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Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

C. Yuangklang

2011-01-01

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Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM) and Crude Protein (CP) degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis) of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in...

Kaewwongsa, W.; Traiyakun, S.; Yuangklang, C.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Paengkoum, P.

2011-01-01

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Direct fermentation of L (+)-lactic acid from cassava pulp by solid state culture of Rhizopus oryzae.  

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This study shows that Rhizopus oryzae is capable of directly utilizing cassava pulp alone to L-lactic acid in solid state fermentation (SSF). pH control at 6.0 helped prevent end product inhibition. Increasing lactate titer was observed at the higher initial moistened water due to the higher degree of substrate swelling and hydrolysis. With shaking, limited ethanol production but no change in lactate titer was observed. Rigorous shaking gave better oxygen transfer but presumably caused cell damage leading to substrate utilization through the biosynthesis route. Supplementing cassava pulp with nitrogen enhanced growth but not lactate production. Under the optimal conditions, R. oryzae converted the sole cassava pulp into lactic acid at the titer of 206.20 mg per g initial dry pulp. With the help of commercial cellulase and glucoamylase, the dramatically increasing lactate titer of 463.18 mg per g initial dry pulp was achieved via SSF. PMID:22476767

Phrueksawan, Parichat; Kulpreecha, Songsri; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

2012-10-01

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CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS  

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Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size <320 ?m hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min andyielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction andsaccharification by a thermo-stable ?-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

Wahono Sumaryono

2011-11-01

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Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed [...] that there was a significant (P

Oboh, Ganiyu.

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Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras  

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Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips). Both cassava chip (CC) and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR) samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 h...

Krisada Boonnop; Metha Wanapat; Ngarmnit Nontaso; Sadudee Wanapat

2009-01-01

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Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

1990-10-01

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Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and ?-glucosidase.  

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In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying ?-amylase (?-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and ?-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley ?-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:21327413

Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Mori, Yutaka

2011-04-01

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Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase  

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In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

2011-04-15

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Influence of Exogenous Microbial Enzyme Supplements in Layer Breeder Diets Containing Cassava Pulp  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the benefits of using cassava pulp in layer breeder diet. Six hundred and eight female and sixty four male Hisex Layer Breeders at 22 weeks of age were distributed into four different diets (a Control, Control+enzyme, Cassava pulp and Cassava pulp+enzyme. Inclusion of 10% cassava pulp and exogenous enzyme (Catazyme-P® did not significantly affect egg production during the period of assessment (23-37 weeks of age. There were no apparent effects of treatment diet on egg quality, except yolk color score which tended to decrease when cassava pulp was added into the diet. Cassava pulp and enzyme supplementation did not significantly affect fertility and hatchability. However, enzyme supplementation marginally improved the hatchability of fertile eggs. From the results of this experiment, cassava pulp can be included at 10% in diets for breeding layer chickens.

N. Chauynarong

2013-01-01

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Growth Inhibition of Thermotolerant Yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, in Hydrolysates from Cassava Pulp.  

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In this study, we report the inhibition of Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925 growth and ethanol fermentation in the presence of furan derivatives and weak acids (acetic acid and lactic acid) at high temperatures. Cassava pulp, obtained as the waste from starch processing, was collected from 14 starch factories located in several provinces of Thailand. At a high temperature (42 °C), the cassava pulp hydrolysate from some starch factories strongly inhibited growth and ethanol production of both K. marxianus (strain TISTR5925) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain K3). HPLC detected high levels of lactic acid and acetic acid in the hydrolysates, suggesting that these weak acids impaired the growth of K. marxianus at high temperature. We isolated Trp-requiring mutants that had reduced tolerance to acetic acid compared to the wild-type. This sensitivity to acetic acid was suppressed by supplementation of the medium with tryptophan. PMID:24781978

Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Murata, Yoshinori; Machida, Masashi; Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Hirooka, Akiko; Thanapase, Warunee; Dangjarean, Hatairat; Ushiwaka, Satoru; Morimitsu, Kozo; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Vaithanomsat, Pilanee

2014-07-01

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Silage Production from Cassava Peel and Cassava Pulp as Energy Source in Cattle Diets  

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Full Text Available Processing of the silage using cassava peel as energy source in dairy cow diets was studied. The experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, degradability, lactic acid production and hydrocyanic acid content of various silages with varying cassava peel additions and ensiling times. The experiment was a 5x3 factorial design, completely randomized with factor A as the different formulated mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% kg fresh weight of cassava peel and factor B as the times of ensiling (14, 21 and 28 days. The results showed that cassava peel was appropriated to use as energy source in silage for dairy cows at 14, 21 and 28 days ensiling times. The content of hydrocyanic acid was at safety level for animals. The pH of all silages was in the range commonly accepted for international standard. The pH of good quality silage should approximately be 4.2. The DM degradability was increased as the addition level of cassava pulp in the silage increased. Lactic acid content of silage was highest at 14TH day ensiling time. The present study indicated that cassava peel and cassava pulp can be used as energy source in silage for dairy cows, particularly in Thailand where pastures are lacked during the dry period.

Wisitiporn Suksombat

2011-01-01

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Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

1991-01-01

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Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925  

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Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 °C. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (°C and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 °C and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

2013-10-01

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Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

1990-10-01

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Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava  

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The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

1990-10-01

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Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes  

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Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

1983-01-01

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Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.  

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The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum. PMID:8880299

Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

1996-08-01

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Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Pulp Hydrolysate using Co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent in comparison to the treatment without its presence as well as the treatment of the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468. Hydrolysate obtained from acid hydrolysis of cassava pulp was used as the substrate in batch dark fermentation. The effects of initial pH (5-8 and glucose concentration (5-40 g COD L-1on hydrogen production were conducted. The results indicated that co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 could reduce the lag phase time and produce H2 from cassava pulp hydrolysate with the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 458 mL, which was approximately 14.50% higher than that of using only C. butyricum TISTR 1032 without any reducing agents in the medium. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from co-culture of C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 were found to be glucose concentration of 25 g COD L-1 and initial pH of 5.5. The highest Hydrogen Production (HP, Specific Hydrogen Production Rate (SHPR and hydrogen yield (HY were 357 mL, 3,385 mL H2 L-1.day and 345.8 mL H2 g-1 CODreduced, respectively. The results of this study suggesting the possibility of using cassava pulp hydrolysate as a fermentation media and E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 as a reducing agent for hydrogen production by C. butyricum TISTR 1032.

P. Danvirutai

2010-01-01

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Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada / Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi), de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp) [...] , de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc) e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn). Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5%) da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente), quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%), a SCc (43,87 e 24,20%) e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%). Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM), neutral detergente fiber (NDF) and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA) in bovines fed diet with corn (CS), cassava meal (CMS), cassava hull (CHS), and sugar cane (SCS). The CMS, CHS and SCS were [...] ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP). Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5%) (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively) than CS (45.50, 23.75%), CHS (43.87, 24.20%) and SCS (40.76, 25.78%). For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

Roselene Nunes da, Silveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Djalma de, Freitas; Ana Karina Dias, Salman; Pedro de, Andrade; Alexandre Vaz, Pires; Juliano José de Resende, Fernandes.

 
 
 
 
21

Fermentação e Degradabilidade Ruminal em Bovinos Alimentados com Resíduos de Mandioca e Cana-de-Açúcar ensilados com Polpa Cítrica Peletizada Ruminal Fermentation and Degradability in Bovine Fed Diet with Cassava Residue and Sugar Cane Ensiled with Pelleted Citrus Pulp  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e amido, além de pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis ruminais, em bovinos alimentados com silagens de milho (SMi, de raspa de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SRp, de casca de mandioca com polpa cítrica (SCc e de cana-de-açúcar com polpa cítrica (SCn. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, mestiços, castrados, canulados no rúmen e duodeno, em quatro períodos experimentais, com 11 dias de adaptação à dieta e oito dias de coleta. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Foram adotados oito horários para a incubação das silagens: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. A SRp apresentou maior degradação efetiva (Kp 5% da MS e da FDN (48,44 e 45,78%, respectivamente, quando comparada com a SMi (45,50 e 23,75%, a SCc (43,87 e 24,20% e a SCn (40,76 e 25,78%. Para todos os tratamentos, o pH e a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. Os valores de AGV para os tratamentos de SMi, SRp e SCc foram semelhantes entre si e superiores aos do tratamento com SCn.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, neutral detergente fiber (NDF and starch ruminal degradability besides pH, N-NH3 and valatile fatty acids (VFA in bovines fed diet with corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS, and sugar cane (SCS. The CMS, CHS and SCS were ensiled with citrus pulp (CPP. Four crossbred, castrated, rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used in four experimental periods, with 11 days for diet adaptation and 8 days for sampling. The experimental design was 4x4 Latin Square. There were eight incubations times: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The CMS showed higher DM, and NDF effective degradation (Kp 5% (48.44 and 45.78%, respectively than CS (45.50, 23.75%, CHS (43.87, 24.20% and SCS (40.76, 25.78%. For all the treatments, the pH and the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 were appropriate for the growth of the rumen microrganisms. The VFA values of the CS, CMS and CHS treatments were similar among themselves and higher than the SCS treatment.

Roselene Nunes da Silveira

2002-01-01

22

Reducing cassava toxicity by heap-fermentation in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processing of cassava roots by the Alur tribe in Uganda includes a stage of solid substrate fermentation in heaps. Changes in cyanogen levels during the process, microflora involved, and protein levels, amino acid patterns and mycotoxin contamination of the final products were studied. Processing was monitored at six rural households and repeated at laboratory site, comparing it to sun-drying. Flour samples from rural households were analysed for residual cyanogens, mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and aflatoxins. Mean (+/- SD) total cyanogen levels in flours collected at rural households were 20.3 (+/- 16.8) mg CN equivalents kg-1 dry weight in 1990 (n = 23) and 65.7 (+/- 56.7) in 1992 (n = 21). Mean (+/- SD) levels of cyanohydrins plus HCN were 9.1 (+/- 8.7) in the 1992 flours. Total cyanogen levels in the village monitored batches were reduced considerably by heap-fermentation from 436.3 (+/- 140.7) to 20.4 (+/- 14.0) mg CN equivalents kg-1 dry weight cassava. Residual cyanogen levels were positively correlated with particle size of the resulting crumbs. Heap-fermentation was significantly more effective in reducing cyanogen levels than sun-drying alone, but did not always result in innocuous levels of of cyanogens. Dominant mycelial growth was from the fungi Neurospora sitophila, Geotrichum candidum and Rhizopus oryzae. No mutagenicity, cytotoxicity nor aflatoxins could be detected in the flours. Protein quantity and quality were not significantly reduced. Cassava gel viscosity pattern was modified to the consumers' preference by this method. As the removal of cyanogens was more efficient and we found no new obvious health risk, heap-fermentation can be regarded as an improvement compared to sun-drying alone in areas where cassava varieties with higher cyanogen levels prevail, but we recommend optimisation of the process for ensuring still safer products. PMID:7621084

Essers, A J; Ebong, C; van der Grift, R M; Nout, M J; Otim-Nape, W; Rosling, H

1995-05-01

23

Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips. Both cassava chip (CC and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresca e raspas por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM e de polpa fresca (PF foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p < 0.01 em proteínas (30,4% em RM e 13,5% in PF e conteúdo de gorduras (5,8% em RM e 3,0% in PF. Os subprodutos de mandioca fermentados por S. cerevisiae apresentaram baixos conteúdos de ácido hidrocianídrico (RM, 0,5 mg kg-1 e PF 47,3 mg kg-1. Houve aumento considerável de lisina nas raspas fermentadas (RMF. Valores aceitáveis de cor, textura e aroma das raspas de mandioca enriquecidas formam obtidos após 132 de bioprocessamento. Sugere-se que a RMF pode ser nutricionalmente melhorada para alimentação animal pelo uso de S. cerevisiae.

Krisada Boonnop

2009-10-01

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Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.  

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Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

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Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava to succinic acid by Escherichia coli NZN111.  

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In this study, the production of succinic acid from cassava starch and raw cassava instead of glucose by Escherichia coli NZN111 was investigated. During the two-stage fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was applied in the anaerobic stage. The results showed that both the productivity and specific productivity in the process conducted at 40°C were higher than those in the cultivation conducted at 37°C. The yield of succinic acid based on the amount of added starch reached the highest level 0.86 g/g and cassava starch was almost totally hydrolyzed in the SSF process. With the improved cell density, 127.13 g/L of succinic acid was obtained. When the liquefied crude cassava powder was used directly in SSF, 106.17 g/L of succinic acid was formed. The result showed that crude cassava powder could be another cheap raw material for succinic acid formation. PMID:24787322

Chen, Cuixia; Ding, Shaopeng; Wang, Dezheng; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

2014-07-01

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Effect of fungi fermentation on organoleptic properties, energy content and in-vitro multienzyme digestibility of cassava products (flour & gari).  

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The present study sought to investigate the effect of fungi fermentation on the energy content, sensory quality and the digestibility (in vitro) of cassava products (flour and gari). The fungi fermented cassava products (gari and flour) were produced, by fermenting cassava mash with pure strains of some common saprophytes, namely, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces spp (Baker's yeast and palm wine yeast) for 72 hrs before processing into cassava flour and gari, the forms in which cassava is popularly consumed in Nigeria. Parameters determined include energy (Bomb calorimetry), digestibility (in vitro) and sensory quality by trained taste panel. The results of the study indicated that fungi fermentation of the cassava mash significantly (P 0.05) effect on the energy-giving role of cassava products. PMID:14653508

Akindahunsi, A A; Oboh, G

2003-01-01

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The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

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A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC), Cassava Pellets (CP) and Cassava Residue pulp (CR) on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05) on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava prod...

Tang, D. F.; Ru, Y. J.; Song, S. Y.; Mingan Choct; Iji, Paul A.

2012-01-01

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Effect of Local Cassava Fermentation Methods on Some Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of FUFU  

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Full Text Available The effects of two fermentation methods (fixed and unfixed on the HCN content, texture, colour, flavour, water retention capacity and bulk density of fufu, a cassava based entree were studied using an improved cassava cultivar, TMS 0635. Results obtained showed that the HCN content of fufu from fixed fermentation method was significantly lower (p<0.001 than that from unfixed fermentation. On the other hand, bulk density and water retention capacity were significantly higher (p<0.001 in fufu processed from fixed fermentation method. Texture, colour and flavour were, however, not significantly different (p>0.05 in fufu processed from the two methods. The fixed fermentation method is, therefore, recommended for fufu processing with cassava cultivar TMS 0635.

E.A. Uyoh

2009-01-01

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Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp  

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media d...

2012-01-01

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Combined effect of fermentation, sun-drying and genotype on breadmaking ability of sour cassava starch.  

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The influence of genotype and post-harvest treatments on expansion ability of sour cassava starch was investigated using 13 cassava genotypes from Colombia. Starches from cassava grown at 1000 m and 1700 m.a.s.l (3 lowland and 10 highland clones respectively) were modified by fermentation (0 or 30 days) and drying (oven or sun) treatments. RVA average peak viscosity decreased regularly from 952 cP in native starch to 699 cP in fermented and sun-dried starch. Granule size analysis revealed that fermentation hydrolysed lowland and highland granules by exocorrosion and endocorrosion respectively. This result was corroborated by significantly higher RVA breakdown and lower intrinsic viscosity in highland clones, reflecting different sensitivity to fermentation. For the first time, amylose contents ranging from 15.7 to 21.7% were correlated with expansion ability (3.0-8.6 mL/g) of sour cassava starch. Therefore the combination of cassava genotypes (mainly amylose content) and post-harvest treatments is key for expansion ability. Supra-molecular granule structure influenced sensitivity to fermentation. PMID:23987455

Alvarado, Pedro Maldonado; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Dufour, Dominique; Toro, Andrés Giraldo; Sánchez, Teresa; Calle, Fernando; Santander, Martín Alonso Moreno; Ceballos, Hernán; Delarbre, Jean Louis; Tran, Thierry

2013-10-15

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L(+)-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins  

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The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that weak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification a...

John, Rojan P.; Madhavan Nampoothiri, K.; Ashok Pandey

2008-01-01

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Microbiological and Biochemical Characterization of Cassava Retting, a Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation for Foo-Foo (Cassava Flour) Production  

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The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...

Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F.

1996-01-01

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Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava  

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Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

1990-01-01

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Methanogenic fermentation of cassava peel using a pilot plug flow digester  

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During the methanogenic fermentation of cassava peel, its composition (high starch content, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, presence of cyanogenic glucosides) usually results in excess acid production, nitrogen deficiency and the release of cyanide, which is highly toxic to methanogenic bacteria. The utilization of a plug glow digester ('Transpaille') solved the problem of acidification through localization of the acidogenic phase in the first half of the fermenter and the problem of nitrogen deficiency because a permanent liquid phase allowed nitrogen accumulation. No perturbation due to cyanide (5-6 mg/l) was observed in the fermenter. A fermentation yield of 0.661 m sup (3) biogas/kg volatile solids (VS) was obtained with a loading rate of 3.6 kg VS/m sup (3) day. Energy-saving calculations showed that a fermenter of 88 m [sup 3] is needed to produce the methane necessary for drying one ton of cassava meal. (author).

Cuzin, N.; Segretain, C.; Labat, M. (ORSTOM, Brazzaville (Congo)); Farinet, J.L. (IRAT/CIRAD, Montpellier (France))

1992-01-01

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Microbiological and biochemical characterization of cassava retting, a traditional lactic Acid fermentation for foo-foo (cassava flour) production.  

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The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lyase, and organic acids (C(inf2) to C(inf4)) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultative anaerobes which used the sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) present in the roots as carbon sources. After 24 h of retting, the fermentation reached an equilibrium that was reproducible in all the spontaneous fermentations studied. Lactic acid bacteria were largely predominant (over 99% of the total flora after 48 h) and governed the fermentation. The epiphytic flora was first replaced by Lactococcus lactis, then by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and finally, at the end of the process, by Lactobacillus plantarum. These organisms produced ethanol and high concentrations of lactate, which strongly acidified the retting juice. In addition, the rapid decrease in partial oxygen pressure rendered the process anaerobic. Strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium spp., developed and produced the volatile fatty acids (mainly butyrate) responsible, together with lactate, for the typical flavor of retted cassava. Yeasts (mostly Candida spp.) did not seem to play a significant role in the process, but their increasing numbers in the last stage of the process might influence the flavor and the preservation of the end products. PMID:16535378

Brauman, A; Keleke, S; Malonga, M; Miambi, E; Ampe, F

1996-08-01

36

Co-fermentation of Cassava/Cowpea/Carrot to Produce Infant Complementary Food of Improved Nutritive Quality  

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Full Text Available This study conducted co-fermentation of cassava 50%, cowpea 30% and carrot 20% w/w for the production of infant complementary food. Analyses on proximate, minerals, amino acids and ?-carotenoid contents were carried out using standard methods. Cassava ogi had lower crude protein content than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. Leucine and lysine contents were comparable in both samples. Crude protein, total amino acids values increased. Cassava ogi had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents than cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi. The K/Na ratio was lower in both samples than recommended ratio of 0.60. Values of essential minerals in both samples met the requirement for 9-11 months. Methionine plus cystine, histidine and isoleucine values were higher in cassava/cowpea/carrot ogi than cassava ogi. The carotenoid value in co-fermented mixture was comparable to RDA from complementary food value for 11-23 months infant. Co-fermentation of cassava/cowpea/carrots gave values of improved nutritional quality than fermented cassava ogi.

Mojisola A. Oyarekua

2009-01-01

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Development of Cultivation Media for Polyhydroxyalkanoates Accumulation in Bacterial Cells Isolated from Cassava Pulp  

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Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biopolymers efficiently used as biodegradable plastics to replace environmentally unfriendly petroleum-derived plastics. The polymers can be synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Bacteria accumulate PHAs under conditions of nutrient stress particularly nitrogen or phosphorus limitations. In this study, cultivation media were developed for detecting a number of bacteria isolated from cassava pulp for their PHA production capability by modifying media described by potential references. Both complex and minimal media were developed when cultured at 35°C for 48 h. The isolates were tested for the presence of PHA accumulation by straining with 1% Nile blue A and observed under the fluorescence microscope at excitation wave length of 650 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM was used for comfirmation of PHA granules accumulation in bacterial cells. Alcaligenes eutrophus (TISTR 1095 and E. coli (TISTR 527 were used as the positive and negative control of PHAs-producing strain, respectively. This is the first report for the suitable media for detecting of PHAs-producing bacteria isolated from cassava pulp.

Sureelak Rodtong

2012-01-01

38

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

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Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

2010-08-01

39

Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure  

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Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g(-1) VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop

2010-01-01

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EXPLORING OPTIMAL FEED TO MICROBES RATIO FOR ANAEROBIC ACIDOGENIC FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA RESIDUE FROM BREWERY  

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Full Text Available Cassava residue from breweries is being generated in large amounts in Guangxi Province of China, and this has potential to cause serious environmental problems if disposed of improperly. Two-stage anaerobic fermentation is a promising method for the treatment of such residue. In this study, the effect of feed to microbes ratio (F/M ratio on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of cassava residue was studied to determine the optimal F/M ratio and to maximize the performance in a subsequent methanogenic stage. The experiments were carried out at the F/M ratios of 0.2, 0.61, 1.02, 2.05, 3.07, and 4.09 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS in six laboratory-scale, completely stirred, tank reactors (CSTR at mesophilic temperature (35°C. An F/M ratio of 1.02 g cassava-TS/g sludge-VSS resulted in the highest solid removal efficiency and VFA/COD ratio, while starch removal efficiency was still near 100 percent, and acidification was relatively high. As a further benefit, the VFA distribution was more suitable for the subsequent methanogenic fermentation stage.

Xinying Wang,

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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[Construction of a microbial consortium RXS with high degradation ability for cassava residues and studies on its fermentative characteristics].  

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A microbial consortium with high effective and stable cellulosic degradation ability was constructed by successive enrichment and incubation in a peptone cellulose medium using cassava residues and filter paper as carbon sources, where the inoculums were sampled from the environment filled with rotten lignocellulosic materials. The degradation ability to different cellulosic materials and change of main parameters during the degradation process of cassava residues by this consortium was investigated in this study. It was found that, this consortium can efficiently degrade filter paper, absorbent cotton, avicael, wheat-straw and cassava residues. During the degradation process of cassava residues, the key hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase showed a maximum enzyme activity of 34.4, 90.5 and 15.8 U on the second or third day, respectively. After 10 days' fermentation, the degradation ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of cassava residues was 79.8%, 85.9% and 19.4% respectively, meanwhile the loss ratio of cassava residues reached 61.5%. Otherwise,it was found that the dominant metabolites are acetic acid, butyric acid, caproic acid and glycerol, and the highest hydrolysis ratio is obtained on the second day by monitoring SCOD, total volatile fatty acids and total sugars. The above results revealed that this consortium can effectively hydrolyze cassava residues (the waste produced during the cassava based bioethanol production) and has great potential to be utilized for the pretreatment of cassava residues for biogas fermentation. PMID:22624403

He, Jiang; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Jian

2012-03-01

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Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi  

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Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

S. Mokemiabeka

2011-12-01

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Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2009-02-15

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Nutrient Enrichment of Cassava Starch Industry By-Product Using Rumen Microorganism as Inoculums Source  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to nutrient enriched of cassava starch industry by-product using fermentation method. The experimental design was 2 x 3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The factor A was kind of cassava starch industry by-product (cassava pulp and cassava peel and combine with factor B (unfermented, naturally fermented and rumen microorganism fermented. The results revealed that the interaction between cassava starch industry by-product and fermentation method were shown in dry matter and crude fiber content. Crude fiber content was decreased (p<0.01 with naturally fermented and rumen microorganism fermented. Crude protein content was increased (p<0.01 with naturally fermented and rumen microorganism fermented. However, rumen microorganism fermented was highest true protein content and lowest NPN content (p<0.01. Nitrogen free extract was reverse affect by crude protein content. Base on this study nutrient enrichment of cassava starch industry by product can do by fermentation method, especially rumen microorganism fermented. The rumen microorganism fermented cassava starch industry by product is potentially useful feed material for mono gastric feeding.

Songsak Chumpawadee

2009-01-01

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Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

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Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 ...

Crispim, S. M.; Nascimento, A. M. A.; Costa, P. S.; Moreira, J. L. S.; Nunes, A. C.; Nicoli, J. R.; Lima, F. L.; Mota, V. T.; Nardi, R. M. D.

2013-01-01

46

A lactic acid bacterium with potential application in cassava fermentation  

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An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, identified as #Lactobacillus plantarum$, was isolated from cassava roots (#Manihot esculenta$ var. Ngansa) during retting. Cultured on starch, the strain displayed a growth rate of 0.43 per hour, a biomass yield of 0.19 g/g, and a lactate yield of 0.81 g/g. The growth kinetics were similar on starch and glucose. Enough enzyme was synthesized, and starch hydrolysis was not a limiting factor for growth. The synthesized amylolytic enzyme was purified by fract...

Giraud, Eric; Brauman, Alain; Ke?le?ke, S.; Gosselin, Laurent; Raimbault, Maurice

1996-01-01

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Uji Nilai Nutrisi Kulit Ubi Kayu yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger (Nutrient Value Test of Cassava Tuber Skin Fermented by Aspergillus niger)  

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Cassava tuber skin is a by-product of cassava chip industry, fermented by using mixed mineral (solid media) and Aspergillus niger. The objectives of this research was to know the increasing of nutrient value of cassava tuber skin toward the period of fermentation and several level of inoculums giving Aspergillus niger. The experiment was using completely randomized experimental of factorial design with 12 treatment and 3 replication with several level Aspergillus niger giving was: 0...

Mirwandhono, Edhy; Bachari, Irawati; Situmorang, Darwanto

2010-01-01

48

Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

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Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite...

Kar Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar Datta; Ramesh Chandra Ray

2010-01-01

49

The Effect of Cassava Chips, Pellets, Pulp and Maize Based Diets on Performance, Digestion and Metabolism of Nutrients for Broilers  

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Full Text Available A 21 days feeding trial was carried out with 160 Cobb male broilers to compare the effect of diets containing maize, Cassava Chips (CC, Cassava Pellets (CP and Cassava Residue pulp (CR on growth performance and digestive parameters of broilers. Four experimental diets with isocaloric and isonitrogenous were formulated to make the same nutrition level of them. The results revealed that feed intake to 14 or 21 days was higher (p<0.05 on the diets containing CP than on the other cassava products but similar to maize diet. Body weight, viscosity of the ileal digesta, digestibility of non starch polysaccharides, crude protein and dry matter as well as energy utilization, concentrations of lactic, succinic and total short chain fat acid in ileal were generally lower on diets containing the CC, CP and CR than on the diet containing maize with weight of birds on the CP being the lowest (p<0.05 over the 21 days growth period. However, the relative weight of the gizzard and small intestine at both 7 and 21 days of age was increased (p<0.05 on diets containing the cassava products while the weight of the bursa was reduced. Feed/Gain ratio over day 1-14 or 21 days was better (p<0.01 on the maize based diets than on the CC and CR based diets The concentrations of valeric, lactic and succinic acids in the caeca were lower (p<0.05 in chickens on the cassava containing diets than on the maize containing diet but the reverse was the case for formic, acetic and butyric acids.

Mingan Choct

2012-01-01

50

Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics. PMID:20109125

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

2010-08-01

51

Diversity of Amylase-Producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” (Fermented Cassava  

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Full Text Available Fermented cassava or “Tape” is one of traditional Indonesian fermented food. The quality of “Tape” is determined by microorganisms involved during fermentation process. It was reported that Bacillus subtilis determined the quality of cassava “Tape”. The most common way to identify species is by using 16S rRNA gene. This gene contains conserved regions as unique sequence which is relative among species. It has been widely used as a reliable molecular marker for phylogeny identification. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study diversity of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. from “Tape” based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacillus spp. were isolated from “Tape” from several area in Indonesia i.e. Jakarta, Bandung, Cianjur, Subang, Rangkas Bitung, and Kediri. Amplification of 16S rRNA gene used 63f and 1387r primers. This research showed that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, twenty-six of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were divided into four groups. All isolates were identified as species either B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, or B. thuringiensis.

TATI BARUS

2013-06-01

52

Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22?mole/min and 0.06?mole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH_4Cl, FeCl_3, KCl, NaNO_3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO_4 and HgCl_2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

2001-01-01

53

Effect of initial pH on thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava ethanol wastewater  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of initial pH (4.0-10.0) on thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava ethanol wastewater was investigated in batch experiments. Results show maximum hydrogen product (383 mL) is obtained at initial pH 6.0 and the corresponding hydrogen yield is 70 mL·g-1. The total amount of VFA/ethanol and the proportion of acetic acid in the VFA increase with the increase of pH. The distribution of aqueous products is always dominated by butyrate. The heat-pretreatment at 90°C for 1h cannot completely inhibit the activities of methanogenic bacteria and homoacetogenic bacteria. Hydrogen consumption at different degrees was observed at initial pH 6.0-10.0, and methane was detected at initial pH 9.0-10.0 during the fermentative process. The degradation of substrates in cassava ethanol wastewater and fermentative products further demonstrate that the hydrogen is generated from the production of butyrate, resulted from the carbohydrate degradation.

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

2010-01-01

54

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Artocarpus altilis Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on to assess the effect of fermentation on proximate composition of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour with the aim of expanding its use. Flours of unfermented and fermented A. altilis pulp were produced and standard procedures used to determine their proximate and mineral composition. Fermentation resulted in marginal increase in crude protein (from 3.80-4.43% and ash (from 2.37-2.38% content whereas, there was a marginal decrease in crude fibre (from 3.12-3.00% and carbohydrate (from 79.24-76.71% content. Fermentation resulted in significant decrease in calcium, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents of A. altilis flour. However, magnesium content was not affected by fermentation. This study shows that A. altilis pulp flour has good carbohydrate and mineral content and may therefore, be used as staples, to provide the energy and mineral needs of consumers. They would be useful in ensuring food security if promoted.

W.O. Ellis

2011-01-01

55

Repeated-batch Fermentative for Bio-hydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Manufacturing Wastewater  

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Anaerobic hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by heat-treated UASB granules was conducted in a 10 L bioreactor with a working volume of 8 L at room temperature and pH 6.0 by batch and repeated-batch fermentations. Specific hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and the maximum hydrogen production rate of 39, 304.81 mL, 0.22 mL mg-COD-1 and 851.84 mL h-1, respectively, were obtained in a batch reactor. A repeated-batch was conducted when the glucose concent...

Suksaman Sangyoka; Alissara Reungsang; Samart Moonamart

2007-01-01

56

Blood Biochemistry and Haematology of Weaner Rabbits Fed Sundried, Ensiled and Fermented Cassava Peel Based Diets  

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Twenty four New Zealand white X Chinchilla weaner bucks aged between 7 and 8 weeks and averaging 0.9kg in weight were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and used in a 12-week feeding trial to evaluate the blood biochemistry and haematology of rabbits fed sun-dried, ensiled and fermented cassava peel based diets. The test diets designated A, B, C and D were Completely Randomized . Diet A, the control, was a 16.18% CP (crude protein) weaner ration formulated from maize, maize offals, soya b...

Ahamefule, F. O.; Eduok, G. O.; Usman, A.; Amaefule, K. U.; Obua, B. E.; Oguike, S. A.

2006-01-01

57

L(+-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins  

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Full Text Available The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that weak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93% instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%.As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a capacidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios fermentados em vez de soluções ácidas láticas aquosas.

Rojan P. John

2008-12-01

58

Use of Fermented Potato Pulp in Diets Fed to Lactating Sows  

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Full Text Available Fermented potato pulp is a by-product obtained from the potato-starch industry. There could be great economical and environmental advantages if it could be exploited for use as a new feed resource. This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary effect of adding 5% fermented potato pulp to diets fed to lactating sows on sow and litter performance, blood metabolites and hormones. On day 110 of gestation, 80 mixed parity sows (256.0±4.3 kg BW and 3.2±0.2 parity were moved into a farrowing room and allotted to one of two corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp in a completely random design experiment. Each treatment had 40 replicates and the sows were fed the dietary treatments until weaning following 28 days of lactation. Sow lactation weight loss tended to decrease (p = 0.09 and feed intake tended to increase (p = 0.06 when sows were fed fermented potato pulp. The weaning to estrus interval was shorter (p = 0.05 and litter weight gain was also higher (p = 0.03 for sows fed fermented potato pulp. Dietary treatments did not affect plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor I and follicle-stimulating hormone. Sows fed fermented potato pulp had higher (p = 0.02 plasma urea nitrogen and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.01 than sows fed the control diet. Feeding potato pulp tended to decrease (p = 0.06 creatinine and increase (p = 0.07 estradiol concentrations in sows plasma. These results demonstrate that feeding lactating sows diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp had a positive effect on sow and litter performance.

Xiangshu Piao

2011-01-01

59

Biodegradation of Cyanogenic Glycoside of Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz Via Fermentation as A Mean of Ruminant Feed Supply  

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Full Text Available The development of ruminants must always be followed by forage sources as its feed. The usage of agro industrial by-product like cassava leaves is one of steps that can be conducted. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of leaves-of-bitter-cassava fermentation using a mixture of Aspergillus niger-cattle bolus on the concentrations of HCN, crude protein, digestibilities of dry matter and organic matters. Experimental method was used in this study, using completely randomized design with six treatments namely fresh and wilted leaves of bitter cassava, added with Aspergillus niger and 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of cattle bolus, each of which was repeated four times. The results showed that the mixture of Aspergillus niger-cattle bolus in cassava leaves had a highly significant effect on HCN, crude protein, dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The conclusion of this research is that fermentation of leaves of bitter cassava with 6% of Aspergillus niger and cattle bolus is able to degrade cyanogenic glycoside and increase digestibility. (Animal Production 13(1:18-23 (2011Key Words: cassava leaves, glycoside, Aspergillus, cattle-bolus.

Caribu Hadi Prayitno

2011-01-01

60

Role of the pectinolytic enzyme in the lactic acid fermentation of potato pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizopus oryzae strain NBRC 4707 produced lactic acid and ethanol more efficiently than strain NRRL 395 in potato pulp, an agricultural by-product of the starch industry. The two strains developed comparable activities of xylanase, cellulase, alpha-amylase, and glucoamylase, while the polygalacturonase activity of strain NBRC 4707 was double that of strain NRRL 395. The addition of commercial pectinase enhanced the formation of metabolites, suggesting that the degradation of pectic substances determines the fermentation of potato pulp by R. oryzae. Orange and apple peel were more effective in the induction of polygalacturonase activity than potato pulp, sugarbeet pulp, or wheat bran when used as a principal carbon source for fungal growth in a solid-state culture. The fungal cells in both types of fruit peel stimulated the fermentation of potato pulp and increased the quantity of lactic acid and ethanol to higher levels than those in other agricultural by-products. PMID:12844245

Saito, K; Kawamura, Y; Oda, Y

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Nuclear techniques in the improvement of the quality of cassava traditionally fermented in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microflora of 25 samples of ''ragi tape'' (microbial starter using for the production of ''tape ketela'' - Indonesian traditional cassava fermented food) was studied and 161 microbial strains including 75 moulds, 47 yeasts and 39 bacteria were isolated from these samples. Two mould strains, which have the highest amylase ability and two yeast strains producing high ethanol were selected for improvement of their fermentative characteristics with the help of the gamma-radiation treatment. LD50 of two mould strains (RBM3 and RSM2) were determined as 97,5 krad and 182,5 krad respectively, whereas selected yeast strains (RCrgy2 and RBdgy2) had LD50 of 35 krad and 37 krad respectively. Using the appropriate LD50, mould strain RBM3 and yeast strain RCrgy2 were irradiated and as a result of this treatment 47 and 226 irradiation surviving mutants have been obtained respectively. Among the mould survivors, two mutants were very promising in amylase ability and the glucose production of these has been found to be increased 4 times when compared with the wild strain. However, only one of the yeast mutants showed a slight increase in the ethanol production than in the wild strain (about 55%). Further study is required to obtain stable mutants with a high ability to convert/assimilate the cassava starch. (author). 11 refs

1990-10-01

62

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

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Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.

2010-01-01

63

L(+)-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a cap [...] acidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios fermentados em vez de soluções ácidas láticas aquosas. Abstract in english The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that w [...] eak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93%) instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%).

Rojan P., John; K. Madhavan, Nampoothiri; Ashok, Pandey.

64

The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

1986-01-01

65

Solid-State Fermentation: an Alternative to Improve the Nutritive Value of Coffee Pulp  

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Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = ?0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35...

Pen?aloza, Walter; Molina, Mario R.; Brenes, Roberto Gomez; Bressani, Ricardo

1985-01-01

66

Fermentation of pentoses and hexoses from spent sulfite pulping liquor: potential for genetic engineering applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bulk of the work described here relates to the computer simulation of biomass fermentations in general and to the application of these simulation programs to an existing large-scale fermentation process. The xylose isomerase enzyme from Escherichia coli was purified and its amino acid and gene-sequences determined. The gene was inserted into two yeast strains; the gene produced a protein that resembled xylose isomerase but had no enzymatic activity. In contrast to xylose, hexoses from biomass wastes are routinely fermented to ethanol. The Georgia-Pacific plant in Bellingham, Washington for fermentation of spent liquor from calcium sulfite pulping has an annal capacity of six million gallons of ethanol. A computer model describing this continuous fermentation has been developed. The model is used to test the likely or potential effect of altered fermentation kinetic parameters and plant operating parameters on steady-state process concentrations. The Monod model for cell growth and ethanol production is used (this kinetic model is described in Chapter Four), with appropriate modifications to account for multisubstrate fermentation. Parameters for the Monod kinetic equations are determined using a numerical maximum-likelihood technique to fit experimental data. Steady-state concentrations are calculated by simultaneous solution of the nonlinear differential equations that describe the mass balances for fermentation reactions in each tank. The potential effect of pentose fermentation upon the industrial process is calculated using various estimates of the pentose fermentation behavior that might be achievable in this process, including estimates developed from the fermentation of xylulose.

Backer, M.P.

1985-01-01

67

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

2009-06-08

68

Lactic acid fermentation of potato pulp by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-eight strains of the fungus Rhizopus oryzae were grown on potato pulp, an agricultural by-product of the starch industry. Either lactic acid or fumaric acid and ethanol were formed, and the ratio differed among the strains tested. The highest amount of L(+)-lactic acid (10 mg/g fresh matter) was observed in the pulp fermented for six days by Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4707. The IFO 4707 strain rapidly reduced the hardness and pH of potato pulp within one day followed by the gradual synthesis of lactic acid. A composition analysis showed that the enzymes secreted from the fungal cells hydrolyzed starch efficiently with partial degradation of the cell wall. Rhizopus oryzae may be used as an inoculant for ensiling potato pulp and other agricultural by-products containing starch. PMID:12029519

Oda, Yuji; Saito, Katsuichi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Mori, Motoyuki

2002-07-01

69

Exploring optimal conditions for thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated the effects of seed sludges, alkalinity and HRT on the thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage. Five different kinds of sludges were used as inocula without any pretreatment. Though batch experiments showed that mesophilic anaerobic sludge was the best inoculum, the hydrogen yields with different seed sludges were quite similar in continuous experiments in the range of 82.9-92.3 ml H{sub 2}/gVS without significant differences which could be attributed to the establishment of Uncultured Thermoanaerobacteriaceae bacterium-dominant microbial communities in all reactors. It is indicated that results obtained from batch experiments are not consistent with those from continuous experiments and all the tested seed sludges are good sources for continuous thermophilic hydrogen production from cassava stillage. The influent alkalinity of 6 g NaHCO{sub 3}/L and HRT 24 h were optimal for hydrogen production with hydrogen yield of 76 ml H{sub 2}/gVS and hydrogen production rate of 3215 ml H{sub 2}/L/d. Butyrate was the predominant metabolite in all experiments. With the increase in alkalinity of more than 6 g/L, the concentration of VFA/ethanol increased while hydrogen yield decreased due to the higher concentration of acetate and propionate. The decrease in HRT resulted in the higher hydrogen production rate but lower hydrogen yield. Variation of hydrogen yields were quite correlated with butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio with different influent alkalinities, however, butyrate was important parameter to justify the hydrogen yields with various HRTs. (author)

Luo, Gang; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry(Tongji University), Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry(Tongji University), Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji University Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2010-06-15

70

Exploring optimal conditions for thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the effects of seed sludges, alkalinity and HRT on the thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage. Five different kinds of sludges were used as inocula without any pretreatment. Though batch experiments showed that mesophilic anaerobic sludge was the best inoculum, the hydrogen yields with different seed sludges were quite similar in continuous experiments in the range of 82.9â??92.3 ml H2/gVS without significant differences which could be attributed to the establishment of Uncultured Thermoanaerobacteriaceae bacterium-dominant microbial communities in all reactors. It is indicated that results obtained from batch experiments are not consistent with those from continuous experiments and all the tested seed sludges are good sources for continuous thermophilic hydrogen production from cassava stillage. The influent alkalinity of 6 g NaHCO3/L and HRT 24 h were optimal for hydrogen production with hydrogen yield of 76 ml H2/gVS and hydrogen production rate of 3215 mlH2/L/d. Butyrate was the predominant metabolite in all experiments. With the increase in alkalinity of more than 6 g/L, the concentration of VFA/ethanol increased while hydrogen yield decreased due to the higher concentration of acetate and propionate. The decrease in HRT resulted in the higher hydrogen production rate but lower hydrogen yield. Variation of hydrogen yields were quite correlated with butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio with different influent alkalinities, however, butyrate was important parameter to justify the hydrogen yields with various HRTs.

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

2010-01-01

71

KRAFT PULPING OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AS A PRETREATMENT FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available The kraft pulping process was evaluated in this study as a pretreatment of Eucalyptus globulus for bioethanol production. Wood chips were pretreated under different pulping conditions (155°C and 165°C; 15 and 20 % alkali active AA, 15-60 min. A total of 12 pulps were obtained, with pulp yields ranging from 49 to 57%. Glucan remained in pulps were from 77% and 90%, while 50% of the hemicelluloses were solubilized. Lignin removal increased with increased severity of cooking (high active alkali charge, pretreatment time and temperature reaching delignification over 78%. The enzymatic hydrolysis of kraft pulps with cellulase presented a rapid glucan conversion rate to glucose with values over 90%. Lignin, hemicellulose removal, as well as, cellulose polymerization degree showed an effect on the increment of enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity increased slightly between 1-5%, having no effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed (SFS at 10% substrate consistency with a production at 30-38 g ethanol/L. The maximum amount of ethanol that could be produced from E. globulus is 258 g ethanol/kg wood, assuming total glucose conversion into ethanol. The amounts of ethanol obtained from the different pulps varied between 168-202 g ethanol/kg wood. The ethanol yields obtained from kraft pulps varied between 65 and 78% (wood basis. The maximum ethanol yield was 78% at 155°C, 15% AA and 60 min reaction, while the yield was 74% at 165°C, 15% AA and 30 min of reaction time. Results showed that an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis at low enzyme loads could be obtained from kraft pulps employing less severe conditions than those used to produce bleachable -grade pulps.

MARIEL MONRROY

2012-01-01

72

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

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Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extru...

Magali Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de Souza; Martha Maria Mischan

2011-01-01

73

Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

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Full Text Available Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h, moisture holding capacity (60% and temperature (50(0C on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25% of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6 CFU/ml was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85% and cassava starch (70% was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units after 5 h of incubation.

Kar Shaktimay

2010-04-01

74

Optimization of thermostable ?- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Production of ?- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluat [...] e the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h), moisture holding capacity (60%) and temperature (50(0)C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25%) of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6) CFU/ml) was the optimum for ?- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85%) and cassava starch (70%) was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units) after 5 h of incubation.

Kar, Shaktimay; Tapan Kumar, Datta; Ramesh Chandra, Ray.

75

Estudo comparativo da caracterização de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca contendo polpas de manga e de acerola Comparative studies on the characterization of biodegradable cassava starch films containing mango and acerola pulps  

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Full Text Available Most compounds reinforcements have been used to improve thermals, mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers films, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Biodegradables films have been developed by adding mango and acerola pulps in different concentrations (0-17,1% w/w as antioxidants active compounds to cassava starch based biodegradable films. The effect of pulps was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, DSC, among other analysis of the films. The study demonstrated that the properties of cassava starch biodegradable films can be significantly altered through of incorporation mango and acerola pulps.

Carolina Oliveira de Souza

2012-01-01

76

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.

Nampoothiri K. Madhavan

1999-01-01

77

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

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Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

S.M. Crispim

2013-01-01

78

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S M; Nascimento, A M A; Costa, P S; Moreira, J L S; Nunes, A C; Nicoli, J R; Lima, F L; Mota, V T; Nardi, R M D

2013-01-01

79

Supplementation of Malate Level and Cassava Hay in High-Quality Feed Block on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency and Digestibility of Nutrients in Lactating Dairy Cows  

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Full Text Available Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology and nutrients digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

80

Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour  

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Full Text Available A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros físico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1, que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas.The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's main physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1, which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

Renan Campos Chisté

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Artocarpus altilis Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation  

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A study was carried out on to assess the effect of fermentation on proximate composition of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour with the aim of expanding its use. Flours of unfermented and fermented A. altilis pulp were produced and standard procedures used to determine their proximate and mineral composition. Fermentation resulted in marginal increase in crude protein (from 3.80-4.43%) and ash (from 2.37-2.38%) content whereas, there was a marginal decrease in crude fibre (from 3.12-...

2011-01-01

82

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activ [...] ity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D..

83

Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations  

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Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentrationincrease of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination.

Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

2009-01-01

84

Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

2009-11-15

85

Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. PMID:23827441

Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-09-01

86

Xanthan from sulphuric acid treated tapioca pulp: influence of acid concentration on xanthan fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthan gum was produced by fermentation of sulphuric acid pre-treated tapioca pulp. Effect of sulphuric acid concentration (0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0%) on xanthan fermentation was investigated. Maximum xanthan yield (7.1g/l) was obtained with 0.5% sulphuric acid pre-treatment. Further, increase in sulphuric acid concentration caused formation of inhibitory substance and lowered xanthan yield. The product was confirmed as xanthan using FTIR, (1)H NMR analyses. Viscosity was measured by Brookfield viscometer and the molecular weight was determined from the intrinsic viscosity. The results confirmed that the yield and quality of xanthan produced were strongly influenced by the acid concentration. PMID:24507334

Gunasekar, V; Reshma, K R; Treesa, Greeshma; Gowdhaman, D; Ponnusami, V

2014-02-15

87

Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.  

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Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (M...

Katagiri, N.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishida, T.

1995-01-01

88

ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN G ON SUGAR BEET PULP  

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Full Text Available In this study, two local strains of Penicillium chrysogenum named EGEK458 and EGEK469 were selected for enhancement of Penicillin G (PenG production under solid state fermentation (SSF conditions. These two strains were selected among seven strains according to their fermentation yields for PenG production during previous tests under submerged fermentation conditions. Sugar beet pulp, an agro-industrial residue of the sugar industry, was used as an inert support for the first time in PenG production under SSF. In order to enhance the production of PenG, two points of moisture level and three concentration values of nutrients (impregnated in solid support, which are the key parameters in production of PenG, were compared. As the yields from solid and submerged fermentation were compared, 570U/g of PenG – almost 15 times higher quantities of its production vs. submerged conditions – were obtained under SSF conditions in 50 hours by the strain EGEK458. The conditions for the enhanced production of PenG were 65% moisture content with a four-fold concentrated nutrients impregnated solid support.

Evrim Ta?k?n

2010-02-01

89

Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang

2013-01-01

90

Influência da fermentação na qualidade da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água / Influence of fermentation on the quality of fermented cassava flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A etapa de fermentação na produção da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de características químicas e sensoriais peculiares no produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência da etapa de fermentação das raízes de mandioca nos principais parâmetros fís [...] ico-químicos da farinha, seguido de avaliação sensorial da preferência do consumidor. As análises realizadas foram determinação do teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, amido e acidez total titulável. O teste sensorial utilizado foi o de ordenação-preferência dos produtos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a etapa de fermentação, responsável pelo aumento da acidez total titulável da farinha de mandioca do grupo d'água, foi o único parâmetro que excedeu o valor limite permitido pela legislação brasileira vigente. Com base no resultado da análise sensorial, houve maior preferência dos consumidores pela farinha de mandioca com maior teor de acidez total (3,44 cmol NaOH kg-1), que corresponde à raiz fermentada por 96 horas. Abstract in english The fermentation stage in the production of fermented cassava flour (also known as farinha d'água in Brazil) is responsible for the development of chemical and sensorial characteristics in the product. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the influence of the fermentation stage in the flour's ma [...] in physicochemical parameters, followed by sensory evaluation of customer preference. The analyses performed were moisture, ash, protein, starch amounts and total acidity. The sensory analysis of the produced flour was performed using the preference-ordering test. According to the results, the fermentation stage, responsible for the increase of total acidity content in the final product, was the only parameter which exceeds the value demanded by Brazilian legislation. Based on the result of sensorial analysis, most customers preferred cassava flour with the highest amount of total acidity (3.44 cmol NaOH kg-1), which correspond to the root fermented for 96 hours.

Chisté, Renan Campos; Cohen, Kelly de Oliveira.

91

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

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Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Fre?de?ric; Gobert, William; Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

92

Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, respectively. Rice straw was used as a roughage source. It was found that gas production from the insoluble fraction (b) of YEFECAP supplemented group was significantly higher (p0.05) on ether in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) while R:C ratio affected the IVDMD and IVOMD (p0.05) as compared between the two sources of protein. Moreover, fungal zoospores and total bacteria population were significantly increased (p<0.01) while, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, R. albus, methanogens and protozoal population were decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing R:C ratio. In conclusion, YEFECAP has a potential for use as a protein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants.

Polyorach, S.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.

2014-01-01

93

Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2°Cday(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646mgL(-1), propionic acid 596mgL(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000mgL(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

2014-08-01

94

Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

Smith Yimmongkol

2009-10-01

95

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

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We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank a...

Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fa?tima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr, Ce?sar L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Moura?o, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

96

Pectinase-hyperproducing mutants of Aspergillus niger C28B25 for solid-state fermentation of coffee pulp  

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The aim of this study was to improve mold strains for the production of pectinases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of coffee pulp. A screening of 248 strains, isolated in Mexico's coffee-growing areas, permitted us to select a wild strain of #Aspergillus niger$ which in 72 h attains a peak production of 27.7 U ml-1(138 U g-1 dry pulp) of pectinase measured by viscosimetry. Though the use of a selective culture medium with low water activity (aw = 0.954) with 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) it was pos...

Antier, Philip; Minjares, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice; Viniegra-gonzalez, G.

1993-01-01

97

Core fluxome and metafluxome of lactic acid bacteria under simulated cocoa pulp fermentation conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive (13)C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel (13)C studies with [(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, and [(13)C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-09-01

98

Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp. during fermentation  

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Full Text Available Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC, pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl concentration, type of salt were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%. Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05 increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.

Anihouvi VB

2012-10-01

99

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

2010-12-15

100

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4â??10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H2/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extremethermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H2/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein.

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

2012-01-01

102

The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of urea and sulfur level in mixing of cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste on nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy of local male sheep. Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 group based of the body weight. There are I = 18.55±1.27 kg, II = 15.79±0.67 kg and III = 13.41±1.33 kg. Two level of urea (2% and 3% and three level of sulfur (0 %, 0.15 % and 0.30% dry matter concentrate used as treatments, there fore factorial design 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment All of treatment received same diet consist land grass and concentrates with 70:30 dry matter ratio. Concentrates consists cassava waste fermented and soybean cake waste with 77.50:22.50 dry matter ratio. Dry matter intake was 4 % body weight. Observed variables were nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy by using total collection. Variance analysis was used for knowing the effect treatment on the variable observed. The result of the research shown that level of urea and sulfur are not significant interaction on the nitrogen balance and digestibility of energy. However level urea and sulfur itself are significant on nitrogen balance linearly. Level urea also had significant effect on the energy digestion. Balance nitrogen of all treatment is positive. Level of urea 3 % and sulfur 0.30% gave a good balance nitrogen and energy digestion. It can be concluded that addition of urea and sulfur in diet containing fermentable carbohydrates can increase balance nitrogen (N retention and energy digestion. (Animal Production 3(2: 91-97 (2001Key Words: Balance nitrogen, energy digestion, cassava waste and soybean cake waste

Budi Haryanto

2001-05-01

103

??????: Xanthomonas cassavae  

Full Text Available Bacteria Xanthomonadaceae Xanthomonas cassavae Xanthomonas cassavae (sp. nov. (VP), nom. rev.) D SMZ 785198 Xanthomonas campestris pv . Cassavae (Wiehe and Dowson 1953) Maraite and Weyn savae Wiehe and Dowson 1953 (authority) NCBI 56450 Xanthomonas campestris pv . Cassavae (synonym) NCBI 56450 Xanthomonas cassava

104

Upgrading of the nutritive value of starchy foods (cassava) through fermentation with genetically manipulated (irradiated) microorganisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than two hundred samples of microorganisms were collected in the laboratory from the local habitats of sorgo reprocessing including alcoholic drink factories, glucose and starch producing factories and households. The screening programme was performed and the starch assimilating microorganisms which showed a good growth on the starch medium was isolated and identified. All yeast samples collected were found to belong to the genus and species Saccharomyces cerevisitae and bacteria to Bacillus subtilis sp. The microorganisms obtained from the screening programme were irradiated using the gamma-radiation dose of 27,5 krad (Cobalt-60). Preliminary results showed that after radiation treatment, some microorganisms had a better abilities to grow in starch medium in comparison with the untreated strains. The identification of some of the microorganisms were collected and studies on their fermentative properties are in progress. (author). 15 refs

1990-10-01

105

The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep  

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Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30. The total intake of dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented and soyabean cake waste with dry matter ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

M Bata

1999-05-01

106

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A ferment [...] ação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced [...] for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.

Flávera Camargo, Prado; Luciana Porto de Souza, Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

107

Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

2014-01-01

108

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

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The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

109

Addition of citrus pulp and apple pomace in diets for dogs: influence on fermentation kinetics, digestion, faecal characteristics and bacterial populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermentation kinetics, digestibility, faecal characteristics and bacterial populations (aerobes, anaerobes, lactobacilli, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci, coliforms and clostridia) of dog food mixed with citrus pulp and apple pomace were evaluated. The in vitro gas production of a pre-digested dog food mixed with 0, 30, 50 and 70 g/kg dry matter (DM) of citrus pulp or apple pomace was measured, and also an experiment with dogs fed the same dog food with or without the addition of 70 g/kg of either fresh citrus pulp or apple pomace was conducted. Gas production increased linearly (p apple was effective to stimulate the hindgut fermentation, but slightly depressed the digestion. PMID:24228911

Brambillasca, Sebastián; Britos, Alejandro; Deluca, Carolina; Fraga, Martín; Cajarville, Cecilia

2013-12-01

110

Direct fermentation of gelatinized cassava starch to acetone, butanol, and ethanol using Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mutant strain designated as ART18, obtained from the wild-type strain Clostridium acetobutylicum PW12 treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma, showed higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than that of the wild-type strain. The production of butanol was 11.3?±?0.5 g/L, 31 % higher than that of the wild-type strain when it was used for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation in P2 medium. Furthermore, the effects of cassava flour concentration, pH regulators, and vitamins on the ABE production were also investigated. The highest butanol production of 15.8?±?0.8 g/L and butanol yield (0.31 g/g) were achieved after the above factors were optimized. When acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by ART18 was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor, the butanol production, the productivity of butanol, and the total solvent were 16.3?±?0.9, 0.19, and 0.28 g/L(/)h, respectively. These results indicate that ART18 is a promising industrial producer in ABE fermentation. PMID:24519630

Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-bin

2014-04-01

111

Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

Flávera Camargo Prado

2005-06-01

112

Strategies for developing the cassava industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

1990-10-01

113

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

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Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes.

Magali Leonel

2011-06-01

114

Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends / Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot escu [...] lenta L.) e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%), a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC) e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm) foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento) no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%), temperatura (65ºC) e rotação intermediárias (218 rpm) levaram a obtenção de misturas extrusadas com baixa degradação dos componentes. Abstract in english Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated [...] orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating) of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer) is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%), intermediate temperature (65ºC) and screw speed (218 rpm) led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.

Leonel, Magali; Souza, Luciana Bronzi de; Mischan, Martha Maria.

115

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica  

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Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 ...

Madhavan Nampoothiri, K.; Ashok Pandey

1999-01-01

116

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG pr...

Swain, Manas R.; Shaktimay Kar; Ray, Ramesh C.

2009-01-01

117

Fed-batch fermentation for n-butanol production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate in a fibrous bed bioreactor with continuous gas stripping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrated cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) containing 584.4 g/L glucose was studied for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with a hyper-butanol-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum strain in a fibrous bed bioreactor with gas stripping for continuous butanol recovery. With periodical nutrient supplementation, stable production of n-butanol from glucose in the CBH was maintained in the fed-batch fermentation over 263 h with an average sugar consumption rate of 1.28 g/L h and butanol productivity of 0.32±0.03 g/L h. A total of 108.5 g/L ABE (butanol: 76.4 g/L, acetone: 27.0 g/L, ethanol: 5.1 g/L) was produced, with an overall yield of 0.32±0.03 g/g glucose for ABE and 0.23±0.01 g/g glucose for butanol. The gas stripping process generated a product containing 10-16% (w/v) of butanol, ~4% (w/v) of acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<0.8%) and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ~64% (w/v) after phase separation. PMID:22101071

Lu, Congcong; Zhao, Jingbo; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wei, Dong

2012-01-01

118

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

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Full Text Available We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788 related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

Inayara C. A. Lacerda

2011-06-01

119

Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples col [...] lected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.

Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr, César L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A..

120

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity o...

Thiago Fernandes Bernardes; Ricardo Andrade Reis; Andréia Luciane Moreira

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com resíduos de mandioca e cana-de-açúcar ensilados com polpa cítrica Efficiency of microbial protein in bovine fed with cassava residues and sugar cane ensiled with citric pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos, quatro animais canulados no rúmen e duodeno foram alimentados com 4 dietas: 1- Dieta basal (DB, composta por silagem de milho (SMi e farelo de soja participando na proporção de 60% da matéria seca total das dietas à base de casca e raspa de mandioca; 2- DB + silagem de raspa de mandioca (SRp; 3- DB + silagem de casca de mandioca (SCc e 4- silagem de cana-de-açúcar (SCn, sendo as silagens SRp, SCc e SCn acrescidas da polpa cítrica peletizada como aditivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 em relação à composição das bactérias isoladas do conteúdo ruminal de animais que recebiam as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana das dietas com SMi, SRp e SCc foram maiores (P With the goal to study the microbial protein synthesis in bovines, four duodenal and ruminant canuleted animals were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed with diets formulated with: corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS or sugar cane (SCS silage. The CMS, CHS and SCS were mixed with citric pulp. The basal diet, composed by CS and soybean meal, participated in 60% of total dry matter of cassava diets. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among diets in relation to bacterial composition isolated from the animal's ruminant contents. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of diets on CS, CMS and CHS were larger (p < 0.05 (32.1; 22.2; 26.1 gN/kg of organic matter apparently rumen degraded, respectively than CS (16.4 gN/kg OMARD.

Ana Karina Dias Salman

2002-04-01

122

Response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation conditions during the processing of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp into Lanhouin  

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Full Text Available The response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=3 was used to investigate the combined effects of ripening, salting and duration of fermentation on total viable cells (TVC load, sodium chloride (NaCl and histamine contents during fermentation. Regression models were generated to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied quality indices. The fit of the models was expressed by the coefficients of regression R2, which were found to be 0.807, 0.813 and 0.920 for TVC, NaCl and histamine respectively, indicating that 80.7, 81 and 92.0 % of the variability in the responses could be explained by the models. Significant (p<0.05interaction was also observed between salt ratio and fermentation time. The optimum fermentation conditions required to obtain TVC load, histamine content and salt concentration within acceptable levels were established as: repining time of 8 h, salt ratio of 25% and fermentation time of 4 days.

Anihouvi VB

2011-09-01

123

Ocorrência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico na fermentação de fécula de mandioca Biological fixation of atmospheric N2 in the initial phase of cassava starch fermentation  

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Full Text Available A fase inicial do processo de fermentação natural de fécula de mandioca apresenta a ocorrência de fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h, mesmo com o meio tendo uma relação carbono/nitrogênio muito alta. Assim, o nitrogênio necessário à formação da biomassa nos primeiros estágios da fermentação seria originário de fora do sistema via fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico, já que o teor protéico disponível na fécula de mandioca é muito baixo. Para verificar tal hipótese, foram feitos dois experimentos fundamentados no balanço de nitrogênio na suspensão com grânulos de fécula durante as primeiras 120 h do processo fermentativo, conduzido sob temperatura ambiente e sob temperatura controlada a 28 °C. Não foram detectados aumentos de nitrogênio na fase estudada, o que sugere a não existência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico. Os resultados sugerem que a origem do nitrogênio para o processo fermentativo é a própria fécula, que, quando na forma de polvilho apresenta alta relação C/N, porém, quando em suspensão essa relação abaixa propiciando uma fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h.The initial phase of natural fermentation of cassava starch presents vigorous fermentation within the first 24 h and is characterized by a high ration of carbon/nitrogen. Consequently, the necessary nitrogen to the formation of biomass would be originated from outside of the system because the available protein content from cassava starch is very low and depending on biological fixation of atmospheric N2. To verify that hypothesis two essays were conducted with the nitrogen balance in the starch granule suspension during the initial 120 h of the fermentation process. The essays were set at room temperature and at the controlled temperature of 28 °C. No increase in the nitrogen content was detected suggesting that no involvement of atmospheric N2. Results suggest that the origin of the nitrogen to the fermentation process is the cassava starch itself. The cassava starch in the flour form possesses high C/N ratio whereas in the aqueous suspension the C/N ratio is lowered propitiating vigorous fermentation.

Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

2006-09-01

124

Nutritive Value, Toxicological and Hygienic Quality of Some Cassava Based Products Consumed in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc") were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±25 ppm), cassava chips (73.85±11 ppm) and a little less in fermented cassava paste ("Batons de manioc") (63.1±5 ppm). The average total protein content was very low (2.9±0.5% in cassava chips,...

Djoulde Darman Roger; Essia Ngang Jean-Justin; Etoa François-xavier

2007-01-01

125

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

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Full Text Available Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro.Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative fermentative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V. Brandão

2010-09-01

126

Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation between predicted and measured by the reference methods values (R (2) between 0.789 and 0.997), and adequate values of the ratio between the standard deviation of the reference methods and the standard errors of infrared PLS models relative performance determinant (RPD) (greater than 3 for majority of the models). Use of IR for ethanol quantification showed similar and even better results to the obtained with the discrete chemical data, especially in the case of mid-IR models, where ethanol concentration can be estimated with a RMSEV equal to 1.9 g?L(-1). These results could facilitate the analysis of high number of samples required in the evaluation and optimization of the processes. PMID:23070712

Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

2012-12-01

127

Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

2006-01-01

128

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION VIA CASSAVA-FLOURHYDROLYSATE FERMENTATION PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO VIA FERMENTATIVA A PARTIR DE HIDROLIZADO DE HARINA DE YUCA  

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Full Text Available Background: Lactic acid (LA is a carboxylic acid widely used as preservative, acidulant, and/or flavouring in food industry; it is also used as a raw material for the production of lactate ester, propylene glycol, 2,3-pentanedione, propanoic acid, acrylic acid and acetaldehyde. In recent years, the demand for LA production has dramatically increased due to its application as a monomer for poly-lactic acid synthesis, a biodegradable polymer used as a plastic in many industrial applications. LA can be produced either by fermentation or chemical synthesis; the former route has received considerable interest, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks; thus, 90% of LA produced worldwide is obtained by fermentation, this process comprises the bioconversion of a sugar solution (carbohydrates into LA in the presence of a microorganism. Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the effect of pH control and culture media composition on the LA production using renewable sources from the agroindustry sector. Methods: A Lactobacillus brevis strain is used to perform lab scale experiments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using three different culture media compositions: a high nutritional content medium (MRS, as a reference, a low nutritional content medium with glucose as the only carbon source (GM, and a potential low nutritional content medium with cassava flour as carbon source (HY1. Results: The higher LA production is accomplished under anaerobic conditions, 17.6 ± 0.1, 12.6 ± 0.2 y 13.6 ± 0.2 g LA/L, for MRS, GM and HY1 medium, respectively. The effect of pH on LA biosynthesis in a 5L bioreactor is also studied using the HY1 medium. For a fermentation time of 120 h, the highest LA concentration obtained was 24.3 ± 0.7g LA/L, productivity 0.20 g/L/h, Y P/S 0.32g LA/g syrup, at pH 6.5. Conclusions: These results are comparable with those using expensive carbon sources such as glucose, and show cassava flour as a promising low-cost substrate source for lab and eventually large scale LA biosynthesis.Antecedentes: El ácido láctico (AL es un ácido carboxílico utilizado en la industria alimentaria como conservante, acidulante y saborizante; también es usado como materia prima para la producción de éster de lactato, propilenglicol, 2,3-pentanodiona, ácido propanoico, ácido acrílico y acetaldehído. La demanda de AL ha aumentado debido a su aplicación como monómero en la síntesis de ácido poli-láctico, un polímero biodegradable usado como plástico en aplicaciones industriales. El AL puede ser producido por fermentación o síntesis química; la primera ruta ha recibido mayor interés, debido a las preocupaciones ambientales y a la limitación en materias primas petroquímicas. El 90% del AL producido en el mundo se obtiene por fermentación, la cual involucra la bioconversión de una solución de azúcar en AL, en presencia de un microorganismo. Objetivos: En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto del pH y de medios de cultivos sobre la producción de AL a partir del cultivo de Lactobacillus brevis, usando fuentes renovables provenientes del sector agroindustrial. Métodos: El desarrollo experimental a escala de laboratorio considera la evaluación de tres medios de cultivo: uno de alto contenido nutricional (MRS, medio de referencia, uno de medio contenido nutricional, con glucosa como única fuente de carbono (GM, y un medio de cultivo de bajo contenido nutricional, con jarabe de yuca como fuente de carbono (HY1. Resultados: La más alta producción de AL se obtiene bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, 17,6 ± 0,1, 12,6 ± 0,2 y 13,6 ± 0.2 g AL/L, para los medios MRS, GM y HY1, respectivamente. El trabajo contempla el estudio del efecto del pH sobre la biosíntesis de AL en reactor de 5L, usando el medio de cultivo HY1. Para 120h de cultivo la más alta concentración de AL que se obtiene es 24,3 ± 0,7g AL/L, productividad 0,20 g/L/h, y un rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Y P/S de 0,32g AL/g jarabe, a pH 6

Joan E. QUINTERO M.

2012-12-01

129

Utilização do soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativo para a biosíntese de goma xantana: viscosidade aparente e produção / Use of the cassava serum as fermentative substrate in xanthan gum biosynthesis: apparent viscosity and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose e Xanthomonas com larga aplicação industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a síntese e a viscosidade da goma obtida por cepas nativas de Xanthomonas campestris utilizando soro de mandioca como substrato fermentativ [...] o alternativo. Três tipos de Xanthomonas foram utilizados. A maior produção foi de 13,83 g.L-1 obtida do meio fermentativo com X. campestris mangiferaeindicae a 25 ºC, 250 rpm por 120 horas apresentando uma viscosidade aparente de 96,14 cP na concentração de 2,0% de solução de xantana a 25 s-1, 25 ºC. O uso do resíduo industrial de soro de mandioca para biossíntese da xantana é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o processo fermentativo e um destino para esse soro. Abstract in english Xanthan gum is a commercial biopolymer produced by fermentation of glucose and Xanthomonas with many industrial applications. The objective of this work was to study the synthesis and the viscosity of xanthan obtained from native strains of Xanthomonas campestris using cassava as an alternative ferm [...] entative substrate. Three kinds of Xanthomonas were used. The highest production was 13.83 g.L-1 obtained with X. campestris mangiferaeindicae fermented at 25 ºC, 250 rpm during 120 hours and presenting apparent viscosity 96.14 cP in the concentration of 2.0% of xanthan solution at 25 s-1, 25 ºC. The use of the industrial residue of cassava serum for biosynthesis of xanthan is a low cost alternative for the fermentation process and a noble use for this waste.

Líllian V., Brandão; Maria C. A., Esperidião; Janice I., Druzian.

130

Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Science.gov (United States)

Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DM, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA.

Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

2012-01-01

131

Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme on nuclear techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation practice in developing countries with particular emphasis on cassava 1986-1989.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is c...

1990-01-01

132

Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

2012-03-06

133

Development of Cassava Grating Machine: A Dual-Operational Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Design of a Cassava grating machine which has two modes of operation was made. It can be powered either electrically or manually. It takes care of power failure problems, and can be used in rural settlements where electricity supply is not in existence. Cassava is fed with the Machine through the hopper made of metal sheet to the granting drum, which rotates at a constant speed. This process grates the cassava into cassava pulp. The chute constructed of metal sheet accepts the pulp and send it out because of its inclination which operated manually, the efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.4%, which the efficiency of the electrically powered machine was found to be 91.9%.

Mohammed B. NDALIMAN

2006-07-01

134

Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

2009-06-08

135

Fermentative and microbiological profile of marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets / Perfil fermentativo e microbiológico do capim-marandu ensilado com polpa cítrica peletizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Forragens com alta umidade e baixa concentração de carboidratos solúveis, como é o caso dos capins tropicais, podem conduzir a condições desfavoráveis para a produção de silagens de qualidade satisfatória. Esse estudo objetivou conhecer o perfil fermentativo e microbiológico de silagens de capim-Mar [...] andu [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu], colhido com 58 dias de crescimento, aditivadas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP),. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen, tendo a silagem atingindo densidade de 900 kg m-3. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três proporções de PCP (0, 50 e 100 g kg-1 em relação a matéria natural) e sete tempos de abertura após a ensilagem (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias). A presença de PCP aumentou os teores de CHOs em 15 a 20%, reduziu o pH (5,3 para 4,2) e diminuiu as concentrações de N-NH3. Houve crescimento da população de enterobactérias somente durante o primeiro dia de fermentação (média 3 UFC g-1), pequeno desenvolvimento de clostrideos (média 0,5 UFC g-1) e dominância de bactérias homo em relação às heterofermentativas, para os três tratamentos estudados. A adição de polpa cítrica durante a ensilagem do capim-Marandu foi benéfica, podendo ser recomendada desde que haja benefício econômico na sua adoção. Abstract in english High-wet roughages with low content of soluble carbohydrates, such as tropical grasses, should be inappropriate for producing silages of adequate quality. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological profiles of Marandu-grass ensilaged with pelleted citric pulp (PCP). Brachiaria [...] brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu with 58 days of vegetative growth was harvested for producing experimental silages in PVC silos provided with Bünsen valves and density capacity of 900 kg m-3. Treatments were three PCP levels (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of fresh forage) and seven times (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days) after sealing. PCP inclusion increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations by 15 to 20% and reduced pH (5.3 to 4.2) and N-NH3 levels of experimental silages. An increase of the population size of the enterobacterium (mean of 3 CFU g-1) was observed only at the first day of fermentation, small growth (mean 0.5 of CFU g-1) of clostridium and the dominance of homo in relation to hetero-fermentative bacteria. Citric pulp addition during Marandu-grass ensilage was benefic, its utilization being recommended, especially when associated with economical advantages.

Thiago Fernandes, Bernardes; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Andréia Luciane, Moreira.

136

Nutritive Value, Toxicological and Hygienic Quality of Some Cassava Based Products Consumed in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc" were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±25 ppm, cassava chips (73.85±11 ppm and a little less in fermented cassava paste ("Batons de manioc" (63.1±5 ppm. The average total protein content was very low (2.9±0.5% in cassava chips, 1.9±0.3% in fermented cassava paste and 4.13±0.4% in gari. Microbiological quality was non-acceptable with an average high level of fungi in gari and cassava chips, and total mesophil aerobic microorganisms (56 x 105cfu/g of dry weight in fermented cassava paste. This study suggests amelioration in the production process and post-retting practices with the scope of improving on the toxicological, nutritive and hygienic quality of these products.

Djoulde Darman Roger

2007-01-01

137

Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated potato fiber (CF), insoluble potato fiber (IF), soluble fiber (SF), or cellulose (CEL) ad libitum for 4.5 weeks to study weight change and induce diabetic conditions. This was followed by 16 days of slightly restricted feeding, for the measurement of fecal organic matter digestibility, fecal dry matter, urinary glucose excretion, and fasting blood glucose. Finally, the rats were euthanized 2 hours postprandial for measurement of postprandial glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, and cecal fermentation pattern to assess any relation between digestion processes and hematological risk markers. Diet SF had higher fecal organic matter digestibility and led to a significantly larger pool of organic acids with a higher proportion of propionate than the other diets. There was no difference in hematological parameters except for a small but significant reduction in postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentration of rats fed diet SF compared to diet CEL and diet CF. In conclusion, increased fermentation and production of propionate with diet SF did not reduce plasma cholesterol or glycemic response.

Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S

2007-01-01

138

Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja / Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de lara [...] nja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei) até sete (gostei moderadamente), não apresentando diferença significativa (P?0,05) para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P?0,05). As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras". Abstract in english The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a [...] 2³ factorial experimental. The independent variables were: concentration of fermented cassava starch, sugar and orange albedo flour, and the responses variables were the sensory characteristic: appearance, aroma, texture and flavor, in addition to overall impression, using a nine point hedonic structure scale. The biscuits were also evaluated for physic-chemical properties. The average for sensory characteristic were in the range of five (not liked nor disliked) up to seven (like moderately), and it didn't show significant difference (P?0.05) for all sensory characteristics assessed. Thus, it was possible to choose the optimal formulation obtained according with the nutritional parameters, because there isn't sensory difference significant, which was: 35% of fermented cassava starch, 100% of sugar and 7.5% of orange albedo flour. In comparison with the commercial biscuits test, standard and optimized, sensory appearance, flavor and texture showed significant differences (P?0.05). The results correspond to standards set by Brazilian legislation, and crude fiber content of the biscuit was optimized at 3.08%, thus, can be classified as biscuit "source of fiber".

Santos, Aline Alves Oliveira; Silva, Izabel Veras Cristina e; Santos, João Paulo Almeida dos; Santana, Danielle Gomes; Almeida, Meirielly Lima; Marcellini, Paulo Sergio.

139

Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder. PMID:20627717

Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

2010-10-01

140

Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column / Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextros [...] e Equivalent value), a taxa de conversão máxima (~34%) foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O meio enriquecido com nutrientes resultou em um acúmulo de 21 g/L de ácido glutâmico, com uma elevada (66,3%) taxa de conversão da glicose em ácido glutâmico (baseada em glicose consumida e em uma taxa de conversão teórica de 81,74%). As condições mais favoráveis, levando à uma máxima produção, foram pH 7.5, temperatura 30°C e agitação de 180 rpm. Quando a fermentação foi conduzida em um reator do tipo descontinuo alimentado, onde a concentração de açúcares redutores era mantida em 5% w/v, foram obtidos 25.0 g/L de glutamato após 40 h (16% a mais do que no modo descontinuo). Para a recuperação e purificação do ácido glutâmico, foi utilizada a separação por cromatografia com resina de troca inônica. O ácido foi posteriormente cristalizado e separado, levando-se em consideração a sua baixa solubilidade no ponto isoelétrico (pH 3.2). Abstract in english Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE ( [...] Dextrose Equivalent value), the maximum conversion yield (~34%) was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3%) conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate). The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode). Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2).

Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok.

 
 
 
 
141

Nutritional quality improvement of ''tape ketela'', an Indonesian traditional fermented cassava: Increase of its protein content through gamma irradiation of the yeasts in ''ragi tape'' and addition of nitrogen sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molds used in this study were Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp., while the yeasts used were C. utilis, C. solani, S. cerevisiae and Endomycopsis sp. Gamma irradiation (60Co) was conducted to C. utilis and C. solani, at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 krad with irradiation rate of 61.64174 krad/hour. Molds were irradiated using ultraviolet light. As the mineral and nitrogen sources for the microorganisms, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were used in the form of solution to soak peeled cassava tubers before being fermented. Growth stimulation effect for the yeasts was observed from treatment of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 krad. ''Ragi tape'' prepared using these yeasts and non-UV-irradiated molds in combination with the utilization of mineral (nitrogen) sources, significantly increased the protein content of ''tape ketela''. The ''tape ketela'' obtained using those treatments had a protein content of 6.43% (dry basis) compared to 2.91% (db) for the control. However, it had a lower reducing sugar content, i.e. 11.43% (db) compared to 31.76% for the control. The viability of the yeasts and molds in ''ragi tape'' during storage in a refrigerator as well as at room temperature is found good until four weeks of storage. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

1990-10-01

142

Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse Produção de exo-poligalacturonase por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of Exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50ºC, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a produção de exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG por Bacillus subtilis CM5 por fermentação em estado sólido empregando bagaço de mandioca. Empregou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito de quatro variáveis na produção da enzima: período de incubação, pH inicial do meio, MHC e temperatura de incubação. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que os ótimos de temperatura, período de incubação, MHC e temperatura para produção de exo-PG foram seis dias, 7,0, 70% e 50ºC, respectivamente.

Manas R. Swain

2009-09-01

143

Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

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Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when submitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made int...

Eduardo Zambello de Pinho; Ciniro Costa; Mario De Beni Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos Silveira; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Sheila Zambello de Pinho

2004-01-01

144

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF) / ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la inf [...] luencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas), partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF), proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores) y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yuca Abstract in english The world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzy [...] me dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation) process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I, CASTAÑO P; Carlos E, MEJIA G.

145

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA UTILIZANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE PROCESO SACARIFICACIÓN- FERMENTACIÓN SIMULTÁNEAS (SSF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CASSAVA STARCH USING THE PROCESS STRATEGY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION-FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available La tendencia mundial en el manejo de los combustibles, en especial los biocombustibles como el etanol, ha llevado a explorar nuevas metodologías de proceso para optimizar su producción; por tal razón se aborda en esta investigación el proceso sacarificación fermentación simultáneas, se evalúa la influencia de la concentración de azúcares reductores y la dosificación de la enzima Spirizyme fuel® sobre la productividad y concentración final de etanol, bajo el proceso SSF (sacarificación -fermentación simultáneas, partiendo del licuado de almidón de yuca como sustrato. El proceso SSF se compara con un control con características de sacarificación-fermentación independientes (SHF, proceso convencional. Sólo el factor concentración inicial de sustrato presenta efecto sobre la productividad de etanol. Las cinéticas de proceso, frente a las del control, presentan reducciones de tiempo de 47 y 33% para los niveles de sustrato evaluados. Los niveles de productividad son mayores en un 33% para el nivel de 150 g/l de AR (azúcares reductores y se mantiene constante para 200 g/l. La glucosa en la estrategia SSF, conforme se produce se transforma en etanol, no permitiendo alcanzar concentraciones superiores a 100 g/l, lo que se traduce en que no se presentan inhibiciones por sustrato. La concentración de etanol no afecta la reacción de la enzima en el proceso de sacarificación. El proceso SSF demuestra su viabilidad técnica en la producción de alcohol, al reducir los tiempos y necesidades de energía en la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de almidón de yucaThe world trend on fuel management, in special biofuels like ethanol, have gone to explorer new methodologies of process to optimize its production by this reason in this research is about simultaneous sacarification fermentation process and evaluate initial concentration of reducing sugar, and enzyme dosing of Spirizyme fuel® are evaluated on productivity and final concentration of ethanol, under SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, from the product of the licuefaction process of cassava starch as substrate. The SSF process is evaluated against SHF (Independent Saccharification and Fermentation process as control. Only the factor, initial concentration of substrate presents effect over ethanol productivity. The kinetic of SSF process, in opposite to the SHF process, presents time diminution of the global process around 47 y 33% to substrate levels of 150 and 200 g/l respectively. The productivity values are most at a 33% to 150 g/l of reducing sugar, and they keep constant to 200 g/l reducing sugar. The glucose in SSF strategy, at the time it is producing, it is transformed to ethanol, does not allowing to reach superior concentration to 100 g/l of reducing sugar, this implicates there is not substrate inhibition. The ethanol concentration doesn't affect the enzymatic process of sacharification. The SSF process demonstrates his technical viability on the ethanol production, to reduce time an energy requirements on the ethanol production from cassava flour.

Hader I CASTAÑO P

2008-07-01

146

Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips  

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Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised block design. The results showed sensory acceptance of both the pre-cooked and non pre-cooked (control chips, with means of 5.1 (liked slightly for IAC Mantiqueira and 6.0 (liked moderately for IAC 576.70. The pre-fermented chips of both varieties were rejected. The agreeable attributes most cited by the judges were: "cassava flavour", "crispness" and "texture". The disagreeable attributes most cited were "hard texture", "lack of cassava flavour" and "oily taste". The appearance of the chips from both varieties was considered adequate, with slightly preferred to the IAC 576.70, with the exception of those cooked for 8 minutes and the fermented samples, which were rejected. The yellow colour of the IAC 576.70 cassava pulp may have influenced the acceptance of these chips. The proximate compositions and fibre contents of the in natura cassava roots and the fat contents of the chips, are also presented.

Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

2003-12-01

147

Obtaining lactic acid by descontinuous fermentation using different fermentative media  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid has multiple uses in several industries such as food, cereal derivates, beverage, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical. Due to its wide applicability the process to obtain lactic acid is one of the most studied processes. The aim of this study was to produce lactic acid using fermentation of cassava meal (residue from cleaning the flour mill and cassava starch (amilacious fractions of tuberous root raw materials previously hydrolyzed and supplemented. The fermentation of both cassava meal and cassava starch was carried out using a solution at 18% (m/v, previously hydrolyzed with thermostable alpha amylase (Termamyl 120L and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L; supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The microorganism, Lactobacillus casei, was inoculated under the following process conditions: pH 6.4; at 37°C and agitation at 100 rpm for 96 hours. The process was periodically surveyed in order to analyze the concentration of lactic acid; concentration of reducing sugars; pH; biomass and cellular feasibility. The analysis of the results permits to conclude that both cassava meal and cassava starch are promising raw materials for obtaining lactic acid by fermentative media.

Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima

2011-04-01

148

Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

2006-11-01

149

Solar cooking of cassava  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava tuber is an important source of carbohydrate in the State of Kerala and nearly 2 million tons of it are used annually for human consumpation. An estimated 200 billion kcals of energy, mainly met with firewood and charcoal, are used for cooking of the tuber. The paper reports the results of experiments performed on the cooking of cassava using a bamboo basket concentrator-type of solar cooker. It is estimated that, even if only 50% of the energy requirements for cooking of cassava are met with solar power, an annual saving of more than 400,000 tons of firewood can be achieved in Kerala. 9 refs.

John, V.; Madhava, M.R.; Rohatgi, P.K.

1982-03-01

150

Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05; r = 0.9288 between PUN and MUN concentrations, making possible PUN estimation from the equation: PUN (mg/dL = 0.7672*MUN (mg/dL + 7.4894. These results permit to conclude that cassava by-product meal can be used in lactating goat diets, as 30% of DM, in total replacing of corn, without problems in ruminal fermentation and protein metabolism.

Gisele Fernanda Mouro

2002-07-01

151

Purification of lactic acid obtained from a fermentative process of cassava syrup using ion exchange resins / Purificación de ácido láctico obtenido a partir de un proceso fermentativo de jarabe de yuca, empleando resinas de intercambio iónico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evalúo la producción de ácido láctico (AL) vía fermentativa, y su posterior separación mediante un sistema de resinas de intercambio iónico. Para la biosíntesis de AL se usó la cepa Lactobacillus brevis la cual fue cultivada bajo condiciones anaeróbicas usando un medio de b [...] ajo contenido nutricional a base de hidrolizado de yuca, denominado HY1. Para una cinética de cultivo de 120 h, en un biorreactor de 7,5 L, la más alta concentración de AL encontrada fue 24,3±0,07g AL/L, con una productividad de 0,20 g/L/h, a pH 6,5 y 38°C. Para la recuperación del AL se usaron las resinas de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120. Inicialmente se determinó la isoterma de adsorción de AL (25°C) sobre la resina Amberlite IRA-400 activada en su forma Cl-, OH- y HSO4(2-). La forma Cl- de la resina activada fue evaluada a pH 5, mientras que la forma OH fue evaluada a pH 3,5 y 6,3. El más alto contenido de adsorbato fue 0,59±0,03g AL/g resina at pH 6,3, cuando la resina esta activada en su forma OH-. Seguidamente, se desarrollaron las curvas de ruptura en la resina Amberlite IRA-400 a pH 3 y 5, y 0,5 y 1mL/ min de flujo de alimentación. La máxima concentración de AL adsorbida fue 0,109±0,005g AL/g resina a pH 3 y 0,5 mL/min. Finalmente, la recuperación de AL se evaluó en un sistema de columnas en serie empacadas con las resinas Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; La recuperación de AL fue 77% y 73%, cuando el sistema se ajustó en 0,5mL/min, 25°C, pH 3 y 5, respectivamente. Abstract in english In this work, the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and its further separation by ionic exchange resins was evaluated. A Lactobacillus brevis strain was used to perform lab scale experiments under anaerobic conditions, using a low nutritional content media with cassava flour as carbon source [...] (HY1). For a fermentation time of 120h in a 7.5-L bioreactor, the LA concentration was 24.3±0.07g LA/L and productivity 0.20 g/L/h, at pH 6.5 and 38°C. For LA recovery, the Amberlite IRA-400 and IR-120 exchange resins were used. First of all, a LA isothermal adsorption on Amberlite IRA-400, Cl-, OH- and HS0(4)2- activated form, was performed at 25°C. The Cl- activated resin was tested at pH 5, whereas the OH- activated form was tested at pH 3.5 and 6.3. The highest adsórbate content was 0.59±0.03 g LA/g resin at pH 6.3 when the resin was OH- activated. Following, the breakthrough curves were carried out in an Amberlite IRA-400 packed column at pH 3 and 5, and 0.5 and lmL/min; the maximum LA loaded was 0.109±0.005 g AL/g resin at pH 3 and 0.5 mL/min. Finally, the LA recovery was assessed in a system of series of columns packed with Amberlite IRA-400 e IR-120; the LA recovery was 77% and 73%, when the system was set at 0.5mL/min, 25°C, and a feeding at pH 3 and 5, respectively, into the packed columns.

Quintero, Joan; Acosta, Alejandro; Mejía, Carlos; Ríos, Rigoberto; Torres, Ana María.

152

Cassava For Space Diet  

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Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

153

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.  

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The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery. PMID:22270889

Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

2012-05-01

154

Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Feedstocks from Wood Pulping Wastewaters.  

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A number of industrial chemicals and chemical feedstocks can be made from wood pulping wastewaters by fermentation. The chemicals which can be made include lactic acid, and acrylic acid feedstock; neutral solvents having wide industrial use e.g. butanol, ...

A. L. Compere W. L. Griffith

1980-01-01

155

Use of biomass energy. Saccharification of raw starch and ethanol fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Raw starch was saccharified under acidic condition of pH 3.5 using black-koji amylase, and the resultant saccharidies were fermented to give ethanol in succession. White polished rice flour was fermented at 30 degrees C during the period of 7 to 10 days to give ethanol. Semi-continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out using corn starch and cassava starch. Batch ethanol fermentation was also carried out using cassava or sweet potato. Sweet potato was fermented using Rhizopus gluco-amylase. 11 references.

Ueda, S.

1982-01-01

156

Saccharification of Cassava peels waste for microbial protein enrichment  

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Cassava waste peels may constitute up to 55% of the original tuber. These waste peels were found to contain 41.8% carbohydrate, 1.1% protein, 12.5% ether extract and 4.9%, 4.9% total ash, and 20.8% crude fibre. Studies were conducted to formulate a fermentation medium to convert the waste peels to reducing sugars and to enrich the peels with microbial protein. Amylase-producing microorganisms were isolated from rotten cassava tuber discs buried in the soil at different locations. The microorganisms isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and a Pseudomonas sp. and A. niger; the level of reducing sugar was 20.5 mg/ml. The lowest was by B. subtilis an isolate from fermenting locust bean. Generally the levels of saccharification were higher when the waste media were supplemented with different nitrogen sourses. The crude protein yield in the cassava peel waste media by different microorganisms varied from 5.6% to 17.5%. The highest protein yield was in the waste medium fermented by A. fumigatus followed by A. niger, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. in decreasing order.

Odunfa, S.A.; Shasore, S.B.

1987-01-01

157

COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO DE SEMENTES DE MANGOSTÃO (Garcinia mangostana L. SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO DA POLPA PHYSIOLOGY BEHAVIOR OF SEEDS OF MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana L., AS AFFECT BY DIFFERENT FERMENTATION PERIODS OF THE PULP  

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Full Text Available As sementes de mangostão, logo após a retirada do fruto, apresentam polpa aderida ao tegumento. Este material, rico em açúcar, favorece a proliferação de patógenos, capazes de interferir na germinação das sementes indevidamente limpas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da retirada da polpa por fermentação sobre a germinação das sementes, foram testados os períodos de 0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de fermentação em água. Para tanto, após as fermentações, as sementes foram semeadas em bandejas contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de areia e serragem na proporção de 1:1, à temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 86 ± 3%, fazendo-se a contagem diária do número de plântulas normais. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de percentagem de germinação, velocidade de germinação e tempo médio de germinação. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a fermentação das sementes por 48 horas facilitou a remoção da polpa e proporcionou a maior germinação (86%, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.The mangosteen seeds right after the retreat of the fruit present great amount of pulp stucked to the tegument. This rich material in sugar favors the diseases proliferation, which interfere in the germination when the seeds are not properly clean. With objective of studying the effect of the different times of fermentation on the germination of the seeds, a experiment was realized, with five treatments 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in water. The experiment was conducted following as a completely randomized design and treatments were replicated four times with 50 seeds each, sowed in trays containing as substratum a mixture of sand and sawdust in the proportion of 1:1, under environment temperature 26 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 86 ± 3%. The following tests were used for evaluating the seeds: germination test, emergence speed, average germination time. The number of normal seedling was assessed on a daily basis. The results evidenced that the fermentation of the mangosteen seeds for 48 hours provided better germination percentage (86%, differing significantly from the other treatments.

WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

2001-12-01

158

Dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens dos capins tanzânia e marandu acrescidas de polpa cítrica peletizada / Microbiological and fermentative dynamics of tanzaniagrass and marandugrass silage using pelleted citrus pulp as an additive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica fermentativa e microbiológica de silagens de capins tropicais acrescidas de polpa cítrica. Os capins tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) e marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf cv. Marandu) foram colhidos aos 64 [...] e 49 dias de rebrota, respectivamente, e ensilados com 0, 5 ou 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP), em relação à matéria verde, durante 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 56 dias. Foram utilizados silos experimentais de PVC adaptados com válvula do tipo Bunsen para eliminação dos gases. A forragem foi compactada visando obter densidade de 550 kg/m³. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. A inclusão de PCP aumentou os teores de MS e diminuiu o pH das silagens. A adição de PCP influenciou os teores de N-NH3 (N total), uma vez que, nas silagens sem PCP, os teores N-NH3 foram significativamente elevados, o que as caracteriza como de qualidade duvidosa. A adição de PCP aumentou a concentração molar dos ácidos acético e propiônico. A população de enterobactérias foi detectada somente no primeiro dia de fermentação nas silagens do capim-tanzânia e até o 18º dia nas do capim-marandu. Nas silagens avaliadas, a população de bactérias homofermentativas foi semelhante à das bactérias heterofermentativas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentative and microbiological dynamics of the tropical grass silages using pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as an additive. The Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex. A. RICH) Stapf cv. Marandu) grasses were [...] harvested at 64 and 49 days of regrowth, respectively. The following treatments were evaluated: control (0%), addition of 5% and 10% of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) in a fresh matter basis, and seven fermentation periods (1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days) after the ensilage. Experimental PVC silos with Bunsen valve to eliminate gas were used. The forage was compacted to obtain 550 kg/m³ of bulk density. It was used a split-plot arrangement in a complete randomized experimental design, with three replications per treatment. The addition of PCP increased the DM concentration and reduced the pH values of the silages. The concentration of NH3-N (total N) was affected by the PCP addition, and the absence of PCP resulted in silages with high N-ammonia concentration, which characterizes silages with questionable quality. The addition of PCP increased the molar concentration of the acetic and propionic acids. The enterobacteria population was detected only in the first day in the tanzaniagrass silage, and until the tenth eighth day of fermentation on the marandugrass silage. The homofermentative bacteria population was similar to the heterofermentative on the evaluated silages.

Rogério Marchiori, Coan; Ricardo Andrade, Reis; Gisela Rojas, Garcia; Ruben Pablo, Schocken- Iturrino; Daniel de Souza, Ferreira; Flávio Dutra de, Resende; Felipe do Amaral, Gurgel.

159

The potential of cassava as an energy crop. [NONE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is today the most widely grown of all root crops. Production figures suggest a world output of some 100 million tons per annum and around 70% of this production comes from Brazil, Indonesia, Zaire, Nigeria and India. Nevertheless many other countries have outputs running into thousands of tons. The bulk of this harvested material is consumed directly as human food. The use of cassava as a source of starch, or as an animal feedstuff, has long been of industrial interest, but the prediction that the world could face an energy crisis long before food supplies become critical, has caused a number of countries to assess cassava in an entirely new light. Thus, the starch content of cassava can, by fermentation, be turned into ethanol, a product that, apart from its value as a chemical feedstock, can be used directly as a liquid fuel. The standard automobile engine can run on a mixture of 90% petroleum: 10% ethanol with little difficulty, and with modification, the inclusion rate of alcohol can go even higher. This realization has led a number of tropical countries to consider seriously the potential of cassava as an industrial base, for even a 10% reduction in demand for imported oil represents a massive saving of foreign exchange. The fact that industrialized countries like Australia and New Zealand are moving in the same direction suggests that the carbohydrate-liquid fuel process is becoming attractive economically, as well as representing a method of conserving available fossil fuels. It would seem, therefore, an appropriate point in time to consider the potential of cassava as industrial crop. This paper aims to determine just how realistic are the aspirations of those seeking to further exploit this carbohydrate source. 24 references

Robinson, R.K.; Kutianawala, S.M.

1979-09-01

160

Retention during processing and bioaccessibility of ?-carotene in high ?-carotene transgenic cassava root.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is a root crop that serves as a primary caloric source for many African communities despite its low content of ?-carotene (?C). Carotenoid content of roots from wild type (WT) and three transgenic lines with high ?C were compared after cooking and preparation of nonfermented and fermented flours according to traditional African methods. The various methods of processing all decreased ?C content per gram dry weight regardless of genotype. The greatest loss of ?C occurred during preparation of gari (dry fermentation followed by roasting) from WT and transgenic lines. The quantities of ?C in cooked transgenic cassava root that partitioned into mixed micelles during in vitro digestion and transported into Caco-2 cells were significantly greater than those for identically processed WT root. These results suggest that transgenic high ?C cassava will provide individuals with greater quantities of bioaccessible ?C. PMID:22458891

Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Siritunga, Dimuth; De Moura, Fabiana F; Fregene, Martin; Manary, Mark J; Sayre, Richard T

2012-04-18

 
 
 
 
161

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica / Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura); (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade) e (60,8 a 129 ºC) de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o [...] uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade. Abstract in english Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture); (14.6 to 21.4% moisture); and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion) aiming at the use in high fi [...] ber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm), the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Souza, Luciana Bronzi de; Leonel, Magali.

162

Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture  

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Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence on the pasting characteristics. The conditions of low-fibre, high temperature, and low humidity may have promoted sharp degradation of starch and fiber solubilization leading to the reduction in the viscosity parameters values.

Luciana Bronzi de Souza

2010-09-01

163

Methane gas production by anaerobic digestion of coffee pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laboratory fermentation of coffee pulp containing glucose 1.15, reducing sugars 4.42, lignin 4.65, and cellulose 45.35 weight % gave a constant flow of biogas containing approximately 65% CH4 for less than or equal to 100 days. The best results were obtained when the pulp was seeded with active sludge, treated with 11.8 g of NH4OAc, aerated 7 days, and fermented without agitation at 28-31 degrees under anaerobic conditions. The biogas from coffee pulp could provide 50-52% of the energy requirements of a coffee processing plant.

Jacquet, M.; Vincent, J.C.; Cayla, L.; Elmaleh, S.; Gbahoue, L.; Hahn, J.

1980-01-01

164

Manipulation of Rumen Ecology by Malate and Cassava Hay in High-Quality Feed Block in Dairy Steers  

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Full Text Available Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.0% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. However, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

165

Impact of style of processing on retention and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in cassava (Manihot esculanta, Crantz).  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously demonstrated that the quantity of beta-carotene (BC) partitioning in mixed micelles during simulated small intestinal digestion, i.e., the bioaccessibility, of boiled cassava is highly correlated with the BC content of different cultivars. However, cassava is also traditionally prepared by fermentation and roasting. These different methods of preparation have the potential to affect both the retention and bioaccessibility of BC. Here, we first compared retention of BC in boiled cassava, gari (fermentation followed by roasting), and fufu (fermentation followed by sieving and cooking into a paste) prepared from roots of three cultivars. BC content in unprocessed cultivars ranged from 6-8 microg/g wet weight, with cis isomers accounting for approximately one-third of total BC. Apparent retention of BC was approximately 90% for boiled cassava and fufu. In contrast, roasting fermented cassava at 195 degrees C for 20 min to prepare gari decreased BC content by 90%. Retention was increased to 63% when temperature was decreased to 165 degrees C and roasting was limited to 10 min. Processing was also associated with a decline in all-trans-BC and concomitant increase in 13-cis-BC. The efficiency of micellarization of all-trans and cis isomers of BC during simulated digestion was 25-30% for boiled cassava and gari and independent of cultivar. However, micellarization of BC isomers during digestion of fufu was only 12-15% (P gari and fufu may provide less retinol activity equivalents than isocaloric intake of boiled cassava. PMID:19199597

Thakkar, Sagar K; Huo, Tianyao; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Failla, Mark L

2009-02-25

166

Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

1986-12-16

167

Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) / Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida [...] os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS); parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE) e parte aérea fenada (PAF). As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os parâmetros que determinam o valor nutritivo da silagem e do feno. O emurchecimento elevou o teor de matéria seca de 25% no material in natura para 27.7%, sem alterar o teor de carboidratos solúveis (33.3 e 35.5% de MS na PAS e PAE respectivamente), bem como o poder tampão (204 mmol kg-1 MS na PAS e 195 mmol kg-1 MS na PAE). Nem o pH (3.57 na silagem in natura e 3.60 na PAE) nem os teores de NIDA (11.32% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAS e 9.99% do nitrogênio total na MS na PAE) diferiram entre as silagens, mas o NIDA foi maior na forragem fenada (15.39%). Contudo, o emurchecimento provocou aumento no nitrogênio amoniacal (de 6.5% do nitrogênio total na MS da PAS para 13.0 do nitrogênio total na MS da PAE). Os teores de ácidos graxos voláteis não sofreram alterações com o emurchecimento. O processo de ensilagem reduziu os teores de ácido cianídrico livre (HCN), sem, contudo, alterar a cianidrina. Abstract in english Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when sub [...] mitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS); aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE), and aerial part made into hay (PAF). Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively), as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE). Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE) nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE) differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%). Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE). The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN), without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.

Eduardo Zambello de, Pinho; Ciniro, Costa; Mario De Beni, Arrigoni; Antonio Carlos, Silveira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani; Sheila Zambello de, Pinho.

168

Performance of High-Yielding Cassava Varieties in Terms of Quantity of Gari per Unit of Labor in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper compares the quantifies of gari produced per unit of labor from high-yielding and local varieties of cassava in Nigeria. Gari is a cassava-based granule obtained by roasting fermented cassava paste. It is widely consumed in Nigeria and many other West African countries. The results of the study show that, although high-yielding cassava varieties are superior to local varieties in terms of fresh roots per unit area, the difference in terms of gari (kg per unit labor (person-day between the two is not significant. This is due to high labor requirements for transportation and processing activities incurred by high-yielding varieties. The study further indicates a negative relationship between the adoption of high-yielding cassava varieties and distance to fields, the use of headload/backload as transportation means, and lack of processing machines in the village. This means that farmers are less likely to adopt high-yielding varieties of cassava where transportation and processing activities of cassava are carried out manually.

Tshiunza, M.

1999-01-01

169

Possibilities of coffee pulp for biogas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degradability of coffee pulp was measured using methanogenic anaerobic fermentation on a laboratory scale of 250 cubic cm, batch process, and 2.5 cubic cm, 20 cubic cm and 200 cubic cm scales in the semi-continuous process. Yields of biogas/kg ST were 0.15 cubic cm under real conditions of 0.20 cubic cm under ideal conditions. If coffee pulp is left to oxidize for 72 hours of more, no problems are experienced in processing. 18 references.

Chacon, G.; Fernandez, J.L.

1984-04-01

170

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers...

Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Igile Godwin, O.; Mgbeje, B. I. A.

2013-01-01

171

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA PULP  

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Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

Sabina Rawshan

2009-08-01

172

Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses ?-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as ?-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139

Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

2014-01-01

173

Evaluation of pretreatment methods on mixed inoculum for both batch and continuous thermophilic biohydrogen production from cassava stillage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic sludges, pretreated by chloroform, base, acid, heat and loading-shock, as well as untreated sludge were evaluated for their thermophilic fermentative hydrogen-producing characters from cassava stillage in both batch and continuous experiments. Results showed that the highest hydrogen production was obtained by untreated sludge and there were significant differences (p

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

2010-01-01

174

Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound ["1"2"5I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

1985-01-01

175

Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ? 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

176

Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5% 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12% 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5% 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8% 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8% 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

2009-09-01

177

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.). Polysulfide (PS) pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Copur, Yalcin

178

Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine  

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This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w) of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dreg...

Ogbo, F. C.; Onuegbu, J. A.; Achi, O. K.

2009-01-01

179

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refi...

2007-01-01

180

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Resistant starch in cassava products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to an [...] alyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

Bruna Letícia Buzati, Pereira; Magali, Leonel.

182

Féculas fermentadas na fabricação de biscoitos: estudo de fontes alternativas Fermented starch in the biscuit manufacturing: alternative sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O polvilho azedo tem sido utilizado como matéria-prima para muitos produtos da culinária brasileira, principalmente na fabricação de biscoitos. Visando a investigação de outras fontes além do polvilho azedo comercial para a confecção destes biscoitos, féculas de araruta, batata inglesa, batata-baroa e de mandioca foram extraídas e fermentadas. As féculas fermentadas apresentaram características próximas às do polvilho azedo. Os biscoitos produzidos a partir da fécula fermentada de batata inglesa não se expandiram, e, ficaram muito duros e os biscoitos produzidos a partir das féculas fermentadas de araruta e de batata-baroa, tiveram boa aceitação pelos consumidores, podendo ser usados na fabricação de biscoitos, da mesma forma que a fécula fermentada de mandioca.The fermented cassava starch has been used as raw material for many products of the Brazilian culinary mainly in the biscuit manufacturing. Starch of arrowroot, english potato, baroa-potato and cassava were extracted and fermented in order to investigate other fermented starch sources for manufacturing biscuits. The fermented starch showed characteristics similar to those of commercial fermented cassava starch. The biscuits manufactured from the fermented starch of english potato didn’t expand and was very hard and the biscuits manufactured from the fermented starch of arrowroot and of baroa-potato were approved by the consumers and can be used in the biscuit manufacturing the same way as the fermented cassava starch.

Joelma PEREIRA

1999-05-01

183

Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process  

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The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from...

Ahaotu, I.; Ogueke, C. C.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Ahaotu, N. N.; Nwosu, J. N.

2011-01-01

184

Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos  

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Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os inoculantes foram aplicados na razão de 25 litros de solução por tonelada de forragem, contendo 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus plantarum e 1x103 UFC de Lactobacillus buchneri por grama de silagem. Não houve efeito do uso de diferentes inoculantes sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, assim como no pH. Os teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, carboidratos não fibrosos, matéria mineral, extrato etéreo e o perfil de ácidos graxos não sofreram alterações significativas com a inclusão dos inoculantes. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram superiores para a silagem com Lactobacillus buchneri em relação à silagem controle. O uso de inoculantes microbianos na silagem de polpa cítrica não resulta em benefícios relacionados às perdas durante a ensilagem ou componentes nutricionais.

Mônica Chaves Françozo

2012-02-01

185

Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (v [...] ariety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and ?-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro ?-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.

Dogore Yolande, Digbeu; Ahipo Edmond, Due; Soumaila, Dabonne.

186

Performance of yeast cultures in cassava wastes  

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Yeasts isolated from palm wine were cultured in media of varying cassava peel concentration and their growths were monitored. Thereafter, the yeasts were subjected to crude protein analysis. The performance in terms of crude protein and growth rate using monod model was studied. The results show that the maximum crude protein content of about 4% was obtained at 1.5% cassava peel concentration for media unamended with ammonium sulphate. For cassava peel media amended with ammonium sulphate, th...

2012-01-01

187

Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-12-15

188

Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

2006-09-28

189

Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation  

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The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety) were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v)) in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C) to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h interva...

Owuamanam, C. I.; Ogueke, C. C.; Achinewhu, S. C.; Barimalaa, I. S.

2011-01-01

190

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

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Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermen...

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-marie; Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

191

Xanthan gum production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate with Xanthomonas campestris using alternative sources of nitrogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava bagasse was hydrolyzed using HCl and the hydrolysate was used for the production of xanthan gum using a bacterial culture of Xanthomonas campestris. Cassava bagasse hydrolysate with an initial concentration of approx 20 g of glucose/L proved to be the best substrate concentration for xanthan gum production. Among the organic and inorganic nitrogen sources tested to supplement the medium-urea, yeast extract, peptone, potassium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate-potassium nitrate was most suitable. Ammonium sulfate was the least effective for xanthan gum production, and it affected sugar utilization by the bacterial culture. In media with an initial sugar concentration of 48.6 and 40.4 g/L, at the end of fermentation about 30 g/L of sugars was unused. Maximum xanthan gum (about 14 g/L) was produced when fermentation was carried out with a medium containing 19.8 g/L of initial reducing sugars supplemented with potassium nitrate and fermented for 72 h, and it remained almost the same until the end of fermentation (i.e., 96 h). PMID:15304758

Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Soccol, Carlos R; Rocha, Saul N; Pandey, Ashok

2004-01-01

192

Gari Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava Roots Stored Using Traditional Methods  

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Full Text Available Cassava has gained increased industrial, economic and nutritional importance over the years, because of the multifarious uses of the starch-rich roots. Several storage methods have been proposed for cassava roots due to the physiological deterioration that sets in 2-3 days after harvesting, followed by microbial deterioration 3-5 days thereafter. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world; with 80% of the production from rural farmers who cannot practice modern storage methods. Furthermore, gari (a major fermented product of cassava root is an important component of cassava production in Africa. It is therefore imperative to quantify the effects of traditional storage methods being practiced by the farmers on the yield of gari and the chemical composition of cassava roots. Four traditional storage methods (polyethylene bags, jute bags, trench and plastic storage boxes containing sawdust were used to store fresh cassava roots for 14 days. The roots were evaluated at 7 day intervals for moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate, pH, TTA, cyanogenic potentials and yield of gari. The result revealed a varied impact of the storage methods on the chemical composition of the root over the holding period. The moisture, carbohydrate, cyanogenic potentials and yield of gari reduced while the ash and crude fibre increased as the holding period increases. The moisture content reduced significantly from 66.52% to 60.15, 61.97, 63.26, and 64.17% for samples stored in polyethylene bag, jutebag, trench and storage box respectively. The sample stored in the plastic storage box had the highest gari yield of 29.9 and 24.2% after 7 and 14 days of storage respectively. While the gari yield from the roots stored in trench and jute bags were 22.8 and 23.4% respectively, after 14 days storage. This was significantly lower than the yield obtained for fresh roots of 31.2%. It could therefore be deduced from the study that storage of fresh cassava roots could be done for a maximum of 7 days using plastic storage boxes and trench containing wet sawdust for gari production.

O.R. Karim

2009-01-01

193

Ethanol Production from Cassava Starch by Selected Fungi from an-Koji and Saccaromycetes cereviseae  

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Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of selected fungi and S. cerevisiae was investigated. Firstly starch hydrolysis fungi were isolated and screened from tan-koji (loog-pang. Enzymatic activities of 10 isolated Rhizopus sp. strains were determined on 0.1% starch agar plate at various pH (3-10 as primary screening. Clear zone diameter was occurred at pH ranging from 3 to 8 and no response at pH 10. The highest clear zone diameter that were found from 2 strains of Rhizopus sp. #2Bu and Rhizopus sp. #3Su at pH 4 were nearly equal. Secondary screening, sugar liberated were performed at various starch concentration from these 2 fungal strains. The results showed that Rhizopus sp. #3Su was the maximum efficiency. The highest reducing sugar yield was 25.9% from 6% cassava starch medium at 72 h. Ethanol production by SSF process, the coupling process between saccharification and fermentation was developed by using co-culture of Rhizopus sp. #3Su and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5088. After 24, 48 and 72 h of saccharification period by the fungal strain, the fermentation process was begun by adding yeast inoculum. The highest ethanol production was achieved at 14.36 g L-1 after 24 h of saccharification process on 6% cassava starch medium.

Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak

2010-01-01

194

Effects of Palm Kernel Cake and Onggok Fermented by Aspergillus niger on Broiler Carcasses  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of palm kernel cake (PKC and onggok (cassava byproduct fermented by Aspergillus niger in ration on carcass weight and its components (thighs and breast, giblet, and abdominal fat of broiler. This research used 96 DOC broiler of Lohman Platinum MB202. The chicken were reared in litter floor pen and was fed 0 (P0, 10 (P1, 20 (P2, and 30% (P3 of the fermented PKC-onggok mixture in the total ration. The broilers were reared for 6 weeks and fed ration and water ad libitum. The experiment was designed using a Completely Randomized Design with four ration treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chicken. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the different crude protein and crude fiber content caused by usage level of the fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture in broiler ration affected (P0.05 edible meat (thighs and breast. Carcass and its component on usage level of fermented PKC-cassava byproduct mixture until 30% in the ration was better than control. (Animal Production 10(1: 55-59 (2008 Key Words: Palm kernel cake, cassava byproduct, fermentation, carcass, broiler

Nurhayati

2008-01-01

195

Post-harvest Storage and Spoilage of Cassava Tubers (Manihot spp in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot spp. tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post -harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.

Udoudoh, P. J.

2011-12-01

196

Protein Improvement in Gari by the Use of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms Involved in the Natural Fermentation Process  

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Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 mol mL-1 nmol-1. Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter. The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter. Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57x108 cfu g-1. pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

J.N. Nwosu

2011-01-01

197

Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash. PMID:22514894

Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

2011-10-15

198

Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

2011-02-15

199

PULP dead or alive  

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Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal

2011-12-01

200

Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principles of anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent are discussed with special reference to the advantages, disadvantages, different approaches, hardware, and process control. Although the process is used mainly in the food-processing industry, its use in the pulp and paper industry is gaining ground. A prerequisite for its use is that the effluent stream should have a high concentration of not less than 2500 mg/l COD. Loading rates of up to 20-kg COD/cu m/day has been achieved. The use of an anaerobic-fermentation process followed by aerobic treatment can yield COD removals of better than 98%.

Venter, J.S.M.

1987-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Physicochemical, Nutritional and Processing Properties of Promising Newly Bred White and Yellow Fleshed Cassava Genotypes in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Randomly selected fresh roots of sixteen experimental cassava cultivars (fourteen improved cultivars and two controls in National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria were assessed for their food quality characteristics amongst other relevant pre and post harvest traits. TMS 30572 and TME 419 cultivars of cassava were used as local and national checks or controls. The result of the physical properties of the experimental roots showed that those with yellow and cream pulp have high carotene content which is a precursor of Vit.A. The proximate composition result of the experimental energy rich roots showed that ten of the genotypes (like the control cultivars have high Dry Matter (DM content of above 30%; with nine genotypes having high protein content above 3% like the controls also. Seven of the new genotypes also have starch content of >20%, with only four of them having relatively high carotenoid of > 3 ?g/g when compared with the control. It was observed also from this study that the yellow fleshed cassava gari look similar to the yellow gari (cassava+oil found in Nigerian local market.

C. Egesi

2013-01-01

202

Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production  

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Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

2005-08-01

203

Levaduras autóctonas con capacidad fermentativa en la producción de etanol a partir de pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia / Autoctonous yeasts having fermentation ability in producing ethanol from Musa (AAB Simmonds) plantain surplus pulp in the Córdoba department of Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la capacidad fermentativa de levaduras nativas de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, para la obtención de etanol a partir de la pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds), con el objetivo de encontrar cepas eficientes. Los microorganismos utilizados correspond [...] ieron a las especies: Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii 14AD, Candida albicans y Candida guillliermondii 13AD (nativas), y una cepa comercial de referencia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73. La fermentación se realizó a diferentes concentraciones de sustrato, siendo la concentración del 40% la mejor; se evaluó la producción de etanol mediante el método colorimétrico del dicromato de potasio utilizando un equipo espectrofotómetro Lambda 11. Se observó que la levadura Candida guilliermondii 14AD nativa fue la más eficiente con una producción promedio de 3,45% v/v de etanol a las 72 horas de fermentación; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con la producción de etanol a partir de la cepa de referencia, la cual produjo 3,59% v/v. Estos resultados sugieren la existencia de levaduras nativas con capacidad para ser utilizadas en la obtención de etanol a partir de material residuo de plátano. Abstract in english Native yeasts' (Cordoba, Colombia) fermentation ability for producing ethanol from plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds) surplus pulp was evaluated; the object was to find efficient yeasts. The microorganisms used here came from the Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii (14AD), Candida albicans and Candida g [...] uillliermondii 13AD strains (native) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 (a commercial reference yeast). Fermentation was carried out on different substrate concentrations, the 40% one giving the best result; ethanol production was evaluated by the potassium dichromate colorimetric method using a Lambda 11 spectrophotometer. It was observed that the Candida guilliermondii 14AD native yeast was the most efficient, having an average 3.45% v/v ethanol production after 72 hours' fermentation. There were no statistically significant differences compared to reference yeast strain ethanol production (3.59% v/v). These results suggest that native yeasts can be used in obtaining ethanol from residual plantain matter.

Luis, Oviedo Zumaqué; Cecilia, Lara Mantilla; Mauricio, Mizger Pantoja.

204

Pulping of Sesbania Aculeata.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation is directed towards exploring the potentiality of Sesbania aculeata, a fast growing species commonly cultivated for green manure, fodder and temporary shades, for pulp and paper making and its subsequent commercial exploitation. From Se...

N. R. M. Rao R. M. Mathur D. G. Suryavanshi A. G. Kulkarni K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

205

DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING  

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Full Text Available Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionation studies showed that the fines fractions contained 8 to 13 times more residual lipophilic extractives than the whole pulps. Removing this fraction, which represents only a small percentage of the whole pulp, could reduce by about a half the amount of lipophilic extractives in the remaining pulp. Thus pulp fractionation appears to be a viable option to achieve further deresination of sulphite pulps.

Bruce Sitholé

2010-02-01

206

Some factors in successful cropping. 9. Cassava  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics are outlined of the cassava shrub which make it extremely suitable for tropical agriculture with low inputs in marginal areas. Some simple management practices are described which can give good results. The quality of the planting material is critical and weed control is very important. The main characteristics of ecosystems for cassava production are given as are the results of trials which sought to evaluate the yields that can be obtained with new varieties and improved management.

Cook, J.H.

1985-01-01

207

Performance of yeast cultures in cassava wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeasts isolated from palm wine were cultured in media of varying cassava peel concentration and their growths were monitored. Thereafter, the yeasts were subjected to crude protein analysis. The performance in terms of crude protein and growth rate using monod model was studied. The results show that the maximum crude protein content of about 4% was obtained at 1.5% cassava peel concentration for media unamended with ammonium sulphate. For cassava peel media amended with ammonium sulphate, the maximum crude protein content of about 7% was obtained, also, at 1.5% cassava peel concentration. The maximum specific growthrates were 0.38 day-1 for 1%, 0.47 day-1 for 1.5% and 0.41 day-1 for 2% for amended cassava peel media. For cassava peel media amended with ammonium sulphate, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.9day-1 for 1%, 0.94 day-1for 1.5% and 0.96 day-1 for 2%.

Ifeanyichukwu Edeh

2012-04-01

208

RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava. PMID:21726367

Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

2011-09-01

209

Industrial chemicals and chemical feedstocks from wood pulping wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of industrial chemicals and chemical feedstocks can be made from wood pulping wastewaters by fermentation. The chemicals which can be made include lactic acid, and acrylic acid feedstock; neutral solvents having wide industrial use e.g. butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol; and Kreb's cycle intermediates, which are used as chelating agents and in food additives. The types of wastewaters and conditions required to produce these chemicals will be reviewed.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-01-01

210

Production of ethanol from starch industry by-products, especially from potato-pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a fermentation plant, in which wastes and by-products from potato-and wheat-starch factories, starch derivatization, starch saccharification and production of potato flakes with different quality and varying amounts can be fermented to ethanol. Special attention is given to potato pulp which represents the greatest part of by-products and whose marketing in wet form at best covers costs or even is leading to significant expenses in the case of drying. Due to the composition, it is difficult to ferment potato pulp to ethanol in conventional plants because of the presence of gelling materials such as pectin and hemicelluloses. A hydrolysis process is is described which is especially geared towards obtaining hydrolysates possibly high in dry matter contents with respect to the subsequent fermentation.

Marihart, J.

1982-09-01

211

Effects of Inoculum Size on Solid-Phase Fermentation of Fodder Beets for Fuel Ethanol Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

Gibbons, William R.; Westby, Carl A.

1986-01-01

212

Identification of yeasts isolated from the pulp in nature and the production of homemade "umbu" wine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this work was to select strains of fermentation yeasts and test them in a small-scale production of " umbu" fruit wine. The fruits were collected in N. Sra da Glória city in Sergipe, Brazil. The fruit pulp was diluted and aliquots were inoculated on YMA plates. The yeasts strains were submitted to fermentation using "umbu" fruit juice as substrate, exception with to those strains of species related to pathological processes. The yeasts tested produced a beverage characterized bet...

Dângelly Lins Figuerôa Martins de Melo; Flávia Cristiana Santos; Antônio Marcio Barbosa Junior; Patrícia Oliveira Santos; Marcelo Augusto Gutiérrez Carnelossi; Rita de Cássia Trindade

2007-01-01

213

Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breedi

EmmanuelOkogbenin

2013-05-01

214

Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

1984-02-03

215

Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

1993-09-20

216

ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE  

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Full Text Available Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59% was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87% was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.

M. Sarwar Jahan

2008-11-01

217

Cyanide Reduction, Functional and Sensory Quality of Gari as Affected by pH, Temperature and Fermentation Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of control pH, temperature and fermentation time on the cyanide reduction, functional and sensory properties of gari were investigated. Freshly harvested cassava roots (local variety) were peeled, washed and grated into a mash. The meal was divided into five equal portions and mixed thoroughly with already prepared buffer solutions from citric acid, sodium orthophosphate, -analytical grade (10% by weight buffer and kept in stainless containers to ferment at room temperature (30

Owuamanam, C. I.; Iwouno, J. O.; Ihediohanma, N. C.; Barber, L. I.

2010-01-01

218

Nutrient Composition of Cassava Offals and Cassava Sievates Collected from Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cassava offals and cassava sievates collected from 5 locations in Edo State, Nigeria. Following sun-drying (30-35oC), the cassava by-products were analyzed for protein, fibre, carbohydrate, cyanide, ash and fat. The results revealed that the DM for the sievates ranged between 87.06 and 91.88%; (P (1.02 - 1.07%); EE (0.50 - 0.84%); and CF (3.01 - 3.25%). Others were ash (between 1.74 and 2.01%), Carboh...

Nwokoro; Smart O.; Vaikosen, S. E.; Bamgbose, A. M.

2005-01-01

219

A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING  

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Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

Hanna S. Hörhammer

2012-06-01

220

Trends and Prospects for Cassava in Nigeria. Working Paper No. 5 on Cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report examines the trends and prospects for Nigerian cassava production, utilization, and trade, with emphasis on expanding human consumption through adoption of improved processing and storage technologies. In this context the report examines the ro...

S. O. Adamu

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS  

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Full Text Available

The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

KáTIA N. MATSUI

2009-07-01

222

Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines  

Science.gov (United States)

Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2006-05-30

223

Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite / Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia pl [...] asmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (P Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk urea n [...] itrogen (MUN) concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch (S) but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was replaced by cassava by-product meal. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, PUN and MUN concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P

Mouro, Gisele Fernanda; Branco, Antonio Ferriani; Macedo, Francisco Assis Fonseca de; Guimarães, Kátia Cilene; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; Ferreira, Rosemeri Aparecida; Prohmann, Paulo Emílio Fernandes.

224

Design of a Cassava Uprooting Device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyses the design of a simple, efficient, cheap and affordable cassava uprooting device for local cassava growing farmers. Processes involved in uprooting cassava were found out from local farmers, studied and mechanized using bevel gears, cams and followers, chain and sprockets. The principle of moments was used as a basis for the design. The effort applied by the foot of the operator is significantly magnified to overcome the load (cassava in the ground at the extreme end of the device .The free body diagram of the frame helped to determine the average force needed to press the pedal by the foot. From the analysis, a little effort of 334.49 N can overcome about 2000 N of force and this gives a mechanical advantage of about 6. The bending moment diagram and the shear force diagrams helped to determine the part of the device which is subjected to greater force and where shear and bending can easily take place. Mild steel is used as the material for the device because it is cheap and easily available. Advantages of this design include faster uprooting with high productivity, less energy expended, reduction in the risk of health hazards of developing blisters in the palms, callus palms, arched spinal cord and waste pains over time.

A.S. Akinwonmi

2013-01-01

225

Kraft Pulping of Coppice Grown Eucalypts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulping and bleaching investigations were carried out on coppice grown Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus grandis. It was observed that bleachable grade pulps could be obtained from coppice grown eucalypts. These pulps could be bleached to 76-78% ISO ...

R. Pant A. K. Rai R. M. Mathur Y. V. Sood

1980-01-01

226

Understanding the influence of livelihood features on cassava value chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More than 70% of Ghanaian farmers depend on cassava farming and processing as part of their livelihood activities. The study sought to identify the actors in the cassava value chains, how their livelihood features influence upgrading in the value chains and also, factors that farmers consider in deciding whether to sell fresh cassava roots to intermediate processors or to process the roots themselves and sell.

2011-01-01

227

Production of Cocoyam, Cassava and Wheat Flour Composite Rock Cake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proximate and sensory analysis of the cassava-cocoyam supplemented wheat flour rock cake has been made. This was done to investigate the nutritional value and the general acceptability of the cassava flour and cocoyam flour supplemented rock cake. The proximate analysis indicate that the moisture content, ash and the carbohydrate increase with increasing cassava and cocoyam flour concentration. Generally the ash content of composite rock cakes increases as the level of supplementation inc...

Rita Elsie Sanful; Sophia Darko

2010-01-01

228

Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming ...

2001-01-01

229

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types ...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.

2000-01-01

230

Effect of Technological Treatments on Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of cassava roots and those of its derived food (attiéké and semolina), were determined. The comparative study of the cassava roots composition with those of the semolina and attiéké has shown that the technological applied treatments in the preparation of cassava meal and attiéké influenced its composition. Thus, apart from the lipids content and energy values which slightly increased, all the components (protein, ash, cellulose, carbohydrates, starch and hydrocyanic aci...

Sahoré Drogba Alexis; Nemlin Gnopo Jean

2010-01-01

231

Growth of Candida utilis on enzymically hydrolyzed cassava  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymically hydrolyzed cassava starch was used for C. utilis cultivation. Highly efficient starch hydrolysis was achieved with a 92% dextrose equivalent syrup obtained after 15-20 hours. Cyanide content fell during cassava processing to very low levels in the hydrolyzate. Comparison of biomass yields and protein of C. utilis using molasses and cassava hydrolyzate as substrates demonstrates the potential of the latter for yeast production.

Musenge, H.M.; Anderson, J.G.; Holdom, R.S.

1980-01-01

232

High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-03-01

233

Fermentation Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

1978-01-01

234

Diallel Analysis of Cassava Genotypes to Anthracnose Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis has been recognized as one of the major economic disease of cassava in all the cassava growing regions of Africa. Little information is available on the resistance of cassava to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. This study was conducted to determine the relative importance of general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability, maternal and non-maternal reciprocal effects on resistance to C. gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis in selected cassava genotypes. A complete diallel mating scheme including reciprocals of nine resistant and susceptible genotypes of cassava were evaluated in the field over a period of two planting seasons. The combining ability analysis revealed that both the additive and nonadditive gene effects were present. Crosses between the resistant lines and susceptible genotypes showed intermediate disease reaction to CAD suggesting a polygenic system of resistance to the disease. The significant maternal and specific reciprocal differences among the parents and crosses indicated that maternal and/or cytoplasmic inheritance is involved in the reaction of cassava genotypes to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp manihotis. The significant genotype X environment interaction suggested lack of stability in the development of lesions/cankers on cassava stems. Therefore, recurrent selection would be appropriate for accumulating genes for resistance to CAD in cassava and progeny performance may not be based on their parents performance per se.

O.F. Owolade

2006-03-01

235

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta, have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types adapted to different environments. It is assumed that cassava originated by hybridization between two wild Manihot species followed by vegetative reproduction of the hybrid.

Nagib M.A. Nassar

2000-12-01

236

Cytogenetics and evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english All Manihot species so far examined, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), have 2n = 36. Interspecific hybrids between cassava and its wild relatives show fair regular meiosis, and backcrossed generations exhibit high fertility. Electrophoresis shows affinity between species of different sections, [...] as well as between some of them and cassava itself. Polyploidy has apparently contributed to the rapid speciation of this genus, while apomixis has offered a means of perpetuating new hybrid types adapted to different environments. It is assumed that cassava originated by hybridization between two wild Manihot species followed by vegetative reproduction of the hybrid.

Nagib M.A., Nassar.

237

Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. PMID:23269634

Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

2013-01-01

238

Effects of cassava starch hydrolysate on cell growth and lipid accumulation of the heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterotrophic fermentation of microalgae has been shown to accumulate high amounts of microalgal lipids, which are regarded as one of the most promising feedstocks for sustainable biodiesel production. To increase the biomass and reduce the cost of microalgal culture, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using cassava starch hydrolysate (CSH) instead of glucose as carbon source for heterotrophic culture of Chlorella protothecoides in flasks. First, the two-step enzymatic process of hydrolysis of cassava starch by alpha-amylase and glucoamylase was optimized; the conversion efficiency for cassava starch was up to 97.7%, and over 80% of CSH was glucose. Subsequently, we compared heterotrophic cultures of C. protothecoiedes using glucose or CSH as carbon source. The results demonstrated that when using CSH as the organic carbon source, the highest biomass and the maximum total lipid yield obtained were 15.8 and 4.19 g/L, representing increases of 42.3 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to using glucose as the organic carbon source. This suggests that CSH is a better carbon source than glucose for heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. PMID:19633877

Wei, Aili; Zhang, Xuewu; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu; Wu, Qingyu; Yang, Shang-Tian

2009-11-01

239

DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and ?-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

2011-12-01

240

Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic potential (CNp). Processed products from Luapula showed a low CNp,

Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

2011-05-01

242

Batch Fermentation Kinetics of Pullulan from Aureobasidium pullulans Using Low Cost Substrates  

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Batch pullulan fermentation kinetics of Aureobasidium pullulans from different low cost substrates was studied. In order to economize the process, different cheaper substrates such as cashew fruit juice, bakery waste, cassava flour and maize flour were attempted as a sole carbon source for the production of pullulan. A glucose based defined medium was used for comparison purposes. The higher yield of pullulan and increased uptake rate of substrate was noticed due to the rich con...

2008-01-01

243

Isolation of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus from pulp mill sources with potential to deconstruct pulping waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. A microorganism was isolated from a black liquor sample collected from the Department of Forest Biomaterials at North Carolina State University. The organism was identified as Paenibacillus glucanolyticus using 16S rRNA sequence analysis and was shown to be capable of growth on black liquor as the sole carbon source based on minimal media growth studies. Minimal media growth curves demonstrated that this facultative anaerobic microorganism can degrade black liquor as well as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify products generated by P. glucanolyticus when it was grown anaerobically on black liquor. Fermentation products which could be converted into high-value chemicals such as succinic, propanoic, lactic, and malonic acids were detected. PMID:24841577

Mathews, Stephanie L; Pawlak, Joel J; Grunden, Amy M

2014-07-01

244

Alcoholic fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In alcohol manufacture by the modified amylo process, addition of a saccharifying amylase preparation of dextrose equivalent > 95% reduces the saccharification period and raises the alcohol yield. Thus, 2.5 kg potato mash was diluted to 7 l, steamed, and inoculated with Rhizopus delemar and Aspergillus oryzae. Aeration with or without amylase and subsequent fermentation with yeast gave 94.1 or 92.8% alcohol in 85 hours, respectively.

Sato, M.; Hattori, F.; Inoue, H.

1979-02-17

245

Production of Adhesives from Cassava Starch  

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Full Text Available The potentials of adhesives production from cassava starch were investigated. Adhesive products from Manihot utilisima and Manihot palmate were compared with a commercial adhesive. Based on the results obtained, equations developed for optimum process conditions that would yield products comparable to the commercial process. The products obtained using these conditions were found to have relatively improved pot-life. There no noticeable changes in the properties of the products for the first 21 days.

Emmanuel Sunday Akin AJISEGIRI

2007-01-01

246

Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs

1993-09-20

247

Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong. PMID:24747716

Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

2014-06-16

248

Lactic acid production from cassava fibrous residue using Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407.  

Science.gov (United States)

During extraction of starch from cassava, fibrous residue is a major waste released into the environment. Owing to the high starch content (60-65% on dry weight basis) and organic matter of cassava fibrous residue (CFR), an attempt has been made to utilize it for the production of lactic acid (LA) in semi solid state fermentation using Mann Rogassa Sharpe medium containing [5 % (wv(-1))] CFR in lieu of glucose [2% (wv(-1))] as the carbon source. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of main variables, i.e. incubation period, temperature and pH on LA production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, temperature and pH were 120 hr 35 degrees C and 6.5, respectively. Maximum starch conversion by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 to LA was 63.3%. The organism produced 29.86 g of (L+) LA from 60 g of starch present in 100 g of CFR. The LA production yield (i.e. mass LA produced mass starch present in CFR(-1) x 100) was 49.76%. PMID:20143717

Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Sharma, Piyush; Panda, Smita Hasini

2009-09-01

249

Sugarcane Fish Silage Fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

UNIDO pub on sugar cane fish silage fermentation covers (1) attempts to ensile sugar cane for feed production; relevant research (2) the incorporation of fish in the fermentation with animal droppings as inoculum, redirecting the fermentation to produce h...

D. A. Ali N. Samaroo L. A. Shah

1985-01-01

250

Enzymes in Bleaching of Kraft Pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose pulp produced by the kraft pulping process is the predominant raw material for production of paper. Although most of the wood lignin is removed during kraft pulping the residual brown-colored lignin must be removed and the brightness of the pulp...

A. Kantelinen

1992-01-01

251

Avaliação da farinha de mandioca e do fubá de milho como substratos para a obtenção de bebida fermento-destilada Evaluation of cassava and corn flours as substrates for alcoholic distilled beverage production  

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Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca e o fubá de milho foram avaliados como matérias-primas alternativas na obtenção de uma bebida fermento-destilada, visando gerar informações úteis à aplicação industrial. Os substratos foram caracterizados e comparou-se a eficiência da mosturação, o perfil de açúcares no mosto, bem como as curvas de fermentação dos substratos. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo de amido foi de 78,1 % para o fubá de milho e 92,7 % para a farinha de mandioca. Quanto ao rendimento da mosturação foi de 57, 4 % para o milho e 66,4 % para a mandioca, sendo que o perfil de açúcares no mosto demonstrou que 95 % dos açúcares presentes no mosto de mandioca foi glicose e o restante pequenas porcentagens de dextrinas e maltose. Já o perfil do mosto de milho apresentou cerca de 85 % de glicose , 10 % de dextrinas e cerca de 4 % de maltose. Para o processo fermentativo, observou -se que o consumo de açúcares no mosto de mandioca foi mais rápido que no mosto de milho.Cassava and corn flours were evaluated as alternative raw-materials for production of a fermented and distilled drink. The objective of this work was to generate information for technological application. Both flours were characterized and starch hydrolysis efficiency, sugar profile and fermentation pattern were compared. The results obtained showed that starch content of corn flour was 78.1% and for cassava flour 92.7%. Starch hydrolysis yield was 57.4% for corn and 66.4% for cassava and the sugar profiles in the hydrolysates showed that 95% of total sugar present in cassava hydrolysate was glucose and the remaining fraction was represented by dextrins and maltose. For corn hydrolysate 85% of total sugar was glucose, 10% dextrins and around 4% maltose. The fermentative process was evaluated by measuring the velocity of sugar consumption which for cassava hydrolysate was higher than for corn hydrolysate.

I. M. Demiate

1997-08-01

252

Iron and protein biofortification of cassava: lessons learned.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over two hundred and fifty million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their primary source of calories. Cassava roots, however, have the lowest protein:energy ratio of all the world's major staple crops. Furthermore, a typical cassava-based diet provides less than 10-20% of the required amounts of iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin E. The BioCassava Plus program employed modern biotechnologies to improve the health of Africans through development and delivery of novel cassava germplasm with increased nutrient levels. Here we describe the development of molecular strategies and their outcomes to meet minimum daily allowances for protein and iron in cassava based diets. We demonstrate that cyanogens play a central role in cassava nitrogen metabolism and that strategies employed to increase root protein levels result in reduced cyanogen levels in roots. We also demonstrate that enhancing root iron uptake has an impact on the expression of genes that regulate iron homeostasis in multiple tissues. These observations demonstrate the complex metabolic interactions involved in enhancing targeted nutrient levels in plants and identify potential new strategies for further enhancing nutrient levels in cassava. PMID:22226461

Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Sayre, Richard T

2012-04-01

253

Cassava genetic transformation and its application in breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones. Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality, building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide. PMID:21564542

Liu, Jia; Zheng, Qijie; Ma, Qiuxiang; Gadidasu, Kranthi Kumar; Zhang, Peng

2011-07-01

254

Evaluation of Trace Elements and Total Antioxidant Status in Nigerian Cassava Processors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consumption and export cassava or cassava product is on the increase, thus more Nigerians are involved in the planting and processing of cassava stems and tubers respectively. Tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and diabetes Mellitus (DM) are among the cassava-cyanide induced conditions in rural Nigerians that engaged in processing and consumption of cassava products. TAN and DM are associated with certain trace elements, therefore this study determines the levels of trace elements (Mg, Fe, ...

Arinola, O. G.; Nwozo, S. O.; Ajiboye, J. A.; Oniye, A. H.

2008-01-01

255

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

2013-01-01

256

An Ex-ante economic evaluation of genetically modified cassava in South Africa  

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The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic potential and opportunities for introducing Genetically Modified (GM) cassava that is Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) resistant and has improved starch properties in South Africa. The level of cassava production in South Africa is limited and thus a study on a new technology for this crop may seem strange. However, with innovations like the CMV resistance trait or amylose free cassava starch, cassava production in South Africa can possib...

2010-01-01

257

An Ex-ante economic evaluation of genetically modified cassava in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the economic potential and opportunities for introducing Genetically Modified (GM) cassava that is Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) resistant and has improved starch properties in South Africa. The level of cassava production in South Africa is limited and thus a study on a new technology for this crop may seem strange. However, with innovations like the CMV resistance trait or amylose free cassava starch, cassava production in South Africa can possib...

2010-01-01

258

The Microbial Challenge to Pulp Regeneration  

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Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endod...

Fouad, A. F.

2011-01-01

259

POZONE technology to bleach pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Div.

1997-09-01

260

Nutrient Composition of Cassava Offals and Cassava Sievates Collected from Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cassava offals and cassava sievates collected from 5 locations in Edo State, Nigeria. Following sun-drying (30-35oC, the cassava by-products were analyzed for protein, fibre, carbohydrate, cyanide, ash and fat. The results revealed that the DM for the sievates ranged between 87.06 and 91.88%; (P (1.02 - 1.07%; EE (0.50 - 0.84%; and CF (3.01 - 3.25%. Others were ash (between 1.74 and 2.01%, Carbohydrate (47.20 - 66.00% and cyanide between 1.24 and 1.63mg/kg. In addition, those for the cassava offals were between 1.72 and 2.21%CP; 0.48 - 0.85%EE; 1.26 - 3.20% CF; starch (between 70.50 and 77.52% and cyanide (0.97 - 1.20mg/kg. Thus, indicating variations with respect to location in most cases.

Nwokoro

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Kraft Pulp Mill Inspection Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual presents technical data on kraft pulp mill processes and control equipment design and application. The manual also includes inspection checklists for use by agency personnel in evaluating process parameters and control equipment operating cond...

R. Hawks G. Saunders

1983-01-01

262

Pectinase Production in a Defined Medium Using Surface Culture Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Two pectinase producing fungi species were isolated. Using a defined mineral medium and pectin as the carbon source, the capability of the species to produce pecinase was investigated in surface culture fermentation. The results showed that Aspergillus niger performs better than Thericoderma reesei in term of pectinase production, glucose has a repressive effect on pectinase production, and among nitrogen sources of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract , and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate is the best. The maximum exo-pectinase obtained in this research was about 1.7U/mL and the maximum endo-pectinase activity was about 0.015U/mL. Pectinase production was very weak when pectin was substituted by sugar beet pulp probably due to inefficient contact between the microorganism and substrate particles in surface culture fermentation. Using sugar beet pulp in solid-state fermentation gave results comparable with those obtained in surface culture fermentation of pectin and in this research was investigated the feasibility of continuous surface culture fermentation for pectinases production. The bioreactor was placed in an incubator at 35ºC.

Haidar Abbasi

2010-10-01

263

Sensorial Analysis of Wines from Malpighia glabra L. Pulp  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to make the sensorial analysis of Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L. wines. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of soluble solids (°Brix and the concentration of fruit pulp on sensorial quality attributes (color, flavor and aroma of wines; which were measured on hedonic scale, to obtain the best condition for manufacturing wine from Barbados cherry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used
for fermentation. Results showed that Barbados cherry wines were suave, sweet and with 11°GL of alcohol concentration. Flavor and color of wines were characteristic of acerola fresh fruit. The t Student test showed that did not present any significant difference among the wines in both these sensorial attributes. Increasing the initial °Brix of must, the wine obtained had better acceptance and there was no effect of pulp mass on sensorial
attributes studied. Sensorial analysis revealed that the best Barbados cherry wine was obtained for a must with composition of 22 g/L of sugar and 1 kg of Barbados cherry pulp for each 6 liter of wine. This work supports the usage of acerola for obtaining high quality wines which possess pleasing aroma and shiny red color.

Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

2010-02-01

264

Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa  

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Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

Enete, AA.

2008-01-01

265

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

266

Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low. PMID:24500620

Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

2014-08-01

267

Pulp and paper mill solid wastes as substrates for single-cell protein production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated the upgrading of some typical pulp and paper mill solid wastes into protein-enriched animal feed using the cellulolytic fungus Chaetomium cellulolyticum. The waste residues used were six different primary clarifier sludges and a sample of tertiary centricleaner rejects. These were obtained from mills whose modes of operation spanned the range typically in present-day usage: groundwood, sulfite, semichemical, Kraft, and thermomechanical pulping, with and without bleaching. Crude protein production from the solid waste residues is compared to that obtainable from fermentation of untreated or caustic-pretreated sawdusts. Some of these waste residues, especially the Kraft pulp mill rejects, appear to be promising sources of substrate for single-cell protein production. In these preliminary findings, up to 28% dry weight crude protein content of the product has been obtained at specific growth rates of up to 0.12 hr/sup -1/ on direct utilization of the wastes.

Pamment, N.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

1979-04-01

268

Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa  

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Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement of cassava marketing efficiency and development.

Enete, AA.

2009-01-01

269

29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mechanical pulp process â(1) Pulp grinders. (i) Water wheels directly connected to pulp grinders shall be provided...Personal protection. Persons exposed to falling material shall wear...Stock preparation â(1) Pulp shredders. (i)...

2010-07-01

270

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

271

Strength loss in kraft pulping  

Science.gov (United States)

Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

Iribarne, Jose

272

Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

Phengpricha, N.

1980-01-01

273

Identification of Genetically Distinct Cassava Clones from On-Farm Plantations to Widen the Thai Cassava Breeding Gene Pool  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is one of the most important economic crops in Thailand. However, the Thai cassava breeding gene pool was genetically narrow with only 11 distinct landraces. An attempt was made here to characterize 266 cassava clones collected from 80 farms in eight provinces using 35 SSR markers. A total of 365 polymorphic alleles were detected in the assayed samples. The molecular analysis of variance revealed that a large SSR variance (19.8% was present among the farm samples. The genetic relationships of the 266 farm samples revealed by the principal coordinate analysis confirmed the large SSR variation observed among the collected cassava samples. The average dissimilarity (AD of a cassava sample against the other 265 samples was calculated and the AD values obtained ranged from 0.256 to 0.502 with a mean of 0.319. Based on these AD values, a set of 50 unique cassava samples with AD values of 0.346 or higher was assembled from the on-farm samples to widen the genetic base of the Thai cassava breeding gene pool.

Preeya P. Wangsomnuk

2013-07-01

274

The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

275

A pilot plant study of xylose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tembec Inc., of Temiscaming, PQ, has constructed a pilot plant to try out the currently available technologies for xylose fermentation in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), and to provide data for use production on a commercial basis. The pilot plant operates as a 1/1000 scale model of the Tembec alcohol plant. Tembec`s SSL feed for the pilot plant is collected and stored to allow 14 days of continuous operation of the pilot plant. The quality of waste liquor varies from pulp grades of softwood and hardwood. Pichia stipitis is the most suitable xylose-fermenting yeast in SSL and was therefore inoculated into the pilot plant with softwood SSL. It was concluded that the yield of ethanol from SSL at the Tembec alcohol plant would not likely increase by using Pichia stipitis instead of the current Saccharomyces yeast. If a process could be developed to produce ethanol by fermentation of xylose, Tembec`s production of alcohol would increase by about 30 per cent. Since xylose is a component in a variety of biomass sources, fermentation of xylose would have a profound effect on the economics of producing alcohol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Cameron, D.R.

1997-07-01

276

Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca Cooking time and texture of cassava roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes foram cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento; GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte e análise de correlação de Pearson (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time, GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance and Pearson's correlation analysis (p < 0.05. The variety Viçosa Martinha stood out due to its shorter cooking time (18 minutes and lower shear resistance values for the raw (10.6 N and cooked (0.7 N pulps. With the exception of the varieties Aipim Pretinho, IAC 13 and IAC Espeto, all the others could be considered suitable for direct consumption since they presented cooking times equal or below 30 minutes. There was significant correlation between the shear strength of the cooked pulp and the cooking time (0.62, although moderated by the high values obtained for the coefficient of variation of the texture measurements, highlighting the heterogeneity of the roots. Thus the determination of the cooking time under the experimental conditions used here is more suitable as a quality index of cassava roots associated with the texture.

Simone Vilela Talma

2013-01-01

277

IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

Chun-Han Ko

2011-02-01

278

Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spacing of cassava (2.5 x 2.5 m), was always low, the hypothesis was tested whether damage due to CMD could be decreased by applying green manure. A total of 10 tonnes of fresh Gliricidia sepium leaves ...

2000-01-01

279

Evaluation of Moisture, Total Cyanide and Fiber Contents of Garri Produced from Cassava (Manihot utilissima Varieties Obtained from Awassa in Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculent crantz as one of the most important root crops in Sub-Saharan Africa plays a vital role in the diet of many African countries especially the grass root people, being the major source of daily carbohydrate intake. Traditionally processed staple foods from cassava are available in Western and some Eastern African countries, such as garri, foofoo, boiled cassava meal, etc. Several varieties of M. Utilissima obtained from Awassa, Ethiopia, were processed, fermented and converted into garri. The moisture, total cyanide and fibre contents of the processed garri were analyzed. The results showed that the moisture, total cyanide and fiber contents varied from 26.12-40.02 %, 1.51-2.81 mg HCN/100 g and 1.80-2.40% respectively. The largest reduction in cyanide content (41% between the third and fourth day fermentation was found in the MM 96/5280 variety which had an increase of 32% fiber content when compared with other varieties. These results compared favorably with similar garri products obtained from Ghana and Nigeria. The ease of preparation and potential nutritional value resulting from fermentation, the low moisture, cyanide and improved fiber contents found, indicate the suitability of the garri products as nutritional food items. The Kello44/72 and MM96/5280 varieties with the lowest cyanide and comparable fiber contents are most suitable. In order to enrich the nutritional contents of the garri product, fortification with leguminous plants or fish is recommended so as to make it more suitable as an alternative food product to injera in Ethiopia.

S.E. Enidiok

2008-01-01

280

Cold Soda Pulping of Eucalyptus Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out in the laboratores to determine the suitability of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus for production of cold soda pulps. Based on yield, strength of handsheets and brightness of pulps it was...

T. C. Mantri V. Raghunath Y. K. Sharma Y. V. Sood K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Abstracts on Cassava: 'Manihot esculenta Crantz'. Volume 14. Number 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tripartite 1988 volume of is a collection of analytical abstracts which provides a specialized guide to the world's literature on cassava. In addition to journal articles, theses, and other conventional sources of information, the collection also cove...

1988-01-01

282

Market Supply Response of Cassava Farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Data were collected from 80 cassava farmers from four cassava producing Local Government Areas (LGAs namely; Ife-East, Ife-Central, Ife-North and Ife-South. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression technique. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that method of cassava farming was mainly traditional and cassava was mostlly cultivated with maize. Majority of the cassava farmers were married, literate and of about 35 years meaning that more young people were into cassava cultivation in Ile-Ife. Also, the farmers had an average of 8 members per household. The results of the regression analysis revealed that 97% of the variations in the marketed surplus of cassava were explained by the variables in the model. The result also revealed that the quantity of cassava output in kg and the family size had positive and significant effects on the marketed surplus while losses, quantity of cassava consumed in kg, payments in kind in kg, size of land in hectares had negative effects on the marketed surplus. The elasticity of marketed surplus was 1.6 meaning that the supply response was elastic indicating that the higher the price of cassava output in kg the more the quantity of cassava that will be supplied.

Key words: Cassava Farmers; Market supply response; Nigeria; Osun State

R. O. Oluitan

2012-06-01

283

Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

2002-09-01

284

Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused...

2012-01-01

285

Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among...

Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

1999-01-01

286

Evidence of apomixis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

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Apomixis maintains heterosis and avoids transmission of systemic pathogens which accompany vegetative propagation of cassava. An embryonic study of cleared ovules of two cassava clones in toto showed them to be of aposporic nature. Cytogenetic analysis of the two clones revealed an aneuploid structure (2n + 1) in apomictic individuals, whereas it was 2n in the sexually reproduced plants.A Apomixia mantém a heterose e evita a transmissão de patógenos sistêmicos que acompanham a propaga...

Nassar, Nagib M. A.; Vieira, Marco Andre? R.; Clibas Vieira; Dario Gratapaglia

1998-01-01

287

Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food st...

Enete, Aa

2008-01-01

288

PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL A PARTIR DE LA CÁSCARA DE BANANO Y DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA / ETHANOL PRODUCCTION OF BANANA SHELL AND CASSAVA STARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracteriz [...] ó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l) para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis. Abstract in english In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 and Zymomonas mobilis CP4. The banana shell has been chara [...] cterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to pH 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with Sacharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92±0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with Zymomonas mobilis

JOHN F., MONSALVE G.; VICTORIA ISABEL, MEDINA DE PEREZ; ANGELA ADRIANA, RUIZ COLORADO.

289

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

290

Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

2013-01-01

291

Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo. PMID:20654676

Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

2011-03-01

292

Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

Cock, J.H.

1982-11-19

293

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

G.O. Oluwadare

2007-01-01

294

Pulp Stones and Dental Pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case is reported of a 42 year-old female who presented with the painful upper left first molar. Comprehensive clinical examination did not reveal the cause of the pain which got progressively worse. The tooth was extracted on the insistence of the patient. Microscopic examination of multiple sections of the decalcified tooth showed a large freestone which occupied most of the pulp chamber and was closely related to a nerve bundle. The finding tended to support the view that pulp stones in an apparently healthy tooth may cause toothache. (author)

1989-01-01

295

REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

Risto I. Korpinen

2009-11-01

296

Decommissioned dates: chemical composition and fermentation substrate for the production of extracellular catalase by an Aspergillus phoenicis mutant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recovery of dates downgraded as a fermentation medium for the production of extracellular catalase by Aspergillus phoenicis K30 was studied. Analysis of the chemical composition of pulp and kernel flour of dates showed that the pulp had a considerably greater carbohydrate content compared to the kernel (84 vs 2.93% respectively). However, the kernel flour was richer in nitrogen (0.68% vs 0.34), mineral elements (3.63 vs 1.28%) and in essential fatty acids C18: 2 vs C18: 3 than the pulp fl...

Kacem-chaouche, N.; Dehimat, L.; Meraihi, Z.; Destain, Jacqueline; Kahlat, K.; Thonart, Philippe

2013-01-01

297

Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

Monica I. Cutrignelli

2013-01-01

298

Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry Amido de mandioca na indústria brasileira de alimentos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

2011-01-01

299

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

Chand Bandna

2012-01-01

300

Fermentation and food  

Science.gov (United States)

This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime

2003-04-01

302

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

2003-01-01

303

PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

Bahekar S

2013-01-01

304

Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

2010-08-15

305

High solids fermentation reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01

306

Optimization of Ethanol Production Process from Cassava Starch by Surface Response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo muestra el estudio del proceso optimización de obtención de etanol a partir del almidón de yuca, mediante el planteamiento de un diseño 2² con tres puntos centrales y usando un software estadístico para analizar los resultados. Esta metodología fue aplicada tanto para la etapa de sac [...] arificación del almidón de yuca mediante hidrólisis ácida como para la etapa de fermentación empleando Socchoromyces cerevisioe. A partir de los datos experimentales de la hidrólisis ácida, se propone un modelo cinético de primer orden el cual presentó un error promedio del 1.87 % con respecto a la regresión cuadrática obtenida. El desarrollo de un proceso semi-contínuo mostró una conversión del 89.84 % del almidón inicialmente considerado, obteniéndose una concentración final de etanol del 49.76 % Alc/vol. Abstract in english This work shows the study of the optimization process for producing ethanol from cassava starch based on 2² experimental designs with three central points and using statistical software. This methodology was applied to the stage of saccharification of cassava starch by acid hydrolysis as well as to [...] the stage of fermentation using Socchoromyces cerevisioe. From the experimental data of acid hydrolysis, we proposed a first-order kinetic model which presented an average error of 1.87 % compared to the quadratic regression obtained. The development of a semicontinuous process showed a 89.84 % conversion of starch initially considered, yielding an ethanol concentration of 49.76 % Alc/vol.

López Zamora, Leticia; González Calderón, José Amir; Trujillo Vázquez, Evangelina; Bolaños Reynoso, Eusebio.

307

Trends and Prospects for Cassava in Zaire. Working Paper No. 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study on cassava in Zaire is part of a broader study analyzing trends and prospects for cassava in the Third World, which originally was based on the hypothesis that the future of cassava might be jeopardized by substitutes. The study has four objecti...

T. Tshibaka K. Lumpungu

1989-01-01

308

Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

Adenle Ademola A

2012-08-01

309

Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal  

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Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74.1% and the value lowest for silage with coffee hulls (54.3%. The control silage and that with the addition of cocoa meal showed similar digestibility values, 61.4 and 61.2%, respectively. Regarding the fermentative characteristics of silages, no difference was observed between the organic acids levels, even though silage with coffee hulls showed pH value (4.6 above other silages (4.1. The use of cassava meal in elephant grass ensilage reduces the cell wall components and increases the IVDMD of silages. Both coffee hulls and cocoa meal added at the ensilage moment decrease the silage nutritional value.

Aureliano José Vieira Pires

2009-01-01

310

Utilization of ligninolytic microorganisms to decolorize paper pulp industry effluents. Utilizacion de microorganismos ligninoliticos en el tratamiento de efluentes de la industria papelera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Possible utilization of ligninolytic microorganisms to decolorize paper pulp industry effluents is discussed. Results of decolorization assays on wheat straw soda cooling effluents with Trameters versicolor species, selected by its high lignin degrading ability, are shown. Experiments were carried out in 1,5 I laboratory fermenters, using xylose and glucose as carbohydrate sources. (Author) 6 refs.

Manzanares, P.; Fajardo, J.S.; Martin, C.

1994-01-01

311

Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every processing operation to marketing of high quality cassava flour ensuring that the microbiological, physical and chemical standards of the product are met. It is expected that the use of this manual will facilitate the development of thé cassava processing sub-sector, assist in making HQCF meet the quality and safety limits of all categories of end users and make HQCF compete favorably with imported products. It will also aid regulatory agencies in different cassava-growing countries to set achievable quality objectives for HQCF.

Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura

2006-01-01

312

Microalgae for Stabilizing Biogas Production from Cassava Starch Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid. Keywords: microalgae, ruminant bacteria, bioga, cassava effluent, biodigester

B Budiyono

2012-03-01

313

Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization  

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Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5?8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

2012-01-01

314

Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Fields in Togo  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the Coat Protein (CP. The PCR products obtained from different isolates of two major Begomoviruses species infecting cassava in Togo were then sequenced and compared with the sequenced of the African cassava mosaic Begomoviruses identified to date and available in NCBI GenBank database by phylogenetic analysis. Results: The results indicate that not only the two major Begomoviruses could be in synergistic interaction in infected cassava in Togo as it has been shown between African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV and East African Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV elsewhere, but could also create recombinants which would be highly interfering in the development of symptom severity in the country. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study confirmed the assumption that the symptom severity in cassava fields in Togo is rather caused by recombination between different Begomoviruses in presence than by synergistic interaction. More investigations should be done to give insight to this founding.

K. D. Adjata

2009-01-01

315

Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1  

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Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

Tofino Adriana

2011-08-01

316

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics  

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Full Text Available Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, thus reducing methane (CH4 and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs, for enhancing ruminant productivity in the tropics. The manipulation of rumen efficiency through the use of organic acids especially malate with local feeds would be an advantage. Indeed, organic acids potentially provide an alternative to currently used antimicrobial compounds by stimulating rather than inhibiting specific ruminal microbial populations. At the same time, local feed resources especially cassava chip could be used effectively at high level as an energy source for ruminants especially for beef and lactating cows. More recently, the combined use of concentrates containing high level of cassava chip with supplementation of sodium dl-malate and urea could improve rumen ecology and subsequent performance in dairy steers receiving urea-treated rice straw as a roughage. In addition, the high level of cassava chip in the diet resulted in increase population of bacteria and fungi, decreasing protozoal populations, and improving microbial protein synthesis and efficient microbial nitrogen supply in the rumen. Under these circumstances, malate was also effective in reducing the drop in ruminal pH normally seen 1 to 2 h after feeding a high-grain diet and improved cows performance efficiency. In summary, supplementation of organic acid like malate with local feed resources especially cassava chip or other carbohydrate sources with high rumen degradation would be a desirable alternative because there is no risk of developing antibiotic resistance or having unwanted residues appear in either meat or milk products as well as improving ruminal fermentation efficiency and productivity in ruminants in the tropics.

Sittisak Khampa

2007-01-01

317

Supplementation of Malate and Yeast in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology in Dairy Steers  

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Full Text Available Four, one-year old of dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70%DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

318

Gas Extraction from Sludge as Acquired from Oxidation Ponds of Community Wastewater and Cassava-Factory Wastewater Treatment through Nature-by-Nature Processes  

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Full Text Available The study was aimed on determining the gas volume from sludge of oxidation ponds for community wastewater treatment and UASB tank of cassava factory for wastewater treatment in which the organic matters of both units were digested through the nature-by-nature process. The amounts of oven- dry weight sludge about 200 g were collected in the light brow glass bottle with 2.5-l capacity. The fermentation of organic matters in sludge is the process to produce gases and being transferred to store in chamber by fluid displacement. The gases from sludge of oxidation pond was occurred on the second day and the maximum on the sixth day with the rate of 70 ml/d and average of 36.02 ml/d (total 360.23 ml for 10 days while cassava factory sludge found the maximum volume on the first day with the rate of 142.6 ml/d and average of 72.2 ml/d (total 649.97 ml for 9 days. In other words, the oxidation pond sludge can produce gas 1.8 ml/g (oven dry weight while the cassava factory sludge found gas 3.25 ml/g (oven dry weight. Research results found gases of oxidation pond sludge on the range of methane concentration between 545,686 – 9,560,606 ppm, hydrogen sulfide 55.94 to 360.27 ppm, and ammonia ND to 36.22 ppm, while the cassava factory sludge found methane gas concentration between 729,404 to 9,900,837 ppm, hydrogen sulfide 5,894 to 68,050 ppm, and ammonia ND to 44.15 ppm.

Noppawan Semvimol

2014-02-01

319

Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

1998-01-01

320

Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Nutritious value of co-products of the cassava Valor nutritivo de co-produtos da mandioca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study evaluated the chemical composition, protein and total carbohydrates content, energy estimative of industrial co-products of cassava from the North of Brazil (cassava scraping, cassava co-products flower, cassava mass and the superior third of cassava silage STSRM). The results were evaluated by description of the statistical analysis. Highest mean values were found for STSRM Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF). Variation values occurred in protein content, t...

Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira; Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira; Elyzabeth da Cruz Cardoso; André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães; Elieldo Lameira Brito

2007-01-01

322

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7] of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%. The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity; one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the probable importance of this part of Africa as a source of diversity and evolutionary change both during the early stages of the relationship between CMGs and cassava and in more recent times. The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent.

Aveling TAS

2005-03-01

323

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

324

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces  

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Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

Zainuddin Ima M

2012-07-01

325

Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD), the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production. PMID:22784378

Zainuddin, Ima M; Schlegel, Kim; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

2012-01-01

326

Transcriptionally Active Mutator-like Transposable Elements in the Genome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz  

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Full Text Available Randomly sequencing cDNA clones from a library made with mRNA expressed during the Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD of cassava root led to the isolation of a clone with high similarity to an Arabidopsis Mutator-like transposable element (MULE transposase. Southern hybridisation experiment using this cassava MULE transposase cDNA as probe revealed significant differences between the hybridisation pattern of the DNA digested by the isoschizomers, Hpa II and Msp I, suggesting partial methylation of cassava MULE sequences. We detected RNA transcripts of cassava mudrA-related elements under normal growing conditionsby the northern hybridisation protocol. The transcripts expression increased in wounded cassava leaves and during PPD of cassava root. The implication and application of active Mutator-like transposable element in the genome of cassava is discussed.

Michael A. Gbadegesin

2007-01-01

327

Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

2014-01-01

328

The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages  

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Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

Koljaji? Viliman

2003-01-01

329

Anthracnose: An Economic Disease of Cassava in Africa  

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Full Text Available Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis has become one of the major economic diseases of cassava in Africa. The expansion of cassava production farmlands particularly in the humid rainfall zones of West and Central Africa has led to an increase in pathological problems of the crop. The increased epidemic levels of CAD had caused significant crop failure leading to severe food shortages for the poor subsistent farming population depending on the crop for their livelihood. This paper reviews the importance of the crop in terms of food security, CAD disease symptoms, epidemiology, yield losses and the possible control options within the frame work of integrated pest management systems (IPMS.

C.N. Fokunang

2001-01-01

330

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

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This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

2012-01-01

331

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Cassava Peel-Cassava Leaf Meal Based Diets in South Eastern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks averaging 8.0 kg and aged 6-8 months were used to determine the intake and digestibility of cassava peel-cassava leaf meal based diets. The four diets (A, B, C and D) were formulated to contain cassava peel, palm kernel cake, brewers’ dried grain, bone meal, soya bean meal, common salt and 0, 10, 20 and 30% cassava leaf meal respectively. The diets were assigned individually to the four animals in metabolism cages in a 4x4 Latin square design experiment. ...

2009-01-01

332

Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator  

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Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

2011-07-01

333

APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE  

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Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

Yahya Hamzeh

2009-11-01

334

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

2011-06-10

335

PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA  

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Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and ?- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an ?-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% ?-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

Baya Bouiri

2010-02-01

336

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

2011-06-10

337

Study of survival time in pulp export  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed the time for a country to survive exporting pulp, using a Cox regression model. Covariates being used included data about population, Gross Domestic Product, total exports of forest products as an aggregate, pulp production and balance of trade for pulp, economic markets and blocks, and geographic regions. To select and check the most significant covariates, a proposal formulated by Collet (1994 was used. It was concluded that survival analysis via the Cox regression model proved to be a powerful tool for predicting the survival of a country exporting pulp; around 80% of countries that have pulp in their list of exports continue to export the commodity; out of the fifteen covariates selected for fitting the Cox model, four explain the model and two were found significant in explaining the survival of a country exporting pulp; international trade agreements were more significant in the Cox regression model than classes of macroeconomic forest indicators and geographic location; covariates explaining the odds of a country exporting pulp to survive, according to the hazard ratio, were, in descending order, integration between ECLAC and European Union, be a member of the European Union (V07 and be a member of ECLAC (V6; Brazil has 3.5 times as much chance of survival exporting pulp through an integration between ECLAC and the European Union than a country that is not a part of such integration; the probability that Brazil will survive exporting pulp is greater than the probability that Asian countries will.

Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

2012-12-01

338

[Dry solid staging fermentation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic fermentation is a new perspective technology for the fuel ethanol production. Compared with traditional hot cook process in most ethanol plants, uncooked process using milled grain slurry in combination with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes makes high gravity fermentation much easier to control. In this study, dry solids staging technique was first time reported in uncooked process for fermentation ethanol. We further studied the difference between the new process and the batch fermentation, including different initial fermentation concentrations and different starting times. The results showed that at the same dry solid concentration of 30% and the same enzyme dose at 0.22% (W/W), the final ethanol output of new process was increased to 18.50% (V/V) from 17.06% (V/V) of the conventional process. This study demonstrated the new application of uncooked fermentation technology. PMID:19459324

Xu, Hongxian; Duan, Gang

2009-02-01

339

Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

2011-02-15

340

Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava. PMID:21710451

Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Physiological causes of yield variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

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Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research programme was started at CIAT (Colombia). One of its aims was to develop high-yielding clones by genetic modification of the plant habitus.This thesis begins with a literature review in which the availabl...

Veltkamp, H. J.

1985-01-01

342

Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

2008-12-01

343

Electrically conductive bioplastics from cassava starch  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, biofilmes condutores foram sintetizados através de soluções de 100 mL de água com 3 g de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) e quantidades diferentes de glicerina, glutaraldeído, polietilenoglicol e perclorato de lítio. Estes filmes foram caracterizados por espectrosco [...] pia de impedância eletroquímica (EIS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectrometria de reflexão total atenuada no infravermelho com transforma de Fourier (ATR-FTIR), termogravimetria (TG). Os resultados mostraram que os biofilmes com quantidades mais elevadas de perclorato de lítio possuem valores maiores de condutividade e as diferenças morfológica e molecular foram observadas como sendo um resultado das proporções adicionadas dos compostos em cada uma das rotas de preparação Abstract in english In the current work, conductor biofilms were synthesized by means of solutions of 100 mL of water with 3 g of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and different amounts of glycerin, glutaraldehyde, polyethyleneglycol and lithium perchlorate. These biofilms were characterized through electr [...] ochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR?FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Results showed that biofilms with higher amount of lithium perchlorate portray higher values of conductivity and morphological and molecular differences could be observed as a result of the added proportions of the compounds in each one of the trials.

Alvaro A., Arrieta; Piedad F., Gañán; Samith E., Márquez; Robin, Zuluaga.

344

Effects of the kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on hypercholesterolemic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterole [...] mic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

Michel Cardoso de, Angelis-Pereira; Maria de Fátima Píccolo, Barcelos; Mariana Séfora Bezerra, Sousa; Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro, Pereira.

345

Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. PMID:24376222

Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

2014-01-01

346

Asian fungal fermented food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegetables, meat and fish. This chapter focuses on some representative foods, their traditional manufacturing, the major fungi involved in the fermentation, the biochemical changes taking place during fe...

Nout, M. J. R.; Aidoo, K. E.

2010-01-01

347

Improvement of alcohol fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of improving the efficiency of alcohol fermentation and reducing the cost of alcohol production, the following research were carried out. (1) The effect of cell recycle on the efficiency of alcohol fermentation, (2) the optimal inoculum size for the batch alcohol fermentation, (3) the effect of the batch-fed operation on the efficiency of alcohol fermentation, and (4) the influence of cultivation of seed under aeration and agitation on alcohol fermentation. From the results obtained, with regard to the use of cell recycle, no increase in efficiency of conversion of sugar to alcohol was observed and the time required for a batch of fermentation could be reduced. Moreover, molasses required for the cultivation of seed could be saved since the efficiency of alcohol fermentation kept almost unchanged after nine runs with cell recycle. As to the effect of inoculum size, the range from 5 to 10% v/v was found to be sufficient. In the run with higher inoculum size than 10%, no obvious rise in efficiency could be obtained; however, the fermentation time could be greatly reduced. Inoculum size might be reduced to as small as below 1% v/v when the fermentation was proceeded under shaking at 100 rpm. The batch-fed fermentation trials were carried out with a 14-1 fermentor and the yield of alcohol was compared with that of conventional batch process. Two kinds of molasses, one from carbonation plant and the other from defecation plant, were employed as substrates. Fermentation was conducted with a sugar concentration of 17% or 21%. From the results, it was found that the yield obtained was better from the batch-fed process than from the conventional batch process, especially when the fermentation was proceeded under high sugar concentration (21%) with carbonated molasses. The advantage of batch-fed process for alcohol production was thus confirmed by the experiments.

Hsie, M.C. (Taiwan Sugar Research Inst., China); Su, Y.C.

1980-01-01

348

Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-08-01

349

Human dental pulp stem cell behavior using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesion and Viability study with human dental pulp stem cell using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine are presented at first time in this work. Nanotolith, are osteoinductors, i.e., they stimulate bone regeneration, enabling higher cells migration for bone tissue regeneration formation. This is mainly because nanotoliths are rich minerals present in the internal ear of bony fish. In addition, are part of a system which acts as a depth sensor and balance, acting as a sound vibrations detector and considered essential for the bone mineralization process, as in hydroxiapatites. Nanotoliths influence in bacterial cellulose was analyzed using transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results shows that fermentation process and nanotoliths agglomeration decrease initial human dental pulp stem cell adhesion however tested bionanocomposite behavior has cell viability increase over time. PMID:23926803

Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Acasigua, Gerson Arisoly Xavier; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Scher, Cristiane Regina; Xavier Filho, Lauro; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas; Basmaji, Pierre

2013-08-01

350

Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca / Cooking time and texture of cassava roots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes for [...] am cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento); GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte) e análise de correlação de Pearson (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Ja [...] neiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time), GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance) and Pearson's correlation analysis (p

Talma, Simone Vilela; Almeida, Selma Bergara; Lima, Rozana Moreira Pereira; Vieira, Henrique Duarte; Bebert, Pedro Amorim.

351

Microbial alpha-amylase production by solid fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alpha-amylase was produced by solid fermentation with 2 strains of bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus species NTU-900. Five different C sources were used: wheat bran, rough rice bran, fine rice bran, cassava, and sorghum bran. Bacillus species NTU-900 produced higher alpha-amylase activity than Bacillus subtilis with all 5 C sources tested. The optimum conditions for this strain were: rough rice bran-to-fine rice bran ratio 40-30%, pH 7.0, ratio of medium-to-water 1-0.5, Na2HPO4.12H2O added as growth factor, and incubation at 37 degrees for 72 h. The alpha-amylase activity under optimal conditions was approximately 400 unit per g.

Leelawatcharamas, V.; Kulyakrit, W.; Wongtangskul, V.

1983-01-01

352

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

Benjamin C. Asogwa

2013-04-01

353

Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

2006-08-01

354

Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp  

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Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

Lachenal, D.

2006-07-01

355

Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment  

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Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate ?max and half saturation constant

E. Onukwugha

2013-09-01

356

Determinants Of Export-Led Cassava Production Intensification Among Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Determinants of export-led cassava production intensification among small-holder farmers were investigated. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from randomly selected 60 respondents, were analysed using appropriate statistics. The result showed a slow increasing trend in response to export opportunities. Farm size, credit availability, cassava product domestic prices, labour and frequency of extension contact had positive effect on cassava output while existence of efficient marketing system has negative effect on cassava output. Inadequate finance and high cost of labour were the problems facing cassava production intensification. Policy instrument on cassava production intensification should capture the significant determinants identified in the study.

Achoja, F. O.

2012-06-01

357

Modeling Wine Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Howard T. Odum (Beloit College;Biology); Elisabeth C. Odum (Beloit College;Biology); Virginia G. Vaughan (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

358

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Waldron, Ingrid; Doherty, Jennifer

359

Alpha-amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid state fermentation using response surface methodology (RSM).  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of alpha-amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 has been investigated using different agro-industrial residues, i.e. cassava bagasse, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran; wheat bran was found to be the best substrate. Among different nitrogen source supplemented to wheat bran, beef extract or peptone (1%) showed maximum enzyme production. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of main process parameters as incubation period (48 h), moisture holding capacity (70%), pH (7.0) and temperature (50 degrees C) on enzyme production by applying a full factorial central composite design. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (90%) and cassava starch (75%) was obtained with the application of 4 ml (approximately 12096 U) of S. erumpens crude enzyme after 5 h of incubation. PMID:19275042

Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh C; Mohapatra, Uma B

2008-01-01

360

A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING  

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This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed.) were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE) condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in hig...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

Abila, N.

2012-01-01

362

Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development  

Science.gov (United States)

Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu2+ and Fe2+) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence.

Perera, P. I. P.; Ordonez, C. A.; Dedicova, B.; Ortega, P. E. M.

2014-01-01

363

Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

2013-08-01

364

Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. PMID:23664257

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2013-09-01

365

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

2012-01-01

366

Effect of Aeration on the Production of Endo-Pectinase from Coffee Pulp by a Novel Thermophilic Fungi Mycotypha sp. Strain No. AKM 1801  

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In the present research a novel thermophilic fungi-Mycotypha sp. strain No. AKM1801 was used to evaluate its efficiency for endo-pectinase production from coffee pulp, a waste produced during coffee processing. The culture was cultivated on coffee pulp through submerged fermentation at 45 ± 2°C in aerated and stationary conditions. Mycotypha showed the maximum endo-pectinase activity of 5.4 U mL-1 at 96 h at pH 5.4 and 4.9 U mL-1 at 168 h at pH 5.6 in aer...

Venugopal, C.; Jayachandra, T.; Anu Appaiah, K. A.

2007-01-01

367

Cryopreservation of Cassava Micropropagules using Simple Slow Freezing and Vitrification Techniques  

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The objective of this study was to develop a simplified protocol for cryopreservation of shoot tips, nodal cuttings and embryogenic calli of cassava. Shoot tips, nodal cuttings or embryogenic calli of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were cryopreserved by slow freezing or vitrification. When nodal cuttings and embryogenic calli of cassava were cryopreserved using simplified slow freezing or vitrification, the slow cooling curve showed a faster cooling rate for embryogenic calli than ...

2011-01-01