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1

Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM) and Crude Protein (CP) degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis) of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP) of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

W. Kaewwongsa; S. Traiyakun; C. Yuangklang; C. Wachirapakorn; P. Paengkoum

2011-01-01

2

Enrichment Value of Yeast-malate Fermented Cassava Pulp and Cassava Hay as Protein Source Replace Soybean Meal in Concentrate on Rumen Ecology in Crossbred Native Cattle  

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The objectives of this study was to evaluate the influence supplementation levels of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Pulp (YMFCP) replace soybean meal in concentrate on feed-intake, Average Dairy Gain (ADG), rumen ecology and blood metabolites in crossbred native cattle. Five, two years of female cro...

Sittisak Khampa; Sommas Ittharat; Uthai Koatdoke

3

Supplementation Levels of Palm Oil in Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Culture Fermented Cassava Pulp on Rumen Fermentation and Average Daily Gain in Crossbred Native Cattle  

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Nine, two-years old of crossbred native cattle were used to examine the effects of supplementation levels of palm oil in yeast culture fermented cassava pulp on rumen fermentation and average daily gain. The cows were randomly allocated in a complete randomized design and three replicates (animals) ...

Sarunyu Chuelong; Theerawat Siriuthane; Kitsada Polsit; Sommas Ittharat; Uthai Koatdoke; Anusorn Cherdthong; Sittisak Khampa

4

Supplementation Levels of Palm Oil in Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Culture Fermented Cassava Pulp on Rumen Fermentation and Average Daily Gain in Crossbred Native Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine, two-years old of crossbred native cattle were used to examine the effects of supplementation levels of palm oil in yeast culture fermented cassava pulp on rumen fermentation and average daily gain. The cows were randomly allocated in a complete randomized design and three replicates (animals) per treatment. The first group (control) was fed on a yeast fermented cassava pulp without palm oil (YFCP0), The second group was fed yeast fermented cassava pulp + palm oil at 1% (YFCP1)and third groups was fed yeast fermented cassava pulp + palm oil at 2% (YFCP2), respectively. The cows were offered the treatment diets at 2%BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that supplementation of dietary treatment on feed intake, ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) and cost production were significantly different and had highest in cattle receiving YFCP2 than those fed YFCP1, YFCP0 diets (633.1, 614.5 and 511.1 g/day of ADG and 0.92, 0.81, 0.73 US$/kgBW of cost production, respectively). The populations of bacteria and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by levels of palm oil supplementation. Especially, supplementation of YFCP2 in cattle had highest increase populations of bacteria and fungi zoospore than those fed YFCP1 and YFCP0 but decreased protozoal populations. Therefore, supplementation levels of palm oil at 2% in Yeast Culture Fermented Cassava Pulp (YFCP1) as supplement diets with rice straw as roughage source could highest improved ruminal fermentation efficiency, average daily gain including increase populations of bacteria and fungi zoospores, but decreased protozoal populations in rumen of crossbred native cattle.

Sarunyu Chuelong; Theerawat Siriuthane; Kitsada Polsit; Sommas Ittharat; Uthai Koatdoke; Anusorn Cherdthong; Sittisak Khampa

2011-01-01

5

Effects of fermented cassava pulp on dry matter intake, feed digestion, conception rate and performances of dairy heifer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sixteen crossbred Holstein Friesian heifers (307 ± 18.4 kg of body weight (BW)) were assigned to 4 treatments in randomized completely block design. Feed ingredients and compositions of experimental diets on DM basis are presented. Heifers were offered feed as TMR diets with a 10% refusal. Intakes and refusals were recorded daily. Experimental period consisted of 74 d, with 14-d adjustment period. During d 60 to 74, samples of feed offered were collected and BW was recorded. Diet composites were analyzed for CP, Fat (AOAC, 1990) NDF, ADF (Van Soest et al., 1991). Chromic oxide was used as indicator for feed. Blood samples were analyzed for BUN, Glucose. All heifers were induced by using the 2 injection protocol of Prostaglandin F2? and Pregnancy check at day 60 after injection. All data were done using the GLM procedure of SAS (1988). The experiment data suggested that intakes of DM per day were affected (P > 0.03) by amount of cassava pulp that heifer had lower feed intake as increased ratio of cassava pulp into diet. However, it did not effect body weight change among treatments and tend to improve feeding efficiency as using more cassava pulp. Diet DM and ADF digestion had no effects among treatments (average in 60.8% and 43.3%). But NDF digestion was significantly difference (P

2009-01-01

6

Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed that there was a significant (P (more) red with the unfermented cassava peel (8.2%). Moreover, the treatment equally brought about a significant (P

Oboh, Ganiyu

2006-01-01

7

Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, and ?-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by ?-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products.

Chaikaew S; Maeno Y; Visessanguan W; Ogura K; Sugino G; Lee SH; Ishikawa K

2012-12-01

8

Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisae fermented cassava flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pure strain of Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to ferment cassava pulp for 72 h with the aim of increasing the protein content of the cassava product. The mash obtained was processed to cassava flour, one of the forms in which cassava product is commonly consumed in Nigeria. The nutritional and toxicological potentials of the fungus fermented cassava flour were evaluated using rat bioassay. S. cerevisae fermented cassava flour (40%) fed to albino rat for 21 days had high feed conversion and digestibility (apparent and dry matter). Moreover, this level of cassava incorporation had no negative haematological (packed cell volume, red blood cell counts and white blood cell counts) effect. However, there was a significant (P<0.05) rise in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activities indicating a possible damage to the liver (hepatotoxic) and/or heart (cardiotoxic), while there was no significant (P>0.05) rise in the serum albumin and bilirubin. Further pathological investigation revealed that the spleen showed some dark red colouration while the liver had some necrotic lesion. The possible cause of this damage is the theme of further investigation in our laboratory.

Oboh G; Akindahunsi AA

2005-11-01

9

Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

1990-01-01

10

Comparative Assessment of Fermentation Techniques in the Processing of Fufu, a Traditional Fermented Cassava Product  

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Fufu is a traditional Nigerian fermented cassava food product. Due to the production of objectionable odour that is disliked by many people, two improved techniques were used to ferment cassava and its performance compared with that of the traditional process. In one process, cassava fufu was p...

O.K. Achi; N.S. Akomas

11

Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

1991-01-01

12

Simultaneous solid phase fermentation and saccharification of cassava fibrous residue for production of ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 16.5% reducing sugars in the saccharified pulp of cassava fibrous residue are achieved with the use of 30% slurry. The yield of ethanol was highest and the amount of residual reducing sugars was lowest with the use of 2.5% acid. The increase in dose of glucoamylase leads to improved yields of ethanol without any lowering in the residual reducing sugars. The ethanol yield and productivity were better and the residual reducing sugars were lower in solid phase fermentation as compared to the fermentation of liquid hydrolysate obtained by hydraulic pressing of the saccharified pulp. The slightly lower yield of ethanol in large batch static fermentation probably due to poor mass transfer and limited contact of yeast cells as well as enzyme with their substrates could be effectively overcome by employing appropriate strategies. (orig.)

Jaleel, S.A.; Srikanta, S.; Ghildyal, N.P.; Lonsane, B.K.

1988-02-01

13

Characterisation of the microflora of attieke, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attiéké is a fermented cassava product consumed mainly in Cote d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to characterise the attiéké fermentation by examining products from 15 small-scale production sites at various stages of its preparation. For the preparation of attiéké, fresh cassava is grated to a pulp and inoculated with 10% of a spontaneous traditional inoculum. The inocula contained aerobic mesophiles at mean numbers of 8.2 x 10(7) cfu/g and lactic and acetic acids at mean concentrations of 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. The mean pH was 5.0. Lactic acid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in cassava pulp throughout fermentation with the mean numbers being 1.2 x 10(9) cfu/g after 15 h. The identification to the species level of microorganisms from one representative attiéké production of good quality showed that, at the start of fermentation, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was present in the highest numbers, accounting for 20% of all lactic acid bacteria. As the fermentation proceeded, this species was replaced by homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, present at 20% and 16%, respectively, and obligate heterofermentatives, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus confusus at 12% and 10%, respectively, of total lactic acid bacteria in the flora at the end of fermentation. High numbers of acid-sensitive microorganisms, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, were transferred to the pulp in the inocula, but acidification to a mean pH of 4.4 with mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.59% and 0.2%, respectively, prevented their growth and reduced their numbers to less than 10(2) cfu/g at the end of fermentation. The mean numbers of Candida tropicalis, the main yeast present, remained relatively constant at about 10(5) cfu/g throughout attiéké production. The mean numbers of aerobic mesophiles decreased to below 10(2) cfu/g as a result of the steaming process. The finished attiéké had a mean pH of 4.4 and mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively.

Coulin P; Farah Z; Assanvo J; Spillmann H; Puhan Z

2006-02-01

14

Characterisation of the microflora of attiéké, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attiéké is a fermented cassava product consumed mainly in Cote d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to characterise the attiéké fermentation by examining products from 15 small-scale production sites at various stages of its preparation. For the preparation of attiéké, fresh cassava is grated to a pulp and inoculated with 10% of a spontaneous traditional inoculum. The inocula contained aerobic mesophiles at mean numbers of 8.2 x 10(7) cfu/g and lactic and acetic acids at mean concentrations of 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. The mean pH was 5.0. Lactic acid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in cassava pulp throughout fermentation with the mean numbers being 1.2 x 10(9) cfu/g after 15 h. The identification to the species level of microorganisms from one representative attiéké production of good quality showed that, at the start of fermentation, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was present in the highest numbers, accounting for 20% of all lactic acid bacteria. As the fermentation proceeded, this species was replaced by homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, present at 20% and 16%, respectively, and obligate heterofermentatives, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus confusus at 12% and 10%, respectively, of total lactic acid bacteria in the flora at the end of fermentation. High numbers of acid-sensitive microorganisms, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, were transferred to the pulp in the inocula, but acidification to a mean pH of 4.4 with mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.59% and 0.2%, respectively, prevented their growth and reduced their numbers to less than 10(2) cfu/g at the end of fermentation. The mean numbers of Candida tropicalis, the main yeast present, remained relatively constant at about 10(5) cfu/g throughout attiéké production. The mean numbers of aerobic mesophiles decreased to below 10(2) cfu/g as a result of the steaming process. The finished attiéké had a mean pH of 4.4 and mean lactic and acetic acid concentrations of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively. PMID:16213052

Coulin, P; Farah, Z; Assanvo, J; Spillmann, H; Puhan, Z

2005-10-05

15

Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber. Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were washed, peeled, grated and aseptically inoculated with pure strains of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyce cerevisae in nutrient solution respectively, before allowing them to ferment aerobically for 3 days. The fermented mash was subsequently dried and milled into cassava flour. Subsequently, the proximate, mineral and the antinutrinet composition of the cassava flour were determined. The results of the study revealed that the unfermented flour from low-cyanide cassava variety had higher protein, fibre, ash, fat, Ca, Na and K; while those produced from medium-cyanide variety, had higher antinutrinet (tannin, cyanide & phytate), Zn, Mg and Fe content. However, solid substrate fermentation of the cassava mash using Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae respectively caused a significant (P 0.05) in the ability of the fungi to decrease the antinutrient (except phytate) of the cassava flour. Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. In conclusion, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low antinutrient content and more susceptible to micro-fungi nutrient enrichment and detoxification than medium-cyanide variety. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisae was more efficient in the nutrient enrichment of the cassava flour than Rhizopus oryzae. PMID:18087867

Oboh, G; Oladunmoye, M K

2007-01-01

16

Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

1983-01-01

17

The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

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A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC), Cassava Pellets (CP) and Cassava Residue pulp (CR) on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitro...

D.F. Tang; Y.J. Ru; S.Y. Song; Mingan Choct; Paul A. Iji

18

Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber. Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were washed, peeled, grated and aseptically inoculated with pure strains of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyce cerevisae in nutrient solution respectively, before allowing them to ferment aerobically for 3 days. The fermented mash was subsequently dried and milled into cassava flour. Subsequently, the proximate, mineral and the antinutrinet composition of the cassava flour were determined. The results of the study revealed that the unfermented flour from low-cyanide cassava variety had higher protein, fibre, ash, fat, Ca, Na and K; while those produced from medium-cyanide variety, had higher antinutrinet (tannin, cyanide & phytate), Zn, Mg and Fe content. However, solid substrate fermentation of the cassava mash using Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae respectively caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the protein and fat content. The nutrient enrichment was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in flour produced from low-cyanide cassava variety. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisae fermentation brought about a higher increase in the nutrient content than Rhizopus oryzae fermentation. Conversely, fermentation of the cassava caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the antinutrient content of the flour; although, the level of decrease was more in the flour produced from low-cyanide variety than medium-cyanide variety. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the ability of the fungi to decrease the antinutrient (except phytate) of the cassava flour. Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. In conclusion, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low antinutrient content and more susceptible to micro-fungi nutrient enrichment and detoxification than medium-cyanide variety. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisae was more efficient in the nutrient enrichment of the cassava flour than Rhizopus oryzae.

Oboh G; Oladunmoye MK

2007-01-01

19

Nutrient Enrichment of Cassava Starch Industry By-Product Using Rumen Microorganism as Inoculums Source  

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The objective of this study was to nutrient enriched of cassava starch industry by-product using fermentation method. The experimental design was 2 x 3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factor A was kind of cassava starch industry by-product (cassava pulp and cassava peel) and com...

Songsak Chumpawadee; Sirilak Soychuta

20

Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

[Evaluation of the cellulase cost during the cassava cellulose ethanol fermentation process].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose takes nearly 10% (W/W) dry weight of cassava tubers. In this study, the cellulase cost of different ethanol fermentation from cassava cellulose was evaluated. The processes include the direct saccharification and fermentation of original cassava cellulose residues, the direct saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava cellulose residues, and the simultaneous co-saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch and cassava cellulose. The results show that the cassava cellulose utilization in the first two processes were low with the enzyme cost of 13 602 and 11 659 RMB Yuan per tone of ethanol, respectively. In the third process, the final ethanol concentration increased from 101.5 g/L to 107.0 g/L when cassava cellulose and cassava starch were saccharified simultaneously. Comparing to the first two processes, the third one demonstrated the lowest enzyme cost at 3 589 RMB Yuan per ton of ethanol, which was less than the ethanol price and no additional equipment and operation cost input were added. The conclusion provided a practical way of cassava cellulose utilization in cassava ethanol industry. PMID:23789272

Fang, Zhenhong; Deng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

2013-03-01

22

Comparative Assessment of Fermentation Techniques in the Processing of Fufu, a Traditional Fermented Cassava Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fufu is a traditional Nigerian fermented cassava food product. Due to the production of objectionable odour that is disliked by many people, two improved techniques were used to ferment cassava and its performance compared with that of the traditional process. In one process, cassava fufu was produced involving the steeping of cassava tubers for 48h followed by grating and fermenting for another 48h. Another technique involved grating cassava tubers, dewatering/fermentation for 24h before re-steeping for another 48h. Quantitative determination of microbial, chemical and sensory changes that occurred during a 96h-fermentation period was studied. The dominant microflora was a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus spp and yeasts. The microflora was more diverse and with higher counts in the traditional product after 24h. Initial counts were 8.88log c.f.u./g whereas the respective counts in samples grated prior to fermentation or soaked and grated were 6.32 and 8.55. It then increased to 9.24log c.f.u/g after 48h fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae counts increased during the first 48h but fell below detectable levels after 72h in the traditional product and after 24h in the modified process. The pH decreased from 6.8 to 4.3 in the traditional process and from 6.6 to 4.2 in the modified process. The titratable acidity increased from 0.36 to 4.0% (w/w lactic acid) in the traditional product and from 0.24 to 1.0%, respectively, in the modified process. Grated mash fermentation reduced the cyanogenic glycosides content by 85.5% in 72h compared with 79.5% in the traditional fermented product. Odour and flavour ratings were significantly higher (p< 0.05) for the modified process. There was no difference in colour or texture due to the processing method. Fermentation of grated cassava produces a more acceptable product.

O.K. Achi; N.S. Akomas

2006-01-01

23

Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips). Both cassava chip (CC) and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR) samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p A mandioca (Manihot esculenta) é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresca e raspas) por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM) e de polpa fresca (PF) foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p < 0.01) em proteínas (30,4% em RM e 13,5% in PF) e conteúdo de gorduras (5,8% em RM e 3,0% in PF). Os subprodutos de mandioca fermentados por S. cerevisiae apresentaram baixos conteúdos de ácido hidrocianídrico (RM, 0,5 mg kg-1 e PF 47,3 mg kg-1). Houve aumento considerável de lisina nas raspas fermentadas (RMF). Valores aceitáveis de cor, textura e aroma das raspas de mandioca enriquecidas formam obtidos após 132 de bioprocessamento. Sugere-se que a RMF pode ser nutricionalmente melhorada para alimentação animal pelo uso de S. cerevisiae.

Krisada Boonnop; Metha Wanapat; Ngarmnit Nontaso; Sadudee Wanapat

2009-01-01

24

Silage Production from Cassava Peel and Cassava Pulp as Energy Source in Cattle Diets  

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Processing of the silage using cassava peel as energy source in dairy cow diets was studied. The experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, degradability, lactic acid production and hydrocyanic acid content of various silages with varying cassava peel additions and ensiling ti...

Pipat Lounglawan; Mek Khungaew; Wisitiporn Suksombat

25

Efficient saccharification for non-treated cassava pulp by supplementation of Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome and Thermoanaerobacter brockii ?-glucosidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava pulp containing 60% starch and 20% cellulose is a promising renewable source for bioethanol. The starch granule was observed to tightly bind cellulose fiber. To achieve an efficient degradation for cassava pulp, saccharification tests without pre-gelatinization treatment were carried out using combination of commercial ?-amylase with cellulosome from Clostridium thermocellum S14 and ?-glucosidase (rCglT) from Thermoanaerobacter brockii. The saccharification rate for cassava pulp was shown 59% of dry matter. To obtain maximum saccharification rate, glucoamylase (GA) from C. thermocellum S14 was supplemented to the combination. The result showed gradual increase in the saccharification rate to 74% (dry matter). Supplementation of GA to the combination of commercial ?-amylase, cellulosome and rCglT is powerful method for efficient saccharification of cassava pulp without pretreatment. PMID:23245453

Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Kosugi, Akihiko; Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Thanapase, Warunee; Waeonukul, Rattiya; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Pason, Patthra; Mori, Yutaka

2012-11-23

26

Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips. PMID:19771401

Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

2009-09-22

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Effect of Local Cassava Fermentation Methods on Some Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of FUFU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of two fermentation methods (fixed and unfixed) on the HCN content, texture, colour, flavour, water retention capacity and bulk density of fufu, a cassava based entree were studied using an improved cassava cultivar, TMS 0635. Results obtained showed that the HCN content of fuf...

E.A. Uyoh; V.O. Ntui; N.N. Udoma

28

Combined effect of fermentation, sun-drying and genotype on breadmaking ability of sour cassava starch.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of genotype and post-harvest treatments on expansion ability of sour cassava starch was investigated using 13 cassava genotypes from Colombia. Starches from cassava grown at 1000m and 1700m.a.s.l (3 lowland and 10 highland clones respectively) were modified by fermentation (0 or 30 days) and drying (oven or sun) treatments. RVA average peak viscosity decreased regularly from 952cP in native starch to 699cP in fermented and sun-dried starch. Granule size analysis revealed that fermentation hydrolysed lowland and highland granules by exocorrosion and endocorrosion respectively. This result was corroborated by significantly higher RVA breakdown and lower intrinsic viscosity in highland clones, reflecting different sensitivity to fermentation. For the first time, amylose contents ranging from 15.7 to 21.7% were correlated with expansion ability (3.0-8.6mL/g) of sour cassava starch. Therefore the combination of cassava genotypes (mainly amylose content) and post-harvest treatments is key for expansion ability. Supra-molecular granule structure influenced sensitivity to fermentation.

Alvarado PM; Grosmaire L; Dufour D; Toro AG; Sánchez T; Calle F; Santander MA; Ceballos H; Delarbre JL; Tran T

2013-10-01

29

Combined effect of fermentation, sun-drying and genotype on breadmaking ability of sour cassava starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of genotype and post-harvest treatments on expansion ability of sour cassava starch was investigated using 13 cassava genotypes from Colombia. Starches from cassava grown at 1000m and 1700m.a.s.l (3 lowland and 10 highland clones respectively) were modified by fermentation (0 or 30 days) and drying (oven or sun) treatments. RVA average peak viscosity decreased regularly from 952cP in native starch to 699cP in fermented and sun-dried starch. Granule size analysis revealed that fermentation hydrolysed lowland and highland granules by exocorrosion and endocorrosion respectively. This result was corroborated by significantly higher RVA breakdown and lower intrinsic viscosity in highland clones, reflecting different sensitivity to fermentation. For the first time, amylose contents ranging from 15.7 to 21.7% were correlated with expansion ability (3.0-8.6mL/g) of sour cassava starch. Therefore the combination of cassava genotypes (mainly amylose content) and post-harvest treatments is key for expansion ability. Supra-molecular granule structure influenced sensitivity to fermentation. PMID:23987455

Alvarado, Pedro Maldonado; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Dufour, Dominique; Toro, Andrés Giraldo; Sánchez, Teresa; Calle, Fernando; Santander, Martín Alonso Moreno; Ceballos, Hernán; Delarbre, Jean Louis; Tran, Thierry

2013-07-12

30

Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

1990-01-01

31

Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

Blancas, A. (Center of Scientific Research of Yucatan, Merida, Mexico); Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

1982-01-01

32

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

2010-08-15

33

Uji Nilai Nutrisi Kulit Ubi Kayu yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger (Nutrient Value Test of Cassava Tuber Skin Fermented by Aspergillus niger)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava tuber skin is a by-product of cassava chip industry, fermented by using mixed mineral (solid media) and Aspergillus niger. The objectives of this research was to know the increasing of nutrient value of cassava tuber skin toward the period of fermentation and several level of inoculums giv...

Mirwandhono, Edhy; Bachari, Irawati; Situmorang, Darwanto

34

Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydroge...

Suksaman Sangyoka; Alissara Reungsang; Samart Moonamart

35

Recycling agroindustrial waste by lactic fermentations: coffee pulp silage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of coffee pulp for feed production covers (1) a process which can be adapted to existing coffee processing plants for drying the product once harvesting time has finished (2) unit operations involved: pressing (optional), silaging, liming and drying (3) experiments, results and discussion, bibliography, process statistics, and diagrams. Additional references: storage, biotechnology, lime, agricultural wastes, recycling, waste utilization.

Carrizales, V.; Ferrer, J.

1985-04-03

36

Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

Milena Veronezi Silva Silva; Odinei Hess Gonçalves; Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima; Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

2011-01-01

37

Manipulation of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Supplementation in Dairy Heifer Raised under Tropical Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four, one-year old of dairy heifers, weighing at 200±10 kg were selected. Cows were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to study supplementation levels of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) replaced concentrate on rumen ecology, cost production and average daily gain. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of concentrate: YFCC ratio at 100:0; T2 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 75:25; T3 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 50:50; T4 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 25:75, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.5 %BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that feed intake and average daily gain cost productions were significantly different among treatments especially affected the rice straw intake and average daily gain were higher in dairy heifers receiving T3 than T4, T2 and T1. In contrast, the cost productions was lower in dairy heifers receiving T3 than T4, T2 and T1. However, the rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by levels of yeast fermented cassava chip supplementation. These results suggest that supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip could highest replace at 75% of concentrate in dairy heifers.

Sittisak Khampa; Sarunyu Chuelong; Saowalak Kosonkittiumporn; Pichad Khejornsart

2010-01-01

38

Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi  

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Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

2011-01-01

39

Simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioconversion of sludge from the primary clarifier of a sulfite pulping operation to ethanol offers a number of advantages over conventional disposal options. The amount of material which must be landfilled is reduced while salable fuel ethanol is produced. In experiments, primary clarifier sludge (PCS) was shown to be hydrolyzed to produce fermentable sugars at a rate proportional to enzyme loading. Initial (1 h) hydrolysis rates as high as 12.6 g of reducing sugar per liter per hour were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units per gram. Hydrolysis was inhibited by spent sulfite liquor (SSL), an inhibition which could be completely overcome by fermenting the SSL to remove sugars. Surfactants were found to only marginally improve the production of sugars. To reduce the deleterious effects of end product inhibition, single-stage simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was carried out using cellulase enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PCS from kraft and low-yield sulfite pulping operations proved to be very amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and the latter to SHR to produce ethanol. The yield of ethanol from SHF reactors was not strongly influenced by the enzyme loading used, allowing the possibility of efficient conversion of PCS at very low enzyme loading. 37 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Duff, S.J.B.; Moritz, J.W.; Andersen, K.L. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada))

1994-12-01

40

Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acid...

Peñaloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

 
 
 
 
41

The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC), Cassava Pellets (CP) and Cassava Residue pulp (CR) on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05) on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava products but similar to maize diet. Body weight, viscosity of the ileal digesta, digestibility of non starch polysaccharides, crude protein and dry matter as well as energy utilization, concentrations of lactic, succinic and total short chain fat acid in ileal were generally lower on diets containing the CC, CP and CR than on the diet containing maize with weight of birds on the CP being the lowest (p<0.05) over the 21 days growth period. However, the relative weight of the gizzard and small intestine at both 7 and 21 days of age was increased (p<0.05) on diets containing the cassava products while the weight of the bursa was reduced. Feed/Gain ratio over day 1-14 or 21 days was better (p<0.01) on the maize based diets than on the CC and CR based diets The concentrations of valeric, lactic and succinic acids in the caeca were lower (p<0.05) in chickens on the cassava containing diets than on the maize containing diet but the reverse was the case for formic, acetic and butyric acids.

D.F. Tang; Y.J. Ru; S.Y. Song; Mingan Choct; Paul A. Iji

2012-01-01

42

Microbial community structure and performance of an anaerobic reactor digesting cassava pulp and pig manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial community dynamics in response to changes in substrate types (i.e. pig manure (PM), cassava pulp (CP) and mixtures of PM and CP) were investigated in an anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Molecular identification of bacterial and archaeal domains were performed, using a 16S rDNA clone library with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) screening and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed that the differences in the community structure corresponded to the substrate types. However, the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group in all substrates, followed by the Clostridia. With pure PM, the dominant bacterial groups were Bacteroidales, Clostridia and Paludibacter. With a co-substrate, at CP to PM (CP:PM) ratio of 50:50, the sequences analysis revealed the greatest diversity of bacterial communities at class level, and the sequences affiliated with Cytophaga sp. became an exclusive predominant. With CP alone, Bacteroides sp. was the dominant species and this reactor had the lowest diversity of bacteria. Archaea observed in the CSTR fed with all substrate types were Methanosaeta sp., Methanosaeta concilii and Methanospirillum hungatei. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant. The relative distribution of Archaea also changed regarding to the substrate types. PMID:22864448

Panichnumsin, P; Ahring, B; Nopharatana, A; Chaiprasert, P

2012-01-01

43

Microbial community structure and performance of an anaerobic reactor digesting cassava pulp and pig manure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial community dynamics in response to changes in substrate types (i.e. pig manure (PM), cassava pulp (CP) and mixtures of PM and CP) were investigated in an anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Molecular identification of bacterial and archaeal domains were performed, using a 16S rDNA clone library with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) screening and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed that the differences in the community structure corresponded to the substrate types. However, the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group in all substrates, followed by the Clostridia. With pure PM, the dominant bacterial groups were Bacteroidales, Clostridia and Paludibacter. With a co-substrate, at CP to PM (CP:PM) ratio of 50:50, the sequences analysis revealed the greatest diversity of bacterial communities at class level, and the sequences affiliated with Cytophaga sp. became an exclusive predominant. With CP alone, Bacteroides sp. was the dominant species and this reactor had the lowest diversity of bacteria. Archaea observed in the CSTR fed with all substrate types were Methanosaeta sp., Methanosaeta concilii and Methanospirillum hungatei. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant. The relative distribution of Archaea also changed regarding to the substrate types.

Panichnumsin P; Ahring B; Nopharatana A; Chaiprasert P

2012-01-01

44

Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

Rezi?, Ton?i; Oros, Damir; Markovi?, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

2013-09-28

45

Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon; Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira; Karina Nunes de Simas; Karina Santos; Manoela Alano Vieira; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Edna Regina Amante

2007-01-01

46

Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

2001-01-01

47

L(+)-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins  

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Full Text Available The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that weak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93%) instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%).As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a capacidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios fermentados em vez de soluções ácidas láticas aquosas.

Rojan P. John; K. Madhavan Nampoothiri; Ashok Pandey

2008-01-01

48

Effect of Operational Parameters on Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel to an Enriched Animal Feed  

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Full Text Available Response surface methodology based on the Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD) was employed to determine the effects of process conditions on the production of an enriched animal feed from cassava peel by a locally isolated white rot fungus Panus tigrinus (M609RQY). Seventeen experimental runs based on three parameters (pH, inoculum size and moisture content) as designated by FCCD were carried out under solid state fermentation. The effect of these parameters on lignin degradation in cassava peel was evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results showed that, only moisture content exerted a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on lignin degradation. The optimum parameter combination was found at 70% v/w of moisture content, 6% v/w inoculum size and pH of 5.30. Under this optimum, 50.62% lignin loss was obtained. This study presents a viable option to the management of cassava peel for production of value-added-product animal feed.

Parveen Jamal; Ruqayyah I.D. Tijani; Md. Zahangir Alam; Md. Elwathig S. Mirghani

2012-01-01

49

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

1990-01-01

50

Blood Biochemistry and Haematology of Weaner Rabbits Fed Sundried, Ensiled and Fermented Cassava Peel Based Diets  

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Full Text Available Twenty four New Zealand white X Chinchilla weaner bucks aged between 7 and 8 weeks and averaging 0.9kg in weight were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and used in a 12-week feeding trial to evaluate the blood biochemistry and haematology of rabbits fed sun-dried, ensiled and fermented cassava peel based diets. The test diets designated A, B, C and D were Completely Randomized . Diet A, the control, was a 16.18% CP (crude protein) weaner ration formulated from maize, maize offals, soya bean meal, blood meal, oyster shell, bone meal, vitamin premix and common salt. Diets B, C and D were also weaner rations of respectively 16.10, 16.20 and 16.08% CP in which 10% maize of the control diet was replaced respectively with sun-dried, ensiled and fermented cassava peels. The diets were roughly iso-caloric. The haematological components of study included packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil (N) and lymphocytes (L). Biochemical parameters were serum creatinine, urea, bilirubin (total and conjugated), serum glutamic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), eosinophil and blood sugar. Liver and kidney weights were also monitored. Results showed that PCV, WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes were affected (P0.05) by treatment diets. Liver and kidney weights also did not differ (P>0.05) among rabbits fed different dietary treatments.

F.O. Ahamefule; G.O. Eduok; A. Usman; K.U. Amaefule; B.E. Obua; S.A. Oguike

2006-01-01

51

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

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Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA) from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.; Ikpoh, I. S

2010-01-01

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Proximate and Mineral Composition of Artocarpus altilis Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on to assess the effect of fermentation on proximate composition of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour with the aim of expanding its use. Flours of unfermented and fermented A. altilis pulp were produced and standard procedures used to determine their proximate and mineral composition. Fermentation resulted in marginal increase in crude protein (from 3.80-4.43%) and ash (from 2.37-2.38%) content whereas, there was a marginal decrease in crude fibre (from 3.12-3.00%) and carbohydrate (from 79.24-76.71%) content. Fermentation resulted in significant decrease in calcium, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents of A. altilis flour. However, magnesium content was not affected by fermentation. This study shows that A. altilis pulp flour has good carbohydrate and mineral content and may therefore, be used as staples, to provide the energy and mineral needs of consumers. They would be useful in ensuring food security if promoted.

F. Appiah; I. Oduro; W.O. Ellis

2011-01-01

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Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of raw cassava flour by Rhizopus formosa 28422 International training course on solid state fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The strain #Rhizopus formosa$ 28422 was selected from the stock of ten strains from genera #Rhizopus$, for their capacity to attack raw cassava starch by solid substrate fermentation and showed the highest growth in this substrate. The optimal substrate composition, estimated by surface response des...

Rodriguez-Leon, J.A.; Stertz, S.C.; Soccol, S.R.; Raimbault, Maurice

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Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P

2009-01-01

55

Supplementation of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) as a Replacement Concentrate and Ruzi Grass on Rumen Ecology in Native Cattle  

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Full Text Available Ten, one year old of native cattle with initial body weight of 150 ± 10 kg were randomly divided into two groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using T-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) was higher (pHolotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in native cattle.

Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat

2009-01-01

56

Effects of Supplementation of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip as a Replacement Concentrate on Rumen Fermentation Efficiency and Digestibility of Nutrients in Cattle  

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Full Text Available Ten, one year old male cattles with initial body weight of 150±10 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using t-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YMFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) and digestibility of nutrients were higher (pHolotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and digestibility of nutrients in cattle.

Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat

2009-01-01

57

The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

1984-12-01

58

Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola/ Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor per (more) meability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

Souza, Carolina Oliveira de; Silva, Luciana Tosta; Druzian, Janice Izabel

2012-01-01

59

Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps  

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Full Text Available Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w) as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

Carolina Oliveira de Souza; Luciana Tosta Silva; Janice Izabel Druzian

2012-01-01

60

The Effect of Adding “Tape Singkong” (Fermented Cassava) Juice on the Characteristics of Fermented Milk  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding “Tape Singkong” juice on the characteristic of fermented milk. In the study 4000 ml of milk was used and divided into 20 cups (200 ml/cup). A completely randomized design that consist of five treatments with four replications was used to analyze the data. The treatment are the giving tape singkong juice as much as 0% (A), 22.5% (B), 5% (C), 7.5% (D) and 10% (E) into the milk that contained 2% of Lactobacillus acidophilus. The variable was observed the characteristic of fermented milk that consist of the moisture, fat, lactose and alcohol content, acidity and bacteria colony count. The result of this research indicated that the addition of tape singkong juice up to 7.5% was significantly decreased the content of moisture, fat and lactose and increased acidity, alcohol content and bacteria colony count.

Salam N. Aritonang; Elly Roza; Sri Novalina

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factor (more) ial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

Shaktimay, Kar; Datta, Tapan Kumar; Ray, Ramesh Chandra

2010-04-01

62

Fermentation of pentoses and hexoses from spent sulfite pulping liquor: potential for genetic engineering applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bulk of the work described here relates to the computer simulation of biomass fermentations in general and to the application of these simulation programs to an existing large-scale fermentation process. The xylose isomerase enzyme from Escherichia coli was purified and its amino acid and gene-sequences determined. The gene was inserted into two yeast strains; the gene produced a protein that resembled xylose isomerase but had no enzymatic activity. In contrast to xylose, hexoses from biomass wastes are routinely fermented to ethanol. The Georgia-Pacific plant in Bellingham, Washington for fermentation of spent liquor from calcium sulfite pulping has an annal capacity of six million gallons of ethanol. A computer model describing this continuous fermentation has been developed. The model is used to test the likely or potential effect of altered fermentation kinetic parameters and plant operating parameters on steady-state process concentrations. The Monod model for cell growth and ethanol production is used (this kinetic model is described in Chapter Four), with appropriate modifications to account for multisubstrate fermentation. Parameters for the Monod kinetic equations are determined using a numerical maximum-likelihood technique to fit experimental data. Steady-state concentrations are calculated by simultaneous solution of the nonlinear differential equations that describe the mass balances for fermentation reactions in each tank. The potential effect of pentose fermentation upon the industrial process is calculated using various estimates of the pentose fermentation behavior that might be achievable in this process, including estimates developed from the fermentation of xylulose.

Backer, M.P.

1985-01-01

63

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).

Nampoothiri K. Madhavan; Pandey Ashok

1999-01-01

64

KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

MARIEL MONRROY; JOSÉ RENÁN GARCÍA; REGIS TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA; JAIME BAEZA; JUANITA FREER

2012-01-01

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KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min). A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cook (more) ing (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature) reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS) at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis). The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

MONRROY, MARIEL; RENÁN GARCÍA, JOSÉ; TEIXEIRA MENDONÇA, REGIS; BAEZA, JAIME; FREER, JUANITA

2012-01-01

66

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

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Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

S.M. Crispim; A.M.A. Nascimento; P.S. Costa; J.L.S. Moreira; A.C. Nunes; J.R. Nicoli; F.L. Lima; V.T. Mota; R.M.D. Nardi

2013-01-01

67

Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05), was detected in products packed in film formulations containing high concentration of additives. However, it was found that the high content of vitamin C in acerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films.

Souza CO; Silva LT; Silva JR; López JA; Veiga-Santos P; Druzian JI

2011-03-01

68

Mango and acerola pulps as antioxidant additives in cassava starch bio-based film.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating mango and acerola pulps into a biodegradable matrix as a source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds. We also sought to evaluate the efficacy of mango and acerola pulps as antioxidants in film-forming dispersions using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack palm oil (maintained for 45 days of storage) under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% relative humidity and 30 °C) to simulate a storage experiment. The total carotenoid, total polyphenol, and vitamin C contents of films were evaluated, while the total carotenoid, peroxide index, conjugated diene, and hexanal content of the packaged product (palm oil) were also monitored. The same analysis also evaluated palm oil packed in films without antioxidant additives (C1), palm oil packed in low-density polyethylene films (C2), and palm oil with no package (C3) as a control. Although the film-forming procedure affected the antioxidant compounds, the results indicated that antioxidants were effective additives for protecting the packaged product. A lower peroxide index (36.12%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pacerola pulp acted as a prooxidant agent, which suggests that the use of rich vitamin C pulps should be avoided as additives for films. PMID:21361289

Souza, Carolina O; Silva, Luciana T; Silva, Jaff R; López, Jorge A; Veiga-Santos, Pricila; Druzian, Janice I

2011-03-01

69

Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation.

Lu C; Dong J; Yang ST

2013-09-01

70

Assessment of Wrap Sizes as it Affects Storage of Fufu, a Traditional Cassava Based Fermented Products  

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Full Text Available Fufu, a traditional Cassava based fermented food product was prepared in the Laboratory and used for the study. Due to the short time storage and transportation of this particular food from one place to another on a popular demand because of its nutritional values, three wrap sizes were adopted to assess storage improvement. In this method, 50 g, 100 and 200 g of raw fufu were wrapped before cooking for the normal 1 h. The batches were stored on a wooden tray at ambient temperature in the laboratory. Quantitative determination of microbial and chemical changes occurring in the fufu samples was studied for four weeks. Microbial counts was higher in the 200 g wrap at fourth week of storage being 8.40x104 cfu (g-1) for bacteria and 2.32x103 spore (g-1) for fungi while it was 1.35x104 cfu (g-1); 1.06x103, 1.66x103 spore (g-1) bacterial and fungal counts, respectively for 50 g and 100 g wraps. Also at fourth week of storage pH was 3.80, 4.06 and 6.15; TTA was 0.45, 1.85 and 2.56% (W/W lactic acid) while moisture was 45.10, 58.40 and 70.30%, respectively for 50, 100 and 200 g wraps. In the pounded fufu at fourth week storage, colour odor, aroma and texture rating were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the 50 and 100 g wraps for overall acceptability while the 200 g wrap characters were very low thus unacceptable. This implies that smaller wrap sizes will store longer than big wrap sizes.

F.C. Akharaiyi; R.A.O. Gabriel

2007-01-01

71

Effect of ripe fruit pulp on the sensory and nutritive quality of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal produced from maize and soybean flours and cassava starch blends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of various concentrations of different ripe fruit pulps on the sensory and nutritive quality of breakfast cereal were studied. The breakfast cereal was formulated using 1 kg composite flour (composed of 600 g maize flour and 400 g soy flour) in addition to 100 g cassava starch, 225 g sugar and 12 g salt. Pineapple, pawpaw and banana ripe fruit pulps were added separately to the breakfast formulation at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/kg composite flour. Using sensory evaluation, the data obtained showed that samples containing 100 g pineapple, 100 g banana pulp and 100 g pawpaw fruit pulp per kilogram of composite flour (equivalent to 7% of the total weight of the breakfast cereal formulation) were the most acceptable of all concentrations. These samples were comparable in sensory evaluation scores with the commercial breakfast cereal sample Golden morn. Chemical analysis also showed that there was increase in ss-carotene (vitamin A precursor) and vitamin C and a slight increase in the mineral content of the breakfast cereal as a result of the addition of fruit pulp. PMID:16019313

Enwere, N J; Ntuen, I G

2005-02-01

72

Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are juxtaposed with market penetration and saturation.

Kadam KL; Chin CY; Brown LW

2008-05-01

73

In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas production techniques with inocula from caecal content of rabbits. Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 °C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, result (more) ing in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.

Gasmi-Boubaker, A.; Mosquera-Losada, M.R.; Boubaker, B.

2013-01-01

74

Anaerobic fermentation of a semichemical pulp mill effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A six-month bench-scale treatability study carried out by ADI Ltd. showed that anaerobic-aerobic treatment of neutral sulphite semichemical (NSSC) pulp mill effluent is feasible and beneficial in terms of treatment and biogas generation. This paper presents results for the first phase of this study, to day 154 inclusive. During this phase, BOD and SS reductions of 70% and 86% respectively, were achieved in an ADI-BVF (ADI Ltd. trademark) anaerobic reactor at an average loading rate of 0.29 kg BOD/cubic m.d (1.1 kg COD/cubic m.d) and an operating temperature of 27 degrees C. Overall BOD and SS removals were 96% and 86%, respectively. The specific biogas generation rate was found to be 0.11 cubic m CH/sub 4//kg COD removal (0.28 cubic m CH4/kg BOD) and the biogas contained approximately 86% methane. The overall removals of coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci through the anaerobic-aerobic system were 97.8%, 98.0% and 100%, respectively. 6 references.

Cocci, A.A.; Landine, R.C.; Brown, G.J.; Lutes, R.G.; Viraraghavan, T.

1985-02-01

75

Dark fermentative hydrogen production from neutralized acid hydrolysates of conifer pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic material results in high dissolution yields. In this study, the neutralization step of concentrated acid hydrolysate of conifer pulp was optimized. Dry conifer pulp hydrolysis with 55 % H(2)SO(4) at 45 °C for 2 h resulted in total sugar yields of 22.3-26.2 g/L. The neutralization step was optimized for solid Ca(OH)(2), liquid Ca(OH)(2) or solid CaO, mixing time, and water supplementation. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.75 mol?H(2)/mol glucose was obtained with liquid Ca(OH)(2), while the use of solid Ca(OH)(2) or CaO inhibited hydrogen fermentation. Liquid Ca(OH)(2) removed sulfate to below 30 mg SO(4) (2-)/L. Further optimization of the neutralization conditions resulted in the yield of 2.26 mol?H(2)/mol glucose. PMID:23065404

Nissilä, Marika E; Li, Ya-Chieh; Wu, Shu-Yi; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2012-10-13

76

Dark fermentative hydrogen production from neutralized acid hydrolysates of conifer pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic material results in high dissolution yields. In this study, the neutralization step of concentrated acid hydrolysate of conifer pulp was optimized. Dry conifer pulp hydrolysis with 55 % H(2)SO(4) at 45 °C for 2 h resulted in total sugar yields of 22.3-26.2 g/L. The neutralization step was optimized for solid Ca(OH)(2), liquid Ca(OH)(2) or solid CaO, mixing time, and water supplementation. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.75 mol?H(2)/mol glucose was obtained with liquid Ca(OH)(2), while the use of solid Ca(OH)(2) or CaO inhibited hydrogen fermentation. Liquid Ca(OH)(2) removed sulfate to below 30 mg SO(4) (2-)/L. Further optimization of the neutralization conditions resulted in the yield of 2.26 mol?H(2)/mol glucose.

Nissilä ME; Li YC; Wu SY; Puhakka JA

2012-12-01

77

Pectinolytic activity of Clostridium thermocellum: Its use for anaerobic fermentation of sugar beet pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clostridium thermocellum is well known for its ability to convert cellulose into ethanol and to hydrolyse hemicellulose. The present work shows its ability to hydrolyse model pectins and to use them for growth. The main products on these substrates as well as on sugar beet pulps were as follows: acetate, ethanol and methanol. Galacturonase and lyase activities were measured in the fermentation broths. As shown by the accumulation of methanol in the medium, there is a pectin esterase activity but this one seems to be very low.

Spinnler, H.E.; Lavigne, B.; Blachere, H.

1986-03-01

78

Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Production in Fermentation of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Cassava Flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and Solvent Separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40?, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions. PMID:23727799

Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

2013-08-28

79

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

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Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG) production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support), which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

Evrim Ta?k?n; Rengin Eltem; Esra Soyak

2010-01-01

80

Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

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Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l), inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass) and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C). In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R), after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98%) of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria?  

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Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

82

Supplementation of Cassava and Durian Hull Fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on Rumen Fermentation and Average Daily Gain in Crossbred Native Cattle  

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Full Text Available Ten, two-years old of crossbred native cattle weighing about at 25020 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive two groups of supplemental dietary treatments by receiving YFCP1 + YFCP2 (T1) and YFCRR + YFDH (T2). The cows were offered the treatment diets at 2%BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using pair t-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that supplementation of dietary treatment on feed intake was non-significantly different, while average daily gain (ADG) and rumen microorganisms especially bacteria and fungi zoospores were significant different and cattle in heifer fed YFCRR + YFDH (T2) treatments and received YFCP1 + YFCP2 (T1) (646.4 and 533.2 g/d). In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were non-significantly different. Supplementation of T2 could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore higher than those fed T1, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen. The results indicate that supplementation of yeast fermented cassava and durian hull as supplement diets with rice straw as roughage source could improve ruminal fermentation efficiency, average daily gain in crossbred native cattle.

Kitsada Polsit; Sarunyu Chuelong; Teerawat Siriuthane; Sommas Ittarat; Uthai Koatedoke; Anusorn Cherdthong; Sittisak Khampa

2011-01-01

83

Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis/ Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as (more) respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente), sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial. Abstract in english This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and ha (more) rdness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically) without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

Montenegro, Flavio Martins; Gomes-Ruffi, Cristiane Rodrigues; Vicente, Cláudia Aparecida; Collares-Queiroz, Fernanda Paula; Steel, Caroline Joy

2008-12-01

84

Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente), sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in proportions of 1.5 and 5%, respectively, produced a fiber-rich sample with 6.23% dietary fiber (calculated theoretically) without affecting the expansion and texture characteristics negatively and with a good sensory acceptance.

Flavio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Cláudia Aparecida Vicente; Fernanda Paula Collares-Queiroz; Caroline Joy Steel

2008-01-01

85

Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production. PMID:17188771

Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

2006-12-26

86

Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) during fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC), pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl) concentration, type of salt) were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%). Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05) increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

Anihouvi VB; Afoakwa EO; Sakyi-Dawson E; Ayernor GS; Hounhouigan JD

2012-01-01

87

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive (13)C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel (13)C studies with [(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, and [(13)C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity.

Adler P; Bolten CJ; Dohnt K; Hansen CE; Wittmann C

2013-09-01

88

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive (13)C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel (13)C studies with [(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, and [(13)C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-07-12

89

Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P

1999-01-01

90

Efeito da fermentação na qualidade de "chips" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)/ Effect of fermentation on the quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi investigado o efeito da fermentação natural da mandioca, isoladamente, ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, na crocância dos "chips". As fatias de mandioca, oriundas de raízes previamente descascadas e limpas foram imersas em água potável a 30ºC durante períodos de 8h e 24h e depois fritas. As raízes inteiras, descascadas e limpas, foram mantidas nas mesmas condições, porém por períodos mais longos: 24h, 30h e 48h, após os quais as (more) raízes foram fatiadas e fritas. A fermentação natural foi conduzida sem a adição de qualquer agente fermentativo, imergindo uma parte de fatias ou de raízes de mandioca em quatro partes de água potável a 30ºC, em estufa com controle de temperatura. Outras variáveis estudadas foram: variedades de mandioca e o formato das fatias. O efeito dos tratamentos foi avaliado com base na fraturabilidade dos "chips", medidos em Analisador de Textura TA.XT2. O formato das fatias pareceu ser um fator importante, pois afetou as características de textura dos "chips", além dos tratamentos propriamente ditos. O formato retangular das fatias, apesar do aspecto atrativo, foi considerado inadequado para a fabricação dos "chips", sendo sugerido o formato redondo. Foi verificado que a fermentação natural das raízes inteiras ou cortadas em fatias, isoladamente ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, foi considerada uma técnica inadequada para tornar os "chips" de mandioca mais crocantes, visto que promoveram, na maioria dos casos, aumento na dureza comparado aos "chips" obtidos do controle. Estas observações foram válidas para todas as variedades estudadas: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 e IAC 14. Abstract in english It was investigated the effect of natural fermentation of cassava, alone or combined with cooking in boiling water on the crispness of cassava chips. The thin slices of cassava, originally from previously peeled and cleaned roots were submerged in drinkable water at 30ºC during periods of 8h and 24h. The whole cassava roots, also peeled and cleaned were submitted on the same conditions, but for longer periods: 24h, 30h and 48h, after those roots were sliced and fried. Th (more) e natural fermentation was conducted without any fermentative agent, only submerging one part of thin slices or whole roots into four parts of drinkable water at 30ºC in a controlled temperature incubator. The other variables studied were: cassava variety and slice format. The effect of the treatments was evaluated, based on the friability of the chips as measured by the Texture Analyzer TA.XT2. The format of the slices appeared to be an important factor, because it affected texture characteristics of the chips, as well as the actual treatments. The rectangular format, although attractive, was considered inadequate for the manufacture of chips, the round format being suggested as more suitable. It was shown that the natural fermentation of the whole roots or cut into thin slices, alone or combined with boiling was considered an inadequate technique to obtain crispness cassava chips, since in general, such treatments increased the hardness of the chips, as compared to the untreated samples. This observations were valuable from all the studied varieties: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 and IAC 14.

Grizotto, Regina Kitagawa; Menezes, Hilary Castle de

2004-06-01

91

The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3%) and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30%) dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention) and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2): 91-97 (2001)Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; M Bata

2001-01-01

92

The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3%) and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3%) as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01) on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05) on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2): 75-81 (1999)Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

M Bata; SNO Suwandyastuti; Nur Hidayat

1999-01-01

93

Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs.

1990-01-01

94

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of traditional amylase fermentation practice on cassava in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Among 200 Aspergillus and Rhizopus were collected from Bangkok MIRCEN, laboratories and Industries. Fungi N2, A26B, W337 and Aw are the highest amylolytic fungi in our screening test. After irradiation at 50-99 percent killing doses, only Aw showed the improvement of amylolytic activity called A-W - M1 and Aw - M2. The optimum environment of these mutants were pH 4.5, temperature at 30 deg. C and the moisture content at 45 percent. The mutant Aw - M1 grows faster than Aw - M2 before 3.5 day. At 4 days of incubation Aw - M2 gave higher glucosamine content at 205.5 mg. per 1 g of the mold bran. MnSO4 at 0.03 percent gave more sporulation of these mutants. The mutants Aw - M2 and Aw - M1 gave higher protein content in the mold bran and potato dextrose both respectively. The kinetics of the fermentation process of the mutants showed that Aw - M1 and Aw - M2 gave the highest raw starch digestion and glucoamylase activity at 396.35 mg. sugar and 1,458.01 unit per 1 g mold bran at 3 and 4 days respectively. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

1990-01-01

95

Post Fermentation Quality Changes in Bobozi Produced from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) and the Effects of Sodium Metabisulphite Soaking in Combination with Refrigeration  

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Full Text Available Changes in the microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of bobozi (African snack) produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) during processing and the effects of sodium metabisulphite or in combination with refrigeration at 10oC were investigated results shows that the bioload increased from 0.3 x 101cfu/g to 1.04 x 105 at the 96th hours of fermentation and thereafter decreased gradually. Post fermentation soaking in 5% sodium metabisulphite decongest and reduced the bioload to 0.9 x 101 cfu/g. Extended storage of 48hrs fermented samples indicates slightly high count which peaked at 1.11 x 104 at 21st day of storage for samples stored at ambient temperature (30?2oC) whereas the bioload of refrigerated (10oC) samples were stable all through the 28 days of storage. Six bacteria genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Corynebacterium, E Coli, Klebsiella and Salmonella) and few fungi genera (Candida, Geotrichum, Aspergillus and Penicillum dominated the preboiling and fermentation phase while (3) three bacteria genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus) and three (3) fungi group (Geotrichum, Aspergillus, and Penicillum) dominated the post fermentation and extended storage phase. However, E coli, Klebsialla and Salmonella) were eliminated after boiling and were not detected after 24hour of fermentation. The PH decreased from 4.58?0.01 to 3.75?0.02 at the end of the fermentation period. Although slight increase as to 4.31?0.02 was recorded after soaking in Sodium metabisulphite. Further decreased to 3.61?0.01 was recorded in samples held at 30?2oC whereas it was fairly stable in refrigerated samples all through the storage period. However, reverse pattern of changes was observed and recorded in the titratable acidity. Steady increase from 31.20?0.5 to 46.6?0.4 was recorded for the moisture content at the end of the fermentation period. Slight increase was recorded in the post fermented sample held at 30?2oC. Nevertheless, sample stored at 10oC were fairly stable. The hydrocyanic acid decreased through out the processing and storage period. Overall sensory acceptability scores shows that refrigerated samples were highly acceptable even though freshly prepared samples were preferred.

I.S. Ogiehor; G.I. Okwu; E. Enaigbe

2004-01-01

96

Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse  

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Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB). Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB) were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

F. C. Prado; L. P. S. Vandenberghe; A. L. Woiciechowski; J. A. Rodrígues-León; C. R. Soccol

2005-01-01

97

Respon of rumen fermentation and digestibility as an effect of the addition of difference level of molase on dried cassava leaves mils used as supplements for buffaloes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This experiment was carried out to determine the optimal level of molase supplementation. A 4 x 4 latin square design were used for 160 days. Four rations consisting of A : local grass (LG) + 0.5% dried cassava leaves meal (DCLM), B : LG + 0.3% molase (M) + 0.5% DCLM, C : LG + 0.4% + 0.5% DCLM, and D : LG + 0.5% M + 0.5% DCL were given to waterbufaloes. The quantity of rations were based on dry matter precentage of body weight. Parameters observed were rumen fermentation and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and energy. The microbial protein synthesis were estimated using 32-P as tracer. Result indicated that significant difference were found in pH and microbial protein synthesis at P

1988-01-01

98

Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

2003-07-01

99

Strategies for developing the cassava industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

1990-01-01

100

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends/ Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da ro (more) sca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 t (more) o 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

Leonel, Magali; Souza, Luciana Bronzi de; Mischan, Martha Maria

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

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The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus pl...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

102

Cinética de fermentação in vitro de silagens da parte aérea de mandioca/ Kinetics of "in vitro" fermentation of the silage shoots of cassava  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de diferentes frações da parte aérea de variedades de mandioca, pela técnica semiautomática de produção de gases. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arranjado em um esquema fatorial 4x3, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho roxo e Periquita) e três frações da parte aérea (terço superio (more) r, sobra de plantio e planta inteira). O material foi ensilado em silos experimentais de PVC, sendo abertos após 56 dias de fermentação. Amostras das silagens foram coletadas e submetidas à pré-secagem, moídas e em seguida procedeu-se ensaio de produção de gases in vitro. As leituras de pressão dos gases produzidos durante as fermentações foram realizadas às 0; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 e 96 horas após o início das incubações. As leituras de pressão dos gases foram realizadas por intermédio de transdutor de pressão e, posteriormente ajustadas para o volume de gases. O maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS ocorreu nos tempos entre zero e 24 horas. As maiores produções de gases por hora foram obtidas aproximadamente às 48 horas de fermentação para a variedade Olho Roxo na fração planta inteira. As silagens das diferentes variedades e frações da parte aérea de mandioca apresentaram o mesmo potencial de produção de gases. Entretanto, as silagens da variedade Amarelinha nas frações da parte aérea terço superior e sobras de plantio apresentaram melhores degradabilidades efetiva e potencial. Abstract in english The objective of this work to determine Kinetics of ruminal fermentation of silages of different fractions of the aerial parts of cassava varieties by technical semiautomatic gas production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, arranged in a 4x3 factorial design, four varieties of cassava (Amarelinha, Sabará, Olho Roxo e Periquita) and three fraction of shoots (upper, left over planting and whole plant). The material was (more) ensiled in mini-silos of PVC, being opened after 56 days of fermentation. Silage samples were collected and submitted to pre-dried, ground and then proceeded to test gas production in vitro. The pressure readings of the gases produced during fermentations were performed at 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 15; 18; 21; 24; 30; 36; 48; 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubations. Pressure readings were made of gases through pressure transducer and subsequently adjusted to the volume of gases. The major ruminal DM disappearance occurred in times between zero and 24 hours. The highest yields of gas per hour were obtained at approximately 48 hours of fermentation for variety in Shiner fraction entire plant. The silages of different varieties and fractions of cassava shoots have the same potential for gas production. However, silage variety of Hopscotch fractions in the upper third of shoot and leftover planting have better effective degradability and potential.

Marques, Kléria Maria Souza; Rocha Júnior, Vicente Ribeiro; Reis, Sidnei Tavares dos; Souza, Vanice Mendes de; Pires, Daniel Ananias de Assis; Palma, Malber Natham Nobre de; Silva, Geanderson Walder Vieira da Silva; Antunes, Ana Paula da Silva

2013-03-01

103

Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of Fermented Flour `Kumkum` from Three Improved and One Local Cassava Varieties in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of fermented flours `kumkum` obtained from three improved and one local cassava varieties were carried out. The varieties were from five localities of the Adamawa province, namely: Simi, Tibati, Tignere, Lokoti and Ngaoundal. Moisture, ash, crude fiber, starch content, cyanogenic glucosides and swelling ability were studied. The results showed that variety 8017 had higher moisture content than varieties 4115, 2425, and the local variety `gangbadaa`. Variety 8017 had the highest ash content while the local variety had the lowest. On the other hand, the local variety had the highest starch content while varieties 4115 and 2425 had approximately the same. Variety 4115 was richer in crude fibre than the varieties 8017 and 2425. Variety 4115 had the highest water retention capacity and consequently the highest swelling ability. The `gangbadaa` had a low water retention capacity, a low swelling ability and the lowest bulk density. Variety 2425 had the highest cyanide content than all the other varieties. On the other hand variety 4115 had the lowest cyanide content. The sensory evaluation test indicated a significant difference (p< 0.05) between the different varieties in terms of taste, colour, odour, and texture. The `gangbadaa`, the local variety, was highly appreciated for its colour, texture and flavour. Variety 4115 was the least appreciated for the above parameters. This may be a clear indication that even though the improved cassava varieties are disease resistant and have high yield potentials, the local population may not appreciate them as they are bound to their food habits.

Agatha N. Tanya; R. Djoulde Darman; Richard A. Ejoh; R. Mbahe; Hamidou

2006-01-01

104

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

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Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

Inayara C. A. Lacerda; Fátima C. O. Gomes; Beatriz M. Borelli; César L. L. Faria Jr; Gloria R. Franco; Marina M. Mourão; Paula B. Morais; Carlos A. Rosa

2011-01-01

105

Response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation conditions during the processing of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp) into Lanhouin  

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Full Text Available The response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=3 was used to investigate the combined effects of ripening, salting and duration of fermentation on total viable cells (TVC) load, sodium chloride (NaCl) and histamine contents during fermentation. Regression models were generated to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied quality indices. The fit of the models was expressed by the coefficients of regression R2, which were found to be 0.807, 0.813 and 0.920 for TVC, NaCl and histamine respectively, indicating that 80.7, 81 and 92.0 % of the variability in the responses could be explained by the models. Significant (p<0.05)interaction was also observed between salt ratio and fermentation time. The optimum fermentation conditions required to obtain TVC load, histamine content and salt concentration within acceptable levels were established as: repining time of 8 h, salt ratio of 25% and fermentation time of 4 days.

Anihouvi VB; Saalia F.; Sakyi-Dawson E; Ayernor GS; Hounhouigan JD

2011-01-01

106

Application of bipolar electrodialysis on recovery of free lactic acid after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency of bipolar electrodialysis (BED) for the recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth was evaluated. Three systems of BED (bipolar-anion, bipolar-cation and bipolar-anion-cation) at fixed voltage (20 V) were compared using a model solution of ammonium lactate (100 g l(-1)). Results showed that bipolar-anion (BED-anion) was the most beneficial in terms of lactate flux, current efficiency, energy consumption and recovery ratio. Consequently, BED-anion was used to purify lactic acid from fermentation broth which had been pre-treated with mono-polar electrodialysis (MED). The final lactic acid concentration and lactate flux obtained were 144 g l(-1) and 393 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Using the two-step process (MED and BED-anion) the concentration of fermentation broth was increased by 33% and the total energy consumption was 2.76 kW h kg(-1). PMID:18568401

Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2008-06-21

107

Ocorrência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico na fermentação de fécula de mandioca/ Biological fixation of atmospheric N2 in the initial phase of cassava starch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fase inicial do processo de fermentação natural de fécula de mandioca apresenta a ocorrência de fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h, mesmo com o meio tendo uma relação carbono/nitrogênio muito alta. Assim, o nitrogênio necessário à formação da biomassa nos primeiros estágios da fermentação seria originário de fora do sistema via fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico, já que o teor protéico disponível na fécula de mandioca é muito baixo. Para ver (more) ificar tal hipótese, foram feitos dois experimentos fundamentados no balanço de nitrogênio na suspensão com grânulos de fécula durante as primeiras 120 h do processo fermentativo, conduzido sob temperatura ambiente e sob temperatura controlada a 28 °C. Não foram detectados aumentos de nitrogênio na fase estudada, o que sugere a não existência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico. Os resultados sugerem que a origem do nitrogênio para o processo fermentativo é a própria fécula, que, quando na forma de polvilho apresenta alta relação C/N, porém, quando em suspensão essa relação abaixa propiciando uma fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h. Abstract in english The initial phase of natural fermentation of cassava starch presents vigorous fermentation within the first 24 h and is characterized by a high ration of carbon/nitrogen. Consequently, the necessary nitrogen to the formation of biomass would be originated from outside of the system because the available protein content from cassava starch is very low and depending on biological fixation of atmospheric N2. To verify that hypothesis two essays were conducted with the nitrog (more) en balance in the starch granule suspension during the initial 120 h of the fermentation process. The essays were set at room temperature and at the controlled temperature of 28 °C. No increase in the nitrogen content was detected suggesting that no involvement of atmospheric N2. Results suggest that the origin of the nitrogen to the fermentation process is the cassava starch itself. The cassava starch in the flour form possesses high C/N ratio whereas in the aqueous suspension the C/N ratio is lowered propitiating vigorous fermentation.

Cavallet, Luiz Ermindo; Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; Lima, Jair J. de; Tullio, Lindamir T.; Quadros, Diomar Augusto de

2006-09-01

108

Ocorrência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico na fermentação de fécula de mandioca Biological fixation of atmospheric N2 in the initial phase of cassava starch fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fase inicial do processo de fermentação natural de fécula de mandioca apresenta a ocorrência de fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h, mesmo com o meio tendo uma relação carbono/nitrogênio muito alta. Assim, o nitrogênio necessário à formação da biomassa nos primeiros estágios da fermentação seria originário de fora do sistema via fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico, já que o teor protéico disponível na fécula de mandioca é muito baixo. Para verificar tal hipótese, foram feitos dois experimentos fundamentados no balanço de nitrogênio na suspensão com grânulos de fécula durante as primeiras 120 h do processo fermentativo, conduzido sob temperatura ambiente e sob temperatura controlada a 28 °C. Não foram detectados aumentos de nitrogênio na fase estudada, o que sugere a não existência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico. Os resultados sugerem que a origem do nitrogênio para o processo fermentativo é a própria fécula, que, quando na forma de polvilho apresenta alta relação C/N, porém, quando em suspensão essa relação abaixa propiciando uma fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h.The initial phase of natural fermentation of cassava starch presents vigorous fermentation within the first 24 h and is characterized by a high ration of carbon/nitrogen. Consequently, the necessary nitrogen to the formation of biomass would be originated from outside of the system because the available protein content from cassava starch is very low and depending on biological fixation of atmospheric N2. To verify that hypothesis two essays were conducted with the nitrogen balance in the starch granule suspension during the initial 120 h of the fermentation process. The essays were set at room temperature and at the controlled temperature of 28 °C. No increase in the nitrogen content was detected suggesting that no involvement of atmospheric N2. Results suggest that the origin of the nitrogen to the fermentation process is the cassava starch itself. The cassava starch in the flour form possesses high C/N ratio whereas in the aqueous suspension the C/N ratio is lowered propitiating vigorous fermentation.

Luiz Ermindo Cavallet; Sila Mary Rodrigues Ferreira; Jair J. de Lima; Lindamir T. Tullio; Diomar Augusto de Quadros

2006-01-01

109

Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica/ Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT) e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc), de raspa (SRpPc) e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc) ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP). A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS) dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delin (more) eamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4). A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB) (% PV) foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33), SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30) e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27) em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19), respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%), matéria orgânica (66,9%) e energia bruta (64,3%) para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR) e intestinal (CDI) da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido) apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5), SRpPc (39,3) e SCnPc (37,0), sobre a SCcPc (20,0). A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos. Abstract in english The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp), cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp) and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp) silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS) and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ) steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Lati (more) n Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM) fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP) intake (%LW) of CS (2.47 and 0.33), ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30) and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27) were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19). The dry matter (65.0%), organic matter (66.9%), and the gross energy (64.3%) total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%). The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC) and intestinal (IDC) digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%), the CrSCp (39.3%), and the ScSCp (37.0%) were higher than ChSCp (20.0%). The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

Freitas, Djalma de; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Silveira, Roselene Nunes da; Soares, João Paulo Guimarães; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Andrade, Pedro de

2002-06-01

110

Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT) e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc), de raspa (SRpPc) e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc) ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP). A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS) dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4). A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB) (% PV) foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33), SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30) e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27) em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19), respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%), matéria orgânica (66,9%) e energia bruta (64,3%) para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR) e intestinal (CDI) da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido) apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5), SRpPc (39,3) e SCnPc (37,0), sobre a SCcPc (20,0). A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp), cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp) and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp) silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS) and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ) steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial digestibility of nutrients determination, the dry matter (DM) fecal output and duodenal flow, were estimated by neutral detergent fiber. The DM and crude protein (CP) intake (%LW) of CS (2.47 and 0.33), ChSCp (2.12 and 0.30) and CrSCp (1.88 and 0.27) were higher than ScSCp (1.38 and 0.19). The dry matter (65.0%), organic matter (66.9%), and the gross energy (64.3%) total apparent digestibilities were higher than the other diets, with the exception for NDF (39.4%). The DM, OM and CP ruminal (RDC) and intestinal (IDC) digestibility coefficients, as percentage of intake, did not show significant differences among the diets. The RDC of the NDF to diets: CS (43.4%), the CrSCp (39.3%), and the ScSCp (37.0%) were higher than ChSCp (20.0%). The cassava meal + citrus pulp silage utilization showed to be a good alternative for bovine feeding.

Djalma de Freitas; Telma Teresinha Berchielli; Roselene Nunes da Silveira; João Paulo Guimarães Soares; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Pedro de Andrade

2002-01-01

111

Cost analysis of cassava cellulose utilization scenarios for ethanol production on flowsheet simulation platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava cellulose accounts for one quarter of cassava residues and its utilization is important for improving the efficiency and profit in commercial scale cassava ethanol industry. In this study, three scenarios of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production were experimentally tested under same conditions and equipment. Based on the experimental results, a rigorous flowsheet simulation model was established on Aspen plus platform and the cost of cellulase enzyme and steam energy in the three cases was calculated. The results show that the simultaneous co-saccharification of cassava starch/cellulose and ethanol fermentation process (Co-SSF) provided a cost effective option of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production, while the utilization of cassava cellulose from cassava ethanol fermentation residues was not economically sound. Comparing to the current fuel ethanol selling price, the Co-SSF process may provide an important choice for enhancing cassava ethanol production efficiency and profit in commercial scale. PMID:23500588

Zhang, Jian; Fang, Zhenhong; Deng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Bao, Jie

2013-02-21

112

Studies on the bacterial acidification process of cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different types of inocula for cassava were compared in the Gari type fermentation of cassava. High acidification rates were achieved with Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and with re-inoculation from the liquid drained from a previous batch. Slower rates were obtained inoculating from a previously fermented batch and with the natural acidification process. Serial fermentations made re-inoculating from a previous batch increased the acidification rates and established a population of Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus.

Meraz M; Shirai K; Larralde P; Revah S

1992-01-01

113

KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR) OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar) Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the ? value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1), Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2), and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

M. Supli Effendi

2002-01-01

114

Novel technique for saccharification of cassava fibrous waste for alcohol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel technique, involving the hydrolysis of starch present in cassava fibrous waste in shallow layers in stainless steel trays, is developed to facilitate the use of higher slurry concentrations. The use of slurry containing 30% solids, 4% sulphuric acid, 30 min saccharification time at 121/sup 0/C resulted in the complete conversion of the starch into reducing sugars. The spent residue, after separation of the hydrolysate, contained about 24% of the total sugars formed and these were recovered to the extent of 90-94% by using a counter-current extraction technique. A large scale sacharification of a 75 kg batch gave 75 l pooled hydrolysate containing 15% reducing sugars. An overall process efficiency of 76.4% was observed with the fermentation of hydrolysate pooled with the counter-current extract for alcohol production. However, fermentation of the whole saccharified pulp without the separation of the hydrolysate and acid-enzyme hydrolysis of the waste gave lower efficiencies.

Srikanta, S.; Jaleel, S.A.; Ghildyal, N.P.; Lonsane, B.K.; Karanth, N.G.

1987-07-01

115

Nutritive Value, Toxicological and Hygienic Quality of Some Cassava Based Products Consumed in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc") were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±2...

Djoulde Darman Roger; Essia Ngang Jean-Justin; Etoa François-xavier

116

Avaliação da influência das variáveis açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na elaboração de bolos de chocolate/ Evaluation of the influence of the variables sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the development of chocolate cakes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A indústria de alimentos tem demonstrado interesse em fontes alternativas de ingredientes, como o polvilho azedo, um derivado da mandioca, e o subproduto da indústria de suco, albedo de laranja, que vêm agregar valor econômico e nutricional ao produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da concentração de açúcar, polvilho azedo e albedo de laranja na formulação de um bolo de chocolate. Foram adotadas concentrações delineadas por plane (more) jamento fatorial 2³, tendo como variáveis independentes: polvilho azedo (X, de 14,90 a 40,10 %), açúcar (Y, de 74,80 a 125,20 %) e farinha de albedo da laranja (Z, de 4,15 a 8,35 %); como variáveis dependentes, os atributos da análise sensorial, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações otimizada, padrão (100 % trigo) e comercial foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, por meio de teste de aceitação e teste de intenção de compra. Os valores sensoriais apresentaram médias entre 5 (não gostei/nem desgostei) e 8 (gostei muito). As diferentes formulações apresentaram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english The food industry has shown interest in alternative sources of ingredients such as fermented cassava starch derived from cassava, and orange albedo, a byproduct of the juice industry, which aggregate nutritional and economic value to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the concentrations of sugar, fermented cassava starch and orange albedo in the formulation of a chocolate cake. The concentrations adopted were defined by a 2³ factorial design, taki (more) ng as the independent variables: fermented cassava starch (X, from 14.90 to 40.10 %), sugar (Y, from 74.80 to 125.20 %) and orange albedo flour (Z, 4.15 to 8.35 %), and the sensory analysis attributes as the dependent variables, using a nine point hedonic scale. The optimized formulation, standard (100 % wheat) and commercial one were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance and purchasing intent. The sensory results showed that the averages were between 5 (neither liked/nor disliked) and 8 (liked a lot). The sensory parameters of the different formulations showed significant differences (p

Silva, Izabel Cristina Veras; Santos, Aline Alves Oliveira; Santana, Danielle Gomes; Santos, Alécia Josefa Alves Oliveira; Leite, Mayara Lúcia da Costa; Almeida, Meirielly Lima; Marcellini, Paulo Sérgio

2013-09-01

117

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V. Brandão; Maria C. A. Esperidião; Janice I. Druzian

2010-01-01

118

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção/ Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 º (more) C, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm duri (more) ng 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Brandão, Líllian V.; Esperidião, Maria C. A.; Druzian, Janice I.

2010-09-01

119

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA  

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Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA) is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates) into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS), as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM), and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1). Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL) es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS), medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM), y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1). Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S ) de 0,32g AL/g jar

Joan E. QUINTERO M.; Alejandro ACOSTA C.; Carlos MEJÍA G; Rigoberto RÍOS E.; Ana M. TORRES L.

2012-01-01

120

Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation between predicted and measured by the reference methods values (R (2) between 0.789 and 0.997), and adequate values of the ratio between the standard deviation of the reference methods and the standard errors of infrared PLS models relative performance determinant (RPD) (greater than 3 for majority of the models). Use of IR for ethanol quantification showed similar and even better results to the obtained with the discrete chemical data, especially in the case of mid-IR models, where ethanol concentration can be estimated with a RMSEV equal to 1.9 g?L(-1). These results could facilitate the analysis of high number of samples required in the evaluation and optimization of the processes. PMID:23070712

Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

2012-10-16

 
 
 
 
121

Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation between predicted and measured by the reference methods values (R (2) between 0.789 and 0.997), and adequate values of the ratio between the standard deviation of the reference methods and the standard errors of infrared PLS models relative performance determinant (RPD) (greater than 3 for majority of the models). Use of IR for ethanol quantification showed similar and even better results to the obtained with the discrete chemical data, especially in the case of mid-IR models, where ethanol concentration can be estimated with a RMSEV equal to 1.9 g?L(-1). These results could facilitate the analysis of high number of samples required in the evaluation and optimization of the processes.

Castillo Rdel P; Baeza J; Rubilar J; Rivera A; Freer J

2012-12-01

122

Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

2009-01-01

123

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets/ Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Forragens com alta umidade e baixa concentração de carboidratos solúveis, como é o caso dos capins tropicais, podem conduzir a condições desfavoráveis para a produção de silagens de qualidade satisfatória. Esse estudo objetivou conhecer o perfil fermentativo e microbiológico de silagens de capim-Marandu [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu], colhido com 58 dias de crescimento, aditivadas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP),. Foram utiliz (more) ados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen, tendo a silagem atingindo densidade de 900 kg m-3. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três proporções de PCP (0, 50 e 100 g kg-1 em relação a matéria natural) e sete tempos de abertura após a ensilagem (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias). A presença de PCP aumentou os teores de CHOs em 15 a 20%, reduziu o pH (5,3 para 4,2) e diminuiu as concentrações de N-NH3. Houve crescimento da população de enterobactérias somente durante o primeiro dia de fermentação (média 3 UFC g-1), pequeno desenvolvimento de clostrideos (média 0,5 UFC g-1) e dominância de bactérias homo em relação às heterofermentativas, para os três tratamentos estudados. A adição de polpa cítrica durante a ensilagem do capim-Marandu foi benéfica, podendo ser recomendada desde que haja benefício econômico na sua adoção. Abstract in english High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves a (more) nd density capacity of 900 kg m-3. Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of fresh forage) and seven times (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days) after sealing. PCP inclusion increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations by 15 to 20% and reduced pH (5.3 to 4.2) and N-NH3 levels of experimental silages. An increase of the population size of the enterobacterium (mean of 3 CFU g-1) was observed only at the first day of fermentation, small growth (mean 0.5 of CFU g-1) of clostridium and the dominance of homo in relation to hetero-fermentative bacteria. Citric pulp addition during Marandu-grass ensilage was benefic, its utilization being recommended, especially when associated with economical advantages.

Bernardes, Thiago Fernandes; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Moreira, Andréia Luciane

2005-06-01

124

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira)=Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22) e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22) with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Priscila Aparecida Suman; Luíz Henrique Urbano; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

2011-01-01

125

Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja/ Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis resposta (more) s: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the senso (more) ry characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

Santos, Aline Alves Oliveira; Silva, Izabel Veras Cristina e; Santos, João Paulo Almeida dos; Santana, Danielle Gomes; Almeida, Meirielly Lima; Marcellini, Paulo Sergio

2011-03-01

126

Processing of cassava  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a method for obtaining cassava flour from cassava roots the following steps are carried out: grating the cassava roots, adding water to the grated matter to form a slurry, removing undesired components, such as proteins, among other components, from the slurry so as to obtain a product mass and, ...

Sanders, J.P.M.; Goense, D.; Dun, D.

127

FERMENTER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: peat production, in particular, equipment for manufacture of feed additives from peat. ^ SUBSTANCE: fermenter has drum positioned for rotation around horizontal shaft and equipped with charging and discharge hatch, and air supply and discharge system. Drum has two truncated pyramids faced to one another with their larger bases and connected with one another through shell. Air supply and discharge system is made in the form of perforated pipe mounted in axially aligned relation with respect to drum. Angular blades are fixed at inner side of drum in the vicinity of hatch. Truncated pyramids have 12 sides. ^ EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency of fermenter. ^ 2 dwg

SAMSONOV L N; SNEGIREV D V; PANSHIN M M

128

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarab...

Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

129

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (planta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Álvaro Diego Soares Mota; Vicente Ribeiro Rocha Júnior; André Santos de Souza; Sidnei Tavares dos Reis; Thierry Ribeiro Tomich; Luciana Albuquerque Caldeira; Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes; Maria Dulcinéia da Costa

2011-01-01

130

Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca/ Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o perfil fermentativo das silagens de quatro variedades de mandioca. No estudo do pH, do nitrogênio amoniacal, dos ácidos orgânicos, do índice de recuperação de matéria seca (MS) e da densidade das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro variedades de mandioca (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita e Sabará) e três frações da parte aérea (p (more) lanta inteira, sobras do plantio e terço superior). No estudo da perda de matéria seca por gases e efluentes, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi 4 × 3 × 7, com quatro repetições, composto de quatro variedades de mandioca, três frações da parte aérea e sete datas de abertura dos silos (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 e 56 dias após a ensilagem). A ensilagem foi realizada em silos de laboratório confeccionados em tubos de PVC. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para comparação das médias, foi realizado o teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de significância. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de pH, ácidos orgânicos e densidade das silagens das diferentes variedades, entretanto, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a densidade das silagens das frações da parte aérea diferiram entre as variedades. O nitrogênio amoniacal das silagens também diferiu entre as variedades. Embora a forragem fresca tenha apresentado valores de matéria seca inferiores a 30%, os valores de pH foram satisfatórios. As silagens das frações terço superior e sobras do plantio têm ótima qualidade fermentativa. As silagens deste estudo apresentam baixa perda de matéria seca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine fermentative profile of silage of four cassava varieties. In the study of pH, ammonia nitrogen, organic acid, dry matter (DM) recovery index and silage densities, it was used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, with four repetitions, four cassava varieties (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará) and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third). In the study of dry matter loss by gas (more) es and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage). Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

Mota, Álvaro Diego Soares; Rocha Júnior, Vicente Ribeiro; Souza, André Santos de; Reis, Sidnei Tavares dos; Tomich, Thierry Ribeiro; Caldeira, Luciana Albuquerque; Menezes, Gustavo Chamon de Castro; Costa, Maria Dulcinéia da

2011-07-01

131

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column/ Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), a taxa de conversão máxima (~34%) foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas (more) em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O meio enriquecido com nutrientes resultou em um acúmulo de 21 g/L de ácido glutâmico, com uma elevada (66,3%) taxa de conversão da glicose em ácido glutâmico (baseada em glicose consumida e em uma taxa de conversão teórica de 81,74%). As condições mais favoráveis, levando à uma máxima produção, foram pH 7.5, temperatura 30°C e agitação de 180 rpm. Quando a fermentação foi conduzida em um reator do tipo descontinuo alimentado, onde a concentração de açúcares redutores era mantida em 5% w/v, foram obtidos 25.0 g/L de glutamato após 40 h (16% a mais do que no modo descontinuo). Para a recuperação e purificação do ácido glutâmico, foi utilizada a separação por cromatografia com resina de troca inônica. O ácido foi posteriormente cristalizado e separado, levando-se em consideração a sua baixa solubilidade no ponto isoelétrico (pH 3.2). Abstract in english Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out (more) in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).

Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

1999-07-01

132

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), a taxa de conversão máxima (~34%) foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O meio enriquecido com nutrientes resultou em um acúmulo de 21 g/L de ácido glutâmico, com uma elevada (66,3%) taxa de conversão da glicose em ácido glutâmico (baseada em glicose consumida e em uma taxa de conversão teórica de 81,74%). As condições mais favoráveis, levando à uma máxima produção, foram pH 7.5, temperatura 30°C e agitação de 180 rpm. Quando a fermentação foi conduzida em um reator do tipo descontinuo alimentado, onde a concentração de açúcares redutores era mantida em 5% w/v, foram obtidos 25.0 g/L de glutamato após 40 h (16% a mais do que no modo descontinuo). Para a recuperação e purificação do ácido glutâmico, foi utilizada a separação por cromatografia com resina de troca inônica. O ácido foi posteriormente cristalizado e separado, levando-se em consideração a sua baixa solubilidade no ponto isoelétrico (pH 3.2).

K. Madhavan Nampoothiri; Ashok Pandey

1999-01-01

133

Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated potato fiber (CF), insoluble potato fiber (IF), soluble fiber (SF), or cellulose (CEL) ad libitum for 4.5 weeks to study weight change and induce diabetic conditions. This was followed by 16 days of slightly restricted feeding, for the measurement of fecal organic matter digestibility, fecal dry matter, urinary glucose excretion, and fasting blood glucose. Finally, the rats were euthanized 2 hours postprandial for measurement of postprandial glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, and cecal fermentation pattern to assess any relation between digestion processes and hematological risk markers. Diet SF had higher fecal organic matter digestibility and led to a significantly larger pool of organic acids with a higher proportion of propionate than the other diets. There was no difference in hematological parameters except for a small but significant reduction in postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.

Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S

2007-01-01

134

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse/ Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG) por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: período de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors th (more) at affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.

Swain, Manas R.; Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh C.

2009-09-01

135

Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

1990-01-01

136

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG) por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: período de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente.

Manas R. Swain; Shaktimay Kar; Ramesh C. Ray

2009-01-01

137

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF) ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la influencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas), partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF), proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores) y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yucaThe world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzyme dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation) process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I CASTAÑO P; Carlos E MEJIA G

2008-01-01

138

Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC) on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%), T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%), T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50%) and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%), of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75) and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05). Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05), while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05) in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3%) could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

Pin Chanjula; Wanwisa Ngampongsai; Metha Wanapat

2007-01-01

139

Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill) and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials) previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v), previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L) and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L); supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

Roselene Ferreira Oliveira; Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima; Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

2011-01-01

140

Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE HARINA DE YUCA EN UN SISTEMA DE HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA Y FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA/ ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA FLOUR IN SIMULTANEOUS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La necesidad mundial en la producción de biocombustibles, ha llevado a explorar nuevas estaretegias de proceso y a usar materias primas alternativas con el objetivo de optimizar la producción; por tal razón se desarrolla en esta investigación el estudio del proceso de producción de etanol a partir de harina de yuca integrando las etapas de hidrólisis enzimatica (licuefacción y sacarificación) y fermentación simultaneamente (HEFS), mediante el uso del complejo enz (more) imático Stargen TM 001. El diseño experimental fue una Superficie de Respuesta de un diseño Central Compuesto de dos factores a dos niveles (48 - 80 ° C y 400 - 600 rpm) en la etapas de prelicuado, y luego la temperatura se ajusto a 37 °C manteniendo las otras condiciones de proceso en la integración de los etapas. La experimentacion se desarrollo con una concentración de sólidos de la harina de yuca de 28% p/v, pH de 5.3, inóculo de 0.75 g/l de la levadura Ethanol Red® y una carga enzimática de 4 ml/l. La temperatura es la variable de mayor efecto sobre la producción de etanol si se compará con la agitación; aunque, ambos factores presentan significancia estadístca sobre la variable de respuesta. A 64° C y 500 rpm se alcanza una concentración de etanol de 14.6% v/v y una productividad de 2.5 g/lh (48 horas de proceso). Abstract in english The global need for the production of biofuels, has led to explore new strategies process and use alternative raw materials in order to optimize production, for this reason this research is developed in the study of the ethanol production process from flour cassava integrating the stages of enzyme hydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification) and fermentation simultaneously (HEFS), using the enzyme complex Stargen TM 001. The experimental design was a response surface ce (more) ntral composite design with two factors and two levels (temperature: 48 - 80 ° C and agitation: 400 - 600 rpm) in liquefaction stages previous, and then the temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C keeping the other conditions in the integration process of the stages. The experimentation was developed with a solids concentration of cassava flour of 28% w/v, pH 5.3, inoculums of 0.75 g/l of yeast Ethanol Red ®, and an enzyme concentration of 4 ml / l. The temperature is variable with greatest effect on the production of ethanol when compared to the agitation, though; both factors have statistic significance on the response variable. A 64 ° C and 500 rpm is reached an ethanol concentration of 14.6% v/v and a productivity of 2.5 g/lh (at 48 hours of processing)

CASTAÑO PELAEZ, HADER; CARDONA BETANCUR, MARIANA; MEJÍA GOMEZ, CARLOS; ACOSTA CÁRDENAS, ALEJANDRO

2011-10-01

142

Qualidade fermentativa e caracterização químico-bromatológica de silagens da parte áerea e raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) = Fermentation quality and chemical and bromatological characteristics of foliage and roots of silage cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do emurchecimento e da inclusão de raízes (0, 15, 30 e 45% da matéria natural) sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens da parte aérea da mandioca. O emurchecimento influenciou significativamente o teor matéria seca (MS), a densidade e o pH das silagens em todas asdoses de adição de raízes. A inclusão destas elevou o teor de MS em 0,128 e 0,261%, a densidade em 1,79 e 4,54 kg m-3 e, reduziu o pH em 0,0007 e 0,0062, respectivamente nas silagens emurchecidas ou não, a cada unidade percentual de adição de raízes. A exceção dos teores de fibra detergente ácida (FDA) e lignina, todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram interação significativa entre o emurchecimento e a inclusão de raízes. O emurchecimento aumentou em 4,52% os teores de FDA e 12,86% os de lignina, enquanto o incremento de raízes promoveu decréscimo linear de ambos. O acréscimo de raízes reduziu linearmente os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), enquanto o emuchercimento elevou-os. O teor de PB respondeu inversamente, apresentando valores mínimos de 8,99 e 11,03 e máximos de 18,01 e 20,9% da MS, respectivamente nas silagens sem e com emurchecimento.The effects of wilting and root inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% natural matter) on the chemical and bromatological composition coupled to silage fermentation parameters of cassava foliage silages were evaluated. Wilting affected significantly dry matter content (DM), density and pH values (p < 0.05) of silages at all root addition levels. Root inclusion increased silages DM contents by 0.128 and 0.261%; densities increased by 1.79 and 4.54 kg m-3; pH values were reduced by 0.0007 and 0.0062) respectively in wilted silages or not wilted ones for every included root percentage unit. All parameters, with the exception of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin contents, showed significant interaction between wilting and root inclusion. Wilting increased ADF and lignin contents respectively by 4.52 and 12.86%, whereas root inclusion caused a linear decrease in both. Silage root addition decreased linearly neutral detergent fiber rates and conversely wilting increased them. The opposite occurred with crude protein contents, with minimum rates 8.99 and 11.03 and maximum ones 18.01 and 20.9% DM values, respectively in silages with and without wilting.

Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes da Silva; Márcio dos Santos Pedreira; Mauro Pereira de Figueiredo; Fernando Salgado Bernardino; Daniela da Hora Farias

2010-01-01

143

Traditional and novel fermented foods and beverages from tropical root and tuber crops: review  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tropical root and tuber crops [cassava, sweet potato, yams, colocasia (taro), etc] are important staples for food security for about a fifth of the world population. Bulk of cassava in Africa and Latin America are processed into fermented foods and food additives such as organic (acetic, citric and lactic) acids, mono-sodium glutamate, etc. The fermented foods from cassava are gari, fufu, lafun, chickwanghe, agbelima, attieke and kivunde in Africa, tape in Asia and 'cheese'bread, and 'coated peanut' in Latin America. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are the major group of micro-organisms associated with cassava fermentation. Similarly, sweet potatoes can be fermented into soy sauce, vinegar, lacto-juices, lacto-pickles and sochu (an alcoholic drink produced in Japan), and yams into fermented flour. Most of these fermented food products are functional foods rich in phytochemicals, dietary fibres, anti-oxidant compounds (?-carotene, anthocyanin, etc) and probiotic components (lactic acid bacteria and yeasts).

Ray RameshC; Sivakumar ParamasivanS

2009-06-01

144

Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage  

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Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti; Rériton Weldert Gomes; Roberta Passini; Paula Marques Meyer

2005-01-01

145

Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante/ Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. O capim-elefante, apresentando 90 dias de crescimento, foi ensilado com níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%, com base na matéria fresca. As silagens foram produzidas em 28 silos experimentais (quatro repetições/tratamento), confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos com válvulas do tipo (more) Bunsen. A abertura dos silos ocorreu 106 dias após a ensilagem, quando foram determinados os teores dos ácidos orgânicos e a composição químico-bromatológica das silagens. Foi observado efeito linear crescente da adição de polpa cítrica sobre os teores de matéria seca, o mesmo ocorrendo para carboidratos solúveis e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, mas com redução nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e fibra em detergente neutro. Para os teores de ácidos orgânicos (acético, lático e butírico) e etanol, observou-se comportamento quadrático para as curvas obtidas, com pontos de máxima para o ácido lático igual a 5,8% e de mínima para os ácidos acético, butírico e o etanol, iguais a 7,8; 7,2; e -3,7% de polpa, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os valores de pH, assim como para os teores de lignina e de ácido propiônico. Inclusões de 4,7 a 7,6% de polpa cítrica peletizada, com base na matéria fresca, são suficientes para melhorar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of increasing levels of citrus pulp on fermentation pattern and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage was evaluated. Elephantgrass harvested at 90 days was ensiled with increasing levels of dried citrus pulp: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% (fresh matter basis). Silages were produced in 28 plastic experimental silos (4 replicates/treatment) bearing Bunsen valves. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling, when samples were taken for the analysis of silages (more) organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric) and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis) are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique Mazza; Borgatti, Laura Maria Oliveira; Gomes, Rériton Weldert; Passini, Roberta; Meyer, Paula Marques

2005-08-01

146

A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation  

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Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme) and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk) and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.O ácido giberélico (GA3) é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme) e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de soja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café) e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação.

Cristine Rodrigues; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Juliana Teodoro; Juliana Fraron Oss; Ashok Pandey; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2009-01-01

147

A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O ácido giberélico (GA3) é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme) e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de soja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café) e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de (more) produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação. Abstract in english Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme) and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk) and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions (more) to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.

Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Teodoro, Juliana; Oss, Juliana Fraron; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2009-11-01

148

Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp  

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Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia.Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Luis Fernando Simões de Almeida; Carlos de Souza Lucci; Laércio Melotti; Félix Ribeiro de Lima

2004-01-01

149

Production of ethanol from cassava whey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations were conducted into the potential use of enzyme hydrolysed cassava whey for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aspergillus niger grown on whet bran was used as crude enzyme source to saccharify the whey starch. The whey with an initial HCN concentration of 54.0 ..mu..g/ml was fermented at pH 4.5 and 30/sup 0/C in a one-step process to produce ethanol. A maximum ethanol concentration of 4.5% (v/v) was obtained in 120 h with a decrease in HCN level to 4.0 ..mu..g/ml. In a two-stage fermentation, in which the raw whey was pre-hydrolysed and under the same fermentation conditions, the unsterilized hydrolysate yielded alcohol content of 5.5% (v/v), while the sterilized hydrolysate gave higher alcohol yield, 7.5% (v/v), in 48 h. No HCN was detected in the fermented liquour at the end of the two-stage process.

Akpan, I.; Ikenebomeh, M.J.; Uraih, N.; Obuekwe, C.O.

1988-01-01

150

Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not.

Ogbo FC

2010-06-01

151

Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. PMID:20138509

Ogbo, Frank C

2010-06-01

152

Components of resistance of cassava to african cassava mosaic virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Components of resistance of cassava (#Manihot esculenta$) to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and their interrelationships were confirmed and quantified in a series of experiments at Adiopodoumé (Ivory Coast, West Africa). The response to virus infection and to #Bemisia tabaci$ infestation of a l...

Fargette, Denis; Colon, L.T.; Bouveau, R.; Fauquet, Claude

153

Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica/ Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS), cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp.) e Pioneer 1174? (more) ? (S. faecium e L. plantarum). Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia. Abstract in english Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM) was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase), Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp.) and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum). Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pul (more) p-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants decreased DM losses; Silobacâ and Pioneer decreased IVDDM, and Pioneer increased NH3-N. Inoculants did not influence lactic, propionic and butyric acids concentrations and neither aerobic stability. Citrus pulp improved chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, but worsened DM losses and aerobic stability.

Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique Mazza; Almeida, Luis Fernando Simões de; Lucci, Carlos de Souza; Melotti, Laércio; Lima, Félix Ribeiro de

2004-12-01

154

Influence of the ratio between wheat straw and ground barley, ground corn or dried sugar beet pulp on in sacco dry matter degradation of ryegrass and wheat straw, rumen fermentation and apparent digestibility in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Castrated male sheep were fed with 5 different rations varying in the straw to concentrate ratio between 100: 0, 75: 25, 50: 50, 25: 75 and 0: 100. Ground barley, ground corn and dried sugar beet pulp were used as concentrate sources. Chopped winter wheat straw was fed as roughage source. All rations were supplemented with a protein-mineral-vitamin-premix. In sacco dry matter degradability of artificially dried ryegrass, untreated and ammonia treated wheat straw was measured within three rumen fistulated sheep. Nylon bags were incubated for 48 h in the rumen of sheep. Volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid were determined by gas chromatography. Samples were taken via rumen fistula 3 h after morning feeding. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and fibre fractions of total rations were determined within five sheep. Increased concentrate portion decreased in sacco dry matter degradability of incubated roughages. Decrease of dry matter degradability was much higher for ammonia treated (from 55.0 to 22.5%) and untreated straw (from 50.9 to 22.7%) than for ryegrass (from 75.6 to 69.2%), when concentrate increased from 0 to 100% of ration. The highest concentrate portions did not show any increase of degradability of ammonia treated straw. Specific concentrate effects were observed when 75 and 100% concentrate were fed (unphysiological level). Ground barley as concentrate source decreased rumen pH to a larger extent (down to 5.18) than corn and sugar beet pulp (down to 5.60 and 5.57). Sheep suffered from rumen acidosis in some cases. Higher concentrate levels increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids of rumen liquid and molar concentration of propionate and butyrate, but decreased acetate. Various concentrate sources showed different influences on parameters of rumen fermentation. Apparent digestibility of organic matter of total rations increased from 52.7 to 86.1% if concentrate portions enhanced from 0 to 100%. High portions of ground barley decreased cellulolytic activity and fibre digestion. On the other hand high levels of sugar beet pulp increased digestibility of crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre.

Flachowsky G; Koch H; Tiroke K; Matthey M

1993-01-01

155

Influence of the ratio between wheat straw and ground barley, ground corn or dried sugar beet pulp on in sacco dry matter degradation of ryegrass and wheat straw, rumen fermentation and apparent digestibility in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Castrated male sheep were fed with 5 different rations varying in the straw to concentrate ratio between 100: 0, 75: 25, 50: 50, 25: 75 and 0: 100. Ground barley, ground corn and dried sugar beet pulp were used as concentrate sources. Chopped winter wheat straw was fed as roughage source. All rations were supplemented with a protein-mineral-vitamin-premix. In sacco dry matter degradability of artificially dried ryegrass, untreated and ammonia treated wheat straw was measured within three rumen fistulated sheep. Nylon bags were incubated for 48 h in the rumen of sheep. Volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid were determined by gas chromatography. Samples were taken via rumen fistula 3 h after morning feeding. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and fibre fractions of total rations were determined within five sheep. Increased concentrate portion decreased in sacco dry matter degradability of incubated roughages. Decrease of dry matter degradability was much higher for ammonia treated (from 55.0 to 22.5%) and untreated straw (from 50.9 to 22.7%) than for ryegrass (from 75.6 to 69.2%), when concentrate increased from 0 to 100% of ration. The highest concentrate portions did not show any increase of degradability of ammonia treated straw. Specific concentrate effects were observed when 75 and 100% concentrate were fed (unphysiological level). Ground barley as concentrate source decreased rumen pH to a larger extent (down to 5.18) than corn and sugar beet pulp (down to 5.60 and 5.57). Sheep suffered from rumen acidosis in some cases. Higher concentrate levels increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids of rumen liquid and molar concentration of propionate and butyrate, but decreased acetate. Various concentrate sources showed different influences on parameters of rumen fermentation. Apparent digestibility of organic matter of total rations increased from 52.7 to 86.1% if concentrate portions enhanced from 0 to 100%. High portions of ground barley decreased cellulolytic activity and fibre digestion. On the other hand high levels of sugar beet pulp increased digestibility of crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre. PMID:8390235

Flachowsky, G; Koch, H; Tiroke, K; Matthey, M

1993-01-01

156

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

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Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Luciana Bronzi de Souza; Magali Leonel

2010-01-01

157

Efeitos de parâmetros de fermentação na produção de etanol a partir de resíduo líquido da industrialização da mandioca (manipueira) - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9279 Effect of fermentation parameters on ethanol production from cassava liquid residue (manipueira)  

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Full Text Available A manipueira, resíduo líquido resultante do processamento da fécula e da farinha de mandioca, apresenta potencial poluidor reconhecidamente elevado. Visando uma possível utilização da manipueira como matéria-prima para obtenção de etanol, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da porcentagem de levedura inoculada e da temperatura sobre os componentes do vinho. A manipueira caracterizada para o teor de amido, açúcares solúveis, pH e acidez titulável foi hidrolisada pela ação de enzimas Termamyl 120 L e AMG 300 L, sendo o hidrolisado obtido fermentado em diferentes condições. Foi utilizado o delineamento fatorial do tipo central composto rotacional com duas variáveis independentes (22) e a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar os resultados. Os produtos de cada etapa foram caracterizados em cromatografia líquida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram efeito significativo dos parâmetros variáveis sobre os componentes do vinho. As condições de baixa temperatura de fermentação e menores porcentagens de levedura inoculada foram as mais adequadas para a obtenção de etanol de manipueira.“Manipueira”, a liquid residue from the processing of cassava starch and flour, has recognized high pollution potential. Aiming at a possible use of “manipueira” as raw material for ethanol production, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the percentage of inoculated yeast and fermentation temperature on the chromatographic profile of the components of wine of “manipueira”. The residue was characterized for starch and sugar content, as well as pH and total acidity. The residue was hydrolyzed by the action of enzymes Termamyl 120 L and AMG 300 L. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented under different experimental conditions. A factorial central composite design (22) with two independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results. The results showed a significant effect of variable parameters on the components of wine. The conditions of low fermentation temperature and lower percentages of inoculated yeast were the most appropriate to obtain ethanol from “manipueira”.

Priscila Aparecida Suman; Luiz Henrique Urbano; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

2011-01-01

158

Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp  

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Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity) and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77%) constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46%) and arabinose (40%). Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

Mariusz Lesiecki; Wojciech Bia?as; Gra?yna Lewandowicz

2012-01-01

159

Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity) and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. RESULTS: The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77%) constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46%) and arabinose (40%). Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. CONCLUSION: The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

Lesiecki M; Bia?as W; Lewandowicz G

2012-01-01

160

Cassava biology and physiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4 species, pointing to the need for further research on cultivated and wild Manihot to further improve its photosynthetic potential and yield,particularly under stressful environments. Moreover, a wide range in values of Km (CO2) for the C3 photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco was found among cassava cultivars indicating the possibility of selection for higher affinity to CO2, and consequently higher leaf photosynthesis. Several plant traits that may be of value in crop breeding and improvement have been identified, such as an extensive fine root system, long leaf life, strong root sink and high leaf photosynthesis. Selection of parental materials for tolerance to drought and infertile soils under representative field conditions have resulted in developing improved cultivars that have high yields in favorable environments while producing reasonable and stable yields under stress.

El-Sharkawy MA

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

Lima-Costa ME; Tavares C; Raposo S; Rodrigues B; Peinado JM

2012-05-01

162

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery. PMID:22270889

Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

2012-01-20

163

COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L.) SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L.), AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP  

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Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por fermentação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%), diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the different times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%), differing significantly from the other treatments.

WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO; ANDREZA TAVARES TOMÉ; JOSÉ E. URANO DE CARVALHO; CARLOS HANS MÜLLER

2001-01-01

164

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Rogério Marchiori Coan; Ricardo Andrade Reis; Gisela Rojas Garcia; Ruben Pablo Schocken- Iturrino; Daniel de Souza Ferreira; Flávio Dutra de Resende; Felipe do Amaral Gurgel

2007-01-01

165

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada/ Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dia (more) s. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh ma (more) tter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Coan, Rogério Marchiori; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Garcia, Gisela Rojas; Schocken- Iturrino, Ruben Pablo; Ferreira, Daniel de Souza; Resende, Flávio Dutra de; Gurgel, Felipe do Amaral

2007-10-01

166

[Degradation of cyanide and maturity in cassava processing wastes composting].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation was carried out to approach the degradation of cyanide and maturity during the cassava processing wastes composting process. Mixtures of cassava hull, cassava residues and pig manure were used in the experiment. Parameters like temperature, pH, cyanide, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and C/N ratio were assessed during the composting process, the effect of composting process on the degradation of cyanide and maturity were evaluated. The results reveal that the content of cyanide decreases sharply and declines to 2.08 mg/kg (30 days of composting), the degradation rate of cyanide is 94.16% and is in accord with food safety standard. After 15 days of the composting process, degradation of composting materials containing carbon (starch, cellulose, hemicellulose) and cyanide are quick and the degradation rates of them are more than 80%, properties tend towards stability basically. During 30 days of the composting process, the composting temperature drops to normal temperature and tends to stability, pH remains stable at 7.2. Parameters like C/N ratio, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) as maturity evaluation index were measured, and the results indicate that physical and chemical properties keep stability after 15 days of cassava processing wastes composting process. At the end of fermentation, C/N ratio is 17.55, the content of nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen reach 2.5g/kg and 10 mg/kg respectively, NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio is 250. The changes of these above mentioned parameters meet with maturity evaluation standard. Proving that cassava processing wastes during 30 days of composting treatment can achieve stability and security state.

Lü YC; Wang XF; Zhu WB; Cheng X; Cui ZJ

2009-05-01

167

Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

1988-01-01

168

Methane gas production by anaerobic digestion of coffee pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory fermentation of coffee pulp containing glucose 1.15, reducing sugars 4.42, lignin 4.65, and cellulose 45.35 weight % gave a constant flow of biogas containing approximately 65% CH4 for less than or equal to 100 days. The best results were obtained when the pulp was seeded with active sludge, treated with 11.8 g of NH4OAc, aerated 7 days, and fermented without agitation at 28-31 degrees under anaerobic conditions. The biogas from coffee pulp could provide 50-52% of the energy requirements of a coffee processing plant.

Jacquet, M.; Vincent, J.C.; Cayla, L.; Elmaleh, S.; Gbahoue, L.; Hahn, J.

1980-01-01

169

Cassava improvement: challenges and impacts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the two most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. This area accounts for most of the root harvest worldwide, followed by Asia and Latin America - the centre of origin for Manihot species. In Africa and Latin America, cassava is mostly used for human consumption, while in Asia and parts of Latin America it is also used commercially for the production of animal feed and starch-based products. Cassava is regarded as a crop adapted to drought-prone environments, where cereals and other crops do not thrive, and it also grows well in poor soil. There are about 100 wild Manihot species, which provide an important genetic endowment for cassava breeding. Professional cassava breeding started in the 20th century and was spurred on by increasing population demands. The main breeding goals are high yield per unit area, particularly in marginal or pest-prone environments. The most notable results from cassava breeding are seen today in sub-Saharan Africa, where it has been transformed from a poor man's crop to an urban food, and in Southeast Asia, where it has changed from a subsistence crop to an industrial cash crop. Long-term research by many international and national partners has led to breeding high-yielding cassava cultivars that increased crop yields up to 40%. Manipulation of genes from wild species has led to new cultivars that resist prevailing diseases and pests, allowing the avoidance of large-scale famine in sub-Saharan Africa. Cassava improvement continues to tap genetic variation through conventional breeding (including the use of wild species) and biotechnology, because many pathogens still take their toll and occasionally epidemics affect farmer fields significantly. However, new sources of variation are needed to genetically enhance the nutritional quality of this important food crop in Africa and other areas in the tropics of the developing world.

Nassar NMA; Ortiz R

2007-04-01

170

Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa  

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Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava ...

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Zainuddin, Ima M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm

171

Studies on production of alcohol from saccharified waste residue from cassava starch processing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fibrous waste residue (20%) obtained in the manufacture of starch and sago from cassava poses disposal problems. Fermentation studies for the production of alcohol on saccharified waste revealed that enrichment with mineral salts and N is essential. Inoculum size of 24.2 X 10 to the power of 6 cells/50 mL medium was optimal; the highest quantity of alcohol was formed after 96 hours of fermentation. Although the optimum initial sugar concentration in the fermentation medium was approximately 15%, the saccharified waste needed expensive concentration treatment to raise the sugar concentration to its optimum level.

Kunhi, A.A.M.; Ghildyal, N.P.; Lonsane, B.K.; Ahmed, S.Y.; Natarajan, C.P.

1981-01-01

172

Studies on production of alcohol from saccharified waste residue from Cassava starch processing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fibrous waste residue (20%) obtained in the manufacture of starch and sago from Cassava poses disposal problems. Fermentation studies for the production of alcohol on saccharified waste revealed that enrichment with mineral salts and nitrogen is essential. Inoculum size of 24.2x10/sup 6/ cells per 50 ml medium was optimal while highest quantity of alcohol was formed at 96 h of fermentation. Though optimum initial sugar concentration in fermentation medium was found to be about 15%, the saccharified waste needed expensive concentration treatment to raise the sugar concentration to optimum level. Economic considerations suggest the use of saccharified waste without concentration.

Kunhi, A.A.M.; Ghildyal, N.P.; Lonsane, B.K.; Ahmed, S.Y.; Natarajan, C.P.

1981-08-01

173

Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)/ Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurcheci (more) mento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when submitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and (more) aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

Pinho, Eduardo Zambello de; Costa, Ciniro; Arrigoni, Mario De Beni; Silveira, Antonio Carlos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Pinho, Sheila Zambello de

2004-01-01

174

Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

1985-01-01

175

Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable ?-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%.

Sugimoto T; Makita T; Watanabe K; Shoji H

2012-04-01

176

Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable ?-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%. PMID:22072435

Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Makita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Koutaro; Shoji, Hiroshi

2011-11-10

177

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

M. Sarwar Jahan; Sabina Rawshan

2009-01-01

178

Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5% 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12% 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5% 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8% 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8% 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

2009-09-01

179

Studies on Residual Hydrocyanic Acid (HCN) in Garri Flour Made from Cassava (Manihot Spp.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garri flour was produced from mashed cassava (Manihot spp) roots, which had been subjected to fermentation for time periods of between 6 and 72 h. The hydrocyanic acid content of each batch was estimated by spectrophotometric alkaline picrate method. White and yellow garri flour samples procured from markets in Abia State, Nigeria were also analyzed for their HCN contents using the above-mentioned method. The HCN content decreased significantly with the length of fermentation period of the grated cassava mash. Levels of residual HCN were also significantly influenced by the source and type of garri flour (whether white or yellow). The white garri flour had higher HCN levels than the yellow.

S.A. Odoemelam

2005-01-01

180

Nutrient Composition of Cassava Offals and Cassava Sievates Collected from Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cassava offals and cassava sievates collected from 5 locations in Edo State, Nigeria. Following sun-drying (30-35oC), the cassava by-products were analyzed for protein, fibre, carbohydrate, cyanide, ash and fat...

Nwokoro; Smart O.; S.E. Vaikosen; A.M. Bamgbose

 
 
 
 
181

Colonization of non-cassava plant species by cassava whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), which are the main production constraint to cassava [Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae)], both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa. Two B. tabaci genotype clusters, Ug1 and Ug2, differentiated at 8% nucleotide (nt) divergence within the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene, have been shown to occur on cassava in Uganda. However, the role of alternative hosts in the ecology of cassava B. tabaci genotypes and their possible involvement in the epidemiology of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) in Uganda remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the restriction of cassava B. tabaci genotypes to cassava and the colonization of alternative host species in select cassava-growing areas of the country in 2003 and 2004. Bemisia tabaci adults and 4th instar nymphs were collected from cassava and 11 other cultivated and uncultivated species occurring adjacent to the sampled cassava fields. Phylogenetic analysis of mtCOI sequences revealed that only a single genotype cluster, Ug1, was present on both cassava and non-cassava plant species sampled in this study. The Ug1 genotypes (n = 49) shared 97-99% nt identity with the previously described cassava-associated B. tabaci populations in southern Africa, and were [approximately]8% and [approximately]13% divergent from Ug2 and the 'Ivory Coast cassava' genotypes in Uganda and Ivory Coast, respectively. The Ug1 genotypes occurred (as adults) on all 12 source-plant species sampled. However, based on the presence of B. tabaci 4th instar nymphs, the Ug1 genotypes (n = 13) colonized cassava and five other non-cassava plant species: Manihot glaziovii, Jatropha gossypifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla, Aspilia africana, and Abelmoschus esculentus, suggesting that cassava B. tabaci (Ug1 genotypes) are not restricted to cassava in Uganda. No Ug2-like genotypes were detected on any of the plant species sampled, including cassava, in this study. The identification of additional hosts for at least one genotype cluster, Ug1, known also to colonize cassava, and which was hitherto thought to be 'cassava-restricted' may have important epidemiological significance for the spread of CMGs in Uganda.

Sseruwagi P; Maruthi MN; Colvin J; Rey MEC; Brown JK; Legg JP

2006-05-01

182

Cotton pulp production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cotton pulp was manufactured by cooking lint with a 2% NaOH solution at high temperature and pressure. The d.p. of the pulp can be increased by passing gaseous N through NaOH solution at 85 degrees for 5 hours prior to pulping.

Kadyrov, A.N.; Makhkamov, K.M.; Kalontarov, I.Y.; Niyazi, F.F.

1981-05-15

183

Evaluation of Dough Sensory Properties Impacted by Yeasts Isolated from Cassava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is focused on isolating and identifying yeasts found in cassava as well as assessing the dough fermenting abilities of the isolates in term of leavning. A total of seven yeasts were isolated from the liquor of a four days fermented cassava. These are Geotrichum lactis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida tropicalis, C. robusta, C. intermidia, Debaryomyces hansenii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. They were used to ferment wheat flour doughs in order to test the fermentative ability of the isolates. The fermented doughs were baked and organoleptic analysis was carried out using some physical parameters namely: leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. The analysis showed that Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Geotrichum lactis and Candida robusta were best in leavening the flour doughs. Each of these isolates scored between 55 and 60% in all the attributes tested. In the sensory attributes applied, statistical analysis using ANOVA (p<0.05) and Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that about 71 and 80% of the tested isolates compared favourably with the commercial baker`s yeasts STK Royal and Saf-instant used.

B. Boboye; I. Dayo-Owoyemi

2009-01-01

184

Fermentation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

185

New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

Laluce C; Bertolini MC; Ernandes JR; Martini AV; Martini A

1988-10-01

186

New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy. PMID:16347755

Laluce, C; Bertolini, M C; Ernandes, J R; Martini, A V; Martini, A

1988-10-01

187

The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log10 CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log10 CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log10 CFU/g to 9 log10 CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log10 CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log10 CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (< 5% each).

Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2009-01-01

188

The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each). PMID:19493582

Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

2009-04-24

189

The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each).

Wilfrid Padonou S; Nielsen DS; Hounhouigan JD; Thorsen L; Nago MC; Jakobsen M

2009-07-01

190

A PROCESS OF JOINT PRODUCTION OF FUEL ETHANOL, ELECTRICITY AND PAPER PULP BY CLASSIFICATION CONVERSION OF PENNISETUM PURPUREUM SCHUM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process of joint production of fuel ethanol, electricity and paper pulp by fractionation conversion of Pennisetum purpureum Schum, which includes steam blasting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum segments with a steam blasting device, obtaining fibres and an aqueous solution containing degraded hemicellulose by washing the steam-blasted product with water; obtaining oligoxylose by separating and purifying the washing solution; fractionating the fibres; using the longer fibers so obtained for auto-catalyzed ethanol pulping, then bleaching the pulp so obtained to obtain a paper pulp; recovering and separating the ethanol to obtain alcohol-soluble lignin; preparing cellulase by solid fermentation; obtaining ethanol and fermentation residue by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the mixture of the shorter fibres, solid cellulase and yeast, said fermentation producing also CO2;; drying the fermentation residue for use as a biofuel for electricity generation.

CHEN HONGZHANG; ZHANG JIANXING; LEUNG CHEUK LAM; LI YONG

191

Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

2013-01-01

192

Cassava Processing: Safety and Protein Fortification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in tropical regions, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cassava as a human food is a good source of energy as it has a comparable high energy density of about 610 kJ/100 g fresh root. The crop has growth advantages a...

Tivana, Lucas

193

Evolution of African cassava mosaic virus by recombination between bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a major constraint on cassava cultivation in Africa. The disease is endemic and is caused by seven distinct cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), some of them including several variants. Findings From cassava leaf samp...

Tiendrébéogo Fidèle; Lefeuvre Pierre; Hoareau Murielle; Harimalala Mireille A; De Bruyn Alexandre; Villemot Julie

194

Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp) in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp.) tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

Udoudoh, P. J.

2011-01-01

195

Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a (more) polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

Martos, María Alicia; Zubreski, Emilce Roxana; Combina, Mariana; Garro, Oscar Alfredo; Hours, Roque Alberto

2013-06-01

196

Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG) in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s) of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm) of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

María Alicia Martos; Emilce Roxana Zubreski; Mariana Combina; Oscar Alfredo Garro; Roque Alberto Hours

2013-01-01

197

Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

1980-01-01

198

Vital pulp therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vital pulp therapy is performed to preserve the health status of the tooth and its ultimate position in the arch. These procedures are performed routinely in primary and permanent teeth. This review is divided into 2 parts: the first aims to illustrate the basic biology of the pulp and the effects on the pulp due to various procedures; the second focuses on the clinical aspects of treatment and the use of various dental materials during different vital pulp therapy procedures performed in the primary and permanent teeth.

Cohenca N; Paranjpe A; Berg J

2013-01-01

199

Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w) of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dregs increased microbial activity in cassava mash, particularly the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Protein composition of garri was improved and detoxification of cyanogenic glucosides was enhanced. Inoculation adversely affected mineral composition. Organoleptic analysis showed that inoculation did not reduce acceptability of garri at p<0.05.

F.C. Ogbo; J.A. Onuegbu; O.K. Achi

2009-01-01

200

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Production of ethanol from guava pulp by yeast strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guava pulp used for ethanol production by three yeast strains contained 10% (w/v) total sugars and was pH 4.1. Ethanol production at the optimum sugar concentration of 10%, at pH 4.1 and 30{sup o}C was 1.5%, 3.6% and 3.9% (w/v) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 1972, Isolate-1 and Isolate-2, respectively, at 60 h fermentation. Higher sugar concentrations at 15 and 20% were inhibitory for ethanol production by all test cultures. The maximum production of ethanol at optimum natural sugar concentration (10%) of guava pulp, was 5.8% (w/v) at pH 5.0 by Isolate-2 over 36 h fermentation, which was only slightly more than the quantity of ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5.0%) and Isolate-1 (5.3%) over 36 and 60 h fermentation, respectively. (Author)

Srivastava, S.; Modi, D.R.; Garg, S.K. [Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad (India)

1997-06-01

202

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time th...

Ndunguru, J; Legg, JP; Aveling, TAS; Thompson, G; Fauquet, CM

203

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report fo...

Ndunguru J; Legg JP; Aveling TAS; Thompson G; Fauquet CM

204

Fermentation type banana tartaric acid beverage and production method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a fermentation type banana tartaric acid beverage which is mainly formed by mixing and fermenting the following raw materials in parts by weight: 10 to 80 parts of banana pulp, 10 to 80 parts of pawpaw pulp, 10 to 50 parts of sticky rice and water of which the parts by weight is 0 to 10 times of the total parts by weight of the banana pulp, the pawpaw pulp and the sticky rice, wherein fermentation conditions are as follows: the fermentation time is controlled within the range of 5 to 30 days, and the fermentation temperature is controlled within the range of 18 to 38 DEG C. The invention also discloses a production method of the fermentation type banana tartaric acid beverage. A banana tartaric acid product obtained by fermenting the fermentation type banana tartaric acid beverage provided by the invention has sour taste, is rich in organic acid, but does not contain acetic acid and can not harm human gastrointestinal tracts.

HONGLI MO; JIMING WU; XIAOZHOU YE; AIGUO ZOU

205

Effect of the Duration of Fermentation on the Quality of Gari  

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Full Text Available The effect of duration of fermentation on some proximate and sensory parameters was studied inbitter cassava grated and fermented traditionally for a period of five days to determine the optimum numberof days of fermentation for best quality gari. The statistical design used in studying the effect of duration offermentation on moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, crude protein, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), swellingindex, HCN and crude fat was Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Standardprocedures were used in the determination of all the parameters studied. A panel of thirty judges were invitedfor the sensory evaluation of colour, aroma and texture. The results of the study as indicated by analysis ofvariance show that there is highly significant effect (P#0.01) of the duration of fermentation of gari on moisturecontent, ash content, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein, HCN and sw elling index. The regression analysisindicates that whereas moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, crude protein, HCN and swelling indexgenerally seems to increase with increase in duration of fermentation, HCN and crude fat decreased withincrease in duration of fermentation. The study recommends that for industry application, cassava mash for garishould be fermented for at least three days. Cassava mash fermented for three days has the HCN reduced to alevel tolerable for human consumption; there is an advantage of maximum swelling, in addition to desirablecolour, aroma and texture.

S.V. Irtwange

2009-01-01

206

Characteristics of cornstalk pulping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soda and sulfate cooking of soaked corn stalks at 160 degrees gave pulp in 38-40% yield, with 0.22-0.50% rejects, 11-19 kappa no., and improved strength. The bleaching of stalk pulp by the CEH sequence gave an 81-87% yield and brightness 68-83.

Bhaumik, S.K.; Rao, V.S.; Ghosh, K.L.

1980-01-01

207

PULP dead or alive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption). The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal; Ashu Agarwal

2011-01-01

208

LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

M. P. CEREDA; M.C.Y. MATTOS

1996-01-01

209

LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkag (more) e. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯) has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight) of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

CEREDA, M. P.; MATTOS, M.C.Y.

1996-01-01

210

Performance of yeast cultures in cassava wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeasts isolated from palm wine were cultured in media of varying cassava peel concentration and their growths were monitored. Thereafter, the yeasts were subjected to crude protein analysis. The performance in terms of crude protein and growth rate using monod model was studied. The results show that the maximum crude protein content of about 4% was obtained at 1.5% cassava peel concentration for media unamended with ammonium sulphate. For cassava peel media amended with ammonium sulphate, the maximum crude protein content of about 7% was obtained, also, at 1.5% cassava peel concentration. The maximum specific growthrates were 0.38 day-1 for 1%, 0.47 day-1 for 1.5% and 0.41 day-1 for 2% for amended cassava peel media. For cassava peel media amended with ammonium sulphate, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.9day-1 for 1%, 0.94 day-1for 1.5% and 0.96 day-1 for 2%.

Charles O. Onyegbado; Ifeanyichukwu Edeh

2012-01-01

211

Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 mol mL-1 nmol-1. Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57x108 cfu g-1). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

I. Ahaotu; C.C. Ogueke; C.I. Owuamanam; N.N. Ahaotu; J.N. Nwosu

2011-01-01

212

Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash. PMID:22514894

Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

2011-10-15

213

Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

Ahaotu I; Ogueke CC; Owuamanam CI; Ahaotu NN; Nwosu JN

2011-10-01

214

Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition  

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The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké inf...

Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

215

Angioleiomyoma of the pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Vascular leiomyomas or angioleiomyomas are benign solitary smooth muscular tumours that rarely occur in the distal finger. I report a 64-year-old man with uncommon clinical appearance in the pulp of the middle finger.

Ohtsuka H

2013-08-01

216

Pulp and periapical pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

Denise Piotto Leonardi; Allan Fernando Giovanini; Susimara Almeida; Celso Alfredo Schramm; Flares Baratto-Filho

2011-01-01

217

Supplementation Levels of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation of level concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in cattle. Four, rumen fistulated cattle with initial body weight of 400 ? 10kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were concentrate cassava chip based offering at 0, 1, 2 and 3 % BW with urea-treated rice straw fed ad libitum. It was found that ruminal pH was significantly decreased with increase of concentrate. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration in the rumen was significantly different among treatments. In addition, a molar proportion of propionate was higher in supplemented groups at 2 and 3 % BW (P< 0.05), leading to significantly decreased acetate:propionate ratio. Furthermore, microbial N supply was significantly improved and was highest at 2 %BW supplementation. The efficiency of rumen microbial-N synthesis based on organic matter (OM) truly digested in the rumen was highest in level of concentrate supplementation at 2 %BW (80 % of cassava chip in diets). Moreover, the total protozoal counts were significantly increased, while fungal zoospores were dramatically decreased in cattle receiving increased levels of concentrate. In conclusion, cassava chip can be use as energy source at 80% in concentrate and supplementation of concentrate at 2 %BW with urea-treated rice straw as roughage could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in cattle.

S. Khampa; M. Wanapat

2006-01-01

218

Apomixis in cassava: advances and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is the most important staple crop in the Tropics and Subtropics. Apomixis may revolutionize its production due to various attributes. These potential advantages include production by true seed, maintaining cultivar superiority over generations without segregation, and avoiding contamination by bacteria and viruses. Historically, apomixis was initially observed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture researchers, in the 1980s, in homogenous progeny of hybrid crosses. Later, from 1980 through 2010, apomixis was extensively studied by Universidade de Brasília, in order to determine contributing mechanisms and occurrence. Apomixis genes occur naturally at low frequencies in cultivated cassava and can be transferred by crosses with wild species. Apparently, apomixis in cassava is controlled by more than one recessive gene, which act in an additive form. Aneuploidy is associated with apomixis in cassava and can provide the double dosages necessary for recessive gene action. By using molecular techniques, genetic homogeneous progeny has been demonstrated, while embryonic exams have shown nucellar multiembryos. Polyploidy was found to increase apomixis percentage. From an evolutionary viewpoint, polyploidy has contributed to production of new species, when combined with apomixis. Recently, somatic embryos have been detected in the integument, revealing a rare model of apomixis that has only been documented in cassava. PMID:23613244

Freitas, D Y H; Nassar, N M A

2013-04-02

219

Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs.

1997-01-01

220

New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. (Universita de Perugia (Italy))

1988-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Production method of debittering honey pomelo fermentation product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for producing a fermented product of debitterized honey pomelos. A honey pomelo pulp raw material is washed and disinfected, and is debitterized under thermal insulation for 2 to 4 hours at a temperature of between 55 and 66 DEG C by soy milk with the weight ratio of between 1 to 2 and 3, the debitterized honey pomelo pulp is pulped by adding enzyme and is enzymolyzed by heating to obtain juice of the enzymolyzed and debitterized honey pomelo, the juice of the enzymolyzed and debitterized honey pomelo is sterilized the sugar and acid degree of the enzymolyzed and debitterized honey pomelo is adjusted and zymogen is added into the enzymolyzed and debitterized honey pomelo for fermentation to obtain a semi-finished product of the fermented product of the debitterized honey pomelos and the semi-finished product is put into a tank for aging and afterripening to obtain a finished product. When alcohol active dry microzyme is added for fermentation, debitterized honey pomelo wine is obtained and when acetic acid bacteria is inoculated for fermentation after the alcohol active dry microzyme is added for fermentation, debitterized honey pomelo vinegar is obtained. The method utilizes phytoenzyme contained in the soy milk to effectively reduce the content of bitter principle-naringin in the honey pomelo pulp raw material, and the measurement shows that the contents of naringin are low in the honey pomelo pulp raw material after the debitterization and the fermented products of the debitterized honey pomelos prepared by the honey pomelo pulp raw material. The debitterized honey pomelo wine produced by the method has natural colour and luster and fragrance of honey pomelos, and the produced debitterized honey pomelo vinegar is clear and transparent, and has the fragrance of vinegar and honey pomelos.

JINGLIN GU

222

Tapé Fermentation  

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Microorganisms isolated from ragi, originally obtained from Indonesia, were selected for their ability to convert steamed glutinous rice into tapé, an Indonesian fermented food. A mixture of Chlamydomucor oryzae and Endomycopsis fibuliger had good fermentation characteristics. Prepared starters, pro...

Djien, Ko Swan

223

Ferment barrel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a fermenter, which is used for conveniently generating fertilizer water required for floriculture. The fermenter comprises a barrel body (1), a barrel cover (3) which is in threaded connection with the barrel body (1), a water outlet tap (7) which is hermetically connected to the barrel body (1) and communicated with the inside of the barrel body (1), a fermentation pot (10) which is provided with a plurality of through holes (9), a fermentation pot cover (8) and a water inlet pipe (5), wherein, the fermentation pot (10) is arranged inside the barrel body (1) the fermentation pot cover (8) is in threaded connection with the fermentation pot (10) and both ends of the water inlet pipe (5) are respectively in threaded connection with the barrel cover (3) and the through holes on the fermentation pot cover (8). As improvement, the fermenter also can comprise a water inlet pipe cover (2), a water gauge (6) and a handle (4) which are used for displaying the fertilizer water amount stored and conveniently moving the fermenter. People can place organic substances such as leavings in daily life and the like in the fermenter for fermentation to generate the fertilizer water or prepare a nutrient solution, and the fertilizer water or the nutrient solution is used for watering flowers and ornamental plants, thereby not only convenience is provided but also the nutrition is sufficient.

YONGTANG LUO

224

Ethanol fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

1981-01-01

225

Preparation and evaluation of sauces from lactic acid fermented vegetables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different combinations of fermented vegetables like carrot, radish and cucumber with pear and mango pulps were made separately and were processed. All the sauces prepared were having a constant TSS of 18°B using different combinations of fermented pulp viz., 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fruit pulps of mango and pear. The titratable acidity of carrot, radish and cucumber based sauces ranged from 1.22 to 1.39%. The blending ratio influenced the titratable acidity, Brix-acid ratio, pH and colour of the various sauces. In general, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of all sauces prepared met the FPO specifications. Carrot with pear pulp based sauce had the highest overall acceptability. Product prepared with 25% radish + 75% pear and sauce with blend of 50% cucumber + 50% pear were preferred to others. Fermented carrot based sauce having blend of 75% fermented carrot + 25% pear was adjudged sensorily as the best. The cost of production of fermented vegetable based sauces (200 ml bottle) ranged between Rs 15.54 and 24.14 and the lowest (Rs 15.54) cost was for radish based fermented sauce.

Joshi VK; Somesh S

2010-03-01

226

Levaduras autóctonas con capacidad fermentativa en la producción de etanol a partir de pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia/ Autoctonous yeasts having fermentation ability in producing ethanol from Musa (AAB Simmonds) plantain surplus pulp in the Córdoba department of Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la capacidad fermentativa de levaduras nativas de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, para la obtención de etanol a partir de la pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds), con el objetivo de encontrar cepas eficientes. Los microorganismos utilizados correspondieron a las especies: Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii 14AD, Candida albicans y Candida guillliermondii 13AD (nativas), y una cepa comercial de referencia, Saccharomyc (more) es cerevisiae T73. La fermentación se realizó a diferentes concentraciones de sustrato, siendo la concentración del 40% la mejor; se evaluó la producción de etanol mediante el método colorimétrico del dicromato de potasio utilizando un equipo espectrofotómetro Lambda 11. Se observó que la levadura Candida guilliermondii 14AD nativa fue la más eficiente con una producción promedio de 3,45% v/v de etanol a las 72 horas de fermentación; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con la producción de etanol a partir de la cepa de referencia, la cual produjo 3,59% v/v. Estos resultados sugieren la existencia de levaduras nativas con capacidad para ser utilizadas en la obtención de etanol a partir de material residuo de plátano. Abstract in english Native yeasts' (Cordoba, Colombia) fermentation ability for producing ethanol from plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds) surplus pulp was evaluated; the object was to find efficient yeasts. The microorganisms used here came from the Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii (14AD), Candida albicans and Candida guillliermondii 13AD strains (native) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 (a commercial reference yeast). Fermentation was carried out on different substrate concentrations, th (more) e 40% one giving the best result; ethanol production was evaluated by the potassium dichromate colorimetric method using a Lambda 11 spectrophotometer. It was observed that the Candida guilliermondii 14AD native yeast was the most efficient, having an average 3.45% v/v ethanol production after 72 hours' fermentation. There were no statistically significant differences compared to reference yeast strain ethanol production (3.59% v/v). These results suggest that native yeasts can be used in obtaining ethanol from residual plantain matter.

Oviedo Zumaqué, Luis; Lara Mantilla, Cecilia; Mizger Pantoja, Mauricio

2009-01-01

227

A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing. PMID:23174160

Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

2012-11-19

228

Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

1984-02-03

229

Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively.

Yoon MH; Lee YW; Lee CH; Seo YB

2012-12-01

230

Evaluation of the co-product pulp from Salix viminalis energy crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salix viminalis is among the species that are considered as promising for future energy crops in marginal lands throughout Canada. Whilst research conducted on Salix species is oriented, to a large extent, towards the hydrolytic production of sugars for fermentation, we have considered co-product fibre since it adds potential value to an integrated use of the biomass. In this study, extractives, lignin, hemicellulose, holocellulose and {alpha}-cellulose have been quantified using ASTM or TAPPI standard methods. Carbohydrates found in the hemicellulose were also quantified using HPLC. Hemicellulose comparison for one and three years old samples showed that the xylose content increases with age during this growth period. Kraft pulp has been produced at a bench scale (few kg range) using established pulping conditions. The pulp was tested following ATTPC standard methods. Pulp yields were of 29% and 34% for one and three years old samples respectively. The average fibre lengths were shorter for the younger samples, 0.35 mm, as compared with the older samples, 0.41 mm. Short fibres are not necessarily related to the species as much as to the fact that the samples used for the pulping were from young wood. When compared to industrial pulp, the basket willow pulp showed mechanical properties comparable to hardwood pulp which implies that this pulp could eventually be used in similar applications. Comparison with other energy crops shows advantages from the perspective of using this energy crop in Canada to co-produce pulp and, following suitable hydrolysis, sugars for fermentation to ethanol. (author)

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Capek-Menard, Eva; Chornet, Esteban [Industrial Research Chair on Cellulosic Ethanol and 2nd Generation Biofuels, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15

231

Molecular Studies on the Transmission of Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Cassava by Bemisia tabaci and Cloning of ICMV and SLCMV Replicase Gene from Cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava mosaic disease, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. The B. tabaci adults from colonies reared on virus free cassava plant produced from apical meristem culture was studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) from cassava to cassava. Virus free plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using geminivirus degenerate primers. The virus acquisition access period (AAP) of 48 h on virus infected cassava leaves and 48 h virus inoculation access periods on virus free healthy leaves were investigated. Both ICMV and SLCMV were absolutely transmitted by whiteflies reared on cassava. Virus specific primers were designed in the replicase region and used to detect virus in B. tabaci after different AAP. The PCR amplified replicase genes from virus transmitted cassava leaves were cloned the plasmid DNA was isolated from a recombinant colony of E. coli DH5? after their confirmation by colony PCR and sequenced them. The nucleotide sequences obtained from automated DNA sequencing were confirmed as ICMV and SLCMV replicase gene after homology searching by BLAST and found to be a new isolates. The nucleotide sequences of new isolates were submitted in GenBank (accession number JN652126 and JN595785). PMID:22302313

Duraisamy, Raghu; Natesan, Senthil; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Gandhi, Karthikayan; Lakshmanan, Pugalendhi; Karuppusamy, Nageswari; Chokkappan, Mohan

2012-02-01

232

Production of ethanol from starch industry by-products, especially from potato-pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a fermentation plant, in which wastes and by-products from potato-and wheat-starch factories, starch derivatization, starch saccharification and production of potato flakes with different quality and varying amounts can be fermented to ethanol. Special attention is given to potato pulp which represents the greatest part of by-products and whose marketing in wet form at best covers costs or even is leading to significant expenses in the case of drying. Due to the composition, it is difficult to ferment potato pulp to ethanol in conventional plants because of the presence of gelling materials such as pectin and hemicelluloses. A hydrolysis process is is described which is especially geared towards obtaining hydrolysates possibly high in dry matter contents with respect to the subsequent fermentation.

Marihart, J.

1982-09-01

233

ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59%) was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87%) was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.

M. Sarwar Jahan; Sabina Rawsan; D. A. Nasima Chowdhury; A. Al-Maruf

2008-01-01

234

Selection and characterization of a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii strain for ethanol production at high temperature from cassava starch hydrolysate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pichia kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 was isolated from traditional fermented pork sausage by an enrichment technique in a yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, supplemented with 4 % (v/v) ethanol at 40 °C and selected based on its ethanol fermentation ability at 40 °C in YPD broth composed of 16 % glucose, and in a cassava starch hydrolysate medium composed of cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 16 % glucose. The strain produced ethanol from cassava starch hydrolysate at a high temperature up to 45 °C, but the optimal temperature for ethanol production was at 40 °C. Ethanol production by this strain using shaking flask cultivation was the highest in a medium containing cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 18 % glucose, 0.05 % (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.09 % yeast extract, 0.05 % KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05 % MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, with a pH of 5.0 at 40 °C. The highest ethanol concentration reached 7.86 % (w/v) after 24 h, with productivity of 3.28 g/l/h and yield of 85.4 % of the theoretical yield. At 42 °C, ethanol production by this strain became slightly lower, while at 45 °C only 3.82 % (w/v) of ethanol, 1.27 g/l/h productivity and 41.5 % of the theoretical yield were attained. In a study on ethanol production in a 2.5-l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm throughout the fermentation, P. kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 7.35 % (w/v) after 33 h, a productivity of 2.23 g/l/h and a yield of 79.9 % of the theoretical yield. PMID:23132277

Yuangsaard, Napatchanok; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Yamada, Mumoru; Limtong, Savitree

2012-11-07

235

Studies on the Cold Resistance of Cassava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methods: SC124 and Fuxuan 01, two cold-resistant cassava cultivars and Nanzhi199 and SC205, another two cold-sensitive cassava cultivars were studied under low temperature stress. Aims: in order to explore the hardy physiological characters of different cassava cultivars. Results: Results showed that under low temperature stress, the cell membrane permeability of the tested cassavas increased, the increase ranges in the cold-sensitive cultivars were more obvious than those in the strong cold resistance ones; the MAD contents in leaves were in a rise-fall sequence while the MAD contents in the cold-sensitive cultivars were much higher than those in the cold-resistant ones; under low temperature stress, the SOD and POD activities in leaves of cold-sensitive cultivars dropped greater than those in the strong cold-resistant ones; the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble liquid protein in leaves increased more seemingly in the cold-resistant cultivars than in the cold-sensitive ones. The contents of soluble sugar and soluble liquid protein in leaves were in a rise-fall trend as the temperature dropped and time elapsed. There was a dramatic decline in the chlorophyll contents and water ratios in leaves under the low temperature stress, more seemingly in the weak cold resistance cultivars than in the stronger ones. Conclusions: It was obvious that there was a close relation between the cold resistance and the cell membrane permeability, MDA contents, SOD and POD activities and the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein in different cassava cultivars. And those physiological characters could be used as indexes of cold resistance.

Xinglu Luo; Qiufeng Huang

2012-01-01

236

Fermentation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A continuous fermentation apparatus is used for the production of EtOH from a sucrose-containing culture medium. The solution is clarified and sterilized then mixed with saturating concentrations of enzymes before being introduced into a tubular fermentor (containing fermented broth). The fermented broth is withdrawn from the fermentor, the enzyme is recovered by centrifugation for recycling, and the alcohol in the supernate is purified by distillation.

De Souza Santos, S.M.; Araujo, P.

1981-06-02

237

Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis in selected cassava genotypes. A complete diallel mating scheme including reciprocals of nine resistant and susceptible genotypes of cassava were evaluated in the field over a period of two planting seasons. The combining ability analysis revealed that both the additive and nonadditive gene effects were present. Crosses between the resistant lines and susceptible genotypes showed intermediate disease reaction to CAD suggesting a polygenic system of resistance to the disease. The significant maternal and specific reciprocal differences among the parents and crosses indicated that maternal and/or cytoplasmic inheritance is involved in the reaction of cassava genotypes to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. The significant genotype X environment interaction suggested lack of stability in the development of lesions/cankers on cassava stems. Therefore, recurrent selection would be appropriate for accumulating genes for resistance to CAD in cassava and progeny performance may not be based on their parents performance per se.

O.F. Owolade; O.F. Owolade; A.G.O. Dixon; A.Y.A. Adeoti

2006-01-01

238

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuat (more) ing new hybrid types adapted to different environments. It is assumed that cassava originated by hybridization between two wild Manihot species followed by vegetative reproduction of the hybrid.

Nassar, Nagib M.A.

2000-12-01

239

Exploiting the combination of natural and genetically engineered resistance to cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak viruses impacting cassava production in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444). Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo). An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa. PMID:23049780

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B; Zainuddin, Ima M; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2012-09-25

240

Study on the development of methanogenic microflora during anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pattern of increase in cell number in 12 different groups of bacteria was studied during anaerobic digestion of enzymatically prehydrolysed sugar beet pulp in a 70-1 fermentor with sequential feeding over a period of 130 days. Glucose-fermenting bacteria accounted for 90 % of the total microflor...

Labat, M.; Garcia, Jean-Louis

 
 
 
 
241

Pulping of nonwood fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonwood fibers are pulped with bacteria which produce pectic acid lyase in alkaline conditions. Thus, bacillus firmus GIR 227, FERM-P No. 5208 was cultivated in 100 mL water containing pectin 1, polypeptone 0.5, yeast extraction 0.5, powdered soybean 0.1, MnSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O 0.005, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ 1, and Edgeworthia papyrifera bast fibers 4 g at 30 degrees for 2-3 days, suspended in 1 L water, and dissociated to give approximately 70% pulp having Canadian Std. Freeness approximately 320 mL compared with 50% by alkali cooking.

1981-10-14

242

Fermented grain protein beverage and production technology thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a fermented grain protein beverage and a production technology thereof. The fermented grain protein beverage is produced by fermenting glutinous rice, rice and fresh dry peanut in a weight ratio of 2: 2: 1, mixing and grinding into pulp, diluting with water, then adding white sugar, stabilizing agent, sweetening agent and antiseptic agent, homogenizing and sterilizing at UHT (Ultra-High-Temperature). In the invention, the starch and carbohydrate in the rice are transformed into protein which is suitable for human needs at the same time, the fermented grain protein beverage is given naturally pleasant aromas, smooth mouthfeel, even, fine and smooth form of tissue and composite aromas of various kinds of grains through fermenting the organic acids and the aromatic substances which are generated during fermenting not only effectively improve aromas and mouthfeel of beverage, but also plat health care effect to human body.

ZENGPENG DU; FANGLEI XIA

243

Circuit of pulping machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a circuit of a pulper. The circuit of a pulper comprises a control unit, an execution unit and a power source unit, wherein the control circuit comprises a central processing chip the execution unit comprises an electric machine and an electric heating device which are connected in parallel the electric machine is connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor, while the electric heating device is connected in series with a second relay the central processing chip is connected with the bidirectional thyristor through a light-coupled control circuit and the electric heating device through a second relay control circuit and the control unit also comprises a zero-crossing detection circuit connected with the central processing chip for detecting a power source signal. Because the circuit is provided with the bidirectional thyristor and the zero-crossing detection circuit, stepless speed regulation can be realized to reach the goal of slow start, slow stop or slow stirring. Moreover, because the pulper controlled by the circuit can carry out crushing and stirring to pulp-preparing materials while heating the materials, and prevents the materials from sticking on a tube and a bottom, and the pulper can also improve pulp yield and ensures that the manufactured pulp is more delicious.

XIAOHUA WANG

244

Evaluation of Trace Elements and Total Antioxidant Status in Nigerian Cassava Processors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consumption and export cassava or cassava product is on the increase, thus more Nigerians are involved in the planting and processing of cassava stems and tubers respectively. Tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and diabetes Mellitus (DM) are among the cassava-cyanide induced conditions in rural Ni...

O.G. Arinola; S.O. Nwozo; J.A. Ajiboye; A.H. Oniye

245

Varietal Composition and Functional Properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) Leaf Meal and Leaf Protein Concentrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava leaf samples harvested from local and genetically improved cassava varieties were processed into cassava leaf meal (CLM) and cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) using the low cost village-level fractionation scheme. Chemical and physicochemical analyses were carried out to determine ...

Ayodeji O. Fasuyi; Valentine A. Aletor

246

Studies on the cryopreservation of cassava meristems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts toward improving the efficiency of the droplet freezing method for the cryopreservation of cassava meristems were undertaken. The use of 15% DMSO as a cryoprotectant resulted in a meristem survival rate ranging from 0 to 38% following retrieval from liquid nitrogen and culturing on solid OMS medium. A method using a freezing solution consisting of OMS medium with 1 M sorbitol, 9% sucrose and 5% DMSO resulted in the highest survival rates (up to 62%)

1986-01-01

247

Bio-ethanol Obtained by Fermentation Process with Continuous Feeding of Yeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la búsqueda de energía renovable, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló un estudio de la fermentación de almidones de sorgo y yuca adicionando levadura comercial para obtener bio-etanol. Se determinaron las condiciones de reacción óptimas para llevar a cabo la hidrólisis de los almidones y obtener así la máxima cantidad de azúcar fermentable. De igual manera se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de concentración de azúcar y tiempo de fermentación fueron p (more) ara producir la mayor cantidad de bio-etanol. Bajo las condiciones de reacción aplicadas la eficiencia de fermentación del sorgo es mayor a la de la yuca, permitiendo obtener rendimientos mayores al 84% de conversión (sorgo 84.10% y yuca 55.80%). Abstract in english In our ongoing search for renewable energy, a study on the fermentation of starch contained in sorghum and cassava was developed with the addition of commercial yeast for bio-ethanol production. The optimal reaction conditions for starch hydrolysis were determined to obtain the maximum amount of fermentable sugars. In addition, the optimal conditions of sugar concentration and fermentation time for bio-ethanol production were found. Under the applied reaction conditions, (more) the efficiency of sorghum fermentation is higher than that of cassava fermentation. On the other hand, the effect of phosphate inorganic salts added to both fermentation processes increase ethanol production in the sorghum hydrolyzed solution. The conversion yield was higher than 84% at 72 h of fermentation (sorghum 84.10% and cassava 55.80%).

Rubio-Arroyo, Manuel Fernando; Vivanco-Loyo, Pilar; Juárez, Moisés; Poisot, Martha; Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo

2011-12-01

248

Kraft Pulping of Coppice Grown Eucalypts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulping and bleaching investigations were carried out on coppice grown Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus grandis. It was observed that bleachable grade pulps could be obtained from coppice grown eucalypts. These pulps could be bleached to 76-78% ISO ...

R. Pant A. K. Rai R. M. Mathur Y. V. Sood

1980-01-01

249

Evaluation of the Proximate, Pasting and Sensory Characteristics of Cassava Flour (Fufu) Fortified with Pigeon Pea Flour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nutritious value of Fufu-fermented cassava flour was improved through supplementation with 10, 20, 30 and 40% pigeon pea flour and the products were subjected to proximate composition, pasting characteristics and sensory tests, with 100% cassava flour as control. The results showed that the pigeon pea Fufu flour contained 7.70% protein, 0.27% fat, 1.08% ash at 10% level of inclusion and this increased to 16.45, 0.54 and 1.24% for protein, fat and ash respectively at 40% level of inclusion. Meanwhile, the carbohydrate contents decreased from 90.28 to 80.81% at 10% and 40% inclusion of pigeon pea flour respectively. Pasting characteristic decreased with increased pigeon pea inclusion. Peak viscosity decreased from 341.92 to 219.80 (RVU) final viscosity from 301.71 to 191.00 (RVU), setback value from 82.29 to 58.21 (RVU) likewise the peak time from 4.93 to 4.33 min at 10% and 40% level of inclusion of pigeon pea respectively. There was a slight significant difference in overall acceptability between 10% level of inclusion and the control (100% cassava flour).

S.S. Akoja; A.O. Mohammed

2011-01-01

250

Diallel analysis of cassava brown streak disease, yield and yield related characteristics in Mozambique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) reported from 1999 in Mozambique, now constitutes the main production constraint in the country. CBSD may be found in all plant parts, affecting food security and availability and quality of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA), and inheritance of relevant traits and to identify superior parents for use in further improvement of genotypes for yield and CBSD resistance. The parents were selected from a region where CBSD is the main economic constraint. Chigoma mafia was the best general combiner for average root number and CBSD resistance, Mulaleia also combined well for CBSD resistance. Clone IMM 30025 was the best general combiner for root pulp hardness, but combined poorly for CBSD resistance. Chigoma mafia × Mulaleia had the best mean performance for fresh root yield and CBSD resistance. Macia 1 × Chigoma mafia had the best SCA for fresh root yield, CBSD resistance and root pulp hardness. MZ 89186 × IMM 30025 and the reciprocals IMM 30025 × MZ 89186, Chigoma mafia × Macia 1 and MZ 89186 × Mulaleia had the best resistance to CBSD. This indicates that there is good parental material for CBSD resistance breeding. Chigoma × Mulaleia, MZ 89185 × IMM 30025 and MZ 89186 × Macia 1 had good mid-parent heterosis for the most important traits. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from 38.9 for fresh root yield to as high as 95.5 for harvest index, indicating the potential for effective response to selection.

Zacarias AM; Labuschagne MT

2010-12-01

251

Incidence of Cassava Viral Diseases and First Identification of East African cassava mosaic virus and Indian cassava mosaic virus by PCR in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava is infected by numerous Begomoviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. In order to identify viruses responsible for the disease and characterize them, surveys were conducted in all cassava production zones in Togo. The symptom severity of these viral dis...

K.D. Adjata; E. Muller; M. Aziadekey; Y.M.D. Gumedzoe; M. Peterschmitt

252

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The ...

G.O. Oluwadare; O. Agbaje

253

Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root ...

Du Thanh Hang

254

Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.

Nassar Nagib M.A.; Vieira Marco André R.; Vieira Clibas; Gratapaglia Dario

1998-01-01

255

Integrated pulping and biorefining of palm residues based on semichemical cooking and fiber fractionation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work validates a new strategy for complete utilization of palm residues by separating fibers and parenchyma for the respective purposes of pulping and biorefining. The parenchyma cells were fractionated from royal palm sheath (RPS) after neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking for producing fermentable sugars, leaving vascular bundles for manufacturing pulp and paper. Parenchyma cells could be readily and completely screened out prior to defibration. They were more digestible by cellulase than vascular bundles or the pulp derived from them. Cellulose enzymatic digestibility (CED) of parenchyma cells rapidly reached 82% in 12-h hydrolysis and finally up to 92%. The CEDs of parenchyma were maintained around 90% at a medium solid consistency, 12% (w/w). The average length, retention and drainability of RPS pulp were all improved without loss of physical strength after removing parenchyma. This work may help establish a new platform for maximizing the utilization efficiency of parenchyma-rich biomass.

Liu H; Li N; Fu S; Chen S

2013-05-01

256

Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.

Blagbrough IS; Bayoumi SA; Rowan MG; Beeching JR

2010-12-01

257

Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

2010-10-11

258

Method for producing corn starch sugar dreg aspergillus oryzae and red yeast rice fermented soy sauce  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for producing corn starch pulp aspergillus oryzae and red yeast rice fermented soy sauce, and belongs to the technical fields of biological engineering and food seasoning production. The method comprises the following steps of: taking a soy sauce brewing strain aspergillus oryzae as a parent strain, taking the corn starch sugar dreg as a main raw material part to replace the traditional soy sauce brewing raw materials of bran (wheat) and bean pulp (soybean), and preparing the sugar dreg aspergillus oryzae through solid state fermentation taking high-yield pigment monascus as a parent strain, taking the corn starch sugar dreg as a raw material to prepare high-color value pulp monascus fermentation liquor through liquid state fermentation mixing the sugar dreg aspergillus oryzae and the pulp monascus in a certain ratio, and brewing the soy sauce by adopting high salt liquid state fermentation technology. The culture medium condition in the process of preparing the sugar dreg aspergillus oryzae is optimized, wherein the activity of neutral proteinase can reach 3,000U/g (dry medium) and meets the requirement on industrial production. The high-yield pigment parameter influencing the liquid state fermentation of the sugar dreg monascus is optimized, so that the color value reaches 200 U/mL. The sugar dreg aspergillus oryzae and the sugar dreg monascus mixed fermented soy sauce has the advantages of good effect of coloring meat products, delicious taste, and high color value stability.

DONGNING GAO; GANRONG XU

259

Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spaci...

Spittel, M.C.; Huis, A., van

260

Fermentation industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

Irvine, R.L.

1980-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Production of ethanol, pulp fibre and animal feed from low grade hardwoods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utilization of hardwoods is limited because most vessels and ray (parenchyma) cells are very short and not valuable for paper making. In a new catalyzed nitric acid hardwood pulping process the long fibre fraction is recovered, bleached and used to produce a good quality paper pulp. About 70% of the wood fibre can be recovered for sale as pulp with the remaining 30% as short fibres used to produce ethanol. The process does not require expensive high temperature and pressure equipment because the acid concentration and pulping temperatures are relatively low and the process takes place at atmospheric pressure. The process is environmentally friendly because it is possible to bleach the pulp fibres without using chlorine, consequently avoiding the production of environmental hazards such as dioxins. In addition, options exist for recovering used acid and ammonia bleaching agent for the production of either microbial protein for animal feed or as an ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The short fibre fraction is enzymatically hydrolyzed to liberate the wood sugars which are simultaneously fermented by yeasts to produce ethanol. The sugars left in the used acid and wash waters are used as a substrate for the growth of an acid-tolerant yeast-like fungus Scytalidium acidophilum, thereby producing fungal protein animal feed supplement, while removing the biochemical oxygen demand of the waste water. Pulp and ethanol production data and pulp quality data from both bench-scale experiment and pilot plant are presented. A preliminary economic assessment is included. 43 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

Wilson, J.J.; Gauthier, Y.

1990-12-01

262

MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw mat...

Kátia N. MATSUI; Fábio D. S. LAROTONDA; Alfredo T. N. PIRES; João B. LAURINDO

263

Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pulp for wine production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos processos de deterioração da polpa processada do cacau.

Rita de Cássia Trindade; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Eriana Gomes Serpa Barreto; Taniella de Carvalho Mendes; Carlos Augusto Rosa

1999-01-01

264

Pulps: more whiteness, less wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only chemical processes give high quality pulps. Mechanical processes give pulps with not so good fibers. Two chemical methods subsist: the bisulphite process, which gives no resistant pulps, and the Kraft process, which gives very good mechanical qualities pulps. To remove the lignin to a maximum, there are two processes: the first consists in a prolonged cooking, the second a first oxidation by oxygen. Four methods are used for the pulp whitening: the chlorine dioxide, the oxygen, the hydrogen peroxide, and the ozone. The whitening sequences which take care of the environment use oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, when they add chloride dioxide: they are elemental chlorine free (ECF). Some sequences are totally chlorine free (TCF), they use only oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. With these methods, wastes and releases levels are low. France, Federal Republic of Germany, Scandinavia and Usa paper treatment policies are shortly compared. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Fauvarque, J.

1994-05-01

265

Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines  

Science.gov (United States)

Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2006-05-30

266

Caracterização molecular de acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético/ Molecular characterization of biofortified cassava accessions with potential for use in genetic improvement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A mandioca apresenta potencial como fonte de carotenóides na alimentação humana, em especial ?-caroteno (nas raízes amarelas) e licopeno (nas raízes rosadas). Assim, a possibilidade da mandioca ser, além de fonte de calorias, uma fonte de vitaminas e antioxidantes, é encarada como forma de melhorar a nutrição dos habitantes de países em desenvolvimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar por meio de marcadores RAPD 20 acessos de mandioca biofortifica (more) dos com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético. Os acessos foram avaliados por meio de marcadores RAPD, sendo posteriormente estimada a matriz de similaridade genética entre os acessos, por meio do índice de Jaccard. A análise por meio de 12 iniciadores gerou um total de 144 bandas das quais 120 (83%) foram polimórficas. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação três grupos, sendo o grupo um formado por sete acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e dois acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, o grupo dois formado por oito acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela e um acesso com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e o grupo três formado pelos acessos melhorados com cor da polpa da raiz creme e branca. Os marcadores RAPD foram eficientes na determinação da variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, rosada, creme e branca, diferenciaram os acessos melhorados dos demais acessos e revelaram uma tendência de separação dos acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada dos com a cor da polpa da raiz amarela. Abstract in english Cassava presents potential as source of carotenoids for human diet, in special ?-carotene (within the yellow roots) and lycopene (within the pinkish roots). So, the possibility for cassava to be, besides source of calories, source of vitamins and antioxidants as well is faced as a manner to improve the nutrition of inhabitants of developing countries. In the present work, the aim was to characterize by RAPD markers 20 accessions of biofortified cassava with potential (more) for use in genetic improvement. The accessions were evaluated via RAPD markers, being then estimated the matrix of genetic similarity among the accessions by using the Jaccard index. The analysis using 12 primers generated a total of 144 markers, among which 120 (83%) were polymorphic. The clustering analysis revealed the formation of three groups, being group one formed by seven accessions with pinkish root pulp and two with yellow root pulp, group two formed by eight accessions with yellow root pulp and one accession with pinkish root pulp, and group three formed by improved accessions with either cream color or white root pulp. The RAPD markers were efficient to determine the genetic variability among the cassava accessions with yellow, pinkish, cream color and white root pulp, differentiated the improved accessions from the others and revealed a trend to separate the accessions with pinkish root pulp from the accessions with yellow root pulp.

Vieira, Eduardo Alano; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; Faleiro, Fabio Gelape; Bellon, Graciele; Silva, Marilia Santos

2011-06-01

267

Caracterização molecular de acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético Molecular characterization of biofortified cassava accessions with potential for use in genetic improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mandioca apresenta potencial como fonte de carotenóides na alimentação humana, em especial ?-caroteno (nas raízes amarelas) e licopeno (nas raízes rosadas). Assim, a possibilidade da mandioca ser, além de fonte de calorias, uma fonte de vitaminas e antioxidantes, é encarada como forma de melhorar a nutrição dos habitantes de países em desenvolvimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar por meio de marcadores RAPD 20 acessos de mandioca biofortificados com potencial de uso no melhoramento genético. Os acessos foram avaliados por meio de marcadores RAPD, sendo posteriormente estimada a matriz de similaridade genética entre os acessos, por meio do índice de Jaccard. A análise por meio de 12 iniciadores gerou um total de 144 bandas das quais 120 (83%) foram polimórficas. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação três grupos, sendo o grupo um formado por sete acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e dois acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, o grupo dois formado por oito acessos com cor da polpa da raiz amarela e um acesso com cor da polpa da raiz rosada e o grupo três formado pelos acessos melhorados com cor da polpa da raiz creme e branca. Os marcadores RAPD foram eficientes na determinação da variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca com cor da polpa da raiz amarela, rosada, creme e branca, diferenciaram os acessos melhorados dos demais acessos e revelaram uma tendência de separação dos acessos com cor da polpa da raiz rosada dos com a cor da polpa da raiz amarela.Cassava presents potential as source of carotenoids for human diet, in special ?-carotene (within the yellow roots) and lycopene (within the pinkish roots). So, the possibility for cassava to be, besides source of calories, source of vitamins and antioxidants as well is faced as a manner to improve the nutrition of inhabitants of developing countries. In the present work, the aim was to characterize by RAPD markers 20 accessions of biofortified cassava with potential for use in genetic improvement. The accessions were evaluated via RAPD markers, being then estimated the matrix of genetic similarity among the accessions by using the Jaccard index. The analysis using 12 primers generated a total of 144 markers, among which 120 (83%) were polymorphic. The clustering analysis revealed the formation of three groups, being group one formed by seven accessions with pinkish root pulp and two with yellow root pulp, group two formed by eight accessions with yellow root pulp and one accession with pinkish root pulp, and group three formed by improved accessions with either cream color or white root pulp. The RAPD markers were efficient to determine the genetic variability among the cassava accessions with yellow, pinkish, cream color and white root pulp, differentiated the improved accessions from the others and revealed a trend to separate the accessions with pinkish root pulp from the accessions with yellow root pulp.

Eduardo Alano Vieira; Josefino de Freitas Fialho; Fabio Gelape Faleiro; Graciele Bellon; Marilia Santos Silva

2011-01-01

268

Comparison of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) development on uninfected cassava plants and cassava plants infected with East African cassava mosaic virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In separate experiments, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from Namulonge, Uganda, was taken from a colony reared on uninfected cassava plants (Manihot esculenta) Crantz, (nonviruliferous whiteflies) and a colony reared on cassava plants infected with East African cassava mosaic virus (viruliferous whiteflies) and allowed to oviposit on uninfected and East African cassava mosaic virus-infected cassava plants for 3 d. There were no significant differences in the number of eggs oviposited and in the number of first instar, second/third instar collectively, and fourth-instar nymphs at different periods on the uninfected and infected plants. The number and sex ratio of eclosed adults as well as the total developmental period were also not significantly different between B. tabaci developing on uninfected or infected plants. These were the findings where either nonviruliferous or viruliferous whiteflies were allowed to oviposit on the plants. Highest mortality occurred on fourth instars developing on uninfected plants where either nonviruliferous or viruliferous whiteflies were allowed to oviposit. This was also the case on the infected plants, where oviposition was by viruliferous whiteflies. Based on regression equations, highest mortality on fourth instars was characterized as population density-independent. Mortality was highest on first instars developing on the infected plants where nonviruliferous whiteflies were allowed to oviposit, and was characterized as population density-dependent. A follow-up experiment showed no significant differences in the total number of nymphs and empty pupal cases over two generations for whiteflies developing on uninfected or infected plants. These data indicate that plants infected with East African cassava mosaic virus will not result in a population boost of B. tabaci. This is quite unlike what has been reported of plants infected with the putative recombinant virus involving East African cassava mosaic virus in combination with African cassava mosaic virus.

Thompson WMO

2002-05-01

269

Pulping of cellulosic material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pale cellulose pulp is manufactured without effluent problems by digesting 100 parts cellulosic material with 60-300 parts aqueous NH/sub 4/OH at 100-150 degrees and 50-400 psi, digesting the product with O in the presence of sufficient alkali to neutralize the acid formed, and recovering or recycling the NH/sub 4/OH. Thus, straw was placed in a stainless steel digestion vessel and 15% aqueous NH/sub 4/OH was added to give liquor-straw ratio 10:1 and NH/sub 4/OH-straw ratio 150:100. The vessel was sealed and rocked during heating 30 minutes at 120 degrees. The cooled mixture was washed to remove the black liquor which was retained for NH/sub 4/OH recovery and the optionally disintegrated straw was replaced in a vessel with 0.4% aqueous NH/sub 4/OH to give liquor-straw ratio 10:1. The vessel was pressurized to 120 psig with O, sealed, heated 30 minutes at 120 degrees, cooled, and the pulp was removed for subsequent washing, screening, bleaching, and cleaning. Apparatus for performing the process continuously is described.

Dean, T.; Ridgley, W.; Hamer, R.J.

1980-03-12

270

NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF THE WASTE OF SACCHARIFICATION PROCESS FROM CASSAVA BAGASSE ON THE LAYING HENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy value of the waste of saccharification process from cassava bagasse (WSPCB) on the laying hens. Twenty ISA-Brown laying hens at the age of 72 weeks were randomly distributed into three feeding treatments which consisted of cassava bagase (CB), WSPCB of solid state fermentation method (WSPCB-SSF), and WSPCB of sub merged fermentation method (WSPCB-SmF). All of the hens were fasted for 24 hours and 15 of them were fed with CB, WSPCB-SSF and WSPCB-SmF (five hens for each test-diet). The other five hens were still fasted. Then, all of the hens were fasted again and their excreta were collected during 48 hours. The nutrient digestibilities which were measured consisted of the Apparent and True Digestibility of Dry matter (ADDM and TDDM), Crude Fiber (ADCF and TDCF), Starch (ADS and TDS), and the Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy (AME and TME). The result of this research showed that the saccharification process generated the solid waste with the nutrient digestibility value (ADDM, TDDM, ADS, TDS, AME, and TME) which were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of CB. The crude fiber digestibility value of the WSPCB has an oposite phenomenon in which the ADCF and TDCF of WSPCB-SmF were greater than CB. In conclusion, the nutrient digestibility value, except for ADCF and TDCF, of the WSPCB on the laying hens were lower in value than those CB.

W.M. Ali-Mursyid; A.S. Nugraha; Zuprizal

2011-01-01

271

Solid-state fermentation of carob pods for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of ethanol from carob pods by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The maximal ethanol concentration (160[+-]3 g/kg dry pods), ethanol productivity (6.7[+-]0.2 g/kg per hour), ethanol yield (40[+-]1.8%), biomass concentration (7.5[+-]0.4x10[sup 8] cells/g carob pulp) and fermentation efficiency (80[+-]2%) were obtained at an inoculum amount of 3%, a particle size of 0.5 mm, a moisture level of 70%, a pH of 4.5 and a temperature of 30 C. Under the same fermentation conditions both sterilized and non-sterilized carob pods pulp gave the same maximum ethanol concentration. (orig.)

Roukas, T. (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-05-01

272

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-06-01

273

Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

2012-12-28

274

An Introduction to pulp for Python Programmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pulp-or (referred to as pulp for the rest of this paper) is a linear programming framework in Python. Pulp is licensed under a modified BSD license. The aim of pulp is to allow an Operations Research (OR) practitioner or programmer to express Linear Programming (LP), and Integer Programming (IP) mod...

275

Identification of Genetically Distinct Cassava Clones from On-Farm Plantations to Widen the Thai Cassava Breeding Gene Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important economic crops in Thailand. However, the Thai cassava breeding gene pool was genetically narrow with only 11 distinct landraces. An attempt was made here to characterize 266 cassava clones collected from 80 farms in eight provinces using 35 SSR markers. A total of 365 polymorphic alleles were detected in the assayed samples. The molecular analysis of variance revealed that a large SSR variance (19.8%) was present among the farm samples. The genetic relationships of the 266 farm samples revealed by the principal coordinate analysis confirmed the large SSR variation observed among the collected cassava samples. The average dissimilarity (AD) of a cassava sample against the other 265 samples was calculated and the AD values obtained ranged from 0.256 to 0.502 with a mean of 0.319. Based on these AD values, a set of 50 unique cassava samples with AD values of 0.346 or higher was assembled from the on-farm samples to widen the genetic base of the Thai cassava breeding gene pool.

Preeya P. Wangsomnuk; Benjawan Ruttawat; Prapit Wongtiem

2013-01-01

276

[Dental pulp in carious teeth  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various etiologic causes lead to dental pulp changes ranging from inflammation to necrosis. The most frequent changes, however, are caused by bacterial activity and toxins from carious process. According to the opinion of various authors and on the basis of our investigations the conclusion can be made that all the forms of dental pulp changes can be developed as the sequela of the disease of supporting apparatus. Pathohistologic examination of dental pulp of cariously damaged teeth showed that the occurred changes are mostly the sequela of inflammation and regressive and progressive changes are found as well.

Basi? N; Selak I; Cvetkovi? T; Konjhodzi? H

1992-01-01

277

Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2013-08-20

278

Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities.

Nyanga LK; Nout MJ; Smid EJ; Boekhout T; Zwietering MH

2013-08-01

279

Pulp and paper industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pulp and paper industry has played a major role in Finland with regards to energy use, technological development and the economy. Finland's market share in printing and writing paper exports is 25%. Finnish companies now figure among the world's biggest pulp and paper enterprises through international consolidations. Finnish equipment manufacturers, control system suppliers and consulting engineering firms are also global players. Rapid technological changes have taken place in the unit sizes of main process equipment or whole production lines. Environmental effects have been reduced significantly, e.g. biological oxygen demand load has been reduced from 530 000 to 18 000 t/a in the last 30 years, even though the production of paper and board has tripled. Competitiveness in the future depends on the supply of raw material, energy use, environmental issues as well as on the development of information and communication technology (ICT) for transferring and storing information. The growth rate of paper products has been closely interconnected with economic development. The average annual increase in the production volume has been 2-3%, whereas the real price of products has followed a declining trend. The first indication of the effects of ICT is seen in the reduced newsprint demand in the US market. It is foreseen that the use of cut-size office papers will increase, together with individual printing. Global growth in the demand for paper products is expected to slow down but not to cease because of this development. Forest growth in Finland currently exceeds annual harvesting. Taking into account the changes in forest ownership, taxation principles and forest land protection, an increase in harvesting of 5-10% is feasible. The amount of imported wood is expected to increase also in the future. Utilisation of the available fibre supply has to be further optimised in terms of endproduct properties. Since the investment in a new production line is already in the region of 400 million euros, the development of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies should not increase the investment cost. Whereas the overall energy efficiency has improved in the past, the electricity intensity has increased. Turning the latter trend around poses a clear challenge for the future. The main approaches include developments in mechanical pulping, higher consistency processing along the pulp and paper production line, accurately dimensioned and controlled pumping as well as advanced process control and energy management systems. Reduction of fresh water intake and new sidestream processing techniques will improve environmental efficiency. Two scenarios are presented. In the Base scenario, the price and availability of electricity favour only a modest capacity increase, resulting in paper and board production of 15 Mt/a and electricity use of 28 TWh/a in 2030. In the Mechanical scenario, high-quality wood-containing papers dominate. The available amounts of wood species dictate the production of different paper grades. The reduction in specific electricity consumption equates to 4% from current figures. With paper and board production of 17 Mt/a, this will result in electricity consumption of 30 TWh/a. If a major breakthrough takes place in TMP production which reduces the specific electricity consumption by 30%, electricity consumption will almost remain at the present level.

Viinikainen, S.; Nousiainen, I.; Edelman, K.; Manninen, J.

2002-07-01

280

Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

Papalexandratou Z; Falony G; Romanens E; Jimenez JC; Amores F; Daniel HM; De Vuyst L

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-09-16

282

Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca Cooking time and texture of cassava roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes foram cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento); GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte) e análise de correlação de Pearson (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time), GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance) and Pearson's correlation analysis (p < 0.05). The variety Viçosa Martinha stood out due to its shorter cooking time (18 minutes) and lower shear resistance values for the raw (10.6 N) and cooked (0.7 N) pulps. With the exception of the varieties Aipim Pretinho, IAC 13 and IAC Espeto, all the others could be considered suitable for direct consumption since they presented cooking times equal or below 30 minutes. There was significant correlation between the shear strength of the cooked pulp and the cooking time (0.62), although moderated by the high values obtained for the coefficient of variation of the texture measurements, highlighting the heterogeneity of the roots. Thus the determination of the cooking time under the experimental conditions used here is more suitable as a quality index of cassava roots associated with the texture.

Simone Vilela Talma; Selma Bergara Almeida; Rozana Moreira Pereira Lima; Henrique Duarte Vieira; Pedro Amorim Bebert

2013-01-01

283

High quality, high-yield pulps: the pulps of the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanical pulping technology has progressed to the stage where high-yield pulps such as bleached CTMP can replace a significant portion of bleached chemical pulps in a number of end uses. However, in contrast to chemical pulps, these pulps must be tailored by the pulp mill to the paper mill's requirements, which will vary considerably depending on end use. End use requirements, the properties of the high quality, high-yield pulps, and a conceptual pulp mill design are discussed.

Breck, D.H.; Styar, G.E.

1985-01-01

284

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-01-01

285

Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

2002-01-01

286

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP  

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Full Text Available This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% consistency with crude xylanase (6 IU/g o.d. pulp) at 60 ºC for 2 h increased the final brightness by 4.9%. The enzyme treatment reduced the chlorine consumption by 28.6% with the same brightness as in the control. A reduction in kappa number and increase in viscosity was observed after enzyme pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loosening and swelling of pulp fibers. The strength properties viz. grammage, fiber thickness, beating degree, tensile index, breaking length, tear index and double fold of the treated pulp were improved as compared to the control pulp. This study reveals the potential of B. subtilis ASH xylanase as a biobleaching agent for the paper and pulp industry.

Ashwani Sanghi; Neelam Garg; Kalika Kuhar; Ramesh C. Kuhad; Vijay K. Gupta

2009-01-01

287

Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo. PMID:20654676

Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

2010-07-21

288

Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo.

Cliff J; Muquingue H; Nhassico D; Nzwalo H; Bradbury JH

2011-03-01

289

First report of East African cassava mosaic begomovirus in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virus species causing cassava mosaic disease have been categorized into three classes based on their reaction with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and their distribution (2). These viruses have different, scarcely overlapping distribution: African cassava mosaic begomovirus (ACMV) occurs in Africa west of the Rift Valley and in South Africa; East African cassava mosaic (EACMV) occurs in Africa east of the Rift Valley and in Madagascar; and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) occurs in India and Sri Lanka (2). During 1998, surveys were conducted in farmers' fields in Ghana to assess the incidence and reaction of local cassava cultivars to cassava mosaic disease. Leaf samples from symptomatic plants were indexed by triple antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with crude extracts and monoclonal antibodies obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Each sample was assayed with monoclonal antibody SCR 23, which detects ACMV and EACMV, SCR 33, which detects ACMV, and SCR 58, which detects ICMV. None of the samples reacted with SCR 58. Two of the samples collected from the western region of Ghana produced strong reactions with MAb SCR23 but did not react with ACMV-specific MAb SCR 33. This result was consistent in three separate experiments conducted on the samples, confirming that the virus was EACMV and not ACMV. The results extend the work by Ogbe et al. (1) and provide further evidence of the occurrence of EACMV in west Africa.

Offei SK; Owuna-Kwakye M; Thottappilly G

1999-09-01

290

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

Science.gov (United States)

The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

291

Envejecimiento de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrios de Yuca y Nativos de Papa por Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica Ageing of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Atomic Force Microscopy  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo, se determinó la topografía de almidones termoplásticos (TPS) agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, mediante microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM), durante un periodo de 120 días de almacenamiento. Mezclas de almidones agrios (fermentados) de yuca y nativo de papa, y glicerina, se procesaron en un extrusor de husillo sencillo. Láminas de TPS agrio de yuca (SCTPS) y nativo de papa (NPTPS), se observaron y midieron por AFM (en modo contacto). Sus superficies mostraron incremento en rugosidad y partes lisas solo a altos contenidos de plastificante, pero SCTPS siempre tuvo menor rugosidad que NPTPS, debido a la fermentación natural del almidón agrio. Estos cambios se relacionaron con el tamaño, la forma del gránulo y particularmente con el contenido de plastificante. Los NPTPS de mayor rugosidad presentaron separación de fases a los 120 días, dada la retrogradación de las moléculas del almidón, que tienden a formar cristalitos. Estos resultados indican que el almidón agrio de yuca puede retardar la retrogradación de almidones termoplásticos, lo cual es importante durante el desarrollo de nuevos empaques biodegradables.This study reports on the topography of thermoplastic starches (TPS) from sour cassava and native potato using atomic force microscopy (AFM), over a 120 day-storage period. Mixtures of sour cassava (fermented) and native potato starches plus glycerine, were processed using a single-screw extruder. Sour cassava thermoplastic starch (SCTPS) and native potato thermoplastic starch (NPTPS) films were observed and measured by AFM (in contact mode). Their surfaces showed increased rugosity, and smooth parts only at high plasticizer content. However, SCTPS always had lower rugosity than NPTPS, due to the natural fermentation of sour cassava starch. These changes were related to starch granule size and shape, and particularly to plasticizer content. NPTPS with higher rugosity presented phase separation at 120 days, due to retrogradation of starch molecules which tended to form crystallites. These findings indicated that sour cassava starch can lower TPS retrogradation which is important in the development of biodegradable packaging.

Harold A Acosta; Héctor S Villada; Pedro A Prieto

2006-01-01

292

Sensorial Analysis of Wines from Malpighia glabra L. Pulp  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to make the sensorial analysis of Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) wines. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix) and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma) of wines; which were measured on hedonic scale, to obtain the best condition for manufacturing wine from Barbados cherry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was usedfor fermentation. Results showed that Barbados cherry wines were suave, sweet and with 11°GL of alcohol concentration. Flavor and color of wines were characteristic of acerola fresh fruit. The t Student test showed that did not present any significant difference among the wines in both these sensorial attributes. Increasing the initial °Brix of must, the wine obtained had better acceptance and there was no effect of pulp mass on sensorialattributes studied. Sensorial analysis revealed that the best Barbados cherry wine was obtained for a must with composition of 22 g/L of sugar and 1 kg of Barbados cherry pulp for each 6 liter of wine. This work supports the usage of acerola for obtaining high quality wines which possess pleasing aroma and shiny red color.

Sheyla dos Santos Almeida; Roberto Rodrigues Souza, de; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Elias Basile Tambourgi

2010-01-01

293

Evaluation of Moisture, Total Cyanide and Fiber Contents of Garri Produced from Cassava (Manihot utilissima) Varieties Obtained from Awassa in Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculent crantz) as one of the most important root crops in Sub-Saharan Africa plays a vital role in the diet of many African countries especially the grass root people, being the major source of daily carbohydrate intake. Traditionally processed staple foods from cassava are available in Western and some Eastern African countries, such as garri, foofoo, boiled cassava meal, etc. Several varieties of M. Utilissima obtained from Awassa, Ethiopia, were processed, fermented and converted into garri. The moisture, total cyanide and fibre contents of the processed garri were analyzed. The results showed that the moisture, total cyanide and fiber contents varied from 26.12-40.02 %, 1.51-2.81 mg HCN/100 g and 1.80-2.40% respectively. The largest reduction in cyanide content (41%) between the third and fourth day fermentation was found in the MM 96/5280 variety which had an increase of 32% fiber content when compared with other varieties. These results compared favorably with similar garri products obtained from Ghana and Nigeria. The ease of preparation and potential nutritional value resulting from fermentation, the low moisture, cyanide and improved fiber contents found, indicate the suitability of the garri products as nutritional food items. The Kello44/72 and MM96/5280 varieties with the lowest cyanide and comparable fiber contents are most suitable. In order to enrich the nutritional contents of the garri product, fortification with leguminous plants or fish is recommended so as to make it more suitable as an alternative food product to injera in Ethiopia.

S.E. Enidiok; L.E. Attah; C.A. Otuechere

2008-01-01

294

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA/ ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracterizó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta com (more) o fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hyd (more) rolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

MONSALVE G., JOHN F.; MEDINA DE PEREZ, VICTORIA ISABEL; RUIZ COLORADO, ANGELA ADRIANA

2006-11-01

295

Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM) biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+) team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD). However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

Adenle Ademola A; Aworh Ogugua C; Akromah Richard; Parayil Govindan

2012-01-01

296

Population Dynamics of Cassava Green Mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae) as Influenced by Varietal Resistance  

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The population dynamics of Mononychellus tanajoa as influenced by varietal resistance of cassava was determined over two cassava planting seasons (dry and wet season), using biweekly samples from 11 cassava genotypes in Ibadan, Nigeria. The population size of M. tanajoa and the dam...

E.N. Nukenine; A.T. Hassan; A.G.O. Dixon; C.N. Fokunang

297

Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State  

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This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive stati...

O. F. Adesiyan; A. T. Adesiyan; R. O. Oluitan

298

Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil l  

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Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especia...

Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

299

Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the Coat Protein (CP). The PCR products obtained from different isolates of two major Begomoviruses species infecting cassava in Togo were then sequenced and compared with the sequenced of the African cassava mosaic Begomoviruses identified to date and available in NCBI GenBank database by phylogenetic analysis. Results: The results indicate that not only the two major Begomoviruses could be in synergistic interaction in infected cassava in Togo as it has been shown between African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) and East African Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV) elsewhere, but could also create recombinants which would be highly interfering in the development of symptom severity in the country. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study confirmed the assumption that the symptom severity in cassava fields in Togo is rather caused by recombination between different Begomoviruses in presence than by synergistic interaction. More investigations should be done to give insight to this founding.

K. D. Adjata; E. Muller; M. Peterschmitt; O. Traore; Y. M.D. Gumedzoe

2009-01-01

300

FERMENTATION OF GASEOUS SUBSTRATES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to the microbial fermentation of gaseous substrates, particularly to gas/liquid contact modules and bioreactors configured to improve the efficiency of fermentations, particularly microbial fermentations of substrates comprising CO. In a particular embodiment, a gas/liquid contact module with multiple channels is configured to produce products in a liquid fermentation broth. In a further particular embodiment, there is provided a method of fermentation of a gaseous substrate to produce a product in a liquid fermentation broth.

TREVETHICK SIMON RICHARD; BROMIEY JASON CARL; SIMPSON SEAN DENNIS; KHOSLA VINOD

 
 
 
 
301

Cold Soda Pulping of Eucalyptus Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out in the laboratores to determine the suitability of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus for production of cold soda pulps. Based on yield, strength of handsheets and brightness of pulps it was...

T. C. Mantri V. Raghunath Y. K. Sharma Y. V. Sood K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

302

The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

303

Morfología Superficial de Almidones Termoplásticos Agrio de Yuca y Nativo de Papa por Microscopía Óptica y de Fuerza Atómica Surface Morphology of Sour Cassava and Native Potato Thermoplastic Starches by Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy  

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Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS) obtenidos de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa, extruidos con tornillo simple, usando microscopía óptica de alta resolución (OM) y de fuerza atómica (AFM). Muestras de almidones agrio de yuca y nativo de papa más glicerina, se procesaron a 120 ºC y 50 rpm, dando extruidos que se cortaron en láminas delgadas, que se observaron por OM y AFM (modo contacto intermitente). El almidón nativo de papa mostró grandes gránulos ovoides y el almidón agrio de yuca reveló el ataque enzimático debido a la fermentación natural. Los TPS mostraron superficies lisas y rugosas dependiendo de la forma y el tamaño del gránulo, de la fermentación natural y del contenido de plastificante. Los TPS nativo de papa exhibieron pocas superficies lisas por OM y alta rugosidad por AFM; lo contrario se presentó con el TPS agrio de yuca, debido a su fermentación natural previa. Estos resultados contribuyen a predecir y entender las propiedades microestructurales, mecánicas y texturales de los almidones termoplásticos.An evaluation was made of the surface morphology of thermoplastic starches (TPS) from sour cassava and native potato, extruded with a single-screw extruder, using high-resolution optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples of sour cassava starch and native potato starch and glycerine, were processed at 120(0)C and 50 rpm, producing extrudates which were cut into thin films for observation by OM and AFM (intermittent contact mode). Native potato starch showed large ovoid granules, while sour cassava starch revealed enzyme attack due to natural fermentation. The TPS had smooth and rough surfaces, depending upon granule size and shape, starch fermentation, and plasticizer content. Native potato TPS presented few smooth surfaces by OM and high roughness by AFM. The opposite was observed with sour cassava TPS, which had experienced some previous natural fermentation. These findings contribute to prediction and understanding of microstructural, mechanical and textural properties of thermoplastic starches.

Harold A Acosta; Héctor S Villada; Gerardo A Torres; Juan G Ramírez

2006-01-01

304

IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE  

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Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP) for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

Chun-Han Ko; Fang-Jin Chen; Wan-Jyung Liao; Tzenge-Lien Shih

2011-01-01

305

Research in bagasse pulp bleaching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bleaching of soda and sulfate bagasse pulps by CED, CEH, CEHD, and O/alkali CED sequences gave products with Elrepho brightness 85-90, Post color no. 1.3-2.5, viscosity 20-28 cP, tear factor 60-78, and breaking length 3710-4590 m. Bleaching bagasse pulp with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/-NaClO increased its brightness increasing temperature, pH, and NaOCl consumption. Brightening of mechanical bagasse pulp with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaClO reduced the consumption of peroxide, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaOCl by 0.5-0.8, 0.5-1.5, and 10-12%, respectively.

Fernandez, N.; Naranjo, M.E.; Alvarez, J.; Sardinas, O.; Serrantes, M.

1982-01-01

306

Diffusive pulp de-watering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In German sugar beet factories the energy used for thermic dewatering in conventional pulp drying is about one-third of the total energy consumption. This paper describes a process developed and patented by Suedzucker AG for the diffusive de-watering of beet pulp. The advantages of the process include: lower energy consumption; relatively low investment costs; no emissions; production of excess steam that can be used in sugar production. In addition, a cheap fodder is produced that is easily stored and is willingly accepted by ruminants.

Voss, C. (Suedzucker AG Mannheim/Ochsenfurt (West Germany))

1990-01-01

307

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01

308

Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

Haidar Abbasi; Mohammad Hassan Fazaelipoor

2010-01-01

309

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

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Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso), com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1%) e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%). As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6) foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1). A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight), with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1%) and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%). The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6) above other silages (4.1). The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Rasmo Garcia; José Nobre de Carvalho Junior; Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro; Daiane Maria Trindade Chagas

2009-01-01

310

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca/ Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso), com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores te (more) ores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1%) e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%). As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6) foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1). A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight), with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava (more) meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1%) and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%). The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6) above other silages (4.1). The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de; Garcia, Rasmo; Carvalho Junior, José Nobre de; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade

2009-01-01

311

Supplementation of Malate and Yeast in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology in Dairy Steers  

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Full Text Available Four, one-year old of dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70%DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.

Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat

2009-01-01

312

Commercialisation of Traditional Crops: Are Cassava Production and Utilisation Promotion Efforts Bearing Fruit in Kenya?  

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Full Text Available Achieving food security has been an elusive goal for many economies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Among the strategies being pursued to achieve this goal is agribusiness development through strengthening smallholder farmers’ entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of traditional crops production and utilisation. Cassava has been identified as a high value traditional crop that has enormous industrial value. In Kenya, it has been promoted by the government and other interested organisations. However, despite the efforts, cassava has not evolved from subsistence to a commercial crop that can be relied on in the fight against food insecurity. This paper examines the level of adoption of cassava commercialisation technologies by smallholder farmers in Kenya. It is based on a study conducted in Ngata Division of Nakuru District Kenya where 99 smallholder household heads who are members of cassava common interest groups were interviewed and stakeholder discussions held. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and stakeholder discussions analysed thematically. Though cassava was grown by 57% of the households, very few (6.1%) engaged in entrepreneurial activities involving cassava, selling only the raw tubers. Cassava tended to be grown by older farmers as compared to younger farmers. Smallholder farmers encountered challenges in cassava production, cassava utilisation and cassava commercialisation. For cassava to contribute towards food security, a market-oriented approach that focuses on empowering farmers for entrepreneurial action may need to be considered.

Milcah W. Mulu-Mutuku; Dolphine A. Odero-Wanga; Adijah M. Ali-Olubandwa; Joyce Maling'a; Amos Nyakeyo

2013-01-01

313

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces  

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Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

2012-01-01

314

ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS  

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Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm) and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm), using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, ?-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

Ana Requejo,; Alejandro Rodríguez,; Zoilo González,; Fátima Vargas,; Luis Jiménez

2012-01-01

315

Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa  

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Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming population depending on the crop for their livelihood. This paper reviews the importance of the crop in terms of food security, CAD disease symptoms, epidemiology, yield losses and the possible control options within the frame work of integrated pest management systems (IPMS).

C.N. Fokunang; A.G.O. Dixon; T. Ikotun; E.A. Tembe; C.N. Akem; R. Asiedu

2001-01-01

316

Non dimensional analysis of cassava transient drying in packing beds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Transient mass transfer process is analyzed for cassava drying (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in a pack bed. Experiments were performed in a thermally insulated radial dryer, considering cylindrical pieces of non peeled cassava with three different thicknesses: 4, 6, and 8 mm. The void fractions considered were 0.22, 0.49, 0.64 and 0.66, while the temperature values were 50ºC and 70ºC. The humidity removed from the cassava was measured from 10 pieces randomly selected at th (more) e beginning of the process. These pieces were weighed every 15 minutes during a three hours period. From the data gathered a non linear regression model was attained as a function of non dimensional numbers, which is valid for the following ranges: 700?Re?1900, 10000?Sc?31000, 0

Santamaria, H.; Durango, N.; Bula, A.; Sanjuan, M.

2011-01-01

317

Microwave-assisted methylation of cassava starch with dimethyl carbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel and environmentally friendly process for the methylation of cassava starch with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) could be accelerated by employing a combined strategy: using disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na(2)HPO(4)) as the catalyst (chemical means) and microwave irradiation as the energy source (physical means). By varying the volume of 5% sodium chloride aqueous solution between 50 and 150 mL, the amount of Na(2)HPO(4) between 0 and 1.25 g, the volume of DMC between 75 and 200 mL, and the microwave time from 5 to 20 min, methyl cassava starch with degree of substitution (DS) values in the range of 0.033 and 1.087 was prepared. The chemical structure of methyl cassava starch was analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

Hou C; Chen Y; Chen W; Li W

2011-07-01

318

Microwave-assisted methylation of cassava starch with dimethyl carbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and environmentally friendly process for the methylation of cassava starch with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) could be accelerated by employing a combined strategy: using disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na(2)HPO(4)) as the catalyst (chemical means) and microwave irradiation as the energy source (physical means). By varying the volume of 5% sodium chloride aqueous solution between 50 and 150 mL, the amount of Na(2)HPO(4) between 0 and 1.25 g, the volume of DMC between 75 and 200 mL, and the microwave time from 5 to 20 min, methyl cassava starch with degree of substitution (DS) values in the range of 0.033 and 1.087 was prepared. The chemical structure of methyl cassava starch was analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:21531395

Hou, Chengmin; Chen, Yufang; Chen, Wenning; Li, Wei

2011-04-09

319

Method for agglomerating coal particles in pulp water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal particles are agglomerated in pulp water of coal particles by agitating the pulp water in the presence of a binder, which comprises conducting agglomeration in a plurality of zones, the zones being communicated one after another, and transferring the pulp water from one zone to another while agitating the pulp water in each zone and increasing a pulp concentration of the pulp water from one zone to another. Agitating power for the agglomeration is reduced with the successively increasing pulp concentration.

Hiratsuka, K.; Kurihara, M.; Maruko, M.; Matsuura, Y.; Nakamura, Y.

1985-01-08

320

An Introduction to pulp for Python Programmers  

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Full Text Available Pulp-or (referred to as pulp for the rest of this paper) is a linear programming framework in Python. Pulp is licensed under a modified BSD license. The aim of pulp is to allow an Operations Research (OR) practitioner or programmer to express Linear Programming (LP), and Integer Programming (IP) models in python in a way similar to the conventional mathematical notation. Pulp will also solve these problems using a variety of free and non-free LP solvers. Pulp models an LP in a natural and pythonic manner.This paper is aimed at the python programmer who may wish to use pulp in their code. As such this paper contains a short introduction to LP models and their uses.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-10-27

322

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth.

Lefeber T; Gobert W; Vrancken G; Camu N; De Vuyst L

2011-05-01

323

A pilot plant study of xylose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tembec Inc., of Temiscaming, PQ, has constructed a pilot plant to try out the currently available technologies for xylose fermentation in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), and to provide data for use production on a commercial basis. The pilot plant operates as a 1/1000 scale model of the Tembec alcohol plant. Tembec`s SSL feed for the pilot plant is collected and stored to allow 14 days of continuous operation of the pilot plant. The quality of waste liquor varies from pulp grades of softwood and hardwood. Pichia stipitis is the most suitable xylose-fermenting yeast in SSL and was therefore inoculated into the pilot plant with softwood SSL. It was concluded that the yield of ethanol from SSL at the Tembec alcohol plant would not likely increase by using Pichia stipitis instead of the current Saccharomyces yeast. If a process could be developed to produce ethanol by fermentation of xylose, Tembec`s production of alcohol would increase by about 30 per cent. Since xylose is a component in a variety of biomass sources, fermentation of xylose would have a profound effect on the economics of producing alcohol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Cameron, D.R.

1997-07-01

324

Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

2008-01-01

325

Apomixis in different ploidy levels of cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two polyploid hybrids between cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivar 307-2 and its wild relatives M. glaziovii and M. anomala, were studied to examine the relationship between ploidy level and the production of seeds without fertilization. A clearing method was applied to assess ovule sizes as an indication of multiembryony. The diploid cultivar 307-2 had regular 18 bivalents at meiotic metaphase 1 while the polyploid types showed chromosome configurations varying from 3 to 4 quadrivalents and 28 to 30 bivalents. A total of 14% of studied ovules of the polyploid hybrid involving M. glaziovii were multiebryonic, while the percentage of multiembryony was as low as 2% in the polyploid hybrid M. anomala×M. esculenta. Diploid hybrid types did not show any multi embryony. Adventitious embryos were found and documented for the first time in polyploid hybrids M. esculenta×M. glaziovii. The association of multiple embryo formation with ovary size and pollination showed that apomictic embryos form independently from fertilization. Simple iodized carmine stain for measuring pollen viability proved as efficient as the sophisticated Alexander method. PMID:22150824

Nassar, Nagib M A; Chaib, Adalgisa; Elsayed, Ahmed Y

2011-11-14

326

Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

1014-01-00

327

Process for producing 2,3-butanediol using american artichoke as raw material by fermentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method of producing 2, 3-butanediol by fermenting with Jerusalem artichoke as raw material, which belongs to the biochemical technology field. The method is characterized in that preparing raw material of Jerusalem artichoke tuber to Jerusalem artichoke juice or pulp, and adding inulase in the Jerusalem artichoke juice or pulp to obtain inulin hydrolysate. Using the Jerusalem artichoke juice, the pulp or the innulin hydrolysate as a carbon source respectively, mixing the Jerusalem artichoke juice, the pulp or the innulin hydrolysate with nutrient content of sterilized inorganic salt, accessing to a strain producing the 2, 3-butanediol and obtaining higher concentration of the 2, 3-butanediol through fractional diastatic fermentation and synchronous diastatic fermentation. The method has the advantages that the raw material cost to produce the 2,3-butanediol by microbial fermentation can be reduced, the production efficiency can be improved, the ultimate density of the 2, 3-BD can be between forty-nine and one hundred and five g/L the ultimate concentration of 49-105g/L of the 2, 3-BD can be obtained and the final concentration sum of the 2, 3-BD and acetoin is between 60 and 115g/L.

ZHILONG XIU; LIHUI SUN; XUDONG WANG; YAQIN SUN; JIANYING DAI

328

8-Hydroxydaidzein, an aldose reductase inhibitor from okara fermented with Aspergillus sp. HK-388.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, 8-hydroxydaidzein, was isolated and identified from a methanolic extract of okara (soybean pulp) fermented with the fungal strain, Aspergillus sp. HK-388. 8-Hydroxydaidzein showed non-competitive inhibition of human recombinant AR with respect to DL-glyceraldehyde, its Ki value being evaluated as 7.0 microM.

Fujita T; Funako T; Hayashi H

2004-07-01

329

8-Hydroxydaidzein, an aldose reductase inhibitor from okara fermented with Aspergillus sp. HK-388.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, 8-hydroxydaidzein, was isolated and identified from a methanolic extract of okara (soybean pulp) fermented with the fungal strain, Aspergillus sp. HK-388. 8-Hydroxydaidzein showed non-competitive inhibition of human recombinant AR with respect to DL-glyceraldehyde, its Ki value being evaluated as 7.0 microM. PMID:15277768

Fujita, Tomoyuki; Funako, Tomoyoshi; Hayashi, Hideo

2004-07-01

330

Statistical optimization of bioprocess parameters for enhanced gallic acid production from coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was produced by microbial biotransformation of coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum. Gallic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design. Process parameters such as pH, moisture, and fermentation period were considered for optimization. Among the various fungi isolated from coffee by-products, Penicillium verrucosum produced 35.23 µg/g of gallic acid on coffee pulp as sole carbon source in solid-state fermentation. The optimum values of the parameters obtained from the RSM were pH 3.32, moisture 58.40%, and fermentation period of 96 hr. Gallic acid production with an increase of 4.6-fold was achieved upon optimization of the process parameters. The results optimized could be translated to 1-kg tray fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and spectral studies such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that the bioactive compound isolated was gallic acid. Thus, coffee pulp, which is available in enormous quantity, could be used for the production of value-added products that can find avenues in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. PMID:23464918

Bhoite, Roopali N; Navya, P N; Murthy, Pushpa S

2013-01-01

331

Statistical optimization of bioprocess parameters for enhanced gallic acid production from coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was produced by microbial biotransformation of coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum. Gallic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design. Process parameters such as pH, moisture, and fermentation period were considered for optimization. Among the various fungi isolated from coffee by-products, Penicillium verrucosum produced 35.23 µg/g of gallic acid on coffee pulp as sole carbon source in solid-state fermentation. The optimum values of the parameters obtained from the RSM were pH 3.32, moisture 58.40%, and fermentation period of 96 hr. Gallic acid production with an increase of 4.6-fold was achieved upon optimization of the process parameters. The results optimized could be translated to 1-kg tray fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and spectral studies such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that the bioactive compound isolated was gallic acid. Thus, coffee pulp, which is available in enormous quantity, could be used for the production of value-added products that can find avenues in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries.

Bhoite RN; Navya PN; Murthy PS

2013-01-01

332

Grape and apple wines volatile fermentation products and possible relation to spoilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main volatile by-products of the alcoholic fermentation of grape wine, cider and apple pulp wine were investigated to determine if any correlated with spoilage resistance in the latter two. Spoilage was visually detected after seven days in low-alcohol grape wine in comparison to 11 and 16 days in cider and apple pulp wine, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were the main fermentation by-products detected in all three wines. There were highest concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol and propanol in grape wine and, therefore, these by-products could not be implicated in spoilage resistance in apple wines. Increased concentrations of isobutanol and amyl alcohols, however, in cider and apple pulp wine in comparison to grape wine might have been the reason for spoilage resistance in the apple wines.

Polychroniadou E; Kanellaki M; Iconomopoulou M; Koutinas AA; Marchant R; Banat IM

2003-05-01

333

Improving the performance of enzymes in hydrolysis of high solids paper pulp derived from MSW.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The research aimed to improve the overall conversion efficiency of the CTec(R) family of enzymes by identifying factors that lead to inhibition and seeking methods to overcome these through process modification and manipulation. The starting material was pulp derived from municipal solid waste and processed in an industrial-scale washing plant. RESULTS: Analysis of the pulp by acid hydrolysis showed a ratio of 55 : 12 : 6 : 24 : 3 of glucan : xylan : araban/galactan/mannan : lignin : ash. At high total solids content (>18.5% TS) single-stage enzyme hydrolysis gave a maximum glucan conversion of 68%. It was found that two-stage hydrolysis could give higher conversion if sugar inhibition was removed by an intermediate fermentation step between hydrolysis stages. This, however, was not as effective as direct removal of the sugar products, including xylose, by washing of the residual pulp at pH 5. This improved the water availability and allowed reactivation of the pulp-bound enzymes. Inhibition of enzyme activity could further be alleviated by replenishment of beta-glucosidase which was shown to be removed during the wash step. CONCLUSIONS: The two-stage hydrolysis process developed could give an overall glucan conversion of 88%, with an average glucose concentration close to 8% in 4 days, thus providing an ideal starting point for ethanol fermentation with a likely yield of 4 wt%. This is a significant improvement over a single-step process. This hydrolysis configuration also provides the potential to recover the sugars associated with residual solids which are diluted when washing hydrolysed pulp.

Puri DJ; Heaven S; Banks CJ

2013-07-01

334

Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch/ Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste diretamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado c (more) om coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g), acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g), propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g) e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g), presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural. Abstract in english Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid a (more) nalysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g), acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g), propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g) and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g), that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

DEMIATE, I.M.; BARANA, A.C.; CEREDA, M.P.; WOSIACKI, G.

1999-01-01

335

Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch Análise de ácidos orgânicos em amostras de polvilho azedo comercial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo") and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g), acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g), propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g) and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g), that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.A presença de ácidos orgânicos no polvilho azedo, além de contribuir com aspectos como sabor e aroma, tem, conforme a literatura indica, correlação com a propriedade de expansão, que é um fator determinante no uso alimentício. Amostras de polvilho azedo foram coletadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste diretamente nas empresas ou no comércio. Foram preparadas para análise em cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), sendo que o cromatógrafo estava equipado com coluna Biorad Aminex HPX-87H para análise de ácidos orgânicos e detector refratométrico. As condições de análise envolveram o emprego da fase móvel ácido sulfúrico 0,005M, fluxo de 0,6 ml/min e temperatura da coluna de 60oC. Os ácidos quantificados foram lático (0,036 a 0,813 g/100g), acético (0 a 0,068 g/100g), propiônico (0 a 0,013 g/100g) e butírico (0 a 0,057 g/100g), presentes na fermentação natural. Os resultados revelaram grande variação entre as amostras, com diferenças mesmo dentro das Regiões. Algumas amostras apresentaram quantidades elevadas de ácidos, especialmente do ácido lático, mas nestas amostras os ácidos propiônico e butírico não foram detectados. A ausência do ácido butírico não era esperada, uma vez que esse ácido está diretamente relacionado com o aroma característico do polvilho azedo. O fato pode sugerir que a obtenção de algumas das amostras estudadas pode ter ocorrido sem o processo fermentativo natural.

I.M. DEMIATE; A.C. BARANA; M.P. CEREDA; G. WOSIACKI

1999-01-01

336

Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

Ariyo OA; Dixon AG; Atiri GI

2005-04-01

337

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5%) belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73%) faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0).There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; P.I. Ater

2013-01-01

338

Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

2000-01-00

339

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), thus reducing methane (CH4) and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs), for enhancing ruminant productivity in the tropics. The manipulation of rumen efficiency through the use of organic acids especially malate with local feeds would be an advantage. Indeed, organic acids potentially provide an alternative to currently used antimicrobial compounds by stimulating rather than inhibiting specific ruminal microbial populations. At the same time, local feed resources especially cassava chip could be used effectively at high level as an energy source for ruminants especially for beef and lactating cows. More recently, the combined use of concentrates containing high level of cassava chip with supplementation of sodium dl-malate and urea could improve rumen ecology and subsequent performance in dairy steers receiving urea-treated rice straw as a roughage. In addition, the high level of cassava chip in the diet resulted in increase population of bacteria and fungi, decreasing protozoal populations, and improving microbial protein synthesis and efficient microbial nitrogen supply in the rumen. Under these circumstances, malate was also effective in reducing the drop in ruminal pH normally seen 1 to 2 h after feeding a high-grain diet and improved cows performance efficiency. In summary, supplementation of organic acid like malate with local feed resources especially cassava chip or other carbohydrate sources with high rumen degradation would be a desirable alternative because there is no risk of developing antibiotic resistance or having unwanted residues appear in either meat or milk products as well as improving ruminal fermentation efficiency and productivity in ruminants in the tropics.

Sittisak Khampa; Metha Wanapat

2007-01-01

340

Enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali/peracetic acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzymatic digestibility of alkali/peracetic acid (PAA)-pretreated bagasse was systematically investigated. The effects of initial solid consistency, cellulase loading and addition of supplemental ?-glucosidase on the enzymatic conversion of glycan were studied. It was found the alkali-PAA pulp showed excellent enzymatic digestibility. The enzymatic glycan conversion could reach about 80% after 24 h incubation when enzyme loading was 10 FPU/g solid. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results indicated that the pulp could be well converted to ethanol. Compared with dilute acid pretreated bagasse (DAPB), alkali-PAA pulp could obtain much higher ethanol and xylose concentrations. The fermentation broth still showed some cellulase activity so that the fed pulp could be further converted to sugars and ethanol. After the second batch SSF, the fermentation broth of alkali-PAA pulp still kept about 50% of initial cellulase activity. However, only 21% of initial cellulase activity was kept in the fermentation broth of DAPB. The xylose syrup obtained in SSF of alkali-PAA pulp could be well converted to 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae CGMCC 1.9131.

Zhao X; Song Y; Liu D

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Utilizacion de la Pulpa de Cafe en la Produccion de Gas Combustible (Bio-Gas (Utilization of Coffee Pulp in the Production of Bio-Gas).  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented in this report is the experimental work for the most part of the studies, not only achieved in the laboratory, but also on the field under different conditions for the process of anaerobic fermentation of the coffee pulp. The production of bio-g...

S. Bern

1980-01-01

342

The use of somatic embryogenesis for plant propagation in cassava  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In cassava, somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with auxins. Mature somatic embryos are formed within 6 wk. The cotyledons of the primary somatic embryos are used as explants for a new cycle of somatic embryogenesis. T...

Raemakers, K.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

343

Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH?and ABTS?+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected ...

Bo Yi; Lifei Hu; Wenli Mei; Kaibing Zhou; Hui Wang; Ying Luo; Xiaoyi Wei; Haofu Dai

344

An SSR-based molecular genetic map of cassava  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are the markers of choice for molecular genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in many crop species. A microsatellite-based linkage map of cassava was drawn using SSR markers and a F? population consisting of 268 individuals. The F? population was derived from selfing the genotype K150, an early yielding genotype from an F? progeny from a cross between two non-inbred elite cassava varieties, TMS 30572 and CM 2177-2 from IITA and CIAT respectively. A set of 472 SSR markers, previously developed from cassava genomic and cDNA libraries, were screened for polymorphism in K150 and its parents TMS 30572 and CM 2177-2. One hundred and twenty two polymorphic SSR markers were identified and utilized for linkage analysis. The map has 100 markers spanning 1236.7 cM, distributed on 22 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 17.92 cM. Marker density across the genome was uniform. This is the first SSR based linkage map of cassava and represents an important step towards quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic analysis of complex traits in M. esculenta species in national research program and other institutes with minimal laboratory facilities. SSR markers reduce the time and cost of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling traits of agronomic interest, and are of potential use for marker-assisted selection (MAS).

Okogbenin E; Marin J; Fregene M

2006-02-01

345

[Functional morphology of pulp tissue].  

Science.gov (United States)

As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

1989-01-01

346

[Functional morphology of pulp tissue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body.

Heine H; Schaeg G; Türk R

1989-01-01

347

Osteocalcin expression in pulp inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp inflammation and repair are closely related. Osteocalcin (OCN), a glycoprotein present in dentin matrix, is expressed by odontoblasts. Although OCN is considered a reparative molecule inside the dental pulp, it is not clear if it is involved in pulpal inflammation. The objective of this study was to localize OCN in reversible and irreversible pulpitis and to describe its possible function in inflammation. METHODS: Pulp tissues in the form of reversible and irreversible pulpitis were collected from the endodontic clinic. Those from impacted teeth were used as controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize OCN. Samples were analyzed for OCN and inflammatory mediator expression using multiplex assay. RESULTS: OCN in inflamed tissues was localized in cells and matrix around calcification areas and in cells around blood vessels but not in normal tissues. The plex assay (Bio-Plex 200, Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd, Mississauga, ON, Canada) showed OCN expression in reversible pulpitis significantly higher than in irreversible pulpitis, and both were significantly higher than in the controls. A panel of inflammatory mediators showed an increase in reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Another panel was decreased in both stages compared with the controls. OCN expression in reversible pulpitis was positively correlated to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, monocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-17, and soluble IL-2 receptor ? and negatively correlated to that of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1?. CONCLUSIONS: Profound understanding of the pulp inflammatory process would lead to new molecular treatment strategies. Our data indicate that OCN expression in reversible pulpitis is associated with angiogenic markers, suggesting its potential use in regenerative treatment.

Abd-Elmeguid A; Abdeldayem M; Kline LW; Moqbel R; Vliagoftis H; Yu DC

2013-07-01

348

[Pulp response to restorative materials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Restorations may affect the pulp negatively, rather due to microleakage than to toxic properties of the materials used. Hyperalgesia occurs more frequently after restoration with composite resins than with amalgam, though the resins in contrast to amalgam may be bonded to the enamel margins. A number of recommendations are presented in order to minimize the marginal gap between cavity walls and amalgam and to prevent marginal fracture.

Advokaat JG

1990-03-01

349

Assessing Reactions of Genetically Improved and Local Cassava Varieties to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Infection in a Savannah Region of the DR-Congo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The responses of eight genetically improved and eight local cassava varieties to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) were evaluated under field conditions at two sites, in Eastern Kasa

Marcel Muengula-Manyi; Lyna Mukwa; Kabwe K. Nkongolo; Patrick Tshilenge-Djim; Stephan Winter; Claude Bragard; Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi

350

Evaluation of elephant grass silage with the addition of cassava scrapings Avaliação da silagem de capim-elefante com adição de raspa de mandioca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding cassava scrapings on gas and effluent losses, dry matter recovery, pH, contents of N-NH3, organic acids and volatile fatty acids and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages. It was used a randomized complete design, with four levels of cassava scrapings (0, 7, 15 or 30% natural matter) each one with four replications per level. The grass was cut at 50 days of regrowth and ensiled in 15-L silos, equipped with a Bunsen valve to allow gas outflow. The gas losses decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas effluent losses decreased linearly. Dry matter recovery increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Dry matter (DM) concentration increased but crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose (HEM) decreased linearly with the addition of cassava scrapings. The pH value and lactic acid concentration increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Contents of N-NH3 and butyric acid decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas acetic acid content decreased linearly. Addition of cassava scrapings reduced gas and effluent losses and improved the fermentation profile of elephant grass silages and the level of 7% already ensures this improvement.Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos da adição de raspa de mandioca na ensilagem sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, a recuperação da matéria seca, o pH, os teores de N-NH3, ácidos orgânicos e ácidos graxos voláteis e a composição bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de raspa de mandioca (0, 7, 15 ou 30% da matéria natural), cada um com quatro repetições. O capim foi cortado aos 50 dias de rebrota e ensilado em silos de 15 litros de capacidade, com válvula de bunsen para escape dos gases. A adição de raspa de mandioca ocasionou redução quadrática nas perdas por gases e redução linear nas perdas por efluente. A recuperação de matéria seca aumentou de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca. O teor de matéria seca aumentou, enquanto os de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) e hemicelulose diminuíram linearmente com a adição de raspa de mandioca. O valor de pH e o teor de ácido lático aumentaram de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca. Os teores de N-NH3 e de ácido butírico diminuíram de forma quadrática com a adição de raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de ácido acético diminuiu linearmente. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca na ensilagem reduz as perdas por gases e efluentes e melhora o perfil fermentativo de silagens de capim-elefante e o nível de 7% da matéria natural é suficiente para assegurar essa melhora.

Anderson de Moura Zanine; Edson Mauro Santos; João Ricardo Rebouças Dórea; Paulo Alfredo de Santana Dantas; Thiago Carvalho da Silva; Odilon Gomes Pereira

2010-01-01