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Sample records for female sex steroid

  1. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.B., Azevedo; Z.G.M., Lacava; C.K., Miyasaka; S.B., Chaves; R., Curi.

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in intraperitoneal resident [...] macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%). Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups) increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48%) CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  2. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  3. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  4. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  5. Sex-Steroid Regulation of Relaxin Receptor Isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) Expression in the Patellar Tendon and Lateral Collateral Ligament of Female WKY Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Yusof, Ashril; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of non-contact knee injury was found higher in female than in male and is related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. This raised the possibility that female sex-steroids are involved in the mechanism underlying this injury via affecting the expression of the receptors for relaxin, a peptide hormone known to modulate ligament laxity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of sex-steroids on relaxin receptor isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) expression in the ligaments and...

  6. Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

    1983-11-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

  7. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  8. Sex steroids and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  9. Racial variation in umbilical cord blood sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor axis in African-American and white female neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Monsegue, Deborah; Akereyeni, Folasade; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Pollak, Michael N; PLATZ, ELIZABETH A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether there is racial variation in venous umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis between female African-American and white neonates. METHODS: Maternal and birth characteristics and venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 77 African-American and 41 white full-term uncomplicated births at two urban hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Cord blood was measured for testosterone, dehydroespiandroste...

  10. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  11. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Vicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  12. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  13. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J O; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  14. Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Jessica A; Cusmano, Danielle M

    2016-02-19

    Men and women sleep differently. While much is known about the mechanisms that drive sleep, the reason for these sex differences in sleep behaviour is unknown and understudied. Historically, women and female animals are underrepresented in studies of sleep and its disorders. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Women typically report poorer quality and more disrupted sleep across various stages of life. Findings from clinical and basic research studies strongly implicate a role for sex steroids in sleep modulation. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. The investigation into sex differences and sex steroid modulation of sleep is in its infancy. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in sleep will provide valuable insights leading to tailored therapeutics that benefit each sex. The goal of this review is to discuss our current understanding of how biological sex and sex steroids influence sleep behaviour from both the clinical and pre-clinical perspective. PMID:26833831

  15. Spawning performance and plasma levels of GnRHa and sex steroids in cultured female Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) treated with different GnRHa-delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, José M.; Ramos, Jesús; Mylonas, Constantinos; Mañanós, Evaristo L.

    2009-01-01

    The aquaculture of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is limited by the poor spawning performance of the F1 generation cultured broodstock. The present study compared the efficiency of two sustained-release delivery systems loaded with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and a single GnRHa injection on the stimulation of oocyte maturation (OM), sex steroid hormone secretion and spawning. Analysis with an ELISA showed that the administered GnRHa was no longer detectable in the pla...

  16. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?µg) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  17. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  18. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  19. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis

    OpenAIRE

    Rougeot, Carole; Krim, A.; Mandiki, S. N.; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatchi...

  20. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. I...

  1. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex-steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In ...

  2. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  3. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  4. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeot, C; Krim, A; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P; Mélard, C

    2007-03-15

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatching (D0) and from hatching to day 70 post-hatching (D70). Just after spawning, a significant amount of sex steroids [T (1634.2pgg(-1)), E2 (554.4pgg(-1)) and 11KT (1513.2pgg(-1))] was measured in non-fertilised eggs suggesting a maternal transmission of these steroids. From D2 to D70 post-hatching, E2 levels were significantly higher in mixed-sex progenies (median: 725.7pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (156.2pgg(-1)) and significantly increased after the onset of the histological differentiation of the gonad in both progenies (D35). Levels of 11KT were significantly higher in mixed-sex (median: 431.5pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (below the limit of assay detection) and significantly increased at D35 in all-female progenies (median value: 343.2pgg(-1)). Mean 11KT to E2 ratio was six-fold higher in mixed-sex progenies (1.35) than in all-female progenies (0.24). The data suggest that the 11-oxygenated androgen (11KT) plays a major role in the male differentiation process, and that sex differentiation in Eurasian perch is probably determined by the 11KT to E2 ratio. PMID:17270265

  5. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or...... to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to...

  6. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsagué, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra Hm; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Rodríguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kjellberg, Lennart; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).

  7. Atrial fibrillation and female sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Battaglia, Alberto; Gallo, Cristina; Gili, Sebastiano; Matta, Mario; Castagno, Davide; Ferraris, Federico; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia. Its prevalence increases with age and preferentially affects male patients. Over 75 years of age, however, female patients being more prevalent, the absolute number of patients affected is similar between sexes. Despite this, few data are available in the literature concerning sex-related differences in atrial fibrillation patients. The present systematic review therefore considers comorbidities, referring symptoms, quality of life, pharmacological approaches and trans-catheter ablation in female rather than in male atrial fibrillation patients in search of parameters that may have an impact on the treatment outcome. In brief, female atrial fibrillation patients more commonly present comorbidities, leading to a higher prevalence of persistent atrial fibrillation; moreover, they refer to hospital care later and with a longer disease history. Atrial fibrillation symptoms relate to low quality of life in female patients; in fact, atrial fibrillation paroxysm usually presents higher heart rate, leading to preferentially adopt a rate rather than a rhythm-control strategy. Female atrial fibrillation patients present an increased risk of stroke, worsened by the lower oral anticoagulant prescription rate related to the concomitant higher haemorrhagic risk profile. Trans-catheter ablation is under-used in female patients and, on the contrary, they are more commonly affected by anti-arrhythmic drug side effects. PMID:25806470

  8. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 2 September 2015; doi:10.1038/npp.2015.236.

  9. Sex Steroids and Gene Variants in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anette GM

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, cycling disorder affecting circa 2% of the population and whose pathophysiology is still largely unknown. It has been suggested that common treatments used for bipolar disorder have effects on the sex steroids yet sex steroids have also been shown to have widespread effects in the brain in systems of relevance to bipolar disorder. For example, DHEAS and progesterone have opposing effects on the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems essential fo...

  10. Sex steroid–related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormon...

  11. Environmental impacts on the gonadotropic system in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during vitellogenesis: Photothermal effects on pituitary gonadotropins, ovarian gonadotropin receptor expression, plasma sex steroids and oocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranger, Geir Lasse; Muncaster, Simon; Norberg, Birgitta; Thorsen, Anders; Andersson, Eva

    2015-09-15

    The gonadotropic system and ovarian growth and development were studied during vitellogenesis in female Atlantic salmon subjected to either simulated natural photoperiod and ambient water temperature (NL-amb), or an accelerating photoperiod (short day of LD8:16 from May 10) combined with either warmed (ca 2°C above ambient; 8L-warm) or cooled water (ca 2°C below ambient; 8L-cold) from May to September. Monthly samples were collected from 10 females/group for determination of transcript levels of pituitary gonadotropin subunits (fshb and lhb) and ovarian gonadotropin receptors (fshr and lhr), plasma sex steroids (testosterone: T and estradiol-17?: E2), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte size. Short day in combination with either warmed or cooled water induced an earlier increase in pituitary fshb and lhb levels compared with NL-amb controls, and advanced ovarian growth and the seasonal profiles of T, E2. By contrast only minor effects were seen of the photothermal treatments on ovarian fshr and lhr. The 8L-cold had earlier increase in fshb, lhb and E2, but similar oocyte and gonadal growth as 8L-warm, suggesting that the 8L-cold group tried to compensate for the lower water temperature during the period of rapid gonadal growth by increasing fshb and E2 production. Both the 8L-warm and 8L-cold groups showed incomplete ovulation in a proportion of the females, possibly due to the photoperiod advancement resulting in earlier readiness of spawning occurring at a higher ambient temperature, or due to some reproductive dysfunction caused by photothermal interference with normal neuroendocrine regulation of oocyte development and maturation. PMID:25712829

  12. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased gingival bleeding and crevicular fluid flow and microbial changes. PMID:19812718

  13. HIV and female sex workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe...

  14. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  15. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SimonMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.

  16. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  17. Gender identification in great sturgeon (Huso huso) using morphology, sex steroids, histology and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatkar, B; Poursaeid, S

    2014-04-01

    Gender identification of great sturgeon during different life stages was conducted using morphology, sex steroid concentrations, histological and endoscopic techniques. One hundred and forty great sturgeons from two sturgeon farms at ages between 3-16 years were selected for examination. Most of the morphological indices showed no significant sex-related differences except for the ratio of fork length to distance of snout to anterior of dorsal fin (PD). The urogenital opening had no difference in shapes for both sexes. Mean sex steroid concentrations showed no significant difference in levels of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone between males and females in the stage II of maturity. 95.8% of fish were correctly sexed using endoscopy at this stage. Histological investigation indicated the ovaries of 3- to 9-year-old females were at the different stages of pre-vitellogenic, and most males were at the early spermatogenesis for age 3. The result of this study suggests that endoscopy is a reliable tool for sex and stage determination after the age of 3 years. This method is useful in providing a quick discernment of sexes and stages compared with utilizing morphometric and blood indices. Direct observation of gonads can give us important information about the gonadal and maturity stages in sturgeon aquaculture and wild population management, with minimal damage or stress to this endangered species. PMID:23565575

  18. Shattering Female Sex Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Other Drug Information, Madison.

    This booklet, designed to sensitize people to important issues that are a result of sex role stereotyping, advocates more flexible sex roles which are appropriate to the situation. Traditional and new views of the psychology of sex roles are contrasted, and sex role stereotyping is discussed. Implications of the women's liberation movement for…

  19. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 200...

  20. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  1. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood samp...

  2. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    OpenAIRE

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodol...

  3. Influence of female sex hormones on periodontium: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Zeba; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Sawai, Madhuri; Sultan, Nishat

    2015-08-01

    Dental plaque is the primary etiologic factor for the periodontal diseases. Although pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque are necessary for the incidence of periodontal disease, but a susceptible host is as important. The susceptibility of the host can be modified by various systemic factors with hormones level being one. The periodontium shows an exaggerated inflammatory response to plaque modified by female sex hormone during puberty, pregnancy, in women taking oral contraceptives and at the postmenopausal stage. This paper presents such few cases where periodontium is influenced by variation in sex steroid hormones of female during different phases of their life time and to discuss how much a same hormone at different age and stage shows an exaggerated gingival response to plaque. PMID:26604605

  4. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  5. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  6. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Louanne

    2008-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model ...

  7. Sex steroids stimulate leptin gene expression in Atlantic salmon parr hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, Susanne; Rocha, Ana; Schmitz, Monika

    2015-09-15

    In mammals, leptin plays an important role in puberty and reproduction and leptin is regulated by sex steroids. Elevated leptin levels have been associated with sexual maturation in some teleosts such as Atlantic salmon. In the present study, primary cultures of Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were used to investigate the direct effects of different sex steroids on expression of the two salmon leptin-a genes, lepa1 and lepa2. Testosterone (T) stimulated both lepa1 and lepa2 in a dose dependent manner after four days of incubation. The stimulatory effect of T on leptin expression was not prevented by co-incubation with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, indicating a direct androgen effect on transcription. The non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), which is the main androgen in fish, was generally slightly less potent than T in stimulating lepa1 and lepa2. The strongest stimulatory response was seen for 17?-estradiol (E2). E2 treatment significantly up-regulated lepa1 and lepa2 gene expression at doses of 10nM and 1nM for each gene, respectively. Lepa1, but not lepa2, was stimulated by T and 11-KT in immature male and immature female parr, while E2 stimulated expression of both genes. The sensitivity to sex steroid stimulation differed in maturing males compared to immature. In maturing males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa2 but not lepa1, while in immature males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa1, but only E2 stimulated lepa2. The differential response of the two leptin paralogues to the sex steroids suggests differences in regulation of the two leptin genes during maturation. Altogether, these results indicate that leptin expression in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes is directly regulated at the transcriptional level by the main teleost androgens and an estrogen, and that the response might depend on the developmental stage of the fish. PMID:25644210

  8. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (?E2), 17?-estradiol (?E2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears.

  9. Sex and sex steroids: impact on the kinetics of fatty acids underlying body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes in body fat distribution. The objective of this review is to describe what has been learned regarding the mechanisms underlying changes in regional body fat distribution that occur as a result of changes in sex hormones and to delineate effects of sex steroids in modulating body composition. PMID:25460291

  10. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  11. Disparate Changes in Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus After Sex Steroid Manipulation Reveal Differential Regulation of the Two KNDy Peptides in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  12. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus following sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are co-expressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; while kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared to gonadectomy, while kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and OVX, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are post-transcriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons.

  13. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. PMID:23689636

  14. Sex-related differences in metabolism of 14C-acetate in response to steroid hormones by isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No differences were found in the basal rate of lipid synthesis from 14C-acetate in hepatocytes isolated from mature male and virgin female rats. Lipid biosynthesis was stimulated 22-43% in the female 60 min after the addition of gonadal steroids. This rapid response suggests that subtle differences exist in the enzyme profile controlling the pathways of lipid metabolism in male and female rats. This difference may have been determined genetically or acquired after a period of sex-dependent hormonal stimulation beginning with puberty. (orig.)

  15. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  16. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  17. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  18. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z

    2008-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  19. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknow...

  20. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    JennyErkanderMullen; EmmaBerglund Lindgren

    2014-01-01

    The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormo...

  1. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  2. Evidence for the presence of sex steroid hormones in Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; An, Li-Hui; Chang, Hong; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-09-01

    To obtain evidence of the presence of sex steroid hormones in mollusks, hormone variation in the gonads of the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. These were found, as expected, with concentrations of estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) in the testes ranging from not detected (ND) to 0.07 ± 0.10, ND to 3.10 ± 2.00, and ND to 2.67 ± 1.55 ng/g wet weight, respectively. In the ovaries, these hormones ranged from ND to 2.45 ± 1.22, ND to 27.90 ± 4.23, and ND to 2.38 ± 1.56 ng/g ww, respectively. The levels of T in males and E2 in females followed a trend similar to the gonadal-somatic index over the course of the reproductive period. In addition, the gene expression of vitellogenin and calmodulin-2 showed similar patterns to T and E2, while the estrogen receptors and calmodulin-1 did not. These results indicate that sex steroids are present in the scallop and that they may regulate endocrine functions during the reproductive process. PMID:24662324

  3. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma : results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).

  4. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kwolek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.

  5. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E

    2010-04-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood sample in 1989 to 1990. We calculated adjusted geometric mean estrogen and androgen levels for each category of analgesic use and calculated the P value for trend with increasing frequency of use. There was no association between days of use per month of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, or acetaminophen in 1990 and hormone levels (all P(trend) > or = 0.09). However, we observed significant inverse trends between the estimated number of aspirin tablets per month in 1988 and concentrations of estrone (P(trend) = 0.04) and estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03). In analyses of total (aspirin and nonaspirin) NSAID use in 1990, women who used NSAIDs at least 15 days per month had significantly lower levels of estradiol compared with women with no NSAID use (P(trend) = 0.03). Frequency of use of all analgesics (aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) in 1990 was inversely associated with concentrations of estradiol (P(trend) = 0.001), free estradiol (P(trend) = 0.01), estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (P(trend) = 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, regular users of aspirin and other analgesics may have lower estrogen levels than nonusers, which could contribute to a decreased risk of breast or ovarian cancer among analgesic users. PMID:20332258

  6. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  7. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  8. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  9. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marta C; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  10. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  11. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to...... recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...... intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy...

  12. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  13. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex determination: Review of a paradox in reptiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar S Radder

    2007-09-01

    During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds. Until recently, the observations were dominated by the idea that yolk steroids of maternal origin play an important role in sex determination of oviparous vertebrates. However, more recent studies have cast significant doubt on the above conclusion. These studies suggest instead that steroids may be present in the yolk simply as the byproduct of passive uptake during yolk formation or observed correlations might reflect embryonically produced rather than maternally derived steroids. Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex determination of reptiles, (ii) to identify and provide brief explanations for the observed paradoxical results, and (iii) to provide some future research directions.

  14. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  15. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  16. [Sex steroids and monoamines in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is a review of literature data, which characterize participation of monoamines brain systems and sex steroids in regulation (modulation) of the amygdalas' functions. Shown were characteristic noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and their representation in amygdala. Effect ofnoradrenaline, dopamine and serotonine on neurons of Amygdala was shown realized from appropriate cell receptors under modulated influence of sex steroids. Combined participation of monoamines and sex steroids occur in regulation of activity in cyclic centre of secretion and releasing of gonadotropins, constituted a base of forming adaptive (sexual, food and aggressive-defensive) behaviour, including stress reaction. The presented data could be used for understanding influence of gender factor on personality characteristics of humans, cognitive abilities and behavioural reactions, and also in application to development of optimal medicinal treatment of psychoneurological diseases. PMID:21874859

  17. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  18. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  19. Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue

  20. Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

  1. Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

    1993-09-01

    Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

  2. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  3. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nest...

  4. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome have weaker bones: effect of treatment with GH and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Grugni, Graziano; Gatti, Davide; Spinozzi, Emiliano; Sartorio, Alessandro; Adami, Silvano; Fanolla, Antonio; Radetti, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has been considered to have a protective effect against the risk of fractures in adults. However, a high frequency of fracture is described in obese adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. To evaluate bone geometry, density and strength in a group of adult obese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and to examine the modulating effect on bone of treatment with growth hormone (GH) and sex steroids. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 41 (17 males, 24 females) obese subjects with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 29.4 ± 8.6 years. Forty-six healthy subjects (22 males and 24 females) served as controls. Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the 2nd metacarpal bone to assess bone geometry, i.e. cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical area (CA), medullary area (MA), metacarpal index (MI) and bone strength evaluated as bending breaking resistance index (BBRI). DEXA was also used to evaluate body composition and bone mineral density (total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck). PWS subjects, after adjusting for height and bone size, had a reduced CSA, CA and BBRI, while bone density was not different. GH treatment had a positive effect and sex steroids a negative effect on bone size and strength. PWS subjects showed a reduced bone size at the metacarpus leading to a reduced strength, while bone density was appropriate for size. GH treatment improves bone geometry but not bone density. Bone strength was significantly reduced in PWS patients who did not receive GH and had been treated with sex steroids. PMID:25577526

  5. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  6. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Tucker; Rama Krishna; Parimi Prabhakar; Swarup Panyam; Pankaj Anand

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targe...

  7. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ER?) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 ?g/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 ?g/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  8. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Wang, Jiaping; ZHU, HONGTU; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M.; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured us...

  9. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  10. Effects of 17 ?-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17?-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  11. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD?=?3.87) and 4.63 (SD?=?3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p?=?.012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p?=.?063) and consistent condom use with clients (p?=?.053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

  12. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JennyErkanderMullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  13. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  14. Health care of female commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårdh, P A; Shoubnikova, M; Genç, M; Chaplinkas, S; Unzeitig, V

    1999-09-01

    This article highlights health issues related to prostitution, with special reference to the situation in Europe. Strategies aimed at improving the health care of commercial sex workers, including programs for screening for sexually transmitted infections, are discussed. Problems related to failure to follow-up, particularly of mobile (migratory, international) commercial sex workers, are considered. Other topics covered include counselling on sexual risk reduction, including medical hotline telephone services and clinical outreach work. Counselling commercial sex workers on contraception, desired termination of pregnancy and hazards of illicit drug use are also highlighted. The public-health consequences of delivering poor health care to commercial sex workers are generally severely underestimated, particularly in societies where prostitution is illegal. PMID:10574642

  15. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  16. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FumihikoMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  17. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  18. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kalra, Jary Mayes, Senait Assefa, Anil K Kaul, Rashmi Kaul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER and androgen receptor (AR in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ER? alone until 1996 when ER? isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC.

  19. HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K

    2012-01-01

    Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the inclusiveness of the HIV response. PMID:23237073

  20. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When people use steroids, it gives them an unfair advantage against others who trained and practiced without ... a Fit Kid Taking the Pressure Off Sports Competition Cheating Dealing With Peer Pressure What Medicines Are ...

  1. Effects of estradiol-17? implantation on ovarian growth, sex steroid levels and vitellogenin proxies in previtellogenic sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sobhan R; Falahatkar, Bahram; Gilani, Mohammad H Tolouei; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in female great sturgeon (Huso huso) is arrested at the previtellogenic stage for many years. The present study investigated the effects of different levels of estradiol-17? (E2) on gonadal development, levels of sex steroids and proxies of vitellogenin in 3-year-old cultured previtellogenic great sturgeon. Fish were intraperitoneally implanted every 1.5 months over a 6-month period from January to July with capsules filled with 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg E2/kg body mass as control, low, mid and high experimental groups, respectively. Blood sampling was performed at the start of experimentation and 3 weeks after each implantation for quantification of sex steroid levels and of vitellogenin-associated variables (triacylglycerol, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus). Gonad biopsy samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the experiment in order to determine the gonad stage and oocyte morphometrical measures were taken to evaluate treatment effects. E2 implants produced a significant elevation in serum concentrations of E2, calcium, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phosphorus. A rapid significant decrease was observed in serum testosterone levels in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest testosterone concentrations were observed in control fish throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in oocyte stage or morphometric end points among the treated fish. We conclude that E2 implants do not stimulate ovarian growth, and hence, E2 implants alone are insufficient to reducing the time until onset of sexual maturation in previtellogenic great sturgeon. PMID:25724452

  2. Pharmacokinetics of sex steroids in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, M.; De Sanctis, V; Vullo, C.; Wonke, B; McGarrigle, H. H.; Bagni, B.

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To assess the pharmacokinetics of oral, intramuscular, or transdermal hormone replacement in patients with beta thalassaemia major. METHODS--Oral (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg) and intramuscular (testosterone propionate 15 mg, phenylpropionate 30 mg, isocaproate 30 mg and decanoate 50 mg) testosterone and transdermal (17 beta oestradiol 25 micrograms and 50 micrograms) oestradiol were evaluated in 21 male (16-29 years) and 11 female (19-26 years) patients with beta thalassaemia major ...

  3. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  4. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

  5. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  6. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsague, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Tjonneland, Anne A M; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekartin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Torhild Gram, Inger; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Kjellberg, Lennart Does Not Apply; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle I; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and ...

  7. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Soliman; Ashraf Adel; Aml Sabt; Elkhansa Elbukhari; Hannah Ahmed; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH) testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2). They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50) were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42). All children were tested using standard clonidine test and thei...

  8. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Christian J.; Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Barron, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In postmenopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of ...

  9. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone in Louisiana barn swallows Hirundo rustica that were...

  10. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation. PMID:26317368

  11. Association Between Sex Steroid Hormones and Hematocrit in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Channing J.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2013-01-01

    Low or high hematocrit levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mediated via anemia or thromboembolic events, respectively. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence hematocrit. Although androgens are known to stimulate hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether circulating sex steroid hormones affect hematocrit. The association between serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and hematocrit in men aged ?20 years was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1273 men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1991). Outcomes were low (90th percentile), and mean hematocrit. Men with low free testosterone levels had a lower hematocrit than men with normal free testosterone levels (P = .03), although no relationship was found between total testosterone level and hematocrit. The relationship between sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and hematocrit was complex, with both low (P < .001) and high (P = .01) SHBG levels associated with lower hematocrit in men aged ?20 years and only high (P = .01) SHBG levels in men aged ?50 years. The odds ratio (OR) of high vs normal hematocrit increased as total estradiol (OR, 2.84; P trend = .04) and free estradiol (OR, 2.23; P trend = .09) levels increased. In this nationally representative study of men, sex steroid hormone levels, particularly low free testosterone and high SHBG levels, were associated with lower hematocrit, and high total and free estradiol levels were associated with high hematocrit. Thus, changes in sex hormone levels with aging may contribute to the increased prevalence of anemia and thromboembolic stroke in men as they age. PMID:22604627

  12. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Markosyan; Lang, Delia L; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for partici...

  13. Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

  14. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuguruKawato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

  15. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  16. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  17. Sex hormones, personality characters and professional status among Saudi females.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The relationship between male and female sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone), personality characters and professional status was studied. METHODS The study was conducted in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2003 and May 2003. The participants completed a questionnaire consisting of personal information regarding age, profession, educational level and medical history. Then the participant went through an adjective checklist. Hormones...

  18. Sex Attractant of Female Dermestid Beetle Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, J O; Silverstein, R M; Burkholder, W E; Gorman, J E

    1969-08-29

    Two components of the sex attractant of a female dermestid beetle Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte were identified. They are (-)-14-methyl-cis-8-hexadecen-1-ol and (-)-methyl-14-methyl-cis-8-hexadecenoate. Other Trogoderma species also respond to the compounds. PMID:17777004

  19. Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10-12 M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes

  20. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  1. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers. PMID:9404396

  2. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  3. Sex-Dependent Expression of Caveolin 1 in Response to Sex Steroid Hormones Is Closely Associated with Development of Obesity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 ex...

  4. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Scambler; James Blanchard; Stephen Moses; T. Raghavendra; Krishnamurthy Jayanna; Jyoti M. Hiremath; Halli, Shiva S.; Raluca Buzdugan; Frances Cowan

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-res...

  5. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Liu; Haifei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ER?, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies ha...

  6. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation : A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 63 healthy female volunteers (mean age 24.3 ± 4.9 years) with regular menstrual cycles between 23 and 35 days. Participants were randomized to active (goserelin [GnRHa] 3.6 mg implant) or placebo intervention. Sixty women completed follow-up and entered the analyses. Primary outcome measures were changes from baseline in depressive symptoms assessed on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and SERT binding as imaged by [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. Outcome measures were acquired at baseline in the follicular phase (cycle day 6.6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). Results Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). Conclusions Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations provoke depressive symptoms and thus provide a rationale for future preventive strategies in high-risk groups.

  7. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  8. Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shervin Assari; Mosaieb Yarmohmmadi Vasel; Mohammad Nafarie; Babak Moazen; Majid Rezazade; Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling...

  9. Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?

    OpenAIRE

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

    2010-01-01

    Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

  10. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  11. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

  12. Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Auyeung Bonnie; Ahluwalia Jag; Thomson Lynn; Taylor Kevin; Hackett Gerald; O’Donnell Kieran J; Baron-Cohen Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT) and fetal estradiol (fE) levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35) following...

  13. Feeding regulates sex pheromone attraction and courtship in Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Trona, Federica; Borrero-Echeverry, Felipe; Bilz, Florian; Grabe, Veit; Becher, Paul G; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, gender-specific behavioural responses to the male-produced sex pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) rely on sexually dimorphic, third-order neural circuits. We show that nutritional state in female flies modulates cVA perception in first-order olfactory neurons. Starvation increases, and feeding reduces attraction to food odour, in both sexes. Adding cVA to food odour, however, maintains attraction in fed females, while it has no effect in males. Upregulation of sensitivity and behavioural responsiveness to cVA in fed females is paralleled by a strong increase in receptivity to male courtship. Functional imaging of the antennal lobe (AL), the olfactory centre in the insect brain, shows that olfactory input to DA1 and VM2 glomeruli is also modulated by starvation. Knocking down insulin receptors in neurons converging onto the DA1 glomerulus suggests that insulin-signalling partly controls pheromone perception in the AL, and adjusts cVA attraction according to nutritional state and sexual receptivity in Drosophila females. PMID:26255707

  14. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. PMID:25336306

  15. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  16. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  17. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  18. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  19. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

    2007-01-01

    Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

  20. Origin of the response to adrenal and sex steroids: Roles of promiscuity and co-evolution of enzymes and steroid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael E; Nelson, David R; Studer, Romain A

    2015-07-01

    Many responses to adrenal and sex steroids are mediated by receptors that belong to the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the co-evolution of these vertebrate steroid receptors and the enzymes that synthesize adrenal and sex steroids through data mining of genomes from cephalochordates [amphioxus], cyclostomes [lampreys, hagfish], chondrichthyes [sharks, rays, skates], actinopterygii [ray-finned fish], sarcopterygii [coelacanths, lungfishes and terrestrial vertebrates]. An ancestor of the estrogen receptor and 3-ketosteroid receptors evolved in amphioxus. A corticoid receptor and a progesterone receptor evolved in cyclostomes, and an androgen receptor evolved in gnathostomes. Amphioxus contains CYP11, CYP17, CYP19, 3?/?5-4-HSD and 17?-HSD14, which suffice for the synthesis of estradiol and ?5-androstenediol. Amphioxus also contains CYP27, which catalyzes the synthesis of 27-hydroxy-cholesterol, another estrogen. Lamprey contains, in addition, CYP21, which catalyzes the synthesis of 11-deoxycortisol. Chondrichthyes contain, in addition, CYP11A, CYP11C, CYP17A1, CYP17A2. Coelacanth also contains CYP11C1, the current descendent from a common ancestor with modern land vertebrate CYP11B genes, which catalyze the synthesis of cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone. Interestingly, CYP11B2, aldosterone synthase, evolved from separate gene duplications in at least old world monkeys and two suborders of rodents. Sciurognathi (including mice and rats) and Hystricomorpha (including guinea pigs). Thus, steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes co-evolved at key transitions in the evolution of vertebrates. Together, this suite of receptors and enzymes through their roles in transcriptional regulation of reproduction, development, homeostasis and the response to stress contributed to the evolutionary diversification of vertebrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol signaling'. PMID:25445914

  1. The interaction between a sexually transferred steroid hormone and a female protein regulates oogenesis in the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males dur...

  2. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  3. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  4. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  5. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  6. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 ?g/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. PMID:26552528

  7. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  8. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Sam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

  9. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561

  10. Sex Determination in Honeybees: Two Separate Mechanisms Induce and Maintain the Female Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten; Hause, Gerd; Otte, Marianne; Beye, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene. Bees heterozygous at Sex Determination Locus are females, whereas bees homozygous or hemizygous are males. Little is known, however, about the regulation that links sex determination to sexual differe...

  11. Accounting for and managing risk in sex work: A study of female sex workers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Nga

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers how in the course of their work female sex workers in Hong Kong experience risk. It concerns the indoor side of the sex market, an area which has so far been largely ignored in studies on commercial sex. The focus is on women working independently from flats. Focusing on women’s own accounts of work-related risks, risky behaviour and coping strategies, this study investigates sex workers’ reflexive understandings of prostitution and their occupational risk in late modern...

  12. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-? signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-? signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(?/?) and/or AR, viz. 3,3?diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-?, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ? 5 times more selective binding for ER-? than ER-?, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-? agonism and ER-? antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 ?M (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-? mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-? and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  13. Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    OpenAIRE

    Shira M. Goldenberg; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Thomas L. Patterson; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with inc...

  14. Sex-dependent selection on an autosomal melanic female ornament promotes the evolution of sex ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Altwegg, Res; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Schaub, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Sex-dependent selection often leads to spectacularly different phenotypes in males and females. In species in which sexual dimorphism is not complete, it is unclear which benefits females and males derive from displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex. In barn owls (Tyto alba), females exhibit on average larger black eumelanic spots than males but members of the two sexes display this trait in the same range of possible values. In a 12-year study, we show that selection exerted on spot size directly or on genetically correlated traits strongly favoured females with large spots and weakly favoured males with small spots. Intense directional selection on females caused an increase in spot diameter in the population over the study period. This increase is due to a change in the autosomal genes underlying the expression of eumelanic spots but not of sex-linked genes. Female-like males produced more daughters than sons, while male-like females produced more sons than daughters when mated to a small-spotted male. These sex ratio biases appear adaptive because sons of male-like females and daughters of female-like males had above-average survival. This demonstrates that selection exerted against individuals displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex promoted the evolution of specific life history strategies that enhance their fitness. This may explain why in many organisms sexual dimorphism is often not complete. PMID:20337696

  15. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17? enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17?-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17?,20?-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  16. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja Bisgaard; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS: A...... double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 63 healthy female volunteers (mean age 24.3 ± 4.9 years) with regular menstrual cycles between 23 and 35 days. Participants were randomized to active (goserelin [GnRHa] 3.6 mg implant) or placebo intervention. Sixty women completed follow-up and...

  17. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ER?, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ER?-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ER? regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ER? global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ER? is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement) or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause), lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ER? expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women. PMID:26491443

  18. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    OpenAIRE

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes.

  19. Unintended pregnancy among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Weldegebreal, Rishan; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Alemayehu, Mussie; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health concern in the world. Particularly, female sex workers are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy, abortion and their consequences. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess unintended pregnancy and associated factors among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 female sex workers from five Kebelles (smallest administrative units in ...

  20. Female Migrant Sex Workers in Moscow: Gender and Power Factors and HIV Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which we conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV prot...

  1. HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: outputs, cost and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Someshwar M; Marseille Elliot; Rao M Chalapathi; Kumar A Anod; Ramesh YK; Kumar SG Prem; Sisodia Pratap; Dandona Lalit; Marshall Nell; Kahn James G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. Methods Detailed output and cost data for the 2002–2003 fiscal year were obtained using standardised methods at 15 HIV prevention programmes for female sex worker in the stat...

  2. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen...... in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen...... type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed...

  3. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (pre-menopausal women); and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E2 were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E2 and SHBG. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among pre-menopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs lowest tertile=5.16, 95% CI: 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E2, fE2 and DHEAS showed non significant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among post-menopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.21-9.37), whereas E2, and fT showed non significant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in post-menopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E2 may be involved in the etiology of ICC.Impact:The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

  4. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors. PMID:25946902

  5. Problems of Birds Sex Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Antonina V. Trukhina; Aleksandr F. Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae) and heteromorphic (Paleognatae) sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system). DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc.) in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex det...

  6. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)

  7. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  8. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj; Pateetin, Prangwan

    2015-01-01

    Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, ...

  9. Migration Status, Work Conditions and Health Utilization of Female Sex Workers in Three South African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew F; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3 %) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0 % (638/1636) int...

  10. Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Lüchters, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3 %) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0 % (638/1636) int...

  11. Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-05-01

    Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work, and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n = 253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2 and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

  12. A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversio...

  13. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Steffanie A Strathdee; Semple, Shirley J; Karla D. Wagner; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Thomas L Patterson

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of differ...

  14. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  15. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  16. The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

  17. Interactions of 16α-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 16α-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  18. HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da Silva

    2005-01-01

    We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number o...

  19. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Miaoxuan; Bi Yongyi; Wu Haocheng; Chen Weiqi; Yan Hong; Li Shiyue; Braun Kathryn L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influe...

  20. Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats

  1. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2011-01-01

    Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

  2. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  3. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed sexual dimorphic patterns. In addition, dependence of the expression of these genes on either estradiol, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone during the neonatal period was confirmed. These results suggest that these four genes are involved in sexual differentiation of the rat brain, and that androgen per se as well as estrogen may take part in the processes.

  4. A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme

    2004-09-22

    A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

  5. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n?=?50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  6. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  7. The relaxant effect of sex steroids in rat myometrium is independent of the gamma-amino butyric acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusquía, M; Villalón, C M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of action on the uterine-relaxant effect of sex steroids has been suggested to involve an interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors. However, other lines of evidence do not seem to support this suggestion. In view of this controversy, this study was designed to investigate the potential relaxant effect of GABA, muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), testosterone, progesterone and their 5-reduced metabolites in rat uterus at different endocrine stages (pregnant, nonpregnant and estrogenized), with particular emphasis on verifying if the relaxant effect of steroids involves an interaction with GABA(A) receptors. Contractions from uterine rings were recorded by isometric method, the sequential addition of either GABA (at different concentrations) on the spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction or muscimol (also at different concentrations) on the contraction induced by KCl was devoid of any significant effect. In contrast, the sequential addition of progesterone relaxed the tonic KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of progesterone was mimicked by its 5-reduced metabolites. The 5(beta)-configured isomers were more potent than progesterone and the 5(alpha)-configured ones. Interestingly, the relaxation produced by the above steroids was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, but was reversed by calcium. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the relaxant action of the sex steroids analyzed in this study is not mediated by an interaction with GABA(A) receptors, instead a blockade of calcium influx appears to be responsible. PMID:8786697

  8. Sex steroid-induced inhibition of food intake in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Esther; Sánchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-?-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased selffeeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-?-estradiol t...

  9. Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?

    OpenAIRE

    Cittelly, Diana M.; Richer, Jennifer K.; Sartorius, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17?-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell p...

  10. Oral contraceptive steroids as promoters or complete carcinogens for liver in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J D

    1983-01-01

    Published reports have described an increased incidence of adenomas and of hepatocellular carcinomas in livers of women with a history of long-term oral contraceptive use. Evidence derived from human and experimental animals suggests that oral contraceptive steroids may be liver tumor promoters. Experiments were designed to determine the initiating and/or promoting potential of two oral contraceptive steroids, namely mestranol and norethynodrel. The results show that: mestranol and norethynod...

  11. Levels of free and conjugated androgens and progestins in coelomic fluid and serum of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) females

    OpenAIRE

    Bayunova, L.; Semenkova, T.; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Couto, E; Gerasimov, A.; Barannikova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas) females from the Volga River were analysed for sex steroids after hormonal stimulation. The results show a significant increase of sulfated sex steroid levels in serum and coelomic fluid (CF) at final maturation (FM). It is hypothesized that the steroid metabolites could be part of a chemical communication system related to reproduction.

  12. Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES*

    OpenAIRE

    Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elect...

  13. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

  14. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schächinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions with and without stress. First, female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone affect emotions and cognition, contributing to sex differences in behavior. Second, females respond differently to stress than males which might be related to the phase of the estrous cycle. For example, female rats and mice express less anxiety than males in a novel environment. Proestrus females are less anxious than females in the other estrous phases. Third, males perform in spatial tasks superior to females. However, while stress impairs spatial memory in males, females improve their spatial abilities, depending on the task and kind of stressor. We conclude that the differences in emotion, cognition and responses to stress between males and females over the different phases of the estrous cycle should be used in animal models for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:22113371

  15. l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed “hormonal pheromones” because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here we ...

  16. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S M

    2012-05-01

    Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

  17. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S; Hiremath, Jyoti M; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme. PMID:23346389

  18. Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)

  19. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

  20. Transitions Between Male and Female Heterogamety Caused by Sex-Antagonistic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Van Doorn, G. Sander; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Many animal taxa show frequent and rapid transitions between male heterogamety (XY) and female heterogamety (ZW). We develop a model showing how these transitions can be driven by sex-antagonistic selection. Sex-antagonistic selection acting on loci linked to a new sex-determination mutation can cause it to invade, but when acting on loci linked to the ancestral sex-determination gene will inhibit an invasion. The strengths of the consequent indirect selection on the old and new sex-determina...

  1. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant?s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin. PMID:26300058

  2. The Chameleon Syndrome: A Social Psychological Dimension of the Female Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bernard C.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and social correlates of the female form of the Chameleon Syndrome--an accommodative response to an environment perceived as hostile to inappropriate sex role behavior--among a sample of 3200 American adolescents. (Author)

  3. Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Satarupa

    2013-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

  4. Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom; Célia Landmann Szwarcwald; Aristides Barbosa Júnior

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. METHODS: The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilistic or convenience). RESULTS: We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not ade...

  5. Observation of a ZZW female in a natural population: implications for avian sex determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Arlt, D; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis; Westerdahl, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Avian sex determination is chromosomal; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. There is no conclusive evidence for either of two proposed mechanisms: a dominant genetic switch or a dosage mechanism. No dominant sex-determining gene on the female-specific W chromosome has been found. Birds lack inactivation of one of the Z chromosomes in males, but seem to compensate for a double dose of Z-linked genes by other mechanisms. Recent studies showing female-specific expression o...

  6. Drosophila Sex-lethal protein mediates polyadenylation switching in the female germline

    OpenAIRE

    Gawande, Bharat; Robida, Mark D; RAHN, ANDREW; Singh, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    The Drosophila master sex-switch protein Sex-lethal (SXL) regulates the splicing and/or translation of three known targets to mediate somatic sexual differentiation. Genetic studies suggest that additional target(s) of SXL exist, particularly in the female germline. Surprisingly, our detailed molecular characterization of a new potential target of SXL, enhancer of rudimentary (e(r)), reveals that SXL regulates e(r) by a novel mechanism—polyadenylation switching—specifically in the female germ...

  7. Serum levels of sex steroids and metabolites following 12 weeks of intravaginal 0.50% DHEA administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuyong; Labrie, Fernand; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Bergeron, Danielle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Lavoie, Lyne; Archer, David F; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective and randomized study was to confirm the efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) ovules for 12 weeks on moderate to severe dyspareunia (or pain at sexual activity) as most bothersome symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) while having serum steroid concentrations within normal postmenopausal values. To this end, serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Androst-5-ene-diol-3?, 17?-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3?, 17?-diol 17-glucuronide (3?-diol-17G) were measured by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology, all serum sex steroids and metabolites concentrations after 12 weeks of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA remain well within the limits of normal postmenopausal women. More specifically, the 12-week serum E2 concentration was measured at 22% below the average normal postmenopausal value (3.26 versus 4.17pg/ml), thus eliminating any fear of E2 exposure outside the vagina. In addition, serum E1-S, a particularly reliable indicator of global estrogenic activity, shows serum levels practically superimposable to the value observed in normal postmenopausal women (219 versus 220pg/ml). Similarly, serum ADT-G, the major metabolite of androgens, remains within normal postmenopausal values. The present data confirm the intracellular transformation of DHEA in the vagina resulting in local efficacy without any systemic exposure to sex steroids, observations which are in agreement with the physiological mechanisms of menopause. PMID:26291918

  8. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong; Meng, Siying; Tang, Xiaojun; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs) are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chong...

  9. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  10. Correlates of Current Transactional Sex among a Sample of Female Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, MD

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers’ sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2...

  11. Relevance of Stress and Female Sex Hormones for Emotion and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    ter Horst, J. P.; de Kloet, E. R.; Schächinger, H.; Oitzl, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions ...

  12. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone; Faxelid Elisabeth; Sychareun Vanphanom; Thomsen Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Sa...

  13. Sex differentiation of channel catfish gonads: Normal development and effects of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño, R.; Davis, KB; Schoore, JE; Uguz, C; Strüssmann, CA; Parker, NC; Simco, BA; Goudie, CA

    1996-01-01

    Channel catfish have an XX female-XY male sex determination system. Although genetic males of this species are readily feminized with exogenous steroid, the pattern of gonadal sex differentiation and the effect of temperature on genetic sex determination are unknown. To document the pattern of gonadal sex differentiation, catfish from a mixed-sex progeny (XX female-XY male cross), known XY males (XX female-YY male cross), and steroid sex-reversed (XY) females were reared at 28°C and collected...

  14. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in ...

  15. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  16. Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Endang; Wolffers, Ivan; Devillé, Walter; Erlaini, Noni; Luhpuri, Dorang; Hargono, Rachmat; Maskuri, Nuning; Suesen, Nyoman; van Beelen, Nel

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a sample of 204 female sex workers. Qualitative data were collected by conducting focus group discussions and in-depth interviews among female sex workers and pimps. Around 53% of sexual intercourses were reported to be protected, and 12% of these protected intercourses were preceded by clients' argumentation against it. Only 5.8% of sex workers consistently used condoms for a 2-week period of observation, and this figure decreased to 1.4% for a 4-week period. Reasons for not using condoms from the clients' side, as mentioned by the sex workers, were perceived less pleasure due to the condom and the belief that clients that are acquainted with the sex workers do not need protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or AIDS. The main reasons of female sex workers for not using condoms were the beliefs that boyfriends, native Indonesians and healthy-looking clients cannot spread STDs. Another reason stated was that sex workers had already taken other preventive measures, like taking antibiotics. The research also showed that pimps were not very supportive of condom use programs in Indonesia. Condom unacceptability is an important reason for not using condoms for both clients and female sex workers, whereas pimps, who are in the best position to encourage condom use, unfortunately consider condom use as a threat to their business. For the successful introduction of consistent condom use, it is necessary to design interventions for both sex workers and clients and to provide appropriate educational materials and preferred brands of condoms. Also, pimps must be involved in intervention programs. PMID:12000229

  17. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 151, ?. 6 (2014), s. 755-768. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2014

  18. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; MAYER, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

  19. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known...

  20. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  1. Patterns of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, M R; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; Kambodji, A; Schulz, K

    1997-09-01

    Sex workers and their clients as core groups of high frequency transmitters play a dominant role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Surabaya, Indonesia, little is known about the prevalence of STDs in various sex establishments. We conducted an STD prevalence survey of 1873 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. We did not find any sex workers with HIV infection. Prevalence rates of other STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, serological test for syphilis positive, and/or trichomoniasis) in female sex workers were 48% in brothels (n = 696), 42% on the streets (n = 192), 16% in massage parlours (n = 344), 25% in barber shops (n = 150), 17% at call-girl houses (n = 73), and 10% in nightclubs (n = 418). Sex workers from the brothels had the highest prevalence rates of gonorrhoea (24%) and trichomoniasis (8%), while sex workers from the streets and the barber shop had the highest rates of serological test for syphilis (STS) positive (30%) and chlamydia (18%). STD rates decreased with an increase in age (except for STS positive), an increase in education, a decrease in the number of sex partners, and condom use in the previous week. Condom use in the previous week was universally low among sex workers, especially among sex workers from the brothels (14%). Sex workers from the brothels had STD rates about 4 times higher than sex workers from the nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 4.4). Although the HIV seroprevalence rate is currently low, widespread prostitution and high rates of STDs in sex workers warrant programmes to avert a potential explosion of HIV transmission. Because sex workers from the brothels in Surabaya have high rates of STDs and low use of condoms but good cooperation with local authorities, STD preventive measures should focus on this group. PMID:9292347

  2. Sex chromosome pairing and heterochromatin body appearance in Cydia pomonella females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis

  3. Single-sex Classes: Female Physics Students State Their Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Examines data collected from a girls-only physics class in a public coeducational high school. Interview and observation data from this class, as well as from coeducational physics classes taught by the same teacher, illustrate that the girls in the single-sex class made substantial gains in both academic achievement and in perceptions of…

  4. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex-bias of melanoma in a fish model

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, David L.; Fernandez, André A.; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-Hsiang; Person, Maria D; Earley, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model we show a strong male bias for cutaneous malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sub-lethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24 hour period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreas...

  5. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  6. Multi-person Sex among a Sample of Adolescent Female Urban Health Clinic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; RAJ, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual activity involving three or more people is an emerging public health concern. The goal of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence, correlates, and context of multiple-person sex among a sample of adolescent females seeking health care from an urban clinic. Because sex involving multiple people may either be consensual (i.e., “three-ways” or “group sex”) or forced (i.e., “gang rape”), we use the term “multi-person sex” (MPS) to encompass these e...

  7. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

  8. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zierau, Oliver; Zenclussen, Ana C.; Jensen, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC) behavior. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovar...

  9. Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Vandepitte, J; Lyerla, R; Dallabetta, G.; Crabbé, F; Alary, M.; Buvé, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. METHODS: Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapol...

  10. Automation of radioimmunoassays for some sex steroids with use of both iodinated and tritiated ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an automated technique for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, in which System Olli 3000 pipetting and incubation units are used. After extraction or chromatography, steroids are redissolved in ethanol or buffer, and duplicate aliquots are arranged for radioimmunoassay in 24-tube blocks. Addition of antibodies, tracers (125I or 3H), dextran-coated charcoal for separating free and bound ligands, and removal of a portion of the supernate for counting are all performed by the pipetting instrument. Incubations are at 370C in the incubation unit, or at 40C. After counting, steroid concentrations are computed from punch tape records by a Nova 840 computer. The management of assays in 24-tube units, and accurate simultaneous pipetting has reduced experimental error, and because there is no carryover, many different assays can be performed concurrently or in rapid sequence. Various scintillation media are compared

  11. Characterization of human fetal cord blood steroid profiles in relation to fetal sex and mode of delivery using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and principal component analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Vicki L; Bisits, Andrew; Zarzycki, Pawe? K

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, human male and female fetal cord blood samples were purified, selectively extracted and separated to examine a fraction of steroids ranging from polar estetrol to relatively non-polar progesterone using solid phase extraction based on C-18 tubes and beta-cyclodextrin driven temperature dependent inclusion chromatography. Resulting UV diode array chromatographic patterns revealed the presence of 27 peaks. Chromatographic patterns of UV detected steroids were analyzed using principal components analysis which revealed differences between male/female and labour/not-in-labour clusters. Quantitative analysis of nine identified steroids including: estetrol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were not significantly different between males and females. Significant differences between male and female fetuses were related to as yet unidentified compounds. Four peaks were significantly different with labour which corresponded with cortisol, cortisone and two unidentified compounds. This protocol may distinguish significant differences between clinical groups that are not readily identifiable using univariate measurements of single steroids or different low molecular mass biomarkers. Moreover, we have provided new evidence that despite the absence of testosterone there are number of steroids and low molecular mass compounds that differ between male and female fetuses. PMID:17625993

  12. Timing matters: corticosterone injections 4 h before ovulation bias sex ratios towards females in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Sara E; Wilson, Jeanna L; Navara, Kristen J

    2015-07-01

    Birds have the ability to influence offspring sex prior to egg laying and may use hormones to mediate these skews. Corticosterone is of particular interest as a mediator of offspring sex because, as the primary stress hormone in birds, it regulates responses to environmental and social stimuli that trigger sex ratio biases. In previous studies in birds, chronic elevations of corticosterone stimulated female-biased sex ratios while acute pharmacological elevations that were provided 5 h prior to the expected time of ovulation stimulated male-biased sex ratios. Here, we aimed to determine the magnitude of corticosterone necessary to influence offspring sex and to further pinpoint the timing of the hormonal influence. Because high-dose injections of corticosterone stimulated male-biased sex ratios in hens, we hypothesized that females receiving acute pharmacological elevations of corticosterone would produce more male offspring while females with acute physiological elevations would produce an intermediate proportion of males compared to controls. We tested our hypotheses in laying hens by elevating corticosterone in the physiological or pharmacological range through injections of corticosterone administered 4 or 5 h prior to the expected time of ovulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, a physiological dose of corticosterone provided 5 h prior to the expected time of ovulation did not bias offspring sex ratios when compared to controls. Further, when corticosterone injections were given at 4 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, sex ratios were instead biased towards females. These results suggest that the timing and magnitude of the corticosterone elevation are both critical not only to whether a sex ratio bias occurs, but also the direction of the bias. PMID:25774047

  13. Sex steroid-induced inhibition of food intake in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Sánchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-beta-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased self-feeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-beta-estradiol treated fish. In the second experiment, fish were treated with lower 17-beta-estradiol doses and 11-keto-androstenedione, a precursor of the main fish androgen (11-keto-testosterone). The results demonstrated a dose-response effect of estrogen and no effect of non-aromatizable androgens on food intake or growth performance. The inhibitory effect of testosterone on food intake seems to be mediated by its aromatization to estradiol, while linear growth promotion is mediated by the androgen per se. Data suggest that gonadal steroids may be involved in the seasonal feeding pattern of sea bass. The results demonstrate the sensitivity of the mechanisms regulating food intake to estrogenic compounds and point to the risk of including feed containing estrogenic substances in fish diets as well as the risk involved in exposure to "estrogenic environments". PMID:18709378

  14. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duneau David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration, which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

  15. Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S

    1999-09-01

    Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone. PMID:10480988

  16. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  17. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-06-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  18. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China. PMID:25950448

  19. Sex Hormone Levels During and Between Attacks At Female Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat DEMIRKAYA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study is to investigate the relation between the serum levels of sex hormones and migraine headache in female migraine patients. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine were measured during the headache attack and in the interval period in female migraine patients with or without aura.Materials and Methods: 46 female migraine patients who had no systemic disease were enrolled in this study. The patients ranging in age from 15 to 45 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients during the headache attack and in the interval period. We measured the serum level of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine.Results: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the interval period level (absolute value; t>1.96. There were no differences in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period (absolute value; t<1.96.Conclusion: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the serum level of interval period. However no differences were found in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period. It was described that significant variations occur in the serum levels of sex hormones during headache attack or in the interval period in female migraine patients. The examination of serum sex hormones levels can be useful to determine the etiopathogenesis and treatment in female migraine patients.

  20. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated w...

  1. Production of all female progeny: evidence for the presence of the male sex determination factor on the Y chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, follows an XX (female) and XY (male) sex determination system. Maternal supply of the protein Transformer (Tra) is required for XX insects to follow the female pathway. The nature and source of the signal that regulates male sex determination in XY beetles are not known. Parental RNAi-aided knockdown in expression of tra masculinizes genetic females (XX) that are fertile. The virgin females mated with these masculinized genetic females produced all f...

  2. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

  3. Government crackdown of sex work in China: responses from female sex workers and implications for their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

  4. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714

  5. Dynamic functional evolution of an odorant receptor for sex-steroid-derived odors in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Chien, Ming-Shan; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Odorant receptors are among the fastest evolving genes in animals. However, little is known about the functional changes of individual odorant receptors during evolution. We have recently demonstrated a link between the in vitro function of a human odorant receptor, OR7D4, and in vivo olfactory perception of 2 steroidal ligands—androstenone and androstadienone—chemicals that are shown to affect physiological responses in humans. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro function of OR7D4 in pri...

  6. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  7. Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Female-to-Male Transsexual

    OpenAIRE

    Monstrey, Stan J.; Ceulemans, Peter; Hoebeke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    In female-to-male transsexuals, the operative procedures are usually performed in different stages: first the subcutaneous mastectomy which is often combined with a hysterectomy-ovarectomy (endoscopically assisted). The next operative procedure consists of the genital transformation and includes a vaginectomy, a reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra, a scrotoplasty and a penile reconstruction usually with a radial forearm flap (or an alternative). After about one year, penile (...

  8. Sex-role stereotyping by high school females in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockell, Edward L.; Lobonc, Susan

    Although the participation by females in upper-level occupations and positions has expanded considerably in recent years, science is still considered a masculine career field. The results of this study show that only the physical sciences in particular (not science in general) are clearly viewed as masculine academic areas. Furthermore, the results suggest that the perception by girls of the physical sciences as masculine is much more likely to occur in coed classes than in all-female classes. The results can best be explained by two factors: (1) the attitudes conveyed by teachers and by society may predispose students toward a greater acceptance of women in biology than in the physical sciences; and (2) when girls perceive themselves as a deviant minority in physical science classes, their performance and preference for the physical sciences is reduced, perhaps because of competition and comparison with males. In all-female classes, however, girls are not a deviant minority, and therefore they are able to perform and develop preferences without inhibition.

  9. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions. PMID:26460849

  10. Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2014-09-01

    The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. PMID:25082156

  11. Ovarian steroids regulate gene expression in the dorsal raphe of old female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kohama, Steven G; Reddy, Arubala P; Urbanski, Henryk F

    2016-01-01

    With extended life spans in modern humans, menopause has become a significant risk factor for depression, anxiety, loss of cognitive functions, weight gain, metabolic disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical studies have found beneficial neural effects of ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the menopausal transition and data are emerging that it can be continued long term. To further understand molecular underpinnings of the clinical studies, we used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to examine gene expression in the serotonergic dorsal raphe of old (>18 years) rhesus macaques, focusing on genes related to depression, cellular resilience, and neurodegenerative diseases. The animals were ovariectomized (Ovx, surgically menopausal) and subjected to either estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone HT, or to placebo, starting 2 months after Ovx and continuing for ?4 years. Significant changes were observed in 36 of 48 genes examined that encode proteins supporting serotonin neurotransmission, synapse assembly, glutamate neurotransmission, DNA repair, chaperones, ubiquinases and transport motors, as well as genes encoding proteins that have potential to delay the onset of neuropathologies. The data reveal important gene targets for chronic HT that contribute to neural health. Alternatively, the loss of ovarian steroids may lead to loss of functions at the gene level that contribute to many of the observable neural deficits after menopause. PMID:26686671

  12. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; STANTON, BONITA

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic ...

  13. Female sex hormones and body mass in adolescent and postmenopausal Korean women.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, K Y; Kim, H.(University of Seoul, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Shin, H R; KANG, D; Ha, M.; Park, S. K.; LEE, B.O.; Cho, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between body mass and serum level of female sex hormones among 153 adolescent girls, and 153 postmenopausal women in Korea. Information on lifestyles, and both menstrual and reproductive factors was collected by personal interview. Serum total estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine whe...

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Degenhardt Louisa; Roxburgh Amanda; Copeland Jan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The in...

  15. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Deering Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee Paranita; Bradley Janet; Moses Stephen S; Shannon Kate; Shaw Souradet Y; Washington Reynold; Lowndes Catherine M; Boily Marie-Claude; Ramesh Banadakoppa M; Rajaram S; Gurav Kaveri; Alary Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to...

  16. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    OpenAIRE

    Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; SCHÖPF, VERONIKA

    2014-01-01

    Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and da...

  17. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    OpenAIRE

    BROUWER, KIMBERLY C.; Jorge Villalobos; Perth Rosen; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Thomas L Patterson; Gudelia Rangel; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; Chen, Nadine E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stabl...

  18. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female street sex workers in Padua:

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, Fabiana; Gallina, Pietro; Tarantello, Marco; Veller-Fornasa, Cleto

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and condom use in a population of young female street sex workers from eastern Europe and other non-EU countries basedin the Padua area (north-eastern Italy). To assess whether any aspects oftheir behavior might foster the spread of STDs. Study design: Street sex workers (prostitutes) were approached on the streets or during non-STD medicalappointments, their knowledge of STDs and con...

  19. Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Female Sex Workers and Their Occupational Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna T. Nakagawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.

  20. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  1. THE COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

  2. Sex structure and potential female fecundity in a Epinephelus guttatus spawning aggregation: Applying ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, E.A.; Jennings, C.A.; Nemeth, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging was used to determine the spawning population structure and develop a fecundity estimation model for a red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning aggregation within the Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District, St Thomas, U.S.V.I. The spawning population showed considerable within-month and between-month variation in population size- and sex-structure. In the spawning season studied, males appeared to arrive at the aggregation site first in December although females represented a large proportion of the catch early in the aggregation periods in January and February. Spawning occurred in January and February, and size frequency distributions suggested that an influx of small females occurred during the second spawning month. An overall sex ratio of 2.9:1 (female:male) was recorded for the whole reproductive season. The sex ratio, however, differed between months and days within months. More females per male were recorded in January than in February when the sex ratio was male biased. Fecundity estimates for this species predicted very high potential fecundities (2.4 ?? 105-2.4 ?? 106 oocytes). The ultrasound model also illustrated a rapid increase in potential female fecundity with total length. Ultrasonic imaging may prove a valuable tool in population assessment for many species and locations in which invasive fishing methods are clearly undesirable. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Social Influence and Individual Risk Factors of HIV Unsafe Sex among Female Entertainment Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-e...

  4. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG MALE AND FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    I. Zapartidis; M.E. Nikolaidou; I. Vareltzis; P. Kororos

    2011-01-01

    During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing th...

  5. Female sexual inversion: same-sex desires in Italian and British sexology, ca. 1870-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Beccalossi, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, a number of women were diagnosed as sexual inverts in Britain and Europe. This book examines the ways in which female same-sex desires were represented across a wide range of Italian and British medical writings during this period. Chiara Beccalossi has undertaken extensive archival research to bring to light new documents and give a detailed account of how the female invert was positioned alongside other figures ...

  6. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (?-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (?-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  7. Sex-steroids associated with the reproductive cycle in male and female bolson tortoise, Gopherus flavomarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Gonz\\u00E1lez Tr\\u00E1paga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos los ciclos de esteroides sexuales de machos y hembras en estado silvestre de la tortuga del Bolsón en la Reserva de la Biósfera de Mapimí (Durango. Tomamos muestras de sangre por venipunción de la yugular a intervalos bisemanales durante un período de 14 meses, determinándose los niveles circulantes de esteroides por medio de radioinmunoensayos. Los niveles hormonales mostraron tendencias estacionales. En las hembras, la testosterona tuvo un valor máximo al salir de la brumación, en asociación con el incremento en la receptividad sexual, y el nivel de estradiol aumentó después de la emergencia asociado con la maduración folicular. El nivel de estos dos esteroides se incrementó con las lluvias estacionales, cuando ocurrieron el crecimiento folicular y la vitelogénesis. La progesterona mostró niveles bajos a la emergencia, los cuales aumentaron con el incremento de la duración del dia y la temperatura, llegando al máximo antes del pico de la oviposición. La caída en los niveles de las tres hormonas estuvo asociada con la oviposición. Las hembras probablemente almacenan esperma durante parte del otoño y el invierno para usarlo en la siguiente estación reproductiva. Los machos salieron de la hibernación con bajos niveles de testosterona, pero exhibieron conductas reproductivas poco después. Junto con un incremento de la testosterona, el cortejo y la frecuencia de apareamientos se incrementaron con estímulos ambientales, prolongándose hasta principios del otoño. Los niveles de testosterona y la actividad reproductiva disminuyeron conforme se aproximaba el inicio de la hibernación. Los niveles máximos de testosterona en machos de esta especie son mayores que los conocidos para cualquier otro vertebrado.

  8. Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

  9. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E; Ulrik, C S; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    the following asthma indicators: self-reported asthma, wheezing, cough at exertion, and use of medication for asthma. The study sample comprised 1536 premenopausal and 3016 postmenopausal women who participated in the third round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-4. A total of 377 women were...... taking OCP (24.5% of premenopausal women) and 458 were on HRT (15.2% of postmenopausal women). RESULTS: In premenopausal women 4.8% reported having asthma. The prevalence of self-reported asthma, wheeze, use of asthma medication, and cough at exertion was not significantly related to use of OCP. In...... postmenopausal women the prevalence of self-reported asthma was 6.2%. A weak but consistent association was observed between HRT and self-reported asthma (OR 1.42 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.12)), wheeze (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.64)), cough at exertion (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77)), and use of asthma medication (OR 1...

  10. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881

  11. Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; BRIDDEN, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

  12. Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Caricato, Fabio Ausania, Giovanni Francesco Marangi, Ilaria Cipollone, Gerardo Flammia, Paolo Persichetti, Lucio Trodella, Roberto Coppola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.

  13. Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Caricato, Marco; Ausania, Fabio; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Cipollone, Ilaria; Flammia, Gerardo; Persichetti, Paolo; Trodella, Lucio; Coppola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.

  14. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESUR BHUPENDRA NANDLAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conventional norms of society; while Sula throughout her life rejects the traditional notions of feminine ‘responsibility’ and refuses to see women as only wives and mothers. This paper also explains how these norms and environment of gender, sex and love destroy the relationship between not only men and women but also women themselves.

  15. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sharful I

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60% had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%. Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively, but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively, more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively. Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

  16. The influence of gender and sex steroid hormones on the plasma binding of propranolol enantiomers.

    OpenAIRE

    Walle, U.K.; Fagan, T C; Topmiller, M J; Conradi, E C; Walle, T

    1994-01-01

    1. Plasma binding of tritium-labelled racemic propranolol (P) was measured by equilibrium dialysis. The unbound enantiomers were separated by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. The binding of (-)-P was higher than that of (+)-P. 2. Contrary to previous suggestions, a sex difference in the plasma binding of the P enantiomers (9 young women, 12 young men) was not observed. The unbound percentage of (-)-P was 9.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- s.d.) in women vs 9.1 +/- 1.7 in men; for (+)-P it was 10.8 +/...

  17. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG MALE AND FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zapartidis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing the motor abilities of 214 male and 238 female handball players from four age groups (12-12.9, 13-13.9, 14-14.9, and 15-15.9 years. Five motor abilities tests were administered: a ball throwing velocity, b standing long jump, c 30-m running speed, d 20-m shuttle run and e sit-and-reach flexibility. ANCOVA was used to test for sex differences by age group with age, height and weight as covariates. Results showed that in the 12-12.9 age group males and females had similar performances in standing long jump and aerobic capacity. In the older age groups, and besides having the same performance demands and training experience, males performed better than females in motor abilities that are important for handball. It appears that sport-specific training is not sufficient to attenuate sex differences in motor performance of young handball players.

  18. Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels

  19. Regulation of VEGF in the reproductive tract by sex-steroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hyder, S.M.; Stancel, G M

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis. In adults, angiogenesis is an infrequent event in the normal tissue except in the female reproductive tract where angiogenesis occurs frequently during the cyclical repair and regeneration of the endometrium as well as in the ovary. Little is known about angiogenesis in the male reproductive tract. The role of VEGF in controlling reproductive tract physiology and the role of hormones ...

  20. Alcohol Use and Sex Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and HIV-Infected Male Clients of FSWs in India

    OpenAIRE

    SAMET, Jeffrey H.; PACE, Christine A.; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardesi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; RAJ, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated with heavy alcohol use and evaluated the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex. We surveyed 211 female and 205 m...

  1. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria

  2. Reproduction in female copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix): plasma steroid profiles during gestation and post-birth periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles F; Schuett, Gordon W; Hoss, Shannon K

    2012-04-01

    We investigated levels of plasma progesterone (P4), 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and corticosterone (CORT) during gestation and post-birth periods in wild-collected female copperhead snakes (Viperidae; Agkistrodon contortrix). We also sought to determine whether CORT levels at (or near) birth dramatically increase and were correlated with duration of labor and litter size. Specifically, pregnant subjects (N = 14) were collected during early- to mid-gestation, held in the laboratory, and repeatedly bled to obtain plasma for steroid analyses. Progesterone showed significant changes during gestation, with the highest levels at the onset of sampling (circa 50 days prior to birth); P4 progressively declined up to parturition, and basal levels were observed thereafter. At the onset of sampling, E2 was at peak levels and fell sharply at circa 30 days prior to birth, a trend observed throughout the post-birth sampling period. Throughout the entire sampling period, T was undetectable. Although CORT showed no significant changes during gestation and several days following parturition, there was a highly significant peak at the time of birth. Our findings mirror the results of previous studies on pregnancy and steroid hormones of other live-bearing snakes, lizards, and mammals. As expected, there was a significant relationship between duration of labor and litter size; however, although levels of CORT did not achieve significance, there was a positive trend with litter size. We suggest that elevation of CORT at birth is involved in the mobilization and regulation of energy stores necessary for the physiological process of parturition and as a possible mechanism to trigger birth. PMID:22468838

  3. Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew F; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) internal and 46.3% (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41% lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed. PMID:23238581

  4. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  5. Sex steroid receptors and apoptosis-related proteins are differentially expressed in polycystic ovaries of adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Lupi Júnior, Luiz Antonio; da Maia Lima, Alfredo Feio

    2016-02-01

    In Polycystic Ovaries (PCOs), the dynamics of sex hormone receptors and follicle-related apoptotic signaling remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of androgen receptors (AR), estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), and apoptosis-related molecules (BAX, active caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Survivin) on different follicular stages of PCOs in adult dogs. Clinical evidences of high estradiol and testosterone levels, persistent estrus and vaginal discharge were observed. Inhibin B immunolabeling was increased in primary and 2 to 5-mm follicles, and a marked epithelial hyperplasia was common in the ovarian surface. Ovarian epithelia and primary follicles showed low expression of AR, ER?, and ER?, whereas a moderate immunoexpression of AR was found in theca cells of secondary follicles and cysts. In PCOs, growing follicles displayed ER? expression, and secondary follicles exhibited higher ER? expression. In addition, while few ER?-positive cells were found in the cysts, ER? was moderately expressed in growing follicles and cysts. BAX was upregulated in the ovarian epithelium, primary follicles, and in the wall of follicular cysts. Active caspase-3 was significantly downregulated in the epithelium, primary follicles, and follicular cysts, whereas growing follicles had a strong immunoexpression in the granulosa cells. Bcl-2 and survivin were increased in the epithelium and primary follicles, and only survivin was upregulated in secondary and growing follicles. While Bcl-2 had a diffuse immunexpression in the follicular cysts, survivin was overexpressed by these cells. We concluded that sex steroid receptors and apoptotic proteins are differentially expressed in the follicles of adult dogs with PCOs. PMID:26767421

  6. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  7. Destabilising Sex work and Intimacy? : Gender Performances of Female Thai Migrants Selling Sex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Denne ph.d.-afhandling, der består af fire artikler, undersøger, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters sexkøb konstruerer kvindelighed forankret i en række subjektpositioner som mor, hustru og sexarbejder i forhold til allerede eksisterende subjektpositioner konstrueret inden for det danske politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og ’intimitet’? Den anden del består af fire artikler. Den første artikel analyserer forandringerne inden for prostitutionspolitikfeltet med fokus på handlingsplanerne for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel. Den anden artikel trækker på litteratur om globale omsorgskæder, medborgerskab og transnational migration. Artiklen analyserer, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranter konstruerer transnationalt og lokalt moderskab i forhold til, hvordan moderskab konstrueres inden for det sociale arbejde og i forhold til dansk politik om familiesammenføring. Den tredje artikel undersøger, hvordan kategorierne ægtefælle, sexarbejder og kvindelig migrant sammenflettes i kvindelige thailandske sexarbejderes fortællinger om romantisk kærlighed. Den sidste artikel anvender Butlers kønsteori og teori om rum. Artiklens formål er at analysere, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters kønsfremførelser afhænger af rum.

  8. Indicators of Mobility, Socio-Economic Vulnerabilities and HIV Risk Behaviours Among Mobile Female Sex Workers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Jain, Anrudh K.; Sebastian, Mary Philip; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Halli, Shiva S.; Verma, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between indicators of mobility, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and HIV risk behaviours among 5,498 mobile female sex workers (FSWs) living in the four high HIV prevalence states in India. Female sex workers with greater degree of mobility reported significantly more often than the FSWs with lesser degree of mobility that they experienced physical violence, and consumed alcohol prior to sex. Further, FSWs with greater degree of mobility reported significan...

  9. Flow cytometric sexing of spider sperm reveals an equal sperm production ratio in a female-biased species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H; Bilde, Trine; Lambrecht, B; Hendrickx, F.

    2014-01-01

    Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bact...

  10. A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Development and Expression of Female Same-Sex Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2007-06-01

    Researchers have documented substantial variability in the development and expression of same-sex sexuality, especially among women, posing challenges to traditional linear developmental models. In this article, I argue for a new approach to conceptualizing the development and expression of female same-sex sexuality over the life course, based in dynamical systems theory. Dynamical systems models seek to explain how complex patterns emerge, stabilize, change, and restabilize over time. Although originally developed by mathematicians and physicists to model complex physical phenomena in the natural world, they have increasingly been applied to social-behavioral phenomena, ranging from motor development to cognition to language. I demonstrate the utility of this approach for modeling change over time in female same-sex sexuality, reviewing extant published research and also introducing data collected from an ongoing, 10-year longitudinal study of young nonheterosexual women. I provide evidence that female same-sex sexuality demonstrates the emblematic features of a dynamical system: nonlinear change over time, spontaneous emergence of novel forms, and periodic reorganizations and phase transitions within the overall system. I highlight the specific contribution of a dynamical systems perspective for understanding such phenomena and suggest directions for future study. PMID:26151957

  11. HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana Schuelter, Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da, Silva.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infe [...] ction. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008), the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053) and by their clients (p = 0.005), and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015). The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

  12. HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

  13. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

  14. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus following sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are co-expressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between ...

  15. Experience-independent sex differences in newborn macaques: Females are more social than males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Nicolini, Ylenia; Shetler, Melissa; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Human females exhibit greater social interest and skills relative to males, appearing in infancy, suggesting biological roots; however, male and female infants may be treated differently, potentially causing or amplifying sex differences. Here, we tested whether sex differences in social motivation emerge in infant monkeys (n?=?48) reared in a controlled postnatal environment. Compared to males, females at 2–3 weeks looked more at conspecifics’ faces (d?=?0.65), especially the eyes (d?=?1.09), and at 4–5 weeks exhibited more affiliative behaviors (d?=?0.64), including gesturing, looking, and proximity to familiar and unfamiliar human caretakers. In sum, converging evidence from humans and monkeys suggests that female infants are more social than males in the first weeks of life, and that such differences may arise independent of postnatal experience. Individual differences in social interest have wide-ranging developmental consequences, impacting infants’ social interaction quality and opportunities for learning. Understanding the evolution of sex differences and their developmental emergence is necessary to best support infants with varying levels of sociality. PMID:26794858

  16. Experience-independent sex differences in newborn macaques: Females are more social than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Shetler, Melissa; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Human females exhibit greater social interest and skills relative to males, appearing in infancy, suggesting biological roots; however, male and female infants may be treated differently, potentially causing or amplifying sex differences. Here, we tested whether sex differences in social motivation emerge in infant monkeys (n?=?48) reared in a controlled postnatal environment. Compared to males, females at 2-3 weeks looked more at conspecifics' faces (d?=?0.65), especially the eyes (d?=?1.09), and at 4-5 weeks exhibited more affiliative behaviors (d?=?0.64), including gesturing, looking, and proximity to familiar and unfamiliar human caretakers. In sum, converging evidence from humans and monkeys suggests that female infants are more social than males in the first weeks of life, and that such differences may arise independent of postnatal experience. Individual differences in social interest have wide-ranging developmental consequences, impacting infants' social interaction quality and opportunities for learning. Understanding the evolution of sex differences and their developmental emergence is necessary to best support infants with varying levels of sociality. PMID:26794858

  17. Effects of gonadal steroids and of estrogen receptor agonists on the expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the medial preoptic nucleus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S I; Madeira, M D; Sá, S I

    2015-12-01

    The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) is a sexually dimorphic cell group of the medial preoptic area that plays a central role in the integration of olfactory and hormonal stimuli that modulate sexually differentiated behaviors. The influence of sex steroids in these behaviors is mediated through activation of estrogen receptors (ERs), which are highly expressed in this nucleus. Little is known about the effects of progesterone (P) or the selective activation of each ER subtype on the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) in the MPN of female rats. We have addressed this subject in the current investigation by estimating, using stereological tools, the total number of MPN neurons that express ER? in rats at each phase of the estrous cycle and in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol benzoate (EB), P or the ER?- and estrogen receptor beta (ER?)-specific agonists. Results show that the total number of ER?-immunoreactive neurons does not change over the estrous cycle, except at proestrus when the number is reduced. A similar effect was observed after the administration of EB, but not of P. Results also show that the estradiol-induced down-regulation of the ER? is mediated by activation of both ER subtypes, and that ER? activation leads to a reduction in the total number of ER?-immunoreactive neurons that is twice that resulting from ER? activation. Present data suggest that ER? activation triggers a sort of negative feedback mechanism in MPN neurons that reduces its own expression, which might be of importance for the regulation of estradiol-dependent physiological and behavioral responses. PMID:26384964

  18. 'To put men in a bottle' : Eroticism, Kinship, Female Power and Transactional Sex in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of eroticism, kinship and gender in transactional sexual relationships between young women called curtidoras and older white men in Maputo. I draw on postcolonial feminism to argue that curtidoras’ erotic powers are a central part of sexual-economic exchanges with men and that senior female kin are deeply involved in processes of seduction and extraction of money. Relationships between curtidoras, female kin and male partners are conceptualized as “gendered triads of reciprocity" in order to unsettle Western stereotypes of female victims and patriarchal structures in Africa. Transactional sex often makes the partners mutually dependent and emotionally vulnerable and although moralities of exchange collide, young women tend to redistribute accumulated money from men among female seniors and kin.

  19. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 ?g), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 ?g), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy metabolism, whereas combined creatine and sex steroids acted in a neuroprotective manner in gonadectomized rats, potentially by reducing metabolic complications associated with castration or ovariectomy. PMID:25560941

  20. Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border

    OpenAIRE

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on l...

  1. Cisgender male and transgender female sex workers in South Africa: gender variant identities and narratives of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work. PMID:26242843

  2. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  3. Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Roberta Pati, Pascom; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald; Aristides, Barbosa Júnior.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. METHODS: The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilis [...] tic or convenience). RESULTS: We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not adequate to estimate HIV prevalence rate in 35 studies. DISCUSSION: The use of convenience sample limits statistical inference for the whole group. It was observed that there was an increase in the number of published studies since 2005, as well as in the number of studies that used probabilistic samples. This represents a large advance in the monitoring of risk behavior practices and HIV prevalence rate in this group.

  4. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be partly due to a common dependence on this memory system. More generally, because declarative memory is well studied at many levels, evidence that music cognition depends on this system may lead to a powerful research program generating a wide range of novel predictions for the neurocognition of music, potentially advancing the field. PMID:26973574

  5. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee; Koopman, Peter

    differentiated into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act......Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable...... for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX...

  6. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Alexis M.; Hensel, Devon J; FORTENBERRY, J. DENNIS; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated meas...

  7. HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung Nam; Detels, Roger; Long, Hoang Thuy; Van Phung, Le; Lan, Hoang Phuong

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%, syphilis 17% (using the treponemal pallidum...

  8. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Clusterin Expression and Paclitaxel Resistance in Endometrial Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Sung Won, Sung Jong Lee, Seung Geun Yeo, Dong Choon Park

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We have analyzed the association between clusterin expression in endometrial cancer cells and their resistance to paclitaxel. We also analyzed whether the effects of female sex hormones on clusterin expression by these cell lines affect their resistance to paclitaxel. Methods: The expression of estrogen receptors ? and ?, progesterone receptors AB and B, and clusterin mRNA and protein was assayed in the ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and Western blo...

  9. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Clusterin Expression and Paclitaxel Resistance in Endometrial Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jong; Yeo, Seung Geun; Park, Dong Choon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We have analyzed the association between clusterin expression in endometrial cancer cells and their resistance to paclitaxel. We also analyzed whether the effects of female sex hormones on clusterin expression by these cell lines affect their resistance to paclitaxel. Methods: The expression of estrogen receptors ? and ?, progesterone receptors AB and B, and clusterin mRNA and protein was assayed in the ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and Western blotting, res...

  10. Psychometric Utility of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire with Female Street-Based Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Cherie L.; Cleland, Charles; Rosenblum, Andrew; Fong, Chunki; Nuttbrock, Larry; Marthol, Marie; Wallace, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties of a verbal, face-to-face administration of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) with female street-based sex workers (N = 171). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated a poor fit between our data and the instrument’s established 5-factor structure. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded four stable and usable factors corresponding to the Emotional Abuse, Emotional Neglect, Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ...

  11. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevent...

  12. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants...

  13. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Is Associated with HIV Acquisition among South African Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Auvert; Dianne Marais; Pascale Lissouba; Kevin Zarca; Gita Ramjee; Anna-Lise Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mounting evidence suggests an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV acquisition. This study aimed to explore this association among South African female sex workers (FSWs). Methods. We used data from 88 HIV-negative FSWs who participated in a vaginal gel (COL-1492) trial. Cervicovaginal rinse samples, obtained before HIV-seroconversion, were genotyped into high-risk (HR-) and low-risk (LR-) HPV. HIV-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) w...

  14. Partners and Clients of Female Sex Workers in an Informal Urban Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric Abella

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers (FSWs) and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among FSWs compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that FSWs with a romantic pa...

  15. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; MUGO, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S.; Jennifer S. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information ...

  16. Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Aude Boislard P.; Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck

    2011-01-01

    Sexual subjectivity (SS) includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, ...

  17. Social and Cultural Contexts of HIV Risk Behaviors among Thai Female Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs ...

  18. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Predictors for Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; SUN, XINHUA; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; VERMUND, STEN H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Weste...

  19. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    van Teijlingen Edwin R; Smith W; Ghimire Laxmi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This s...

  20. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ?2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for two age cohorts of female Cooper's hawks in Wisconsin. PMID:26445658

  1. Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO-PAES J. T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

  2. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Sian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

  3. The Extent and Nature of Fluidity in Typologies of Female Sex Work in Southern India: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anrudh K.; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    These authors examine the nature and extent of fluidity in defining the typology of female sex work based on the place of solicitation or place of sex or both places together, and whether sex workers belonging to a particular typology are at increased risk of HIV in southern India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted during 2007–2008 among mobile female sex workers (N = 5301) in four Indian states. Findings from this study address an important policy issue: Should programma...

  4. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  5. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Marcelle Deschamps

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI (1.8-9.0] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial.

  6. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Metch, Barbara; Madenwald, Tamra; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; Perez, Marta; Escamilia, Gina; Swann, Edith; Pape, Jean William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009–2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. Results HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8–9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3–1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. Conclusions This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. PMID:24096973

  7. Sex-specific visual performance: female lizards outperform males in motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Saúl S; Conway, Mirela; Martins, Emília P

    2009-12-23

    In animal communication, complex displays usually have multiple functions and, male and female receivers often differ in their utilization and response to different aspects of these displays. The perceptual variability hypothesis suggests that different aspects of complex signals differ in their ability to be detected and processed by different receivers. Here, we tested whether receiver male and female Sceloporus graciosus lizards differ in visual motion detection by measuring the latency to the visual grasp response to a motion stimulus. We demonstrate that in lizards that largely exhibit complex motions as courtship signals, female lizards are faster than males at visually detecting motion. These results highlight that differential signal utilization by the sexes may be driven by variability in the capacity to detect different display properties. PMID:19656865

  8. Similarities and Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Young Black MSM Who Do and Do Not Have Sex with Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica; Hickson, DeMarc

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether young Black MSM who also have sex with females report similar levels of sexual risk behaviors as those not having sex with females. YBMSM (N = 400) were recruited from an STI clinic, located in the Southern U.S. Men completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview and donated specimens for STI/HIV testing. Forty-three percent recently engaged in penile-vaginal sex. They were less likely to report having concurrent partners (P = .01), unprotected fellatio (P = .04), multiple partners as a bottom (P sex as a bottom (P sex (P = .007). They were equally likely to report favorable attitudes toward serosorting (P = .80), multiple male partners as a top (P = .20), unprotected anal insertive sex with males (P = .15). Frequency of sex with males as a top (P = .61) or bottom (P = .61) did not differ. Compared to YBMSM not having sex with females, those having sex with females may be exercising greater caution. PMID:26547716

  9. Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Thomas L Patterson; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest ...

  11. Female Fertilization: Effects of Sex-Specific Density and Sex Ratio Determined Experimentally for Colorado Potato Beetles and Drosophila Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Vahl, Wouter K.; Boiteau, Gilles; de Heij, Maaike E; MacKinley, Pamela D.; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    If males and females affect reproduction differentially, understanding and predicting sexual reproduction requires specification of response surfaces, that is, two-dimensional functions that relate reproduction to the (numeric) densities of both sexes. Aiming at rigorous measurement of female per capita fertilization response surfaces, we conducted a multifactorial experiment and reanalyzed an extensive data set. In our experiment, we varied the density of male and female Leptinotarsa decemli...

  12. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex : female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  13. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, André Ramos; Martelini, André Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This study’s objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, G’r and G”r had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; G’r (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and G”r (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469

  14. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Janet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters might be important in predisposing women to condom breakage.

  15. A Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Structural and Environmental Influences on Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Alfonso; Morisky, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    This study uses multilevel analysis to examine individual, organizational and community levels of influence on condom use among female commercial sex workers (FSW) in the Philippines. A randomized controlled study involving 1,382 female commercial sex workers assigned to three intervention groups consisting of peer education, managerial training, combined peer and managerial intervention and a usual care control group was conducted. The results of the multilevel analysis show that FSWs who wo...

  16. Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)

    OpenAIRE

    Vioque, J; Hernandez-Aguado, I.; Fernandez, G.; d Garcia,; Alvarez-Dardet, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before Decembe...

  17. The sex difference in tumor incidence is related to the female condition: models for Europe and Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Benigni, R; Giaimo, R.; Matranga, D.; Giuliani, A.

    2001-01-01

    A remarkable aspect of cancer distribution in Europe is the large spatial variability of the male-female incidence ratio, from no difference up to 50%. Given the evidence of the predominantly environmental origin of cancer, we studied the ability of a set of socioeconomic indicators of the female condition to model the spatial variability of the sex difference in tumor incidence at two different scales: between countries (Europe) and between provinces (Italy). The sex difference in tumor inci...

  18. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    OpenAIRE

    Medhi Gajendra; Mahanta Jagadish; Kermode Michelle; Paranjape Ramesh S; Adhikary Rajatashuvra; Phukan Sanjib; Ngully P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland...

  19. Social Environmental factors and condom use among female injection drug users who are sex workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jing; Bai, Yu; Lau, Joseph TF; Hao, Yuantao; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Runan; Yu, Chengpu

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the social environmental forces faced by females involved in both injection drug use and sex work, and their associations with condom use during commercial sex, 200 participants were recruited using snowball sampling methods in Liuzhou, China. Of the participants, 41.0% used condoms consistently during commercial sex in the last six months. Adjusting for significant background variables, factors significantly associated with consistent condom use included: monthly incom...

  20. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Shane P.; Shira M. Goldenberg; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are current...

  1. Control of Drosophila Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing by its own female-specific product.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, H.; Inoue, K.; Higuchi, I.; Ono, Y.; Shimura, Y

    1992-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster somatic sexual differentiation is accomplished by serial function of the products of sex-determination genes. Sex-lethal (Sxl), is one such gene. It is functionally expressed only in female flies. The sex-specific expression of this gene is regulated by alternative mRNA splicing which results in either the inclusion or exclusion of the translation stop codon containing third exon. Although previous genetic and molecular analyses suggest that functional Sxl expression i...

  2. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984

  3. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal gonads showed typical testicular size and vasculature. Key ovarian markers, including Wnt4 and Foxl2, were repressed. Sertoli cells expressing the hallmark testis-determining gene Sox9 were formed, although they did not assemble into normal testis cords. Other bipotential lineages differentiated into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans.

  4. Flow cytometric sexing of spider sperm reveals an equal sperm production ratio in a female-biased species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Deswarte, K

    2014-01-01

    Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia results in a female bias. However, pedigree analysis reveals that other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female-determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species.

  5. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. PMID:26307144

  6. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Brenda Y; Vu Nguyen Thuong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW) in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women ...

  7. Depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among female sex workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; FANG, XIAOYI; Zhao, Ran

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among 278 female sex workers (FSW) in Guangxi, China. About 62% of these FSW had a high level of depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ? 16). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that FSW with high level of depressive symptoms were less likely to use condoms consistently (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.89) or use condoms properly (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.20–0.99). The findings suggested that HIV ...

  8. A Histone Methyltransferase Is Required for Maximal Response to Female Sex Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, Tobias; KIM, KEUN-CHEOL; Yang, Xiao-hong; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-kun; Huang, Shi

    2004-01-01

    RIZ1 is an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator but is also a histone lysine methyltransferase that methylates lysine 9 of histone H3, an activity known to repress transcription. We show here that target organs of mice deficient in RIZ1 exhibit decreased response to female sex hormones. RIZ1 interacted with SRC1 and p300, suggesting that the coactivator function of RIZ1 may be mediated by its interaction with other transcriptional coactivators. In the presence of estrogen, RIZ1 binding to estro...

  9. Male Use of Female Sex Work in India: A Nationally Representative Behavioural Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffey, Michelle F; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Dhingra, Neeraj; Khera, Ajay; Kumar, Rajesh; Arora, Paul; Nagelkerke, Nico; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV in India is driven by the male use of female sex workers (FSW), but few studies have examined the factors associated with using FSW. This nationally representative study examined the prevalence and correlates of FSW use among 31,040 men aged 15–49 years in India in 2006. Nationally, about 4% of men used FSW in the previous year, representing about 8.5 million FSW clients. Unmarried men were far more likely than married men to use FSW overall (PR?=?8.0), but le...

  10. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Malay K. Mridha; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSW...

  11. Molecular biology of the honey bee : Complementary sex determination and female caste development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlying complementary sex determination remain an unresolved pussle and the link between dietary differences and female phenopypic plasticity has yet to be indentified. In the present PhD projekt different aspects of both types of development was explored using a combination of high throughourt sequencing and functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development

  12. Barriers to Utilisation of Sexual Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi Ghimire; Edwin van Teijlingen

    2009-01-01

     Sexual health services are relatively rare in Nepal.  Female sex workers (FSWs) do not use health services as much as would be desirable. A study was conducted to identify barriers to access of sexual health services by FSWs in Nepal. A mixed-method approach consisting of a 425 questionnaire-based survey and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007.One fifth of the FSWs had never visited health facilities. FSWs turned to private clinics followed by clinics belonging to non-governmental ...

  13. Attraction and Sex Symbol of Males in the Eyes of Malaysian Male-to-Female Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Male-to-female transsexual issues, especially their sexual orientation, has become complicated due to their tendency to regard themselves as women, and are exclusively attracted to men. This paper explores one group in male-to-female transsexuals, which is homosexual transsexuals, and their attraction towards homosexual and heterosexual men. The objective of this paper is to identify aspects of sexual attraction in the body or nature of the men that attract homosexual transsexuals to develop romantic relationship with them. Qualitative methods were used in gathering the data. This includes in-depth interviews that have been carried out on six homosexual transsexuals, which were selected using purposive and snowball sampling. The location of the fieldwork was Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The result shows that facial appearance, specific body parts such as chest, calves and buttocks, and specific social behaviors, especially caring and affectionate, have been regarded as men’s sex symbols.

  14. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

  15. Sex and Condom Use in a Large Jail Unit for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Male-to-Female Transgenders

    OpenAIRE

    Harawa, Nina T; Sweat, Jeffery; George, Sheba; Sylla, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on factors contributing to sexual activity and condom use in custody settings, particularly among self-identified sexual minority prisoners. To address this gap, we undertook a study of sexual behavior and condom use of 101 randomly-selected men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender inmates in a segregated Los Angeles jail unit that has weekly condom access. Most survey participants (53%) reported anal sex during custody. Although 65% of these repor...

  16. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  17. Ovarian steroids alter dopamine receptor populations in the medial preoptic area of female rats: implications for sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Gardner Gregory, James; Hussain, Dema; Brake, Wayne G; Pfaus, James G

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) plays a critical role in the control of appetitive sexual behaviour in the female rat. We have shown previously that a DA D1 receptor (D1R)-mediated excitatory state appears to occur in females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P), whereas a DA D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibitory state appears to occur in females primed only with EB. The present experiment employed three techniques to better understand what changes occur to DA receptors (DARs) in the mPOA under different hormonal profiles. Ovariectomized females were randomly assigned to one of three steroid treatment groups: EB + P (10 and 500 ?g, respectively), EB + Oil, or the control (Oil + Oil), with hormone injections administered at 48 and 4 h prior to euthanizing. First, the number of neurons in the mPOA that contained D1R or D2R was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Second, the mPOA and two control areas (the prelimbic cortex and caudate putamen) were analysed for DAR protein levels using western blot, and DAR functional binding levels using autoradiography. Ovarian steroid hormones affected the two DAR subtypes in opposite ways in the mPOA. All three techniques supported previous behavioural findings that females primed with EB have a lower D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D2R-mediated system, and females primed with EB + P have a higher D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D1R-mediated system. This provides strong evidence for a DA-driven pathway of female sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour that is modified by different hormone priming regimens. PMID:26536143

  18. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  19. Menstrual cycle, sex hormones in female inflammatory bowel disease patients with and without surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Kulkarni, Geeta; Shen, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Healthy women at reproductive age experience a cyclical alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology during their menstrual cycle. Additionally, the majority of healthy women also complain of worsening of GI symptoms either during the premenstrual or menstrual phase. Despite conflicting evidence, studies suggest that sex hormones may increase GI transit time during the luteal phase. Similar phenomenon is also observed in women with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism underlying this complex pathophysiology is still not completely understood. However, a possible influence of sex hormones on the brain-gut-microbiota axis is hypothesized. The diagnosis of IBD is associated with a delay in menarche as well as menstrual function irregularities including alterations in cycle length and the duration of flow. There is little data on the effect of menopause on IBD disease activity and conflicting data on the effect of IBD diagnosis on the onset of menopause. The role of contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies on the development or disease activity of IBD has not been yet established. Moreover, IBD patients with concomitant dysmenorrhea report heightened pain during menses. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in treating primary dysmenorrhea on the disease course of IBD is unknown. In addition, the effect of IBD medications including immunomodulators and biologics on menstrual function remains unclear. Also, the role of IBD surgery on menstrual irregularities needs to be fully elucidated. Hence, understanding the influence of menstrual function on IBD disease activity and vice versa and the maintenance of normal menstrual function in those patients is important in improving overall reproductive health and fertility and outcome of IBD. PMID:25851437

  20. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  1. Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-10-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid hormone receptors are still poorly understood in amphibians and reptiles. Given our interest in environmental signaling of sex determination as well as a major interest in environmental contaminants that can mimic steroid hormone signaling, we have established an approach to study the molecular function (ligand binding and trans-activation) of steroid hormone receptors cloned from reptiles. This approach involves molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors, phylogenic analysis and in vitro trans-activation assays using endogenous or exogenous ligands. Comparing the in vitro trans-activation induced by different ligands with receptors cloned from different species would develop additional functional relationships (classification) among steroid hormone receptors. This approach can provide insight into understanding why each species could have different responses to exogenous ligands. Further, we have developed a novel and less invasive approach to obtaining mRNA for molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors in reptiles and other non-mammalian species, using blood cells as a source of genetic material. For example, white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the American alligator both express steroid hormone receptors and have adequate amounts of mRNA for molecular cloning. This approach would allow us to analyze components of endocrine function of steroid hormones without sacrificing animals. Especially in endangered species, this approach could provide an understanding of endocrine functions, elucidate the phylogenic relationships of various receptors in vitro, such as the steroid hormone receptors, and determine possible effects of environmental contaminants in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:21669814

  2. Safety and Adherence to Intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mutua, G; Sanders, E.; Mugo, P; Anzala, O; Haberer, JE; Bangsberg, D; Barin, B.; Rooney, JF; Mark, D.; Chetty, P; Fast, P; Priddy, FH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose p...

  3. A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    YI, HUSO; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; ZENG, JING; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-01-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk ...

  4. Sex and Condom Use in a Large Jail Unit for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Male-to-Female Transgenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T.; Sweat, Jeffery; George, Sheba; Sylla, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Few data are available on factors contributing to sexual activity and condom use in custody settings, particularly among self-identified sexual minority prisoners. To address this gap, we undertook a study of sexual behavior and condom use of 101 randomly-selected men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender inmates in a segregated Los Angeles jail unit that has weekly condom access. Most survey participants (53%) reported anal sex during custody. Although 65% of these reported using condoms, 75% also reported having sex without condoms. Qualitative interviews (n=17) indicate a wide range of reasons for participating in protected and unprotected sex during custody, the use of cues within the custody environment to assess potential partners’ HIV status, and support for increased condom availability. Findings also indicate that high-risk sex occurs frequently in this unit and that condom distribution likely prevents a substantial amount of related HIV/STD risk. PMID:20693745

  5. Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo?an, Ana Marija

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities. PMID:21774603

  6. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  7. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

  8. Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in a Prospective Nairobi-Based Female Sex Worker Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Lyle R; Izulla, Preston; Nagelkerke, Nico; Munyao, Julius; Wanjiru, Tabitha; Shaw, Souradet Y; Gichuki, Richard; Kariuki, Cecilia; Muriuki, Festus; Musyoki, Helgar; Gakii, Gloria; Gelmon, Lawrence; Kaul, Rupert; Kimani, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    With two million new HIV infections annually, ongoing investigations of risk factors for HIV acquisition is critical to guide ongoing HIV prevention efforts. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of HIV uninfected female sex workers enrolled at an HIV prevention clinic in Nairobi (n = 1640). In the initially HIV uninfected cohort (70 %), we observed 34 HIV infections during 1514 person-years of follow-up, i.e. an annual incidence of 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.6-3.1 %). In multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, HIV acquisition was associated with a shorter baseline duration of sex work (aHR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.63-0.91), minimum charge/sex act (aHR 2.74, 0.82-9.15, for low vs. intermediate; aHR 5.70, 1.96-16.59, for high vs. intermediate), N. gonorrhoeae infection (aAHR 5.89, 95 % CI 2.03-17.08), sex with casual clients during menses (aHR 6.19, 95 % CI 2.58-14.84), Depo Provera use (aHR 5.12, 95 % CI 1.98-13.22), and estimated number of annual unprotected regular partner contacts (aHR 1.004, 95 % CI 1.001-1.006). Risk profiling based on baseline predictors suggested that substantial heterogeneity in HIV risk is evident, even within a key population. These data highlight several risk factors for HIV acquisition that could help to re-focus HIV prevention messages. PMID:26091706

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degenhardt Louisa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. Results All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

  11. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  12. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G; Christensen, I J; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    1982-01-01

    develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early...

  13. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions. PMID:21667231

  14. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.

  15. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El?bieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  16. Age and Ovariectomy Abolish Beneficial Effects of Female Sex on Rat Ventricular Myocytes Exposed to Simulated Ischemia and Reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jenna L.; Howlett, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in responses to myocardial ischemia have been described, but whether cardiomyocyte function is influenced by sex in the setting of ischemia and reperfusion has not been elucidated. This study compared contractions and intracellular Ca2+ in isolated ventricular myocytes exposed to ischemia and reperfusion. Cells were isolated from anesthetized 3-month-old male and female Fischer 344 rats, paced at 4 Hz (37°C), exposed to simulated ischemia (20 mins) and reperfused. Cell shorten...

  17. Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenship, Kim M; Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statist...

  18. Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue

    OpenAIRE

    Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

    2014-01-01

    We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle an...

  19. Sex allocation in fungus-growing ants: worker or queen control without symbiont-induced female bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2008-01-01

    The fungal cultivars of fungus-growing ants are vertically transmitted by queens but not males. Selection would therefore favor cultivars that bias the ants' sex ratio towards gynes, beyond the gyne bias that is optimal for workers and queens. We measured sex allocation in 190 colonies of six sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonie...

  20. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lianne A. Urada; Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education ...

  1. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  2. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Marlise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases. Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P?=?0.075. Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period.

  3. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  4. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, K.; P Seoka; S. Raphala

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS trans...

  5. Oral sex practices, oral human papillomavirus and correlations between oral and cervical human papillomavirus prevalence among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N

    2015-01-01

    Summary Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18–26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women. PMID:22096051

  6. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong; Meng, Siying; Tang, Xiaojun; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs) are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100) and immediately following (n = 112) the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001). Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001), there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use. PMID:25602971

  7. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100 and immediately following (n = 112 the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001. Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001, there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use.

  8. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  9. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

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    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ? 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  10. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18–26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60–0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:22581946

  11. Barriers of condom use among female sex workers in Tehran, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Malery khah Langeroudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aim: In Iran, HIV prevalence in sex workers is reaching to an epidemic, but still consistent use of condoms is low. This qualitative study aimed to assess barriers to condom use in female sex workers (FSWs.   Materials and Methods: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 40 FSWs and 12 partners in the year 2010 in Tehran. The FSWs were purposefully selected from four different groups based on the level of socioeconomic status and history of using substance. Findings were extracted and coded manually and the responses of the groups were categorized and compared.   Results: Almost all FSWs had not used condoms regularly in the past six months. The main barriers of condom use were: lack of awareness of the modes of transmission of HIV and prognosis of the disease, doubt on the role of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, fear of violence or rejection by male customers, reluctance of sexual partners to use condoms due to diminution of sexual pleasure, and believing in health of some customers.   Conclusions: Increasing awareness of the FSWs through education about HIV, ways to prevent the disease and empowering them on negotiating skills to use condoms as part of harm reduction programs are recommended .

  12. Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. T., RIBEIRO-PAES; V., RODRIGUES.

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas do gênero Schistosoma situam-se entre os primeiros metazoários que desenvolveram sexos separados, determinado cromossomicamente no ovo fertilizado. Apesar da ocorrência de cromossomos sexuais específicos, as fêmeas de Schistosoma não atingem a maturidade somática e sexual sem a presença [...] dos machos. Na verdade, um dos aspectos mais controversos e, ao mesmo tempo, mais fascinantes, envolvendo o desenvolvimento sexual das fêmeas está em se desvendar a natureza do estímulo que controla e mantém tal processo. Muito embora a natureza do estímulo (físico ou químico) seja motivo de controvérsia, concordam os mais diferentes autores que o acasalamento é um requisito indispensável para que ocorra a maturação e migração das fêmeas para o sítio definitivo de permanência no sistema vascular do hospedeiro vertebrado. Admite-se, ainda, que o estímulo não é espécie-específico e, em alguns casos, nem mesmo gênero-específico. Não obstante a existência de um número considerável de artigos dedicados ao tema, não há um consenso sobre o processo (ou processos) que controla(m) o encontro de machos e fêmeas no sistema circulatório do hospedeiro vertebrado, bem como está por ser determinada a natureza do estímulo, oriundo dos machos, que controla e mantém o desenvolvimento somático e sexual das fêmeas. Ao longo dos anos os machos de Schistosoma têm sido considerados, por vezes pejorativamente, os irmãos, os músculos ou o fígado das fêmeas. Em síntese, resta saber se a natureza do estímulo responsável pelo desenvolvimento das fêmas envolve a transferência de hormônios, nutrientes, a mera estimulação tátil ou a combinação de dois ou mais desses fatores Abstract in english Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach n [...] o sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical) is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

  13. Sex differences in time trends of colorectal cancer in England and Wales: the possible effect of female hormonal factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Differences between the sexes in time trends of colorectal cancer incidence 1962-87 and mortality 1960-91 in England and Wales are examined in relation to changes in female hormonal factors. There was a trend in the sex ratio of this tumour, particularly marked for the descending colon, whereby the female excess in risk at young ages has almost disappeared but the male excess at older ages has increased. This trend started for cohorts born since the 1920s and coincided with the increase in th...

  14. Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Daniel S; Cline, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila master sex-determination switch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), was thought to elicit all aspects of female-specific somatic differentiation other than size dimorphism by acting on the gene transformer (tra) alone. Here we show that at least one aspect of Drosophila female-specific behavior, ovulation, is controlled by Sxl acting developmentally on some target(s) other than tra in a small subset of neurons in which, surprisingly, the tra target gene fruitless may function also. This mi...

  15. Silent killers of the night: an exploration of psychological health and suicidality among female street sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Davina C; Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor A; Gray, Sister Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article examines factors that relate to psychological health (as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument) as well as suicide attempts among female street sex workers (FSSWs) in Hong Kong. On average, our sampled FSSWs scored significantly lower on the psychological health domain in comparison to the general Hong Kong female population. Factors associated with the working environment in the sex industry were significantly associated with poor psychological health and suicidality. Greater attention is needed to examine the physical and emotional harm intrinsic to certain occupations and the role of financial needs in the experience of psychological stress. PMID:17541848

  16. Sex allocation in fungus-growing ants: worker or queen control without symbiont-induced female bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2008-01-01

    sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonies tended to raise mainly a single sex, which could be partly explained by variation in queen number......, colony fecundity, and fungal garden volume for Acromyrmex and Sericomyrmex, but not for Trachymyrmex. Year of collection, worker number and mating frequency of Acromyrmex queens did not affect the colony sex ratios. We used a novel sensitivity analysis to compare the population sex allocation ratios with...

  17. Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

  18. Changes in circulating LH, sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and corticosterone in relation to breeding and molting in captive humboldt penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti) kept in an outdoor open display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, R; Aoki, K; Hori, H; Wada, M

    1998-02-01

    Penguins are highly adapted to marine life. Their hydrodynamic efficiency depends on feathers which wear with age and need to be replaced regularly. During molting, penguins can not enter the sea to forage and are forced to fast. Therefore the duration of molting is necessarily brief. To better understand molting in penguins, we collected plasma samples from 16 (8 pairs) Humboldt penguins kept in an open display pen at Tokyo Sea Life Park from May to September, 1994 and estimated circulating concentrations of LH, testosterone, estradiol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone. Body mass was also measured at each blood sampling. Throughout the year, reproductive activities (egg laying, incubation, hatching and rearing) and molting were observed and recorded. Humboldt penguins maintained reproductive activity from January to December except during molting. Each pair started molting between the end of July and early August; usually males started earlier. The duration of molting was 13.4 +/- 0.8 days for males and 12.9 +/- 0.3 days for females. Body masses were highest just before the start of molting in both sexes. Plasma concentrations of LH were high, (> 2 ng/ml) in May in both sexes, then gradually decreased, to 0.53 +/- 0.38 ng/ml in males and 0.72 +/- 0.11 ng/ml in females by the end of July. Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in plasma decreased and were lowest during molting. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of T4 were low until early July (ca. 20 ng/ml) and then doubled within 10 days; the high levels were maintained for one month and then decreased greatly in males and slightly in females. When the plasma concentrations of T4 started to decrease, plasma concentrations of LH increased. Changes in plasma T3 were not consistent with molting. These results indicate that the decrease of plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and the sharp increase of T4 induced molting, which lasted only for a short period. PMID:9615622

  19. Homofarnesals: female sex attractant pheromone components of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kenji; Nojima, Satoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2008-04-01

    The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of stored legumes in warm temperate and tropical climates. The female sex attractant pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from containers that housed virgin females. The extracts were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active components in the fractions were screened by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis with male antennae. Two compounds that elicited electrophysiological responses were isolated, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and micro-chemical analyses suggested that the active compounds were homofarnesals, (2Z,6E)- and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienals. Males of C. chinensis were significantly attracted to filter paper discs loaded with the synthetic compounds at 0.01-0.1 ng compared to solvent control in a Y-tube olfactometer assay. These pheromone components represent unique chemical structures within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:18351422

  20. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  1. Sex Differences in (+)-Amphetamine- and (+)-Methamphetamine-induced Behavioral Response in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; McMillan, Donald E.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Byrnes-Blake, Kelly A.; Owens, S Michael

    2007-01-01

    (+)-Methamphetamine (METH) and (+)-amphetamine (AMP) are structurally similar drugs that are reported to induce similar pharmacological effects in rats of the same sex. Because pharmacokinetic data suggest female rats should be more affected than males, the current studies sought to test the hypothesis that the behavioral and temporal actions of METH and AMP should be greater in female Sprague-Dawley rats than in males. Using a dosing regimen designed to reduce the possibility of tolerance an...

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. Methods FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs) were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence. Results The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%), physical (11.8%), economic (16.9%), and any violence (22.6%). Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs’ alcohol use score (AUDIT-C) was associated with economic violence only. Conclusions Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients), enhancement of FSWs’ community-based supports, development of interventions that deliver an anti-violence curriculum to clients, and programs to address FSWs’ financial need by increasing their economic opportunities outside of the sex trade. PMID:26599083

  3. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. PMID:25963301

  4. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  5. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  6. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten; Hause, Gerd; Otte, Marianne; Beye, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene...

  7. Mating behavior of Aphomia sociella - evidence for close range female sex pheromone that triggers ultrasound production in males.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroš, Pavel; Kindl, Ji?í; Kalinová, Blanka; Valterová, Irena

    Tours : International Society of Chemical Ecology, 2010. s. 217-217. [International Society of Chemical Ecology. Annual Meeting /26./. 31.07.2010-04.08.2010, Tours] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : parasite * female sex pheromone * bumble bee wax moth Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

  9. Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.

  10. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  11. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use. PMID:25315353

  12. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rafful, Claudia M.; Um, Mee Young; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs. Results Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1) characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2) characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs), including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3) characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4) characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization’s central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5) outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention. Conclusions Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected. PMID:26517265

  13. Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Euser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

  14. A Female-Specific Lethal Lesion in an X-Linked Positive Regulator of the Drosophila Sex Determination Gene, SEX-LETHAL

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization of a partial-loss-of-function, female-specific lethal mutation has identified an X-linked genetic element ( 1-34.3; 10B4) that functions as a positive regulator of Sxl, a central gene controlling sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster . The name, sisterless-a, was chosen both to suggest functional similarities that exist between this gene and another positive regulator of Sxl, the maternally acting gene daughterless (da), and also to highlight an important difference; ...

  15. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. PMID:25941053

  16. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

  17. Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    McPhie-Lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY− females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY−Sry males (testes-be...

  18. The metabolism of ecdysone and its putative role as the female sex - pheromone in the green shore crab carcinus maenas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, F

    1981-01-01

    Both male and female crabs excrete large amounts of ecdysteroids and related metabolites during all major stages of the molting cycle. A sex-specific pattern in the metabolic pathways could not be established. These findings contradict the hypothesis that ecdysone functions as the female sex pheromone.

  19. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development. PMID:25855011

  20. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-03-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work. PMID:26477781

  1. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  2. Estimation of the Number of Female Sex Workers in Yangon and Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Si Thu; Aung, Tin; McFarland, Willi

    2015-10-01

    While it is known that HIV prevalence is higher among key affected populations, such as female sex workers (FSW), the sizes of these populations are difficult to estimate. This study aimed to estimate the numbers of FSW in the two largest cities of Myanmar using multiple data-driven methods. A total of 778 FSW (450 in Yangon, 328 in Mandalay) were recruited though time-location sampling during November and December 2013. Five multiplier methods and a modified wisdom of the crowds method were applied within the surveys to calculate the number of FSW in each city. The median of the methods estimated a population size of FSW in Yangon at 4992 (acceptable upper and lower bounds: 4482-5753) and 3315 (2992-3368) in Mandalay. These estimates translate to a population prevalence of FSW among adult women (age 18-49 years) of 0.35 % (0.32-0.40 %) in Yangon and 0.77 % (0.69-0.84 %) in Mandalay. PMID:26267254

  3. HIV infection and related risk behaviours among female sex workers in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbash, I A; Abdul-Rahman, I; Shehata, Y A; Omar, A A R

    2012-09-01

    Although illegal in Egypt, prostitution exists. The prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Cairo is not precisely known. This cross-sectional study investigated the high-risk behaviour for HIV infection and HIV prevalence among FSWs in greater Cairo. A total of 431 FSWs were interviewed about their sexual history with paid and unpaid partners, condom use and risky behaviour for HIV infection; all were tested for HIV. Use of alcohol and drugs was reported by 39.9% and 49.0% of the women respectively; 37.6% only used such substances while with a client. Male condoms were known by 72.6% but their use in the previous month was low (32.8%) and only 22.4% had used one with their last client. The main reasons for not using condoms were not thinking of it (40.6%) and client refusal (20.5%). All the women tested negative for HIV infection. The high-risk behaviour of many FSWs necessitates intervention programmes to reduce their risk of HIV infection. PMID:23057384

  4. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethwala Nimisha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

  5. Ample Evidence: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Conversion into Activated Steroid Hormones Occurs in Adrenal and Ovary in Female Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yingqiao; Kang, Jian; Chen, Di; Han, Ningning; Ma, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is important for human health, especially for women. All estrogens and practically half of androgens are synthesized from DHEA in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism and exact target tissues of DHEA biotransformation in the female are not fully clear. The present study showed that maximal content of androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were observed at 3h after DHEA administration in female rats, which was 264% and 8000% above the control, respectivel...

  6. Female Choice or Male Sex Drive? The Advantages of Male Body Size during Mating in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Shah, Ushma; Chakrabarti, Debarti; Singh, Rama S.

    2015-01-01

    The mating success of larger male Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory and the wild has been traditionally been explained by female choice, even though the reasons are generally hard to reconcile. Female choice can explain this success by virtue of females taking less time to mate with preferred males, but so can the more aggressive or persistent courtships efforts of large males. Since mating is a negotiation between the two sexes, the behaviors of both are likely to interact and influence mating outcomes. Using a series of assays, we explored these negotiations by testing for the relative influence of male behaviors and its effect on influencing female courtship arousal threshold, which is the time taken for females to accept copulation. Our results show that large males indeed have higher copulation success compared to smaller males. Competition between two males or an increasing number of males had no influence on female sexual arousal threshold;—females therefore may have a relatively fixed ‘arousal threshold’ that must be reached before they are ready to mate, and larger males appear to be able to manipulate this threshold sooner. On the other hand, the females’ physiological and behavioral state drastically influences mating; once females have crossed the courtship arousal threshold they take less time to mate and mate indiscriminately with large and small males. Mating quicker with larger males may be misconstrued to be due to female choice; our results suggest that the mating advantage of larger males may be more a result of heightened male activity and relatively less of female choice. Body size per se may not be a trait under selection by female choice, but size likely amplifies male activity and signal outputs in courtship, allowing them to influence female arousal threshold faster. PMID:26658421

  7. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates letrozole induced downregulation of postsynaptic protein PSD-95 in the hippocampus of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengying; Huangfu, Xuhong; Zhao, Yangang; Zhang, Dongmei; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Hippocampus local estrogen which is converted from androgen that catalyzed by aromatase has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of learning and memory as well as cognition through action on synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is one of the coactivators of steroid nuclear receptors; it is widely distributed in brain areas that related to learning and memory, reproductive regulation, sensory and motor information integration. Previous studies have revealed high levels of SRC-1 immunoreactivities in the hippocampus; it is closely related to the levels of synaptic proteins such as PSD-95 under normal development or gonadectomy, but its exact roles in the regulation of these proteins remains unclear. In this study, we used aromatase inhibitor letrozole in vivo and SRC-1 RNA interference in vitro to investigate whether SRC-1 mediated endogenous estrogen regulation of hippocampal PSD-95. The results revealed that letrozole injection synchronously decreased hippocampal SRC-1 and PSD-95 in a dose-dependant manner. Furthermore, when SRC-1 specific shRNA pool was applied to block the expression of SRC-1 in the primary hippocampal neuron culture, both immunocytochemistry and Western blot revealed that levels of PSD-95 were also decreased significantly. Taking together, these results provided the first evidence that SRC-1 mediated endogenous estrogen regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by targeting the expression of synaptic protein PSD-95. Additionally, since letrozole is frequently used to treat estrogen-sensitive breast cancer, the above results also indicate its potential side effects in clinical administration. PMID:26223010

  8. “Talking the talk, walking the walk: Social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic”

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael; Moreno, Luis; ELLEN, JONATHAN; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-01-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partn...

  9. Respondent-driven sampling estimators under real and theoretical recruitment conditions of female sex workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Fisher, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of multiple respondent-driven sampling estimators under different sample recruitment conditions in hidden populations of female sex workers in the midst of China’s ongoing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We first examine empirically calibrated simulations grounded in survey data to evaluate the relative performance of each estimator under ideal sampling conditions consistent with respondent-driven sampling assumptions and under conditions that mimic observed respondent-driven sampling recruitment processes. One estimator, which incorporates respondents’ reports on their network of contacts, substantially out-performs the others under all conditions. We then apply the estimators to empirical samples of female sex workers collected in two Chinese cities which include unique data on respondents’ networks. These empirical results are consistent with the simulation results, suggesting that traditional respondent-driven sampling estimators overestimate the proportion of female sex workers working in low tiers of sex work and are likely to overstate the STI risk profiles of these populations. PMID:26214337

  10. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly. PMID:26375641

  11. Female song in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus): acoustic song features that contain individual identity information and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Allison H; Krysler, Amanda; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    In temperate songbirds, song has traditionally been considered a vocalization mainly produced by males. However, in many temperate species, it is now recognized that both males and females produce song. The function and structure of male black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) fee-bee song have been well-studied, but female song, although briefly described in some field reports, has not often been quantitatively examined. We recorded spontaneous fee-bee songs produced by wild-caught male and female adult black-capped chickadees housed in captivity and used bioacoustic analyses to examine seven acoustic features in the songs. Using potential for individual coding and discriminant function analyses, we found that songs were individually distinctive. Using additional discriminant function analyses, we found that songs could be correctly classified based on sex of the producer. Specifically, our results indicate that the frequency decrease within the fee note (i.e., fee glissando) varies between the songs produced by males and females and this suggests that the fee glissando may be used as a sex identifier. While this study provides a quantitative description of the acoustic structure of female song, the development, perception and function of female song in this species requires further examination. PMID:23694740

  12. Chemosensory communication of gender through two human steroids in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Yang, Xiaoying; Chen, Kepu; Cai, Peng; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2014-05-19

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of human sex pheromones, with particular interest in two human steroids: androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one) and estratetraenol (estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol). The current study takes a critical step to test the qualification of the two steroids as sex pheromones by examining whether they communicate gender information in a sex-specific manner. By using dynamic point-light displays that portray the gaits of walkers whose gender is digitally morphed from male to female [1, 2], we show that smelling androstadienone systematically biases heterosexual females, but not males, toward perceiving the walkers as more masculine. By contrast, smelling estratetraenol systematically biases heterosexual males, but not females, toward perceiving the walkers as more feminine. Homosexual males exhibit a response pattern akin to that of heterosexual females, whereas bisexual or homosexual females fall in between heterosexual males and females. These effects are obtained despite that the olfactory stimuli are not explicitly discriminable. The results provide the first direct evidence that the two human steroids communicate opposite gender information that is differentially effective to the two sex groups based on their sexual orientation. Moreover, they demonstrate that human visual gender perception draws on subconscious chemosensory biological cues, an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. PMID:24794295

  13. Perception of sex appeal in print advertising by young female Anglo-Saxon and second generation Asian-Islamic British

    OpenAIRE

    Veloutsou, C.; Ahmed, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research, is to provide empirical data to either support or challenge the view that subculture has an impact on how sex appeal in advertising is perceived. It looks at young females of two specific British subcultural groups, Anglo-Saxon and Asian-Islamic British. It reveals that there are differences in the perception of sex appeal, since the Asian-Islamic British have a rather more negative attitude towards this particular appeal, while the Anglo-Saxon have a much more posit...

  14. Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

  15. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Shanbhag; R S Radder; S K Saidapur

    2002-09-01

    Adult males and females of the seasonally breeding lizard Calotes versicolor were subjected to various social situations under semi-natural conditions to explain the role of socio-sexual factors in gonadal recrudescence. They were grouped as: (i) males and females, (ii) males and females separated by a wire mesh, (iii) same sex groups of males or females, (iv) castrated males with intact females and (v) ovariectomized (OvX) females with intact males from postbreeding to breeding phase. Specimens collected from the wild during breeding season served as the control group. Plasma sex steroid levels (testosterone in male and 17-estradiol in female), spermatogenetic activity and vitellogenesis were the criteria to judge gonadal recrudescence. In intact males and females that were kept together, gonadal recrudescence and plasma sex steroids levels were comparable to those in wild-caught individuals. Gonadal recrudescence was at its least in all male and all female groups, and plasma sex steroids were at basal levels. Association with OvX females initiated testicular recrudescence but spermatogenetic activity progressed only up to the spermatid stage while males separated from females by wire mesh showed spermatogenetic activity for a shorter period. Females grouped with castrated males and those separated from males by wire mesh produced vitellogenic follicles. However, the total number and diameter of vitellogenic follicles, and plasma estradiol levels were lower than in the females grouped with intact males. The findings indicate that association with members of the opposite sex with progressively rising titers of sex steroids is crucial in both initiating and sustaining gonadal recrudescence in the lizard. Thus, members of the opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor.

  16. Gender performance as spatial acts : (Fe)male Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Synthesising Butler's theory with space, the objective of this paper is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as these are reproduced in the sex industry in two different settings. I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work. Likewise, the paper analyses the ways in which sex work plays a significant part in how the Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. The analysis of the Thai migrant sex workers becoming intelligible or non-intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. In this paper I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.

  17. Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female and Male Response of Ephestia calidella (Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex pheromone gland of female oases date moth, Ephestia calidella is located inter segmentally between eight and nine abdominal segment. Effect of three sub sterilizing doses 75, 100 and 125 Gy of gamma radiation on pheromone production and on male response were studied. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation reduce the pheromone production by female and the responsiveness of male. The effect was increased by increasing the radiation dose. Histological studies of pheromone gland also, indicated that gamma irradiation disturb epithelial cells of the gland and becoming thin at certain parts. Also, gland hairs ruptured or completely disappeared at the highest dose of 125 Gy.

  18. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Clusterin Expression and Paclitaxel Resistance in Endometrial Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sung Won, Sung Jong Lee, Seung Geun Yeo, Dong Choon Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have analyzed the association between clusterin expression in endometrial cancer cells and their resistance to paclitaxel. We also analyzed whether the effects of female sex hormones on clusterin expression by these cell lines affect their resistance to paclitaxel. Methods: The expression of estrogen receptors ? and ?, progesterone receptors AB and B, and clusterin mRNA and protein was assayed in the ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The IC50 of paclitaxel was measured in each cell line by XTT assay. Using clusterin siRNA, we analyzed the association between clusterin expression and paclitaxel IC50 in each cell line. We also examined the effects of hormone treatment on cellular resistance to paclitaxel. Results: Paclitaxel IC50 was significantly higher in KLE cells, which expressed higher levels of clusterin, than in ECC-1 cells, which expressed lower levels of clusterin. Conversely, incubation with clusterin siRNA significantly decreased the viability of KLE cells (P<0.001, but did not alter the viability of ECC-1 cells. Incubation with estrogen tended to increase the level of clusterin expression in these endometrial cancer cell lines, although the level of clusterin expression did not correlate with that of estrogen receptors. Incubation with progesterone did not alter the levels of expression of clusterin and clusterin receptor. Incubation with estrogen and paclitaxel significantly increased the viability of ECC-1 (P<0.001 but not KLE cells. Conclusion: Estrogen increases the paclitaxel resistance of endometrial cancer cell lines, by increasing clusterin expression.

  19. The HIV Care Continuum among Female Sex Workers: A Key Population in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kathryn Elizabeth; Powers, Kimberly A.; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chadwick, Katy; Go, Vivian F.; Pence, Brian W.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW), a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome. Results HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138). Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 22–28). Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 3–17). The majority (69%) of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes. Conclusions FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered. PMID:26808043

  20. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  1. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and female-biased sex ratio in the Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ankola; Dorothea Brueckner; H P Puttaraju

    2011-12-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in India. A total of nine butterfly species belonging to four different families were screened using PCR with Wolbachia-specific wsp and ftsZ primers. The presence of the Wolbachia super group ‘B’ in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T. nyseus, suggesting a putative role for Wolbachia in the observed female-biased sex ratio distortion.

  2. The thyrotropin (TSH) profile in isolated gonadotropin deficiency: a model to evaluate the effect of sex steroids on TSH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, I M; Zylber-Haran, E A; Trestian, S

    1983-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of estrogens and androgens on TSH secretion in hypogonadal male and female patients with isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IGD). The IGD subjects were clinically euthyroid and had normal circulating levels of thyroid hormones and T4-binding globulin (TBG). The patients were challenged with TRH (200 micrograms) in the untreated state, during treatment, and 1 month after cessation of hormonal replacement therapy. For the study, five females were treated with ethinyl estradiol (0.05 mg twice daily) for 21 days; after stopping for 7 days, the treatment schedule was repeated for another two cycles. The remaining female was given a similar regimen with conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg daily). Five males were treated with hCG (5000 IU twice weekly) for 3 months; two were treated with hCG and Pergonal. The female patients had significantly decreased basal TSH levels as well as impaired TSH responses to TRH. After 3 months of ethinyl estradiol treatment, there was a rise in TBG, total serum T4 and T3 levels and a decrease in T3 resin uptake; the free T4 index was unchanged. During estrogen administration, there was no change in basal TSH, but there was an increase in the peak TSH response to TRH, which became identical to that of the controls. Cessation of estrogen was associated with a reduction in releasable TSH, and the profile reverted to the pretreatment state. In addition, serum TBG levels, with the associated changes in thyroid hormones, also returned to normal. The male patients had TSH responses to TRH identical to those of the male controls. After 3 months of hCG treatment, there was a marked rise in serum estradiol as well as testosterone. Serum T4 was reduced without a change in T3, T3 resin uptake, or TBG. Furthermore, there was no alteration in the TSH response to TRH. On the other hand, the administration of ethinyl estradiol (0.1 mg daily for 2 weeks) to two male IGD subjects produced an increase in TBG. This was associated with elevation of serum T4 and T3 levels and reduction of T3 resin uptake. During estradiol administration, there was an increase in the TSH response to TRH. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that estrogens are required to maintain a normal TSH response to TRH in the female. However, testosterone may counteract the effect of estradiol, which may explain why normal males tend to have a lower TSH response to TRH than females. PMID:6408116

  3. High Burden of HIV Infection and Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in Three Main Urban Areas of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Ângelo do Rosário; Young, Peter W; Horth, Roberta Z; Inguane, Celso; Sathane, Isabel; Ngale, Katia; Benedetti, Marcos; Cummings, Beverley; Botão, Carlos Francisco Sande; Baltazar, Cynthia Amino Semá; Frank, Heidi; Fagan, Jennifer; Fisher Raymond, Henry; McFarland, Willi

    2016-04-01

    This is the first integrated biological and behavioral survey among female sex workers (FSW) in Mozambique. Using respondent-driven sampling, 400, 411 and 429 FSW were enrolled respectively in Maputo, Beira and Nampula in 2011-2012. Estimates were produced using RDSAT 7.1. HIV prevalence was 31.2, 23.6, and 17.8 % in each location respectively. Among HIV-positive FSW, 48.1, 79.8 and 89.6 % in each city, were unaware of their serostatus. Condom use at last sex with a client was 85.8, 73.4 and 62.8 % among FSW, respectively. HIV was associated with current age, age of first sex for money, low educational level, and having had a genital ulcer in the last 6 months. Results suggest the urgent need to increase behavioral and structural interventions in this key population. PMID:26238035

  4. The use of cffDNA in fetal sex determination during the first trimester of pregnancy of female DMD carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Hou, Qiaofang; Li, Tao; Chu, Yan; Guo, Qiannan; Kang, Bing; Liao, Shixiu

    2012-11-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis for fetal sex determination is generally the first step in the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) techniques such as measurement of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma are preferable given the procedure-related miscarriage rate of CVS. We determined fetal sex during the first trimester using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of cffDNA in pregnant carriers of DMD. The fetal sex was confirmed by amniocentesis karyotype analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) at 16 weeks. This procedure may avoid unnecessary CVS or amniocentesis of female fetuses. PMID:25343090

  5. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Sexual Violence Among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs on the United States–Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, Lotus; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Sirotin, Nicole; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; RAJ, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of miscarriage/stillbirth among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and measures its associations with physical and sexual violence. Baseline data from 582 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an HIV intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were used for current analyses. 30% of participants had experienced at least one miscarriage/stillbirth, 51% had experienced sexual violence, and 49% had experienced physical violence. History of miscarriage/sti...

  6. Prevalence of syphilis infection in different tiers of female sex workers in China: implications for surveillance and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xiang-Sheng; Wang Qian-Qiu; Yin Yue-Ping; Liang Guo-Jun; Jiang Ning; Yang Li-Gang; Liu Qiao; Zhou Yu-Jiao; Huan Xi-Ping; Wei Wan-Hui; Wang Baoxi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs) have become one of key populations for the epidemic. In order to investigate syphilis infection among different tiers of FSWs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 sites in China. Methods Serum specimens (n = 7,118) were collected to test for syphilis and questionnaire interviews were conduc...

  7. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    OpenAIRE

    Swe LA; Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amo...

  8. Trends in condom use among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: the impact of a community mobilisation intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Biradavolu, Monica; Reed, Elizabeth; Burroway, Rebekah; Blankenship, Kim M

    2012-01-01

    Background Community mobilisation interventions for HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSWs) aim to organise FSWs for collective action and challenge the structures of power that underlie HIV risk. Assessing intervention impact is challenging because the importance of direct individual exposure to intervention components may decrease over time as change occurs at social-normative, policy and other structural levels. In this paper, the authors examine changes over time in consistent cond...

  9. How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey by surprise in brothels in Dakar, Senegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Espirito Santo M.E. Gomes do; Etheredge G.D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified "by surprise" and interviewed and requested to donate saliva for HIV testing. RESU...

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Remedios Lozada; M. Gudelia Rangel; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before a...

  11. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Nadine E; Strathdee Steffanie A; Uribe-Salas Felipe J; Patterson Thomas L; Rangel Maria; Rosen Perth; Brouwer Kimberly C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent ST...

  12. Female Sex as a Risk Factor for Glycemic Control and Complications in Iranian Patients with Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rabbani; Fereydoun Mostafavi; Aria Setoodeh; Tina Hedayat

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on glycemic control, diabetes complications and associated abnormalities in patients with type one diabetes mellitus. Methods:In a cross-sectional study in 309 patients (156 females and 153 males within the age range of 3-16 years) with type one diabetes mellitus referred to endocrinology clinic in Childrens Medical Center in Tehran from March 2005 to March 2007 gender differences in diabetes control were analyzed. Findings:...

  13. Psychosexual and social-cognitive correlates of sexual risk behavior among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, Shirley J.; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Robertson, Angela; Goldenberg, Shira; Thomas L Patterson

    2010-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) may act as a bridge to the general population contributing to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in the United States and Mexico. This study used cross-sectional data to identify psychosexual and social cognitive factors associated with sexual risk behavior in a bi-national sample of 300 male clients of FSWs recruited in Tijuana, Mexico from June to October, 2008. In a multiple regression analysis, the number of unprotected va...

  14. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, A.(University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA); Prabhakar, P.; Narayanan, P; Neilsen, G.; Wi, T; Kumta, S.; Rao, G; R. Gangakhedkar; Risbud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study p...

  15. Reducing Sexual HIV/STI Risk and Harmful Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in Mongolia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S; Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Aira, Toivgoo; Riedel, Marion; Chen, Jiehua; Potocnik, Katie; El-Bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Gilbert, Louisa; Carlson, Catherine; Yao, Hanfei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an enhanced intervention to reduce sexual risk of HIV/STI and harmful alcohol use among female sex workers in Mongolia. Women (n = 166) were recruited and randomized to either (1) a relationship-based HIV sexual risk reduction intervention; (2) the same sexual risk reduction intervention plus motivational interviewing; or (3) a control condition focused on wellness promotion. At three and six month follow-up, both treatment interventions and the wellness pr...

  16. Social and behavioral factors associated with condom use among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in tarlac, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura-Takahashi, Tazuko; Akabayashi , Akira; Kai , Ichiro; Cabigon, Josefina; Ohi , Gen; Naka , Koichi

    1998-01-01

    This study examines social and behavioral factors associated with condom use among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Tarlac, the Philippines. One hundred and twenty-one CSWs who visited a social hygiene clinic for regular check-ups were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire with thirty-one items. More than 80% of the respondents had experience of using condoms with clients. However, only 48% of them used consistently. Six factors, level of education, knowledge of condom ap...

  17. Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention to reduce risky sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.; Calzavara, L; Mendelsohn, JB; O'Leary, A; Kang, L.; Pan, Q.; Myers, T; Ren, J; Cha, Y; Shi, G.; X. LIU; X. Tian; Fan, H; Ni, Y.; Remis, RS

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. We implemented an HIV/STI preventive intervention among FSWs in Shanghai that aimed to increase condom use, improve HIV knowledge, and reduce STI and HIV incidence. From six districts in Shanghai, 750 randomly selected venue-based FSWs were allocated to either a behavioural intervention or control group. In the intervention and control groups, 221 and 278 participants, respectively, had at l...

  18. HIV risk among female sex workers in Miami: The impact of violent victimization and untreated mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary L Surratt; Kurtz, Steven P.; Chen, Minxing; Mooss, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Street-based female sex workers constitute a vulnerable population for HIV, as they are often enmeshed in chronic patterns of substance use, sexual risk, homelessness, and violent victimization. This study examined the specific contributions of victimization history and abuse-related traumagenic factors to mental health functioning and sexual risk behaviors, while considering the impact of environmental risk factors as well. Using targeted sampling strategies, we enrolled 562 Miami-based fema...

  19. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Laurence; Chersich, Matthew; Steen, Richard; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Dhana, Ashar; Vuylsteke, Bea; Lafort, Yves; Scorgie, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, a...

  20. [Cytological State of Gonads and Level of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax Pall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Cytological state of the gonads and hormonal state of hatchery Black Sea trout before differentiation into resident and anadromous forms (parr) at an age of 15 months have been examined. It has been shown that the hormonal changes associated with the choice of life strategy in the Black Sea trout females and males are pronounced to different degrees. As compared with the resident and anadromous individuals; the female parr display a low rate of oogenesis and similar hormonal status, while characteristic of the male parr are an intermediate rate of spermatogenesis, a low level of thyroid hormones and estradiol, and a medium testosterone level. As has been found, the undifferentiated Black Sea trout individuals predominantly develop into the resident form. PMID:26606828

  1. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social ...

  2. B Chromosomes Have a Functional Effect on Female Sex Determination in Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; OKADA, NORIHIRO

    2011-01-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, w...

  3. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove

  4. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl ?-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer. PMID:24369389

  5. The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge and Attitude of Female Sex Workers in Preventing High Risk Sexual Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Larki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P

  6. Behaviourally inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders, facilitate conditioned avoidance (also) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E

    2014-03-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263

  7. Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae confirmed by a molecular sexing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Monnerat Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be used to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris puede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como control. Analizamos muestras de DNA de 190 individuos. Los tamaños de los productos del PCR fueron identificados como 350 pares de bases (pb para CHD-Z y 388 pb para CHD-W. Pudimos confirmar que las hembras adultas presentan iris rojo y las hembras jóvenes iris marrón. También pudimos distinguir machos jóvenes de hembras, que presentan el mismo color de iris y plumaje.

  8. Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) confirmed by a molecular sexing technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise, Monnerat Nogueira; Maria Alice, S. Alves.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris p [...] uede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como control. Analizamos muestras de DNA de 190 individuos. Los tamaños de los productos del PCR fueron identificados como 350 pares de bases (pb) para CHD-Z y 388 pb para CHD-W. Pudimos confirmar que las hembras adultas presentan iris rojo y las hembras jóvenes iris marrón. También pudimos distinguir machos jóvenes de hembras, que presentan el mismo color de iris y plumaje. Abstract in english The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be us [...] ed to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp) for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.

  9. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms. PMID:1561401

  10. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRH?2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRH?2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17? as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17? following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing agents, applied here, CPE can provide more reasonable response in reproduction of female B. sharpeyi. PMID:26164861

  11. Risk of sexual, physical and verbal assaults on men who have sex with men and female sex workers in coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Methods Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to estimate the risk of rape, physical assault and verbal abuse, and to assess associations between first occurrence of assault with individual and recent behavioural factors. Results Incidence of first reported rape was similar for MSM [3.9, confidence interval (CI) 3.1–5.0 per 100 person-years (pyrs)] and FSW (4.8 CI 3.5–6.4 per 100 pyrs), P =0.22. Incidence of first reported physical and verbal assault was higher for FSW than MSM (21.1 versus 12.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.14 and 51.3 versus 30.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.03 respectively). Recent alcohol use was associated with reporting of all forms of assault by MSM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, CI 0.9–3.5] and FSW (AOR 4.4, CI 1.41–14.0), as was recent sale of sex for MSM (AOR 2.0, CI 1.1–3.8). Exclusive sex with men, active sex work, and group sex were also specifically associated with reporting rape for MSM. Perpetrators of sexual and verbal assault were usually unknown, whilst perpetrators of physical violence toward FSW were usually regular sexual partners. Conclusion MSM and FSW experienced a similarly high incidence of sexual assault in coastal Kenya, in addition to physical and verbal assault. Current national policies focus heavily on gender-based violence against women and young girls, but need to be inclusive of MSM and FSW. PMID:26562812

  12. Non-Cationic Proteins Are Associated with HIV Neutralizing Activity in Genital Secretions of Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birse, Kenzie D. M.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; McKinnon, Lyle; Ball, Terry B.; Westmacott, Garrett R.; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Frank; Cole, Alexander M.; Burgener, Adam; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cationic proteins found in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) are known to contribute to the early antiviral immune response against HIV-infection in vitro. We here aimed to define additional antiviral factors that are over-expressed in CVS from female sex workers at high risk of infection. Methods CVS were collected from Kenyan HIV-seronegative (n = 34) and HIV-seropositive (n = 12) female sex workers, and were compared with those from HIV-seronegative low-risk women (n = 12). The highly exposed seronegative (HESN) sex workers were further divided into those with less (n = 22) or more (n = 12) than three years of documented sex work. Cationic protein-depleted CVS were assessed for HIV-neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based HIV-neutralizing assay, and then characterized by proteomics. Results HIV neutralizing activity was detected in all unprocessed CVS, however only CVS from the female sex worker groups maintained its HIV neutralizing activity after cationic protein-depletion. Differentially abundant proteins were identified in the cationic protein-depleted secretions including 26, 42, and 11 in the HESN>3yr, HESN<3yr, and HIV-positive groups, respectively. Gene ontology placed these proteins into functional categories including proteolysis, oxidation-reduction, and epidermal development. The proteins identified in this study include proteins previously associated with the HESN phenotype in other cohorts as well as novel proteins not yet associated with anti-HIV activities. Conclusion While cationic proteins appear to contribute to the majority of the intrinsic HIV neutralizing activity in the CVS of low-risk women, a broader range of non-cationic proteins were associated with HIV neutralizing activity in HESN and HIV-positive female sex workers. These results indicate that novel protein factors found in CVS of women with high-risk sexual practices may have inherent antiviral activity, or are involved in other aspects of anti-HIV host defense, and warrant further exploration into their mode of action. PMID:26090884

  13. Prevalence of rape and client-initiated gender-based violence among female sex workers: Kampala, Uganda, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, Amee; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Serwadda, David; Muyonga, Michael; Shiraishi, Ray W; Benech, Irene; Mital, Sasha; Bosa, Rose; Lubwama, George; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    We utilized data from the 2012 Crane Survey in Kampala, Uganda to estimate prevalence of rape among female sex workers (FSWs) and to identify risk factors for and prevalence of client-initiated gender-based violence (GBV) among FSWs. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Analyses were weighted using RDSAT-generated individualized weights for each of the five dependent GBV outcomes. Analyses were conducted utilizing SAS 9.3. Among 1,467 FSWs who were interviewed, 82 % (95 % CI: 79-84) experienced client-initiated GBV and 49 % (95 % CI: 47-53) had been raped at least once in their lifetime. GBV risk increased with increasing frequency of client demands for unprotected sex, length of time engaged in sex work, and FSW alcohol consumption. Risk decreased when sex with clients occurred at the FSW's or client's house or a hotel compared to when sex occurred in open spaces. Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of GBV among FSWs. This research reinforces the urgent need for GBV prevention and response strategies to be integrated into FSW programming and the continuing need for GBV research among key populations. PMID:25432876

  14. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno?based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1?S), androsterone sulfate (ADT?S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg?S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg?S). E1?S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis™ WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1?S binding elimination on Oasis™ WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis™ WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA?S, E1-S, ADT?S, Preg?S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1?S, ADT?S and Preg?S while for Allopreg?S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. PMID:25595042

  15. Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard

    2015-01-01

    Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. PMID:25059942

  16. Developing human rights-based strategies to improve health among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Mwananawe, Aimable; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irwin, Alec; Karema, Corine

    2010-01-01

    How governments should address sex work is a topic of current debate in Rwanda and other countries. Some constituencies propose harsher punishment of sex workers as the cornerstone of an improved policy. We argue that an adequate policy response to sex work in the Rwandan context must prioritize public health and reflect current knowledge of the social determinants of health. This does not imply intensified repression, but a comprehensive agenda of medical and social support to improve sex workers' access to health care, reduce their social isolation, and expand their economic options. Evidence from social epidemiology converges with rights-based arguments in this approach. Recent field interviews with current and former sex workers strengthen the case, while highlighting the need for further social scientific and epidemiological analysis of sex work in Rwanda. Rwanda has implemented some measures that reflect a rights-based perspective in addressing sex work. For example, recent policies seek to expand access to education for girls and support sex workers in the transition to alternative livelihoods. These policies reinforce the model of solidarity-based public health action for which Rwanda has been recognized. Whether such measures can maintain traction in the face of economic austerity and ideological resistance remains to be seen. PMID:21178192

  17. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  18. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens. PMID:25059808

  19. Female Sex as a Risk Factor for Glycemic Control and Complications in Iranian Patients with Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on glycemic control, diabetes complications and associated abnormalities in patients with type one diabetes mellitus. Methods:In a cross-sectional study in 309 patients (156 females and 153 males within the age range of 3-16 years with type one diabetes mellitus referred to endocrinology clinic in Childrens Medical Center in Tehran from March 2005 to March 2007 gender differences in diabetes control were analyzed. Findings:Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, was significantly higher in females (9.25 vs. 8.01. Insulin dose per kilogram of body weight was significantly more in girls (0.91±0.31 vs. 0.74±0.37, P<0.001 self monitoring of blood glucose was performed significantly more in boys. Frequency of Diabetic ketoacidosis, height growth problems and dyslipidemia were significantly higher in girls. 1.20±0.86 vs. 0.93±0.55, P=0.004, (-0.05±1.20 vs. -0.41±1.17, P=0.015, (134.60±44.43 vs. 110.56±20.72, P=<0.001 respectively. Conclusion:Female sex is a risk factor in glycemic control and complications of diabetes type I and females should be managed more seriously regarding self monitoring of blood glucose, nutritional and psychological factors and puberty issues.

  20. Female Sex as a Risk Factor for Glycemic Control and Complications in Iranian Patients with Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Setoodeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on glycemic control, diabetes complications and associated abnormalities in patients with type one diabetes mellitus.Methods:In a cross-sectional study in 309 patients (156 females and 153 males within the age range of 3-16 years with type one diabetes mellitus referred to endocrinology clinic in Children's Medical Center in Tehran from March 2005 to March 2007 gender differences in diabetes control were analyzed.Findings:Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, was significantly higher in females (9.25 vs. 8.01. Insulin dose per kilogram of body weight was significantly more in girls (0.91?0.31 vs. 0.74?0.37, P< 0.001 self monitoring of blood glucose was performed significantly more in boys. Frequency of Diabetic ketoacidosis, height growth problems and dyslipidemia were significantly higher in girls. 1.20?0.86 vs. 0.93?0.55, P=0.004, (-0.05?1.20 vs. -0.41?1.17, P=0.015, (134.60?44.43 vs. 110.56?20.72, P=< 0.001 respectively.Conclusion:Female sex is a risk factor in glycemic control and complications of diabetes type I and females should be managed more seriously regarding self monitoring of blood glucose, nutritional and psychological factors and puberty issues.

  1. Differential effects of female sex hormones on cellular recruitment and tracheal reactivity after formaldehyde exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

    2011-09-10

    Female sex hormones (FSHs) exert profound regulatory effects on the course of lung inflammation due to allergic and non-allergic immune responses. As pollution is one of the pivotal factors to induce lung dysfunction, in this study we investigated the modulatory role of FSHs on lung inflammation after a formaldehyde (FA) exposure. For this purpose, lung and systemic inflammatory responses were evaluated in terms of leukocytes countings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), peripheral blood and bone marrow lavage from 7-day ovariectomized (OVx) and Sham-OVx rats subjected to FA inhalation for 3 consecutive days. The hypothesized link between effects of FSHs on expression of adhesion molecules and mast cells degranulation was also studied. Once exposed to FA, Sham-OVx rats increased the number of total cells recovered in BAL and of leukocytes in peripheral blood, and decreased the counts in bone marrow. By contrast, in OVx rats upon FA exposure there was a reduction of the total cells counts in BAL and of blood leukocytes; lung expressions of ICAM-1 and Mac-1 were depressed, but the number of bone marrow cells did not vary. Estradiol treatment of OVx rats increased the total cells in BAL and decreased the number of blood leukocytes, whereas the number of bone marrow cell remained unaltered. Progesterone treatment, in turn increased the total cells in BAL and blood leukocytes, but decreased the number of bone marrow cells. OVx rats exposed to FA developed tracheal hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (MCh). A similarly altered response was found between the tracheal segments of Sham-OVx rats after FA exposure and that found in tracheae of naïve rats. Estradiol treatment prevented FA-induced tracheal hyperresponsiveness to MCh whereas progesterone was ineffective in this regard. In addition, OVx rats upon FA exposure significantly increased both, the ability of mast cell degranulation and serum corticosterone levels. In conclusion, it was found that FSHs act by distinct control mechanisms on FA-induced lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness, since at low circulating levels of FSHs (such as those after OVx) there is some resistance to the development of a lung inflammatory response, but the cholinergic tracheal responsiveness is exacerbated. Our data also help to understand the involvement of FSHs on mast cells activity after pollutants exposure and add information regarding the role of FSHs on the mechanisms related to endothelium-leukocyte interactions. PMID:21726612

  2. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  3. Hippocampus and Cerebellum Function Following Imipenem Treatment in Male and Female Rats: Evaluation of Sex Differences During Developmental Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Vahidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The B-Lactam antibiotics have been suggested to have some degree of neurotoxicity in experimental animals as well as in clinical situations. This study has been elucidated the alteration in hippocampal and cerebellum function following adolescent imipenem exposure in male and female rats. Hippocampus and cerebellum related behavioral dysfunction in imipenem -treated [intraperitoneally, 40 and 80 mg/kg/day for one week from 23-day-old] rats were analyzed using explorative, motor function, learning and memory tasks [grasping, rotarod, open field shuttle box and Morris water maze tests]. Exposure to imipenem especially in high dosage impaired the motor coordination in male and female rats. There weren’t any differences in grasping time in male and female rats. When the rearing and grooming frequency of their recorded in open field test, both males and females were dramatically affected by exposure to imipenem. Compared to the saline, male and female rats trained one week after imipenem injection showed significant memory deficits in the shuttle box and Morris water maze tests. Results in this study suggested that animals treated with imipenem suffer from motor activity and cognitive impairment. However, hippocampal and cerebellum functions of male and female rats were profoundly affected by exposure to imipenem while no sex-differences in the most variable were evident.

  4. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  5. Condom Use with Female Sex Workers among Male Clients in Sichuan Province, China: The Role of Interpersonal and Venue-Level Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2010-01-01

    Commercial sex work has re-emerged as a widespread industry since China started economic reforms in the 1980s. This study examined the role of interpersonal and venue-level factors in commercial sex male clients' (CSMCs) condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Given the heterogeneity of commercial sex industry in China, this study also aimed to explore how these factors function differently by social ranks of commercial sex work frequented by CSMCs. A cross-sectional survey was co...

  6. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  7. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  8. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ankomah A; Omoregie G; Akinyemi Z; Anyanti J; Ladipo O; Adebayo S

    2011-01-01

    Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk...

  9. Correlation between female sex and allergy was significant in patients presenting with dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    LAURIELLO, M.; ANGELONE, A.M.; RIENZO BUSINCO, L.; Passali, D.; BELLUSSI, L.M.; PASSALI, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of allergy in patients affected by both organic and/or functional vocal fold disorders. The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between sex and allergy in dysphonic patients. A retrospective chart review was performed on dysphonic patients. A total of 76 patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy to assess the objective picture. Logistic regression analyses have been conducted to assess the association between sex and the outcome...

  10. It's all about sex: male-female differences in lung development and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michelle A.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Voltz, James W.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gender impacts the incidence, susceptibility and severity of several lung diseases. Gender also influences lung development and physiology. Data from both human and animal studies suggests that sex hormones may contribute to disease pathogenesis or serve as protective factors, depending on the disease involved. In this review, the influence of gender and sex hormones on lung development and pathology will be discussed, with specific emphasis on pulmonary fi...

  11. It's all about sex: male-female differences in lung development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle A.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Voltz, James W.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gender impacts the incidence, susceptibility and severity of several lung diseases. Gender also influences lung development and physiology. Data from both human and animal studies suggests that sex hormones may contribute to disease pathogenesis or serve as protective factors, depending on the disease involved. In this review, the influence of gender and sex hormones on lung development and pathology will be discussed, with specific emphasis on pulmonary fibrosis, asthma and cancer. PMID:17764971

  12. Sex differences in nicotine levels following repeated intravenous injection are attenuated by gonadectomy in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Harrod, Steven B.; Booze, Rosemarie M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2006-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injection resulted in increased locomotor sensitization in female relative to male rats. In order to determine if increased nicotine levels are detected in females compared to males the present experiment examined the plasma nicotine levels of male, female, castrated (CAST), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n = 7-11 rats/group) following repeated IV nicotine injection (50 ?g/kg/injection). All rats received 14 IV nicotine in...

  13. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  14. HIV/STI risk among venue-based female sex workers across the globe: A look back and the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; Thomas L Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to represent a high-risk population in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Targeting environmental risk factors should result in more sustainable behavior change than individual-level interventions alone. There are many types of FSWs who operate in and through a variety of micro- (e.g., brothels) and macro-level (e.g., being sex-trafficked) contexts. Efforts to characterize FSWs and inform HIV prevention programs have often relied on sex work typo...

  15. Reducing harm from HIV/AIDS misconceptions among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: A cross sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson Angela M; Ojeda Victoria D; Nguyen Lucie; Lozada Remedios; Martínez Gustavo A; Strathdee Steffanie A; Patterson Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico’s Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations’ education, empowerment, and access to preventive services are important components of harm reduction strategies. Given the increasing interest in adapting harm reduction principles from drug use to sex work and other public health responses to the HIV epidemic, we used a sex work harm reduction framew...

  16. Profile of female sex workers in a Chinese county: Does it differ by where they came from and where they work?

    OpenAIRE

    FANG, XIAOYI; Li, Xiaoming; YANG, HONGMEI; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; Liang, Shaoling; STANTON, BONITA

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, informal or clandestine sex work in the service or entertainment industry has spread from municipalities to small towns in most areas of China. Despite recognition of the important role of female sex workers in HIV and STD epidemics in China, limited data are available regarding their individual characteristics and social and environmental context of their work. Furthermore, most existing studies on commercial sex in China have been conducted in large cities or tourist attrac...

  17. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  18. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  19. Spermatogenesis, epididymis morphology and plasma sex steroid secretion in the male lizard Podarcis sicula exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Anna; Comitato, Raffaella; Angelini, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigates the effects of diuron, a substituted urea-based herbicide, in the male lizard Podarcis sicula utilizing quantitative and qualitative morphological features of the reproductive system and endocrinological analysis. Besides the control group, lizards were divided into three groups ([a-c]) (n=6/group) and placed for 3 weeks in terraria on polluted soil substrate sprayed with 3.75 L/ha of herbicide Toterbane 50F (50% diuron). Each terrarium was supplemented either with drinking water contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 1.08 microg/mL of diuron; group [a]), or with food contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 5.4 mg of diuron; group [b]), or with drinking water and food contaminated as described above (group [c]). None of the animals exposed to the contaminant showed any signs of general toxicity or death during the course of the experiments. Severe testicular effects are evidenced in all herbicide-treated groups, although, such effects are of a greater magnitude in lizards exposed to contaminated water (groups [a] and [c]). The main degenerative changes observed include: (1) a significant decrease in the mean gonadosomatic index of 55% in group [a] (P<0.001), 21% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 34% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group; (2) a significant shrinking (P<0.001) of seminiferous tubule diameter (more than 60% of the control) in groups [a] and [c], and about 18% in group [b] (P<0.01); (3) a significant decrease in the crude numbers of spermatogonia of 92% in group [a] (P<0.001), 27% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 62% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group. A complete loss of meiotic and mature germ cells in groups [a] and [c], and a reduction of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids (more than 27% of the control) and a decrease of spermatozoa (more than 90% of the control) in group [b]; and (4) an hypertrophy of interstitial connective tissue which contains numerous lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes. The decrease and/or loss of germ cells seems to be related to an induction of inflammation (necrosis) rather than to apoptotic processes. Indeed, this hypothesis is supported by a TUNEL-assay, which failed to reveal any apoptotic cells either in the seminiferous epithelium or in the interstitial space in the testis of all exposed groups. Also the epididymis appears affected by diuron exposure. In particular, in experimental groups [a] and [c] it is regressed with abundant connective tissue and low epithelial cells without secretory granules, whereas in group [b] it appears partially regressed, with some secretory granules still present. At the same time, an impairment of the plasma sex-hormone levels is observed in treated lizards, as evidenced by RIA analysis. Testosterone values significantly decreased by 43% in group [a] (P<0.001), 34% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 52% in group [c] compared with control group. Instead, 17beta-estradiol plasma content is undetectable in all diuron-exposed lizards. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that diuron exposure resulted in direct male reproductive toxicity and reveal that this lizard is suitable as a laboratory reptile species for toxicological investigations. PMID:18760409

  20. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe LA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom