatives were investigated. In the first, films were obtained by starch gelatinization followed by thermopressing and glycerol was used at different concentrations as a plasticizer. In the second, starch acetate films were obtained by solubilization of cassava starch acetate in organic solvents, followed by casting on a glass plate and drying at room temperature. The films obtained by gelatinization were tran...

  12. Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    B Budiyono; T.D. Kusworo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  13. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo; B Budiyono

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  14. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  15. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofi...

  16. Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib M.A. Nassar; Marco André R. Vieira; Clibas Vieira; Dario Gratapaglia

    1998-01-01

    Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.A Apomixia mantém a heterose e evita a transmissão de patógenos sistêmicos que acompanham a propagação vege...

  17. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 2...

  18. Asian fungal fermented food

    OpenAIRE

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegetables, meat and fish. This chapter focuses on some representative foods, their traditional manufacturing, the major fungi involved in the fermentation, the biochemical changes taking place during fe...

  19. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Acetate Derivative Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Retnowati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to observe the possibility of application of microwave heating in the acetylation of cassava starch and to study the physicochemical properties of the starch acetate obtained. The acetylation was carried out by mixing native cassava starch with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide of a certain weight ratio in a sealed container. The mixture was then sprayed with ethanol and heated using microwave power. The Degree of Substitution (DS, Reaction Efficiency (RE and some physical properties of the acetylated starches were then analyzed. It was found that microwave assisted acetylation of cassava starch using chloroacetic acid can be done in a very short reaction time. The highest DS and RE obtained were 0.045 and 0.051%, respectively. Acetylation of cassava starch reduced gel hardness during storage. Acetylation also inhibits the retrogradation of starch gel. Cassava starch acetylation changed starch molecular motion, resulting in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Amylopectin retrogradation was not significantly reduced, indicating that the degrees of modification of the starches in this study were too low to cause enough steric hindrance to prevent retrogradation. The modifications were done on native starch granules; they took place preferentially on the amylose fraction, not the amylopectin fraction, thus leaving amylopectin retrogradation was mostly unaffected. It can be concluded that microwave heating can be applied in the acetylation of cassava starch to obtain significant changes of the properties of starch.

  20. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Effects of the kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel Cardoso de, Angelis-Pereira; Maria de Fátima Píccolo, Barcelos; Mariana Séfora Bezerra, Sousa; Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro, Pereira.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterole [...] mic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  3. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  4. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  5. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  6. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry Amido de mandioca na indústria brasileira de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  7. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Harvey, Jagger J. W.; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    While the physiological basis of cassava drought tolerance has been characterized, evaluation of the molecular responses to drought stress remains largely unexplored. This study provides an initial characterization of the molecular response of cassava to drought stress resembling field conditions. The candidate drought tolerance genes in cassava identified in this study can be used as expression-based markers of drought tolerance in cassava or be tested in the context of breeding and engineer...

  8. Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1% and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%. The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6 above other silages (4.1. The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

  9. Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofino Adriana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

  10. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  11. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  12. Stem cells of the dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells of the dental pulp are a population of postnatal stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential. These cells are derived from the neural ectomesenchyme, similar to most craniofacial tissues, and specific niches in the pulp have been identified. Since the isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and stem cells from exfoliating deciduous teeth (SHED, numerous studies have attempted to define and characterize these cells, and embryonic stem cell features have been reported in both DPSC and SHED. These cells have a vast repertoire of differentiation - osteogenic, odontogenic, myogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic, and melanocytic, and have even demonstrated transdifferentiation to corneal cells and islet cells of pancreas. The combined advantages of multipotency/pluripotency and the relative ease of access of pulp tissue for autologous use render DPSC/ SHED attractive options in regenerative dentistry and medicine. This review gives a bird?s eye view of current knowledge with respect to stem cells from the dental pulp.

  13. Influence of Nutrients Utilization and Cultivation Conditions on the Production of Lactic Acid by Homolactic Fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    S.T. Ogunbanwo; B.M. Okanlawon

    2009-01-01

    Homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolated from retted cassava ware screened for the production of lactic acid, pH survival and influence of nutrients utilization and cultivation conditions on the production of lactic acid by fermentation. All the Lactobacillus species isolated produced little quantity of lactic acid when grown at 30 °C in normal De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth. However, a temperature of 40 °C at initial pH of 5.5 in constituted MRS medium with 6% (w/v) carbon con...

  14. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  15. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

    2006-01-01

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

  16. Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Budiyono

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

  17. Influence of fermentation methods on neutral detergent fiber degradation parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Mertens, D.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 fermentation methods, in situ (IS) in 4 lactating cows (average pH of 5.8), in vitro (IVn) with media pH of 6.8, or in vitro (IVa) with media pH adjusted to 6.0 using citric acid, on fiber degradation parameters was studied using feeds ground to different particle sizes. Corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS), barley grain (B), sugar beet pulp (BP), and rapeseed cake (RC) were ground using a shear mill. Silages were ground through 8-, 4-, 2-, or 1-mm screens, B and BP through 4-, 2-...

  18. Influence of Fermentation Methods on Neutral Detergent Fiber Degradation Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, D; Mertens, D R; Weisbjerg, M R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 fermentation methods, in situ (IS) in 4 lactating cows (average pH of 5.8), in vitro (IVn) with media pH of 6.8, or in vitro (IVa) with media pH adjusted to 6.0 using citric acid, on fiber degradation parameters was studied using feeds ground to different particle sizes. Corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS), barley grain (B), sugar beet pulp (BP), and rapeseed cake (RC) were ground using a shear mill. Silages were ground through 8-, 4-, 2-, or 1-mm screens, B and BP through 4-, 2-...

  19. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Igile Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

  20. ORANGE BAGASSE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE AND LACCASE BY BOTRYOSPHAERIA RHODINA MAMB-05 IN SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen C. Giese; Robert F. H. Dekker; Aneli M. Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1) occurred in SSF with...

  1. Effect of Intercropping and Organic Manures on Weed Control and Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mohamed Amanullah; A. Alagesan; K. Vaiyapuri; K. Sathyamoorthi; S. Pazhanivelan

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of intercropping and organic manures on weed control and performance of cassava at Veterinary College and Research Institute Farm, Namakkal during 2001 and 2002. The popular hybrid of cassava H 226 was tried as test crop. Three intercropping systems viz., sole cassava, cassava + maize (var. African tall) and cassava + cowpea (var. CO 5) were assigned to main plots. Six organic manurial treatments viz., FYM (25 t ha-1), Poultry manure (10...

  2. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  3. Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2012-10-01

    Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

  4. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  5. Cassava physiological responses to the application of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence has been used to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, as well as in the evaluation of plant photosynthetic capacity altered by biotic or abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of cassava plants to herbicides with different mechanisms of action, as well as the damage caused by the application of herbicides on the photosynthetic apparatus of these plants. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were constituted of the application of the following post- emergence herbicides in cassava: bentazon, clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl, glyphosate, nicosulfuron, chlorimuron, fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen, sulfentrazone, besides a control without application. The visual intoxication and chlorophyll a fluorescence assessments were performed at 2, 9, 16 and 23 days after herbicide application. The herbicides evaluated affected differently the cassava plants. Sulfentrazone and glyphosate promoted plant death. Herbicides clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl and chlorimuron-ehtyl caused low toxicity to cassava plants and did not affect the ratio Fv / Fm and ETR. However, for the mixture nicossulfuron and fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen values of Fv / Fm were suboptimal in the first evaluation times but plants treated with these herbicides had recovered. Physiological evaluations can be used as a way to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides in cassava crop as presented similar answers to those observed for visual intoxication symptoms.

  6. Dehydrated chicory pulp as an alternative soluble fibre source in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maertens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fibre (SF is an important nutrient to enhance fermentative activity and gut health in rabbits. The main source of SF in rabbit diets is sugar beet pulp (SBP, whereas, due to its high content of SF (34%, dried chicory pulp (ChP could be an alternative to SBP. In a fattening trial with 192 hybrid weanlings 32 d old weighing 837±45 g, chicory pulp was used in replacement of SBP to study effects on production performances and slaughter characteristics. Rabbits were fed one of 4 iso-energetic (9.65 MJ digestible energy/kg and isonitrogenous (15.6% crude protein diets: a negative control (NC diet with a low dietary SF content (7.3%, a positive control diet with quite a high SBP level (13.5% and SF content (10.6% and 2 diets with respectively 10% and 20% of chicory pulp (ChP10: 9.9% SF and ChP20: 13.7% SF. The SF content was measured as the difference between total dietary fibre and neutral detergent fibre, the latter corrected for ash and protein content. Each dietary treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 4 rabbits. Weight gain was high (on av. 54 g/d and comparable for the NC, SBP and ChP diets. However, feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05 with the ChP20 diet compared to the NC diet (2.88 vs. 2.97. Mortality was low and not influenced by the dietary treatment. Slaughter data were very similar and no effect of the SF level on caecal weight or slaughter yield was observed. It was concluded that chicory pulp is a good alternative soluble fibre source in balanced diets for rabbits and can be used at least up to 20% inclusion rate.

  7. Citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: Induction of high yielding mutants with the help of radiation, combination treatments, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conidia of the citric acid fermenting fungal mutant Aspergillus niger 14/20 was subjected to the gamma radiation treatment. Mutants giving higher total titrable acid values than their parent strain were selected and tested under varied environmental and cultural conditions. After screening of about 2000 mutants, two of them with the highest yield of citric acid in molasses medium (62-76 mg/ml) were selected for further experiments. Further step-wise improvements of these strains are feasible, and radiation is a potential mutagen for the selection of better strains of microorganisms for the industrial use. The cassava starch has been found to be a fairly good substract for citric acid fermentation under the solid state condition and also when mixed with molasses in surface culture condition. Agro-industrial residues such as bagasse, rice straw and saw-dust could be used as a support for the fermentation of sugars to citric acid under the solid state conditions. The use of mixed culture method (amylolytic + citric acid fermenting organisms) had not been found to improve the citric acid fermentation from cassava as a basic substrate. (author). 2 refs

  8. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. PMID:26456453

  9. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  10. Biomechanical pulping. A mill-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, M. [Biopulping International, 1 Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI (United States); Scott, G.M. [Faculty of Paper Science and Engineering, State University of New York, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY (United States); Swaney, R.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Shipley, D.F. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, 595 Science Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, 50 tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for 2 weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, we were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  11. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  12. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers. PMID:23325479

  13. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Yelick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  14. Towards fermentation of galacturonic acid-containing feedstocks with Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

    OpenAIRE

    Huisjes, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The ambition to reduce our current dependence on fossil transportation fuels has driven renewed interest in bioethanol. Pectin-rich feedstocks like sugar beet pulp and citrus peel, which are currently sold as cattle feed, are promising raw materials for the production of bioethanol. This thesis explores the challenges related to the fermentation of pectin-rich hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galacturonic acid is a major constituent of pectin-rich hydrolysates. Achieving efficient ...

  15. On the beating of reinforcement pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Eero

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the effect of reinforcement pulp beating on the strength of mechanical pulp-dominated paper. The main purpose of reinforcement pulp beating is to improve the runnability of paper. The first objective of this study was to maximize the runnability related strength properties by beating. It was assumed that the flaw-resisting ability of paper correlates with the runnability of the dry paper web. In-plane fracture properties were assumed ...

  16. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

  17. Conversion of Wood and Non-wood Paper-grade Pulps to Dissolving-grade Pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Köpcke, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    Dissolving-grade pulps are commonly used for the production of cellulose derivatives and regenerated cellulose. To obtain products of high quality, these so-called "special" pulps must fulfill certain requirements, such as high cellulose content, low hemicellulose content, a uniform molecular weight distribution and high cellulose reactivity. Most, if not all, of the commercial dissolving pulps accomplish these demands to a certain extent. Nevertheless, achieving high cellulose accessibility ...

  18. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails. PMID:15630627

  19. Non dimensional analysis of cassava transient drying in packing beds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Santamaria; N., Durango; A., Bula; M., Sanjuan.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient mass transfer process is analyzed for cassava drying (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in a pack bed. Experiments were performed in a thermally insulated radial dryer, considering cylindrical pieces of non peeled cassava with three different thicknesses: 4, 6, and 8 mm. The void fractions conside [...] red were 0.22, 0.49, 0.64 and 0.66, while the temperature values were 50ºC and 70ºC. The humidity removed from the cassava was measured from 10 pieces randomly selected at the beginning of the process. These pieces were weighed every 15 minutes during a three hours period. From the data gathered a non linear regression model was attained as a function of non dimensional numbers, which is valid for the following ranges: 700?Re?1900, 10000?Sc?31000, 0

  20. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch / Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.M., DEMIATE; A.C., BARANA; M.P., CEREDA; G., WOSIACKI.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste dire [...] tamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado com coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g), acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g), propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g) e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g), presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural. Abstract in english Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected [...] in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g), acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g), propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g) and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g), that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  1. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet pulp silage and vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemi?ski, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Results of sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) and vinasse (mixed in weight ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) co-fermentation, obtained in this study, provide evidence that addition of too high amount of vinasse into the SBPS decreases biogas yields. The highest biogas productivity (598.1mL/g VS) was achieved at the SBPS-vinasse ratio of 3:1 (w/w). Biogas yields from separately fermented SBPS and vinasse were by 13% and 28.6% lower, respectively. It was found that enzymatic pretreatment of SBPS before methane fermentation that caused partial degradation of component polysaccharides, considerably increased biogas production. The highest biogas yield (765.5mL/g VS) was obtained from enzymatic digests of SBPS-vinasse (3:1) blend (27.9% more than from fermentation of the counterpart blend, which was not treated with enzymes). The simulation of potential biogas production from all the aforementioned mixtures using the Gompertz equation showed fair fit to the experimental results. PMID:25618496

  2. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the...

  3. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg; Haikara, A.; Lemola, E.; Laitila, A.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I wer...

  4. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  5. Electrically conductive bioplastics from cassava starch

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro A., Arrieta; Piedad F., Gañán; Samith E., Márquez; Robin, Zuluaga.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, biofilmes condutores foram sintetizados através de soluções de 100 mL de água com 3 g de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) e quantidades diferentes de glicerina, glutaraldeído, polietilenoglicol e perclorato de lítio. Estes filmes foram caracterizados por espectrosco [...] pia de impedância eletroquímica (EIS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectrometria de reflexão total atenuada no infravermelho com transforma de Fourier (ATR-FTIR), termogravimetria (TG). Os resultados mostraram que os biofilmes com quantidades mais elevadas de perclorato de lítio possuem valores maiores de condutividade e as diferenças morfológica e molecular foram observadas como sendo um resultado das proporções adicionadas dos compostos em cada uma das rotas de preparação Abstract in english In the current work, conductor biofilms were synthesized by means of solutions of 100 mL of water with 3 g of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and different amounts of glycerin, glutaraldehyde, polyethyleneglycol and lithium perchlorate. These biofilms were characterized through electr [...] ochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR?FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Results showed that biofilms with higher amount of lithium perchlorate portray higher values of conductivity and morphological and molecular differences could be observed as a result of the added proportions of the compounds in each one of the trials.

  6. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  7. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young leaves, leaf vein colour, colour of mature stems, colour of root pulp and number of leaf lobes. They however, differ with respect to colour of unexpanded apical and first fully expanded leaves, shape of central leaf lobe and colour of phellem and phellogen of the roots (au).

  8. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  9. Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

  10. Effects of hydrothermal pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemi?ski, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska-Wentel, M; Cyran, M

    2014-08-01

    The effect of Liquid Hot Water treatment conditions on the degree of sugar beet pulp (SBP) degradation was studied. The SBP was subjected to hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 120 to 200 °C. The relationship between processing temperature and parameters of liquid and solid fractions of resulting hydrolysates as well as the efficiency of their methane fermentation was determined. The highest concentration of free glucose (3.29 mg ml(-1)) was observed when the hydrolysis was conducted at 160 °C (it was 4-fold higher than that after processing at 120 °C). Total acids and aldehydes concentrations in the liquid fractions were increased from 0.005 mg ml(-1) for the untreated SBP to 1.61 mg ml(-1) after its processing at 200 °C. Parameters of the hydrolysates obtained by the LHW treatment decided of the efficiency of methane fermentation. The highest cumulative methane yield (502.50 L CH? kg(-1)VS) was obtained from the sugar beet pulp hydrolysate produced at 160 °C. PMID:24907578

  11. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-10-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400?mg?L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3?g?L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45?h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53?cm(3)?h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400?g?L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation. PMID:25885093

  12. Role of extractives in soda pulping of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olm, L.; Wearne, R.; Nelson, P.J.

    1981-09-01

    The effect of extractives on the rate of delignification of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood during soda pulping and on the pulp yield has been investigated. The kinetics of delignification of extracted and unextracted wood was studied in model pulping experiments in which woodmeal samples and chips were heated with soda liquors containing large excesses of alkali. The results showed that the extractives do not accelerate the rate of delignification or increase the selectivity of lignin removal. Soda pulping of unextracted wood gave pulps in higher yields than from extracted wood (compared at the same lignin content) but required longer times to produce pulps with particular lignin contents. The rate of delignification of Pinus radiata wood increased when it was pulped together with Tectona grandis (teak) wood which contained extractives known to increase the rate of lignin removal during soda pulping. A similar effect was not observed when the pine wood was pulped together with E. diversicolor wood. (Refs. 16).

  13. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  14. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SriramRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  15. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  16. [Multiple pulp stones: report of a case and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Jie; Luo, Xin; Li, Ren; Dong, Wei; Qi, Meng-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Pulp stones were denaturation of pulp tissue, which were usually found in the pulp chamber. Generally, they were associated with caries and pulposis, and the occurrence of pulp stone increased with age. Pulp stones were frequently found by radiographic examination, and appeared as radiopaque lesions which were round or ovoid in shape. We reported an unusual case of multiple pulp stones with normal clinical crowns in a young female patient and analyzed the possible etiology. Supported by Scientific Research Fund of Hebei United University (Z201333). PMID:26383583

  17. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate ?max and half saturation constant

  18. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast two hybrid assays and by agro-infiltration, finding that both are able to form homo and heterodimers, but they do not trigger defense responses. With this study it was possible to conclude that TIR domains can function as adaptors in the signal transduction with other resistance proteins. In addition, it became clear that not always the AE region is important for TIR dimerization but it seems necessary to activate defense responses signals.

  19. Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ibeje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition characteristic. In the study,Kincannon-Stover model constants µmax and Ks, were found to be 0.8803mg/L. d and 0.2113COD/m3.dayrespectively and Monod Model constants µmax and Ks, were found to be 100mg/L.d and 98mgCODrespectively. The coefficient of determinations (R2 of Kincannon-Stover and Monod Models were evaluated as 0.634 and 0.986. This showed that the Monod model is a more applicable model for describing the kinetics of the organic removal in anaerobic baffled reactor for treating cassava wastewater.

  20. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  1. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  3. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  4. Cassava as an energy crop : A case study of the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali. It is based on a questionnaire survey with 65 households in 2 villages in Loulouni municipality, which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava production are close to acceptable levels to make bioethanol production profitable and the advantages of a continuous demand at agreed prices may motivate farmers to accept prices which would make bioethanol production competitive.

  5. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  6. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  7. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  8. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations.

  9. Cassava brown streak disease: a threat to food security in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Legg, James P; Kanju, Edward; Fauquet, Claude M

    2015-05-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has emerged as the most important viral disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Africa and is a major threat to food security. CBSD is caused by two distinct species of ipomoviruses, Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus, belonging to the family Potyviridae. Previously, CBSD was reported only from the coastal lowlands of East Africa, but recently it has begun to spread as an epidemic throughout the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. This new spread represents a major threat to the cassava-growing regions of West Africa. CBSD-resistant cassava cultivars are being developed through breeding, and transgenic RNA interference-derived field resistance to CBSD has also been demonstrated. This review aims to provide a summary of the most important studies on the aetiology, epidemiology and control of CBSD and to highlight key research areas that need prioritization. PMID:26015320

  10. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  11. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  12. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' / Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laerte, Scanavaca Júnior; Nelson, Fonseca; Mácio Eduardo Canto, Pereira.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, s [...] ecos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo). Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%), a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha. Abstract in english The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air [...] and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time). The loss of fresh mass (%), the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA), the total soluble solids (TSS), the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  13. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  14. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate the prebiotic potential of the fibers. Statistically designed experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of enzyme type, dosage, substrate level, incubation time, and temperature on the enzyme catalyzed solubilization to define the optimal minimal enzyme treatment for maximal fiber solubilization. The result was a method that within 1 min released 75% [weight/weight (w/w)] dry matter from 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from Aspergillus aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C. Molecular size fractionation of the solubilized fibers revealed two major fractions: one fraction rich in galacturonic acid of 10–100 kDa indicating mainly homogalacturonan, and a fraction >100 kDa rich in galactose, presumably mainly made up of ?-1,4-galactan chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. When fermented in vitro by microbial communities derived from fecal samples from three healthy human volunteers, both of the solubilized fiber fractions were more bifidogenic than fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Notably the fibers having molecular masses of >100 kDa selectively increased the densities of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. 2–3 times more than FOS.

  15. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Bandna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was aimed at finding out the cyanide content of cassava products available and consumed in Fiji Cyanide content of twelve cassava based food items with cassava as the main ingredient was tested for the cyanide content using the pictrate method. The absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer at 510 nm and the total cyanide content in mg HCN equivalents/kg fresh weight = ppm calculated by multiplying the absorbance by 396. The results were analyzed by SPSS by one way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison was made post hoc using Tukey t-tests. The results showed that the cyanide content ranged from 2.21 to 44.14 mg HCN equivalent/kg. Grated cassava products exhibited lower cyanide content as compared with minimally processed cassava products and fried cassava products. Since cyanogenic glycosides are water soluble, a higher percentage of cyanides are removed when cassava products are processed in water. Fried cassava products had higher levels of cyanide as it is not soluble in lipids/oil, hence less cyanide is lost during frying.

  16. Retention of total carotenoid and ?-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Sidney Pacheco; Marília R. Nutti; José L. V. de Carvalho; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Wânia G. Fukuda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention a...

  17. Technical Efficiency of Cassava - Based Cropping in Oyo State of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    L.T. Ogunniyi; J.O. Ajetomobi; Y. L. Fabiyi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical efficiency of cassava-based cropping in Oyo State of Nigeria. The population for the study consisted of all cassava-based farmers in Oyo State. Well structured questionnaire was used in collecting information from 253 cassava-based farmers in the study area. Multistage random sampling technique was employed. The study was analyzed, using descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier production and multiple regression analysis. The result of the Cobb-Douglas sto...

  18. Cryopreservation of Cassava Micropropagules using Simple Slow Freezing and Vitrification Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Danso, K. E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simplified protocol for cryopreservation of shoot tips, nodal cuttings and embryogenic calli of cassava. Shoot tips, nodal cuttings or embryogenic calli of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were cryopreserved by slow freezing or vitrification. When nodal cuttings and embryogenic calli of cassava were cryopreserved using simplified slow freezing or vitrification, the slow cooling curve showed a faster cooling rate for embryogenic calli than shoot t...

  19. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Henao Osorio; Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2010-01-01

    Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these ...

  20. Gari Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava Roots Stored Using Traditional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    O. R. Karim; O.S. Fasasi; S.A. Oyeyinka

    2009-01-01

    Cassava has gained increased industrial, economic and nutritional importance over the years, because of the multifarious uses of the starch-rich roots. Several storage methods have been proposed for cassava roots due to the physiological deterioration that sets in 2-3 days after harvesting, followed by microbial deterioration 3-5 days thereafter. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world; with 80% of the production from rural farmers who cannot practice modern storage methods. F...

  1. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Rafael Ramires Almeida; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Marco Aurélio Silva Carvalho Filho; Eliane Carvalho Vasconcelos; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Gilbert Bannach; Egon Schnitzler; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were...

  2. Food safety : importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen van Rijssen, Fredrika W.; Morris, Elizabeth J; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven “history of safe use”. This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a ...

  3. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Soluble Starch Synthase Genes in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Zefeng Yang; Yifan Wang; Shuhui Xu; Chenwu Xu; Changjie Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encod...

  4. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ?10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index 0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

  5. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. PMID:24374265

  6. Chemical evaluation of pulp and residue pulp of organic blackberry, cv. Tupy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalany Menezes Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pulp and the residue pulp of blackberry (Rubus spp, cultivar Tupy, produced in organic system. The concentrations of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TTA, TSS/TTA and vitamin C were analysed. The results of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins ranged from 41.94 to 91.23 and from 103.00 to 150.32 mg/100 g, respectively. For both samples SST resulted in 8.60, 8.00 and 7.85 °Brix fruit, pulp and residue pulp respectively. ATT ranged from 0.286 to 0.315 g/citric acid L, and for whole fruit and pulp residue, respectively. The content of vitamin C was lower for the residue pulp analysis. The values of TSS and TTA did not differ significantly by Tukey test (p> 0.05. From these results we can make the inference that the residue pulp of blackberry cv. Tupy, produced in an organic system, has the amount of anthocyanins and compounds that can be used by the industry as a source for food enrichment.

  7. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; LING, JUNQI

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a...

  8. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping wastewaters is described, with a focus on the treatability of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) effluents and soda pulping black liquors. The research was performed within the framework of the Dutch Hemp...

  9. TNF-? Promotes an Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paula-Silva, F.W.G.; Ghosh, A.; Silva, L.A.B.; Kapila, Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp cells can differentiate toward an odontoblastic phenotype to produce reparative dentin beneath caries lesions. However, the mechanisms involved in pulp cell differentiation under pro-inflammatory stimuli have not been well-explored. Thus, we hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) could be a mediator involved in dental pulp cell differentiation toward an odontoblastic phenotype. We observed that TNF-?-challenged pulp cells exhibited increase...

  10. Protein concentrate obtainment from leaves and aerial part cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantzObtenção de concentrado protéico de folhas e parte aérea da mandioca (ManihotesculentaCrantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Lima da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of cassava, constituted by leaves, stalk sand stems, are considered as agro-industrial waste, so, they are thrown away during roots crop. This material has content of protein, vitamin and mineral; therefore, it can be used as a dietary supplement for food industries. Thus, alternatives have come to extract protein from leaves and remove toxic agent sand anti-nutrients that make part of their composition. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating yield, mineral composition and functional properties of protein concentrates from leaves and aerial part of cassava. During the extraction of proteins, the following tested methods were:(1 isoelectric precipitation; (2 natural fermentation for five days; (3 fermentation for 48 hours and (4 fermentation for 48 hours, followed by pH adjustment. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used, the studied factors were the products (leaves and shoots and the method of protein extraction (four methods, with three replications. From the results, it was observed that Method1 provided the highest yields of protein concentrate and protein extraction for cassava leaves, however, there was no significant difference among the extraction methods for the aerial part of cassava. The values of Fe, Mn and Zn increased in protein concentrates obtained both in leaves and the aerial part of cassava, especially for Method 3. The capacities of absorbing water and oil from protein concentrates were considered high for the four studied methods, thus, indicating a good application in food products.As partes aéreas da mandioca, representadas pelas folhas, hastes e caules, constituem-se como resíduos agroindustriais por serem desperdiçadas na colheita das raízes. Esse material possui valor protéico, vitaminas e mineiras, propiciando sua utilização como suplemento alimentar nas indústrias alimentícias. Alternativas neste sentido surgem para extrair a proteína das folhas e eliminar os agentes tóxicos e antinutricionais naturalmente presentes em sua composição. Neste contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar rendimento, composição mineral e propriedades funcionais de concentrados protéicos, obtidos de folhas e parte aérea de mandioca. Na extração das proteínas, foram testados os métodos de (1 Precipitação Isoelétrica, (2 Fermentação Natural por 5 dias, (3 Fermentação por 48 horas e (4 Fermentação por 48 horas, seguida de ajuste de pH. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial 2x4, sendo os fatores o tipo de material (folhas e parte aérea e o método de extração de proteína (quatro métodos, com três repetições. O Método 1 proporcionou os maiores rendimentos de concentrado protéico e extração de proteína das folhas de mandioca, porém, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os métodos de extração para a parte aérea da mandioca. Os teores de Fe, Mn e Zn aumentaram nos concentrados protéicos da parte aérea da mandioca, com destaque para o Método 3. As capacidades de absorção de água e de óleo dos concentrados protéicos foram elevadas para os quatro métodos avaliados, indicando boa aplicação em produtos alimentícios.

  11. APPLICATION OF NSSC PULPING TO SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Khakifirooz; Ahmad Samariha

    2011-01-01

    The NSSC pulping process was investigated to produce pulp from bagasse for corrugating board manufacture. The chemical contents including cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone measured 55.75, 20.5, 1.85, and 3.25, respectively. The average fiber length, fiber diameter, lumen width, and cell wall thickness of bagasse were 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 ?m, respectively. The optimum conditions, with a yield of 74.95%, were achieved using 20 percent chemicals on the ...

  12. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ was performed in a cylinder glass bioreactor at a temperature of 30ºC and pH 5 during a 27-day period. The stability of the fermentation process at dilution rate (D of 0.025 h-1 and 0.05 h-1 was evaluated. The yeast-SBP system was shown to be stable for over a 15-day period at the dilution rate of 0.025 h-1, while the dilution rate of 0.05 h-1 was found to be unsuitable due to the intensive yeast leaching from the support. At D of 0.025 h-1 the maximum sugar utilization (Su, ethanol concentration (P, volumetric ethanol productivity (Qp, ethanol yield (Yp/s and fermentation efficiency were 97.1%, 54.7 g/l, 2.3 g/lh, 0.498 g/g and 97.6%, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  13. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Pereira; Goodwin, Paul H.; Larry Erickson

    2003-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase...

  14. Genetic relatedness between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and M. flabellifolia and M. Peruviana based on both RAPD and AFLP markers

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo Carlos; Second Gérard; Charrier André

    2000-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Manihot is still uncertain and the genetic origin of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz) continues to be controversial. We studied the degree of genetic relatedness between cassava and two naturally occurring species (M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana) which are probably involved in the evolution of cassava, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Thirty-three clonal accessions of cassava of known genetic diversity and 15 accessions of the wild species M. flabellifolia and ...

  15. A Combining Ability Analysis of Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease

    OpenAIRE

    O.F. Owolade; Dixon, A. G. O.; S. R. Akande; Olakojo, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava Anthracnose Disease (CAD) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f sp. manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f sp. manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeospori...

  16. Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp) in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udoudoh, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot spp.) tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in se...

  17. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly diffe...

  18. A Novel Combinatorial Therapy With Pulp Stem Cells and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Total Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Takeuchi, Norio; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Ishizaka, Ryo; Utunomiya, Shinji; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of pulp stem cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dog pulpectomized tooth yielded better effects than transplantation of G-CSF or pulp stem cells alone. The combinatorial trophic effects of pulp stem cells and G-CSF are of immediate utility for pulp/dentin regeneration, demonstrating the prerequisites of safety and efficacy critical for clinical applications.

  19. The source of fermentable carbohydrates influences the in vitro protein synthesis by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bindelle, Jérôme; Buldgen, André; Wavreille, José; Agneessens, Richard; Destain, Jean-Pierre; Wathelet, Bernard; Leterme, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Two in vitro experiments were carried out to quantify the incorporation of nitrogen (N) by pig colonic bacteria during the fermentation of dietary fibre, including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch. In the first experiment, five purified carbohydrates were used: starch (S), cellulose (C), inulin (I), pectin (P) and xylan (X). In the second experiment, three pepsin–pancreatin hydrolysed ingredients were investigated: potato, sugar-beet pulp and wheat bran. The substrates were inc...

  20. Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on piglet faecal bacterial communities as revealed by DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Zhu Wei-Yun; Williams, B. A.; Tamminga, S.; De Vos, W.M.; Akkermans, A. D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fermentable carbohydrates (sugar beet pulp and fructooligosaccharides) on the faecal bacterial communities of weaning piglets was analysed using 16S rDNA-based approaches. Amplicons of the V6–V8 variable regions of bacterial 16S rDNA were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. Differences in piglet faecal bacterial community structure were determined based on the Dice coefficients for pairwise comparison of the DGGE fingerprints and r...

  1. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant. PMID:22519123

  2. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  3. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (pcoconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities. PMID:20362440

  4. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  5. Selectivity of herbicides applied with mineral oil in cassava ‘Cascuda’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumarcio Vilanova Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of adjuvant can influence the selectivity of herbicides on crops. Aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides with different concentrations of mineral oil adjuvant in cassava 'Cascuda'. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications. We used a factorial design 3x3+1 which consisted of three herbicides clethodim (120 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (250 g ha-1 and mesotrione (240 g ha-1, three concentrations of mineral oil (Assist® 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% v v-1, and a control without application. All plots were kept free of weed interference by hand weeding. Only the mesotrione promoted phytointoxication mild to moderate (5.5 to 51.3% when applied with mineral oil. However, all herbicides were selective for cassava plants 'Cascuda' in applied both in the presence and absence of mineral oil to 1% v v-1.

  6. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  7. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH?and ABTS?+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH? scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS?+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  8. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  9. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  10. Inverse gas chromatography and XPS of extracted kraft pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Gamelas, José A. F.; Duarte, Gustavo V.; Paulo J. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Kraft pulps at the kappa number level of 15 obtained from Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Eucalyptus globulus prepared with and without hot water pre-extraction (HWE) were analysed by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of A. saccharum pulps, the dispersive component of the surface energy (?sd) at 40ºC determined by IGC was 39.8 mJ m-2 (control pulp without HWE) and 36.7 mJ m-2 (HWE pulp). E. globulus pulps resulted in ?sd values of 30.8 m...

  11. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Jun Yong (Marietta, GA)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  12. Dental Pulp Polyps Contain Stem Cells Comparable to the Normal Dental Pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Armin; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza B.; Tavangar, Maryam S.; Karamzadeh, Razieh; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Malekmohammadi, Fariba; Seyed M. Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies investigated the isolation of stem cells from pathologically injured dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of isolation of stem cells from pulp polyps (chronic hyperplastic pulpitis), a pathological tissue produced in an inflammatory proliferative response within a tooth. Study design: Pulp polyp tissues were enzymatically digested and the harvested single cells were cultured. Cultured cells underwent differentiation to adipocytes and ...

  13. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  14. Some effects of wood characteristics and the pulping process on mechanical pulp fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Reme, Philip André

    2000-01-01

    The thesis comprises three parts: Existing methods for characterisation of fibre crosssections have been improved, and new methods have been developed. These methods have then been applied to study the effects of wood characteristics and the pulping process on mechanical pulp fibres. Links have been established between fibre structure and paper properties such as surface smoothness and light scattering coefficient. New methods, based on SEM-images and image analysis, are described for providi...

  15. Diversity within American cassava germ plasm based on RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo Carlos; Second Gérard; Charrier André

    2000-01-01

    This work focuses on the genetic diversity of American cassava through RAPD molecular markers. The 126 genotypes studied were distributed on four geographical levels ranging from local to continental. Samples included ethnocultivars from the Santa Isabel community in the Brazilian Amazon, local cultivars collected in the State of São Paulo, native accessions from very diverse Brazilian regions, and representative accessions from the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) core col...

  16. Regeneration and transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    OpenAIRE

    Sofiari, E.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes different regeneration systems of cassava. In the first system the embryos were highly organized. The use of the auxins NAA and 2,4-D to induce this organized system of somatic embryogenesis were compared in several genotypes. Bombardment of organized tissues did not result in transformed plants and culture of protoplasts isolated from organized cultures did not result in plant regeneration. In the second system, so called friable embryogenic callus, the embryos are less...

  17. Extraction, Properties and Utilization Potentials of Cassava Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    T.O.S.Popoola; O.D.Yangomodou

    2006-01-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of oil extracted from grounded Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) seeds with Soxhlet extractor were examined. The extracted oil was liquid at room temperature (25°C), pale yellow, odourless and tasteless with specific gravity of 0.94 at room temperature. It has a lipid content of 25.2%, Iodine value of 90 Wijs. The oil is semi-drying, unsaturated, low in free fatty acid, peroxide and cyanide Analysis of the lipid by colorimetric method showed seven fatty ...

  18. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Jayme Augusto Menegassi Azevedo; Marco Aurélio da Silva Carvalho Filho; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Egon Schnitzler; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2008-01-01

    Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degr...

  19. Ethnobotany, Morphology and Genotyping of Cassava Germplasm from Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    L. Herselman; M.T. Labuschagne; I.R.M. Benesi; N. Mahungu

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to collect and characterise Malawian cassava germplasm using ethnobotany, morphological and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Exploration of accessions with the help of indigenous knowledge was done. Ninety three accessions collected from farmers fields and commercial programs were planted and morphologically characterised at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (Malawi). A subsample of 28 accessions was used for DNA fingerprinting. Pre...

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR proteins in berries at harvest. PMID:26076362

  1. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  2. Spent perlite pulps solidification using bitumen binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perlite pulps, used for liquid radioactive waste filtration, can be bituminous pillow during the apparatus periodical mode of operation. The increase in voluminous density of the filter perlite due to preliminary mechanical processing makes it possible to essentially increase the bituminous compound filling as well as the bitumator efficiency due to the decrease in the evaporated water volume. 3 refs., 1 tab

  3. Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica / Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harold A, Acosta; Héctor S, Villada; Gerardo A, Torres; Juan G, Ramírez.

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS) obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM) y de fuerza atómica (AFM). Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glice [...] rina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente). El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos. Abstract in english An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS) from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and gl [...] ycerine, were processed at 120(0)C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode). Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

  4. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  5. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD50 for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  7. Line x Tester Analysis for Resistance to Cassava Anthracnose Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Owolade

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta varieties which includes four IITA Improved used as lines and seven Landraces used as testers with various level of resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis, were crossed in a Line X tester design to determine the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities relative to the inheritance. The Parents and the 36 F1 hybrids were evaluated in year 2003 and 2004 on an infected field. The variances due to SCA and GCA showed that both additive and non-additive, possibly epistatic gene actions are important. Majority of the crosses between the resistance sources and the susceptible lines showed intermediate reactions and various degrees of partial dominance for canker development in cassava plants. The most resistance IITA improved variety I63397, had the highest negative GCA effect for resistance among the lines. The moderately resistance TME-8 had largest significant negative GCA among the landraces. Most the crosses involving I63397 and TME-8 had significantly high negative SCA effects. The contribution of these parents to heterosis of their hybrids will be towards reduction of disease symptoms. This suggests the importance of both the additive and non-additive in the development of resistance to cassava anthracnose disease. Therefore recurrent selection with progeny evaluation is advocated for breeding for resistance to the disease.

  8. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  9. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process.. Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO emissions (related to combustion engine from transportation), biowaste and waste water that are released from the distillation columns, which affect the terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainability analysis on the base case pointed to a large waste of the water and lignin, which were then targeted for potential improvement.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

    2014-09-01

    Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

  11. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  12. Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

    2014-01-01

    Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement. PMID:24615046

  13. Genetic parameters for drought-tolerance in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of drought on genetic parameters and breeding values of cassava. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates, under field conditions with (WD or without (FI water deficit. Yield of storage roots (RoY, shoot (ShY, and starch (StY, as well as the number of roots (NR, and root dry matter content (DMC were evaluated in 47 cassava accessions. Significant differences were observed among accessions; according to heritability, these differences had mostly a genetic nature. Heritability estimates for genotypic effects ( ranged from 0.25±0.12 (NR to 0.60±0.18 (DMC, and from 0.51±0.17 (NR to 0.80±0.21 (RoY and StY for WD and FI, respectively, as a consequence of greater environmental influence on WD. Selective accuracy was lower in WD, and ranged from 0.71 (NR to 0.89 (RoY, DMC, and StY. However, genetic gains were quite high and ranged from 24.43% (DMC to 113.41% (StY, in WD, and from 8.5% (DMC to 75.70% (StY in FI. These genetic parameters may be useful for defining which selection strategies, breeding methods, and experimental designs are more suitable to obtain cassava genetic gains for tolerance to drought.

  14. Fermentação alcoólica de substrato amiláceo e hidrolisado enriquecido com melaço de cana / Alcoholic fermentation of starchy hidrolisated substrate with sugar cane residue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizandra, Bringhenti; Claudio, Cabello; Luiz Henrique, Urbano.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A farinha constitui um dos principais produtos da mandioca, e seu uso é muito difundido em todo o País. Durante o processamento da mandioca para a obtenção da farinha é gerado um resíduo sólido proveniente da decantação da manipueira, o qual é composto essencialmente por amido. Diante da importância [...] do aproveitamento de resíduos agroindústrias para a geração de energia e como fonte de renda para as empresas, com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de melaço (resíduo da produção de açúcar de cana) no preparo de soluções de amido para hidrólise enzimática e fermentação alcoólica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a adição de melaço no resíduo amiláceo inicial em doses a partir de 10% levou a um aumento no teor de açúcares no mosto promovendo um aumento de 112% na produção de etanol, em relação ao substrato sem aditivo. Contudo, a seleção de leveduras adaptadas ao substrato faz-se necessária para um melhor rendimento em etanol. Abstract in english The cassava flour is a one of most important commercial product of cassava industries. During the cassava flour processing is obtained a solid residue from 'manipueira' decantation, which is characterized by high level of starch. Due the importance of the residue usage as energy source and income pr [...] oduct for industries this work had as purpose to evaluate the addition of sugarcane residue (melaço) as supplementary raw material in hydrolysis and fermentation process of cassava starch solution for ethanol production. The results showed that the increase of sugarcane residue percentage in initial solution (> 10%) caused the increase of sugar concentration in must and high ethanol yield (increase of 112% when compared with substrate the without sugarcane residue). The yeast selection and substrate adaptation is necessary for increase of ethanol production from cassava starch residue.

  15. Fermentação alcoólica de substrato amiláceo e hidrolisado enriquecido com melaço de cana Alcoholic fermentation of starchy hidrolisated substrate with sugar cane residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Bringhenti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A farinha constitui um dos principais produtos da mandioca, e seu uso é muito difundido em todo o País. Durante o processamento da mandioca para a obtenção da farinha é gerado um resíduo sólido proveniente da decantação da manipueira, o qual é composto essencialmente por amido. Diante da importância do aproveitamento de resíduos agroindústrias para a geração de energia e como fonte de renda para as empresas, com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de melaço (resíduo da produção de açúcar de cana no preparo de soluções de amido para hidrólise enzimática e fermentação alcoólica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a adição de melaço no resíduo amiláceo inicial em doses a partir de 10% levou a um aumento no teor de açúcares no mosto promovendo um aumento de 112% na produção de etanol, em relação ao substrato sem aditivo. Contudo, a seleção de leveduras adaptadas ao substrato faz-se necessária para um melhor rendimento em etanol.The cassava flour is a one of most important commercial product of cassava industries. During the cassava flour processing is obtained a solid residue from 'manipueira' decantation, which is characterized by high level of starch. Due the importance of the residue usage as energy source and income product for industries this work had as purpose to evaluate the addition of sugarcane residue (melaço as supplementary raw material in hydrolysis and fermentation process of cassava starch solution for ethanol production. The results showed that the increase of sugarcane residue percentage in initial solution (> 10% caused the increase of sugar concentration in must and high ethanol yield (increase of 112% when compared with substrate the without sugarcane residue. The yeast selection and substrate adaptation is necessary for increase of ethanol production from cassava starch residue.

  16. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-01

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm. PMID:22547180

  17. Genome-wide discovery and information resource development of DNA polymorphisms in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

  18. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement. PMID:22388699

  19. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braima Dama James

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-sectors to realize their full potential in rural economies. By end 2009, small holder beneficiaries associated with 55 partner organizations and 11 agricultural related firms established 306 community cassava stem multiplication sites and root production farms totalling 10,097ha with 58 improved varieties. Through experiential learning, 345 men and 142 women learnt improved techniques in cassava production, processing, product development, and packaging/labelling. The evolving achievements show that a longer-term cassava R4D partnership platform of this nature will enable the sub-sector to contribute significantly to rural economic growth in Africa.

  20. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  1. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  2. Fermentation Coupled with Pervaporation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Schwarz, K.; Kohoutová, Marie; Ruth, W.; Bahl, H.; Kragl, U.

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2008 - (Markoš, J.), s. 54 ISBN 978-80-227-2903-1. [35th International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA104/08/0600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pervaporation * supported ionic liquid membrane * fermentation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. Investigating the possibility of chemi-mechanical pulping of bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khakifirooz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemi-mechanical pulping was evaluated as a potential way to prepare sugarcane bagasse fibers for papermaking. Cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone were measured as 55.75%, 20.5%, 1.85%, and 3.25%, respectively. Fiber length, diameter, lumen cavity, and cell wall thickness were measured as 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 µm. The chemi-mechanical pulping conditions were selected as follows: three charging levels of 10, 15, and 20% sodium sulphite, and three pulping times of 20, 30, and 40 minutes after reaching the pulping temperature. Pulping temperature was held constant at 165 ?C. Different pulping conditions resulted in pulp yields between 65.38 and 84.28%. The highest yield (84.28% was obtained using a treatment combination of 20 minutes pulping time and 10% sodium sulphite. The lowest yield (65.38% was related to 40 minutes pulping time and 20% sodium sulphite. Pulps were refined to 300 ± 25 mL CSF, 60 gm-2 handsheets were made, and then strength indices and optical properties of the handsheets were measured. The results showed that 20% sodium sulphite, 40 minutes pulping time, at 165 ºC can be considered as the optimum pulping conditions for bagasse CMP pulping. Tensile, tear, and burst strength indices, as well as the opacity of this pulp were measured as 39.59 Nmg-1, 6.66 mNm2g-1, 2.1 KPa m2g-1, and 95.35%, respectively.

  4. Meat and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed microbially enhanced cassava peel diets / Características de la carne y la canal de cerdos en crecimiento alimentados con peladuras de yuca tratadas microbialmente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.O., Aro; O.M., Akinjokun.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La composición de la carne y las características de la canal de 24 cerdos en crecimiento, alimentados con una dieta a base de peladuras de yuca mejoradas microbiológicamente fueron analizadas en un experimento que duró tres meses. Las peladuras de yuca fueron fermentadas con una asociación del hongo [...] Aspergillus fumigatus y dos bacterias lácticas: Lactobacillus coryneformis y Lactobacillus delbrueckii. El producto fermentado fue denominado Peladuras de Yuca Microbiológicamente Mejoradas (MECP). El MECP fue incluido en las raciones de los cerdos a las proporciones de 0%, 20%, 40% y 60%. En el momento del sacrificio fueron obtenidas muestras del Musculus biceps femoris para determinar su composición así como los pesos de cabeza, vísceras y espesor de la grasa dorsal a la altura de las 1ª y 10ª costillas y 1ª vértebra lumbar. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The proximate composition of meat and carcass characteristics of twenty-four (24) growing pigs fed graded levels of a microbially enhanced cassava peel diets were assessed in a trial that lasted three months. The cassava peels were fermented with a consortium of Aspergillus fumigatus (a fungus) and [...] two lactic acid bacteria namely, Lactobacillus coryneformis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, thus the fermented product was designated Microbially Enhanced Cassava Peel (MECP). The MECP was included in the ration formulation of the pigs at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% levels. At slaughter, meat samples were collected from the M. biceps femoris to determine their proximate composition and the weights of the head, viscera and back fat thickness at the 1st and 10th ribs and 1st lumbar vertebra were taken. The results obtained revealed significant differences (p

  5. Microstructure of fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, K; Budras, K D

    1992-01-01

    A protein matrix is necessary for the desired texture of fermented sausages suitable for slicing. The formation of this network is predominantly induced by myosin and actin proteins. A change in the structure of native muscle proteins results from different technological processes such as chopping, salting, and fermentation. During chopping with simultaneous release of meat proteins, the salt brings about a change in the original structure of proteins by swelling and partial solution of myofibrils. The dissolved proteins are transformed into a thin fluid colloidal transition state, the so-called 'sol-state' with unstable coagulation bonds. During sausage ripening, as a result of denaturation by lactic-acid and due to gradual loss of water (drying), the unstable bonds are replaced by condensation bonds, and thus the sol-state is converted into the 'gel-state'. Both gel formation (condensation structure) and water evaporation (syneresis) result in the development of a matrix in fermented sausage and, consequently, in the texture of the sliceable product. PMID:22059562

  6. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522

  7. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiane Oliveira, Farias; Ariana Crasnhak, Jasko; Tiago André Denck, Colman; Luís Antônio, Pinheiro; Egon, Schnitzler; Ana Cláudia, Barana; Ivo Mottin, Demiate.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them [...] by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP) matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  8. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

  9. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    OpenAIRE

    Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Molupe Lehohla; Victor Ntuli</