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Sample records for female sex steroid

  1. Sex-steroid imbalance in females and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, Piera; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Campos, Emilio C

    2015-02-01

    Dry eye (DE) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance and ocular surface damage. It is one of the most common complaints in daily ophthalmic practice. The risk of DE increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females. In addition, the condition of menopause in aging women may also contribute to DE onset or worsening as a consequence of an overall hormonal imbalance. Sex hormones play a key role in ocular surface physiology and they impact differently on ocular surface tissues. Reduced estrogen levels were historically thought to be responsible in age-related DE onset but more recent investigations have reconsidered the role of androgens that are present and exert a protective function on the ocular surface. Hormone levels themselves, withdrawal changes in hormone levels, and the changes in hormone-receptor responsiveness are all important factors but it remains to be fully elucidated how estrogen or androgen insufficiency act alone or together in a combined imbalance or interplay to raise the risk of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline current scientific evidence on the influence of androgens and estrogens, on the Lachrymal and Meibomian glands and on ocular surface epithelia including conjunctival goblet cells during reproductive and menopausal periods. The role of sex steroids is also discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of different forms of DE and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). The impact of systemic hormone therapy (HT) in DE post-menopausal women still appears as a controversial issue, despite the many clinical studies. Finally, the outcomes of topical applications of steroid-based products are summarized, underlying the need for potential (tear) biomarker(s) in the rationale of DE-targeted therapy. PMID:25290221

  2. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  3. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation. PMID:18056697

  4. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  5. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  6. Seasonal variations in plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids in male and female Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F; Tift, Michael S; Meyer, Jennifer L; Crocker, Daniel E; Williams, Rod N

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a widespread species that has recently experienced precipitous declines throughout its range. Although many studies have documented aspects of reproduction in box turtles, reproductive physiology of free-ranging animals is unknown and can be crucial in this species' recovery. Over a two-year period, we measured reproductive parameters, (vitellogenin [Vtg], estradiol-17β [E2], and total testosterone [TT]), in plasma of 116 free-ranging Eastern Box Turtles across their active season. We found similar seasonal variations of Vtg and E2 within females. Mid-season, females showed a sharp peak in E2 that correlates with the putative beginning of the ovarian cycle. Individual females lacking these expected peaks of both Vtg and E2 suggest that some female T. c. carolina may not reproduce annually. Females typically expressed undetectable levels of TT, yet there was a small peak in TT early in the active season. Male Eastern Box Turtles exhibited a dual peak in TT. Elevated TT in males was significantly associated with observed sexual behaviors and smaller home ranges. Body condition had no effect on the concentration of TT or E2 in either sex. This is the first study to (1) document Vtg and sex steroid hormones in free-ranging animals of this genus, and (2) relate those metrics to individuals, the population, the purported annual cycle, and to other chelonian species. PMID:23174697

  7. Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

    1983-11-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

  8. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  9. Sex steroids and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  10. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  11. Effect of ovarian sex hormones on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangma, Tultul K.; Seema Jain; Pramod K. Mediratta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the effect of ovarian sex hormones on gastric ulcer in female rats. Materials and Methods: Female rats were treated daily with estrogen (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg), progesterone (2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg), combined estrogen (0.05 mg/kg) and progesterone (2.0 mg/kg), ranitidine (30 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 days. Ulcers were induced with aspirin on 7 th day. Four hours later, animals were sacrificed and stomach were removed for macroscopic ...

  12. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; AURICCHIO, FERDINANDO

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migrat...

  13. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  14. EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17β (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20βP levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

  15. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J O; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  16. Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Jessica A; Cusmano, Danielle M

    2016-02-19

    Men and women sleep differently. While much is known about the mechanisms that drive sleep, the reason for these sex differences in sleep behaviour is unknown and understudied. Historically, women and female animals are underrepresented in studies of sleep and its disorders. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Women typically report poorer quality and more disrupted sleep across various stages of life. Findings from clinical and basic research studies strongly implicate a role for sex steroids in sleep modulation. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. The investigation into sex differences and sex steroid modulation of sleep is in its infancy. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in sleep will provide valuable insights leading to tailored therapeutics that benefit each sex. The goal of this review is to discuss our current understanding of how biological sex and sex steroids influence sleep behaviour from both the clinical and pre-clinical perspective. PMID:26833831

  17. Oogenesis and plasma levels of sex steroids in cultured females of brown trout (Salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, Francisco; Díaz, Andrés; Pedrazza, Rodrigo; Colihueque, Nelson

    2003-07-01

    Naturalized brown trout populations in Chile are a valuable genetic resource with aquaculture potential. The oogenesis of a three-year-old brown trout cultured population was studied in southern Chile. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth, gonadal microscopic characteristics, and plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-HP) were measured bimonthly for a nine-month period before spawning. The maximum GSI level (22%) was similar to that described for other salmonids, although it was reached in May, more than one month before the population started spawning. Oocyte growth increases strongly from January when diameter reaches more than 1 mm. The vitellogenic period (six-seven months) is consistent with the long vitellogenesis, described for salmonid females maturing at three years old. E2 shows a slow increase from November, reaching its peak value in March (65.2+/-0.7 ng/ml), during maximal vitellogenic activity. T increases as oogenesis progresses, reaching a maximum of 90+/-20 ng/ml during May, and falling considerably during ovulation. Following a typical pattern of progestogens in salmonid oogenesis, 17alpha-HP stays at basal levels during most of oogenesis, but experiences a strong surge (2.0+/-0.4 ng/ml) just before ovulation. PMID:12840840

  18. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?g/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?g) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  19. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

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    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  20. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  1. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in female rat brain by ovarian steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Pajović, Snežana B.; Saičić, Zorica S.

    2008-01-01

    The sex steroids produce their effects by acting on numerous target tissues and organs, such as the reproductive organs, bone tissue and cartilage, peripheral blood vessels as well as the central nervous system (CNS). In our studies we have monitored the change of enzyme activity of the antioxidant (AO) system in the brain of female rats depending on the ovarian steroids. We have chosen it as a new parameter that might represent an important indicator of the changes within the CNS, bearing in...

  2. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or...... the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us...

  3. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

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    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  4. Effects of sex steroids on the Syrian hamster liver

    OpenAIRE

    Karkare, S.; Adamiec-Beyga, E.; Gilloteaux, J.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project was to study the role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis using the Syrian hamster as a model. In addition to the morphological examination of the gallbladder epithelium, we thought it imperative to observe the changes induced in the biliary tract in response to the sex steroid treatment. This report focuses on the morphological changes induced in the liver. The hamsters were randomly divided into...

  5. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  6. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased gingival bleeding and crevicular fluid flow and microbial changes. PMID:19812718

  7. A comparison of the effects of various sex steroids on cholecystokinin- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Loren; Karpinski, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Estrogen (E) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. During pregnancy E and progesterone (P) levels are elevated. A biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), and a P metabolite, 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20-P) on contraction in female guinea pig gallbladder strips. DHT, P, 17-P, 20-P, and E2 each induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK) induced tension. DHT, E2, and P also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of KCl-induced tension. When the response to E2 was compared to strips from young female guinea pigs with those taken from guinea pigs in late pregnancy, there was no significant difference in the response to either 50 or 100 μM E2; however, 10 μM E2 caused a significant increase (pguinea pigs. Treatment of the strips from young guinea pigs with PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated had no significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Treatment of the strips with 2-APB, an inhibitor of IP3 induced Ca(2+) release, produced a significant (p<0.001) increase in the amount of E2-induced relaxation when either CCK or KCl were used. Neither KT5823, a PKG inhibitor, nor L-NMMA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, had a significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl(-), PKC blockers, were used in combination with no significant effect on the amount of CCK-induced tension, but significantly (p<0.01) increased the amount of E2-induced relaxation. When either E2 or P were added to the chambers 3 min prior to either CCK or KCl, a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the amount of tension generated was observed. The inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) entry mediates both P-induced and E2-induced relaxation of CCK- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips. PMID:23399969

  8. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2013-10-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

  9. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SimonMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.

  10. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  11. Multiple Sclerosis in relation to sex steroid exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, Per

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially severe chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is usually diagnosed between 20 and 40 years of age. The incidence of MS is two to three times higher among women and the type and course of the disease often differ between the sexes. Sex steroids, especially estrogens, have been shown to influence the immunopathology involved in MS and the mouse model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), as well as radiological and ...

  12. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithe...

  13. Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

  14. Gender identification in great sturgeon (Huso huso) using morphology, sex steroids, histology and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatkar, B; Poursaeid, S

    2014-04-01

    Gender identification of great sturgeon during different life stages was conducted using morphology, sex steroid concentrations, histological and endoscopic techniques. One hundred and forty great sturgeons from two sturgeon farms at ages between 3-16 years were selected for examination. Most of the morphological indices showed no significant sex-related differences except for the ratio of fork length to distance of snout to anterior of dorsal fin (PD). The urogenital opening had no difference in shapes for both sexes. Mean sex steroid concentrations showed no significant difference in levels of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone between males and females in the stage II of maturity. 95.8% of fish were correctly sexed using endoscopy at this stage. Histological investigation indicated the ovaries of 3- to 9-year-old females were at the different stages of pre-vitellogenic, and most males were at the early spermatogenesis for age 3. The result of this study suggests that endoscopy is a reliable tool for sex and stage determination after the age of 3 years. This method is useful in providing a quick discernment of sexes and stages compared with utilizing morphometric and blood indices. Direct observation of gonads can give us important information about the gonadal and maturity stages in sturgeon aquaculture and wild population management, with minimal damage or stress to this endangered species. PMID:23565575

  15. Shattering Female Sex Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Other Drug Information, Madison.

    This booklet, designed to sensitize people to important issues that are a result of sex role stereotyping, advocates more flexible sex roles which are appropriate to the situation. Traditional and new views of the psychology of sex roles are contrasted, and sex role stereotyping is discussed. Implications of the women's liberation movement for

  16. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  17. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  18. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures. PMID:12161199

  19. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Vicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  20. Influence of female sex hormones on periodontium: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Zeba; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Sawai, Madhuri; Sultan, Nishat

    2015-08-01

    Dental plaque is the primary etiologic factor for the periodontal diseases. Although pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque are necessary for the incidence of periodontal disease, but a susceptible host is as important. The susceptibility of the host can be modified by various systemic factors with hormones level being one. The periodontium shows an exaggerated inflammatory response to plaque modified by female sex hormone during puberty, pregnancy, in women taking oral contraceptives and at the postmenopausal stage. This paper presents such few cases where periodontium is influenced by variation in sex steroid hormones of female during different phases of their life time and to discuss how much a same hormone at different age and stage shows an exaggerated gingival response to plaque. PMID:26604605

  1. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  2. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Louanne

    2008-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model ...

  3. Sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior of captive wild-caught zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Yap, Kang Nian; Adomat, Hans H; Mainwaring, Mark C; Fokidis, H Bobby; Guns, Emma S; Buchanan, Katherine L; Griffith, Simon C; Soma, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the life-long monogamous zebra finch, to examine the relationship between circulating sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior in pairs of wild-caught zebra finches (paired in the laboratory for >1 month). We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine a total of eight androgens and progestins [pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol, pregnan-3,17-diol-20-one, androsterone, androstanediol, and testosterone]. In the plasma, only pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone were above the limit of quantification. Sex steroid profiles were similar between males and females, with only circulating progesterone levels significantly different between the sexes (female > male). Circulating pregnenolone levels were high in both sexes, suggesting that pregnenolone might serve as a circulating prohormone for local steroid synthesis in zebra finches. Furthermore, circulating testosterone levels were extremely low in both sexes. Additionally, we found no correlations between circulating steroid levels and pair-maintenance behavior. Taken together, our data raise several interesting questions about the neuroendocrinology of zebra finches. PMID:26610331

  4. Sex steroids stimulate leptin gene expression in Atlantic salmon parr hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, Susanne; Rocha, Ana; Schmitz, Monika

    2015-09-15

    In mammals, leptin plays an important role in puberty and reproduction and leptin is regulated by sex steroids. Elevated leptin levels have been associated with sexual maturation in some teleosts such as Atlantic salmon. In the present study, primary cultures of Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were used to investigate the direct effects of different sex steroids on expression of the two salmon leptin-a genes, lepa1 and lepa2. Testosterone (T) stimulated both lepa1 and lepa2 in a dose dependent manner after four days of incubation. The stimulatory effect of T on leptin expression was not prevented by co-incubation with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, indicating a direct androgen effect on transcription. The non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), which is the main androgen in fish, was generally slightly less potent than T in stimulating lepa1 and lepa2. The strongest stimulatory response was seen for 17?-estradiol (E2). E2 treatment significantly up-regulated lepa1 and lepa2 gene expression at doses of 10nM and 1nM for each gene, respectively. Lepa1, but not lepa2, was stimulated by T and 11-KT in immature male and immature female parr, while E2 stimulated expression of both genes. The sensitivity to sex steroid stimulation differed in maturing males compared to immature. In maturing males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa2 but not lepa1, while in immature males, the androgens and E2 stimulated lepa1, but only E2 stimulated lepa2. The differential response of the two leptin paralogues to the sex steroids suggests differences in regulation of the two leptin genes during maturation. Altogether, these results indicate that leptin expression in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes is directly regulated at the transcriptional level by the main teleost androgens and an estrogen, and that the response might depend on the developmental stage of the fish. PMID:25644210

  5. Sex and sex steroids: impact on the kinetics of fatty acids underlying body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes in body fat distribution. The objective of this review is to describe what has been learned regarding the mechanisms underlying changes in regional body fat distribution that occur as a result of changes in sex hormones and to delineate effects of sex steroids in modulating body composition. PMID:25460291

  6. Effects of sex steroids on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in transsexual subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Giltay, E.J.; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P. G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2003-01-01

    objective Sex differences are found in most components of the insulin resistance syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk profile. These differences are attributed to sex-specific sex steroid profiles, but the effects of sex steroids on the individual components of the insulin resistance syndrome remain incompletely understood. design Prospective, intervention study. subjects In 37 young (age range 16¿36 years), nonobese [body mass index (BMI) < 29], transsexual subjects, effects of et...

  7. Seasonal changes in sex and adrenal steroid hormones of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J A; Mendonça, M T; Guyer, C; Michener, W K

    2000-02-01

    We sampled a population of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) from May to October 1997 to determine seasonal cycles of steroid hormones (testosterone, T; 17beta-estradiol, E; and progesterone, P) and related them to observations of mating behavior. In males, plasma T levels peaked in July and August and remained elevated through October. This coincides with the reported time of peak mating and spermatogenesis, indicating that males display an associated pattern of reproduction. In females, E levels were high in September and October. Plasma T levels in females were elevated in May, decreased to basal levels in June and July, and rose again in August and September. Elevated E and T levels correspond to the reported time of peak vitellogenic activity, indicating that females also display an associated cycle. Plasma P in females remained basal throughout the active season, suggesting that ovulation occurs in late winter. We also determined levels of corticosterone (B) to assess the influence of capture stress on tortoises and correlated B levels with tortoise activity patterns and sex steroid levels. We found no seasonal variation in levels of B in males or females. Plasma B levels were not correlated with levels of T or E, but were positively correlated with female P levels. Further, we found no relationship between plasma B levels in males and mean distance moved, mean number of burrows used, or mean home range size. However, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma B levels and male body size. In females, there was no relationship between B levels and mean distance moved, but B levels were significantly negatively correlated with the number of burrows females occupied. Lastly, there was no relationship between levels of B and the number of minutes required to obtain blood from an animal. However, B levels increased with the length of time that a tortoise spent in a trap, suggesting that trapped tortoises do exhibit capture stress. PMID:10642451

  8. Sex and Sex Steroids: Impact on the Kinetics of Fatty Acids Underlying Body Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Sylvia; Michael D. Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans have a remarkable sexual dimorphism in body shape. Men tend to store relatively more fat in the upper body whereas women store more fat in the lower body. We do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences, but we know that people who preferentially store abdominal fat are at greater risk of metabolic disease. It is also known that the changes in sex steroid concentrations during puberty and again with advancing age are accompanied by changes i...

  9. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z

    2008-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  10. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. PMID:23689636

  11. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  12. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 μCi Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  13. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-07-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  14. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  15. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven a...

  16. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  18. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Castellsague, Xavier; Overvad, Kim; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Tjonneland, Anne A M; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Lukanova, Annekartin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Kranen, Henk J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Torhild Gram, Inger; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bosch, F Xavier; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Kjellberg, Lennart Does Not Apply; Dillner, Joakim; Manjer, Jonas; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle I; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  19. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...... intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy...

  20. Sex Steroids Affect Triglyceride Handling, Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide, and Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; ′t Hart, Leen M.; Wuyts, Birgitte; Jens J. Holst; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Ruige, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized clinical trial was performed to create contrasting sex steroid levels in healthy young men: by letrozole (aromatase inhibitor) to lower estradiol (E2) and increase testosterone (group T, n = 10) versus letrozole plus E2 patches to lower T and raise E2 (group E, n = 10). Mixed meals and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic c...

  1. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kwolek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.

  2. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, and androgen (AR receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test. ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.

  3. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between

  4. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  5. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  6. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marta C.; Jimnez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  7. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  8. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  9. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex determination: Review of a paradox in reptiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar S Radder

    2007-09-01

    During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds. Until recently, the observations were dominated by the idea that yolk steroids of maternal origin play an important role in sex determination of oviparous vertebrates. However, more recent studies have cast significant doubt on the above conclusion. These studies suggest instead that steroids may be present in the yolk simply as the byproduct of passive uptake during yolk formation or observed correlations might reflect embryonically produced rather than maternally derived steroids. Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex determination of reptiles, (ii) to identify and provide brief explanations for the observed paradoxical results, and (iii) to provide some future research directions.

  10. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  11. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian; Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to...... treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study....... Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0...

  12. Vitellogenin, sex steroid levels and gonadal biomarkers in wild Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from NW Mediterranean fishing grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Mañanós, E; Blázquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Specimens of Solea solea and Solea senegalenesis at different developmental stages were obtained from seven fishing grounds along the NW Mediterranean. Gonad development in males was classified into five stages, from early spermatogenesis to recovery, while four stages were considered in females, from growth to maturation. Vitellogenin (VTG) and sex steroid levels including an estrogen (estradiol, E2), two androgens (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) and a progestin (17,20β-dihydroxy pregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β-P or maturation inducing steroid, MIS) were analysed in plasma. Their levels were more clearly related to the developmental stage of the gonads than to the sampling site characteristics. In addition, enzyme activities in gonads, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) were gender-dependent and higher in males than in females. Gonadal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was enhanced in the most anthropogenic impacted sites. VTG was absent in males and very low or undetectable in immature females, while mature females exhibited high VTG levels, clearly related to the gonado-somatic index. Sex steroid levels (ng/ml) varied in males and females regardless of the species. E2 levels in females ranged from 0.22 to 6.98 while in males ranged from 0.11 to 0.27. T varied from 0.12 to 0.93 in females and from 0.56 to 1.36 in males, while 11KT in females fluctuated from 0.03 to 0.57 and from 0.26 to 6.42 in males. Similarly, MIS in females ranged from 0.75 to 3.71 and from 1.12 to 5.61 in males. The lack of endocrine disturbances was confirmed by histological examination of the gonads. This study informs on basal sex hormone levels and enzyme activities during gonadal maturation of wild Solea spp. that can be useful in the identification and further remediation of possible pollution events. PMID:27088613

  13. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  14. [Sex steroids and monoamines in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is a review of literature data, which characterize participation of monoamines brain systems and sex steroids in regulation (modulation) of the amygdalas' functions. Shown were characteristic noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and their representation in amygdala. Effect ofnoradrenaline, dopamine and serotonine on neurons of Amygdala was shown realized from appropriate cell receptors under modulated influence of sex steroids. Combined participation of monoamines and sex steroids occur in regulation of activity in cyclic centre of secretion and releasing of gonadotropins, constituted a base of forming adaptive (sexual, food and aggressive-defensive) behaviour, including stress reaction. The presented data could be used for understanding influence of gender factor on personality characteristics of humans, cognitive abilities and behavioural reactions, and also in application to development of optimal medicinal treatment of psychoneurological diseases. PMID:21874859

  15. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  16. Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

  17. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  18. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  19. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  20. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Tucker; Rama Krishna; Parimi Prabhakar; Swarup Panyam; Pankaj Anand

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targe...

  1. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  2. Sex Steroids Influence Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Secretion From Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Freeman, Michelle R; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2016-07-01

    Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is emerging as an important player in airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperreactivity. Separately, there is increasing evidence that sex hormones contribute to pathophysiology in the lung. BDNF and sex steroid signaling are thought to be intricately linked in the brain. There is currently little information on BDNF and sex steroid interactions in the airway but is relevant to understanding growth factor signaling in the context of asthma in men versus women. In this study, we assessed the effect of sex steroids on BDNF expression and secretion in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Human ASM was treated with estrogen (E2 ) or testosterone (T, 10 nM each) and intracellular BDNF and secreted BDNF measured. E2 and T significantly reduced secretion of BDNF; effects prevented by estrogen and androgen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (1 μM), and flutamide (10 μM), respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were observed in intracellular BDNF mRNA or protein expression. High affinity BDNF receptor, TrkB, was not altered by E2 or T. E2 (but not T) significantly increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Notably, Epac1 and Epac2 expression were significantly reduced by E2 and T. Furthermore, SNARE complex protein SNAP25 was decreased. Overall, these novel data suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of E2 or T inhibit BDNF secretion in human ASM, suggesting a potential interaction of sex steroids with BDNF in the airway that is different from brain. The relevance of sex steroid-BDNF interactions may lie in their overall contribution to airway diseases such as asthma. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1586-1592, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566264

  3. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  4. Sex steroids affect triglyceride handling, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and insulin sensitivity: a 1-week randomized clinical trial in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; 't Hart, Leen M; Wuyts, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Ruige, Johannes B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition.......To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition....

  5. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Overgaard, Agnete; Henningsson, Susanne; Heede, Maria; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Jensen, Peter Steen; Agn, Mikael; Nielsen, Anna Pors; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Lehel, Szabolcs; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations...

  6. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Steroids on Neonatal Brain Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Wang, Jiaping; ZHU, HONGTU; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M.; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured us...

  7. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  8. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved

  9. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JennyErkanderMullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  10. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats.

  11. Effects of 17 ?-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17?-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  12. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  13. Sex Genotype and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Growth Differences Between Male and Female Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish have an XX:XY genotypic system of sex determination, and until the present study, the influence of sex genotype on growth could not be distinguished from sex phenotype. Genotypic male fish (XY) were produced by mating normal (XX) female fish with YY male fish. A subsample from eac...

  14. No relationship between circulating levels of sex steroids and mammographic breast density: the Prospect-EPIC cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Verheus, Martijn; Peeters, Petra HM; van Noord, Paulus AH; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E; van Gils, Carla H

    2007-01-01

    Background High breast density is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Epidemiologic studies have shown an increase in breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women with high levels of sex steroids. Hence, sex steroids may increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk via an increase of breast density. The objective of the present study was to study the relation between circulating oestrogens and androgens as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to breast density. Method...

  15. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FumihikoMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  16. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  17. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  18. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  19. Effects of estradiol-17? implantation on ovarian growth, sex steroid levels and vitellogenin proxies in previtellogenic sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sobhan R; Falahatkar, Bahram; Gilani, Mohammad H Tolouei; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-06-01

    Sexual development in female great sturgeon (Huso huso) is arrested at the previtellogenic stage for many years. The present study investigated the effects of different levels of estradiol-17? (E2) on gonadal development, levels of sex steroids and proxies of vitellogenin in 3-year-old cultured previtellogenic great sturgeon. Fish were intraperitoneally implanted every 1.5 months over a 6-month period from January to July with capsules filled with 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg E2/kg body mass as control, low, mid and high experimental groups, respectively. Blood sampling was performed at the start of experimentation and 3 weeks after each implantation for quantification of sex steroid levels and of vitellogenin-associated variables (triacylglycerol, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus). Gonad biopsy samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the experiment in order to determine the gonad stage and oocyte morphometrical measures were taken to evaluate treatment effects. E2 implants produced a significant elevation in serum concentrations of E2, calcium, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phosphorus. A rapid significant decrease was observed in serum testosterone levels in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest testosterone concentrations were observed in control fish throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in oocyte stage or morphometric end points among the treated fish. We conclude that E2 implants do not stimulate ovarian growth, and hence, E2 implants alone are insufficient to reducing the time until onset of sexual maturation in previtellogenic great sturgeon. PMID:25724452

  20. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  1. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Christian J.; Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Barron, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In postmenopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of ...

  2. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Soliman; Ashraf Adel; Aml Sabt; Elkhansa Elbukhari; Hannah Ahmed; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH) testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2). They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50) were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42). All children were tested using standard clonidine test and thei...

  3. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone in Louisiana barn swallows Hirundo rustica that were...

  4. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and...... estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...

  5. Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Chul; Leung, Peter C K; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2005-01-01

    Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4), in female reproductive systems including the uterus and placenta. Thus, in this review, we summarize recent research literature in regards to the expression and regulation of CaBP-9k in mammals and introduce the research data of recent studies by us and others. PMID:16288660

  6. Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: Involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeung Eui-Bae

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen (E2 and progesterone (P4, in female reproductive systems including the uterus and placenta. Thus, in this review, we summarize recent research literature in regards to the expression and regulation of CaBP-9k in mammals and introduce the research data of recent studies by us and others.

  7. DHEA, important source of sex steroids in men and even more in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    A major achievement from 500 million years of evolution is the establishment of a high secretion rate of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) by the human adrenal glands coupled with the indroduction of menopause which stops secretion of estrogens by the ovary. Cessation of estrogen secretion at menopause eliminates the risks of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer which would result from non-opposed estrogen stimulation during the post-menopausal years. In fact, from the time of menopause, DHEA becomes the exclusive and tissue-specific source of sex steroids for all tissues except the uterus. Intracrinology, a term coined in 1988, describes the local formation, action and inactivation of sex steroids from the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA. Over the past 25 years most, if not all, the genes encoding the human steroidogenic and steroid-inactivating enzymes have been cloned and sequenced and their enzymatic activity characterized. The problem with DHEA, however, is that its secretion decreases from the age of 30 years and is already decreased, on average, by 60% at time of menopause. In addition, there is a large variability in the circulating levels of DHEA with some post-menopausal women having barely detectable serum concentrations of the steroid while others have normal values. Since there is no feedback mechanism controlling DHEA secretion within 'normal' values, women with low DHEA will remain with such a deficit of sex steroids for their remaining lifetime. Since there is no other significant source of sex steroids after menopause, one can reasonably believe that low DHEA is involved, in association with the aging process, in a series of medical problems classically associated with post-menopause, namely osteoporosis, muscle loss, vaginal atrophy, fat accumulation, hot flashes, skin atrophy, type 2 diabetes, memory loss, cognition loss and possibly Alzheimer's disease. A recent randomized, placebo-controlled study has shown that all the signs and symptoms of vaginal atrophy, a classical problem recognized to be due to the hormone deficiency of menopause, can be rapidly improved or corrected by local administration of DHEA without systemic exposure to estrogens. In addition, the four domains of sexual dysfucntion are improved. For the other problems of menopause, although similar large scale, randomized and placebo-controlled studies usually remain to be performed, the available evidence already strongly suggests that they could be improved, corrected or even prevented by exogenous DHEA. In men, the contribution of adrenal DHEA to the total androgen pool has been measured at 40% in 65-75-year-old men. Such data stress the necessity of blocking both the testicular and adrenal sources of androgens in order to achieve optimal benefits in prostate cancer therapy. On the other hand, the comparable decrease in serum DHEA levels observed in both sexes has less consequence in men who continue to receive a practically constant supply of testicular sex steroids during their whole life. In fact, in men, the appearance of hormone-deficiency symptoms common to women is observed at a later age and with a lower degree of severity. Consequently, DHEA replacement has shown much more easily measurable beneficial effects in women. Most importantly, despite the non-scientific and unfortunate availability of DHEA as a food supplement in the United States, a situation that discourages rigorous clinical trials on the crucial physiological and therapeutic role of DHEA, no serious adverse event related to DHEA has ever been reported in the world literature (thousands of subjects exposed) or in the monitoring of adverse events by the FDA (millions of subjects exposed), thus indicating, as expected from its known physiology, the excellent safety profile of DHEA. With today's knowledge, one can reasonably suggest that DHEA offers the promise of a safe and efficient replacement therapy for the multiple problems related to hormone deficiency after menopause without the risks associated with estrogen-based or any other treatments. PMID:20541662

  8. Chronic Hypoxia Inhibits Sex Steroid Hormone-Mediated Attenuation of Ovine Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Katherine; Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Xue, Zhice; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in ovine uterine arteries have demonstrated that sex steroid hormones upregulate ERK1/2 expression and downregulate PKC signaling pathway, resulting in the attenuated myogenic tone in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gesttation inhibits the sex steroid-mediated adaptation of ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathways and increases the myogenic tone of uterine arteries. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant ...

  9. Sex steroid levels and response to weight loss interventions among postmenopausal women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Catherine; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Randolph, John F; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J; Golden, Sherita H; .. .

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen. Design and Methods The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysi...

  10. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation. PMID:26317368

  11. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Markosyan; Lang, Delia L; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for partici...

  12. Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

  13. Raynaud's phenomenon: subjective influence of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, M L; Wollersheim, H; van de Lisdonk, E; Thien, T

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies with standardized laboratory measurements of skin blood flow suggest an influence of female sex hormones on vasospasm. Therefore we evaluated the influence of sex hormonal status on the subjective complaints of Raynaud's phenomenon and furthermore the combined presence of Raynaud's phenomenon and migraine. A detailed questionnaire was filled in by 130 primary Raynaud patients (31 males, 99 females), while 27 females, with regular menstrual cycles without the use of oral contraceptives, kept a diary with daily registration (during three months) of frequency, severity and duration of the vasospastic attacks. Complaints improved during pregnancy in 6 out of 23 females. No influence of the menopause or the use of oral contraceptives was found. An exacerbation in some phases of the menstrual cycle was present in 15 out of 80 females. The diaries, however, did not show such influence of menstrual cycle phase. Migraine was present in 21% of the Raynaud patients. In contrast to most reports in the literature and contrary to the results of laboratory research, this study shows that most females do not experience an important subjective influence of sex hormonal status on vasospastic attacks. PMID:1295937

  14. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  15. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  16. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuguruKawato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ERα or ERβ, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ERα or ERβ. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ERα, but not ERβ, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ERα and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

  17. Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fis...

  18. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  20. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  1. A qualitative exploration of female sex work in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Davila, Wendy; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-08-01

    Previous research has documented high rates of STDs and increased risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico; however, little is known about the sexual risk behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to explore work history, context of sex work, sexual risk practices, client characteristics, attitudes toward condoms, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Analysis of qualitative data from 25 FSWs revealed that most women entered the sex trade at a young age ( M = 23 years), primarily as a result of financial need. Forty percent were single mothers supporting children. Women worked an average of 6-7 days per week; work shifts ranged from 4 to 13 hr per day. Clients were both Mexican and foreign (mostly American and Asian), and ranged in age from 18 to 80 years. Positive aspects of the job included flexible work hours and good income. Negative aspects of sex work included risks associated with physical assault, diseases, and unwanted pregnancies. Most clients did not want to use a condom and many offered additional money for unprotected sex. FSWs did not like to use condoms because they were perceived as uncomfortable. Most FSWs did not negotiate the use of condoms, had a low knowledge regarding the proper use of condoms, and were reticent to report their own unsafe sex practices. These results suggest the need to develop culturally appropriate safer sex interventions for FSWs in Mexican border cities. PMID:15162080

  2. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  3. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Liu; Haifei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies ha...

  4. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  5. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  6. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Hilsted, Linda; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A...... higher IGF-I levels compared with controls (IGF-I SD-score 0·72 vs -0·037, P < 0·001). This difference was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age and pubertal stage). Sex steroid levels, oestradiol/testosterone ratio or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia....... Nonfasting blood samples were analysed for FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, oestradiol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and prolactin. RESULTS: We found that 23% (31/133) of all pubertal boys had gynaecomastia. More specifically, 63% (10/16) of boys in genital stage 4 had gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly...

  7. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  8. Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?

    OpenAIRE

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

    2010-01-01

    Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

  9. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

  10. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  11. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your ... a closer look at the links between sex, gender, and health. Many people use the words sex ...

  12. Precise, highly female-biased sex ratios in a social spider.

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, L; McCormack, J; Cutter, A; Bukowski, T

    2000-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the risk of producing maleless clutches should select for a lower than binomial variance in the sex ratio of organisms with female-biased sex ratios, small clutches and breeding groups containing the clutch of a single female. However, to date, precise sex ratios have only been reported for organisms with haplodiploid sex determination, a system which allows direct control of the sex of individual offspring. In contrast, under heterogametic sex determ...

  13. Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-05-01

    Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's α coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (β = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (β = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

  14. Feeding regulates sex pheromone attraction and courtship in Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sbastien; Trona, Federica; Borrero-Echeverry, Felipe; Bilz, Florian; Grabe, Veit; Becher, Paul G; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nssel, Dick R; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, gender-specific behavioural responses to the male-produced sex pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) rely on sexually dimorphic, third-order neural circuits. We show that nutritional state in female flies modulates cVA perception in first-order olfactory neurons. Starvation increases, and feeding reduces attraction to food odour, in both sexes. Adding cVA to food odour, however, maintains attraction in fed females, while it has no effect in males. Upregulation of sensitivity and behavioural responsiveness to cVA in fed females is paralleled by a strong increase in receptivity to male courtship. Functional imaging of the antennal lobe (AL), the olfactory centre in the insect brain, shows that olfactory input to DA1 and VM2 glomeruli is also modulated by starvation. Knocking down insulin receptors in neurons converging onto the DA1 glomerulus suggests that insulin-signalling partly controls pheromone perception in the AL, and adjusts cVA attraction according to nutritional state and sexual receptivity in Drosophila females. PMID:26255707

  15. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  16. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have

  17. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frdrique; Aksglde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Srensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebk, Niels Erik; Juul, Anders; Bizec, Bruno Le

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  18. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  19. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  20. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

    2007-01-01

    Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

  1. Psychological stressors in the context of commercial sex among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

    2015-01-01

    Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSWs) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSWs, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSWs faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSWs to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

  2. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  3. Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Tim; Simić, Milena; Baroš, Sladjana; Platt, Lucy; Žikić, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported th...

  4. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  5. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5?g/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P.trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. PMID:26552528

  6. A female-biased sex ratio reduces the twofold cost of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of sexual reproduction remains a fascinating enigma in biology. Theoretically, populations of sexual organisms investing half of their resources into producing male offspring that don't contribute to reproduction should grow at only half the rate of their asexual counterparts. This demographic disadvantage due to male production is known as the twofold cost of sex. However, the question of whether this cost is truly twofold for sexual females remains unanswered. The cost of producing males should decrease when the number of male offspring is reduced. Here, we report a case where the cost of males is actually less than twofold. By measuring the numbers of sexual strain coexisting with asexual strain among thrips, our survey revealed that the sexual strain showed female-biased sex ratios and that the relative frequency of sexual strain is negatively correlated with the proportion of males in the sexual strain. Using computer simulations, we confirmed that a female-biased sex ratio evolves in sexual individuals due to the coexistence of asexual individuals. Our results demonstrate that there is a cost of producing males that depends on the number of males. We therefore conclude that sexual reproduction can evolve with far fewer benefits than previously assumed. PMID:27035400

  7. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  9. Sex Determination in Honeybees: Two Separate Mechanisms Induce and Maintain the Female Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schitt, Morten; Hause, Gerd; Otte, Marianne; Beye, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene. Bees heterozygous at Sex Determination Locus are females, whereas bees homozygous or hemizygous are males. Little is known, however, about the regulation that links sex determination to sexual differe...

  10. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Sam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

  11. Accounting for and managing risk in sex work: A study of female sex workers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Nga

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers how in the course of their work female sex workers in Hong Kong experience risk. It concerns the indoor side of the sex market, an area which has so far been largely ignored in studies on commercial sex. The focus is on women working independently from flats. Focusing on womens own accounts of work-related risks, risky behaviour and coping strategies, this study investigates sex workers reflexive understandings of prostitution and their occupational risk in late modern...

  12. Do female parasitoid wasps recognize and adjust sex ratios to build cooperative relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, J; Kamimura, Y

    2012-07-01

    Sex allocation theories provide excellent opportunities to investigate not only the extent to which individuals' behaviour is adaptive, but also how they use relevant information for their decision-making. Here, we investigated whether female parasitoid wasps recognize the sex ratios of other females and adjust their laying sex ratios accordingly. Specifically, we tested the prediction of reciprocal cooperation over sex allocation. Theory predicts more female-biased (cooperative) sex ratios than in the interest of individual benefit, when a restricted number of ovipositing females interact for a long period and their offspring mate within the natal patch. This is because the female-biased sex ratio reduces competition for mates among the male offspring of the females and increases the overall reproductive productivity of the patch. In this case, females would be expected to respond to more even (noncooperative) sex ratios by others and to retaliate by also producing a less female-biased sex ratio to avoid exploitation by defectors. However, contrary to this prediction, our experiment using a sterile male technique showed that female Melittobia australica did not change their offspring sex ratios in response to the sex ratios produced by other females. This suggests that their extremely female-biased sex ratios cannot be explained by reciprocity. A meta-analysis of studies examining sex recognition ability in parasitoid wasps also did not support the predicted pattern of relevant sex ratio adjustment, suggesting that parasitoid females do not possess this ability. Here, we discuss the conditions necessary for the evolution of reciprocity linked to recognition ability. PMID:22591227

  13. Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    OpenAIRE

    Shira M. Goldenberg; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Thomas L. Patterson; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with inc...

  14. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17? enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17?-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17?,20?-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  15. Sex-dependent selection on an autosomal melanic female ornament promotes the evolution of sex ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Altwegg, Res; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Schaub, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Sex-dependent selection often leads to spectacularly different phenotypes in males and females. In species in which sexual dimorphism is not complete, it is unclear which benefits females and males derive from displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex. In barn owls (Tyto alba), females exhibit on average larger black eumelanic spots than males but members of the two sexes display this trait in the same range of possible values. In a 12-year study, we show that selection exerted on spot size directly or on genetically correlated traits strongly favoured females with large spots and weakly favoured males with small spots. Intense directional selection on females caused an increase in spot diameter in the population over the study period. This increase is due to a change in the autosomal genes underlying the expression of eumelanic spots but not of sex-linked genes. Female-like males produced more daughters than sons, while male-like females produced more sons than daughters when mated to a small-spotted male. These sex ratio biases appear adaptive because sons of male-like females and daughters of female-like males had above-average survival. This demonstrates that selection exerted against individuals displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex promoted the evolution of specific life history strategies that enhance their fitness. This may explain why in many organisms sexual dimorphism is often not complete. PMID:20337696

  16. Simvastatin decreases steroid production in the H295R cell line and decreases steroids and FSH in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldvang, Anna; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Weisser, Johan J; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    .3 (L), 5.0 (M), and 20.0 (H)mg SV/kg bw/day for 14 days. 10 Steroids were investigated in H295R growth media, and in tissues and plasma from rats using GC-MS/MS. Plasma LH and FSH were quantified by ELISA. In the H295R assay, SV and SVA particularly decreased progestagens with IC50-values from 0...

  17. Unintended pregnancy among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Weldegebreal, Rishan; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Alemayehu, Mussie; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health concern in the world. Particularly, female sex workers are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy, abortion and their consequences. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess unintended pregnancy and associated factors among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 female sex workers from five Kebelles (smallest administrative units in ...

  18. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    OpenAIRE

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; Yamakura, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes.

  19. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α Expression in the Hypothalamus by Sex Steroids: Implication in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs). ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ERα-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ERα regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ERα global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ERα is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement) or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause), lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ERα expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women. PMID:26491443

  20. Expression analyses of sex steroid-regulated genes in neonatal rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the brain in rats during the perinatal period. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain, in this study we investigated genes differentially expressed between sexes or induced to express by estrogen...... in neonatal rat hypothalamus using DNA microarray analysis in combination with real-time RT-PCR. It was found that the levels of expression of the genes encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and coronin 1b were higher in male than female hypothalamus on postnatal day (PN) 5 and those of collagen...... type 3 alpha1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 genes in female hypothalamus on PN5 were decreased and increased, respectively, by treatment with estradiol on PN2. Then the developmental changes in the expression of these 4 genes were examined from 1 day before the parturition to PN9, and they all showed...

  1. The effect of elevated steroids released by reproductive male round gobies, Neogobius melanostomus, on olfactory responses in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laframboise, Alyson J; Katare, Yogesh; Scott, Alexander P; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2011-03-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a highly successful invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Previous behavioral studies implied that females are attracted by pheromones to the nests of reproductive males, and that males release putative steroidal pheromones--unconjugated as well as conjugated forms of 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstane-11,17-dione (11-O-ETIO)-following stimulation of the hypothalamic--gonadal axis with salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analog (sGnRHa). In this study, we tested the olfactory system of females in response to extracts containing these released steroids. We compared electrical field potential responses from the olfactory epithelium (electro-olfactogram, EOG) of non-reproductive females to methanol extracts of water that previously held males, collected before and after injection of the males with sGnRHa or saline. The females showed increased EOG responses to the post-injection extracts when males were treated with sGnRHa but not saline. This finding provides further evidence for interactions between male and female N. melanostomus via steroidal reproductive pheromones. PMID:21365215

  2. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)

  3. Prospective Associations between Alcohol and Drug Consumption and Risky Sex among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Zarate, Elizabeth M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Wish, Eric D.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    Females who had vaginal sex were interviewed annually in their first two years of college (n=386, ages 17 to 20 at study outset) and asked about risky sex behaviors and substance use. In year one, 60.2%[subscript wt] had intoxicated sex, 31.4%[subscript wt] had multiple sex partners, and 48.9%[subscript wt] had unprotected sex (i.e., without a…

  4. Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Lchters, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) int...

  5. Change of the heterogametic sex from male to female in the frog.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, M.; Ohtani, H.; Igarashi, T; Hasegawa, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Miura, I

    2003-01-01

    Two different types of sex chromosomes, XX/XY and ZZ/ZW, exist in the Japanese frog Rana rugosa. They are separated in two local forms that share a common origin in hybridization between the other two forms (West Japan and Kanto) with male heterogametic sex determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes. In this study, to find out how the different types of sex chromosomes differentiated, particularly the evolutionary reason for the heterogametic sex change from male to female, we performed ar...

  6. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  7. Influence of triazine herbicide exposure on guppies (poecilia sphenops aromatase activities, altered sex steroid concentration and vitellogenin induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vasanth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  8. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-05-01

    Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work, and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n = 253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2 and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

  10. A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jrme

    2004-01-01

    A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversio...

  11. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561

  12. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  13. Immunohistochemical sex steroid receptor distribution in endometrium from long-term subdermal levonorgestrel users and during the normal menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, H O; Bailey, D A; Au, C L; Affandi, B; Rogers, P A

    1993-10-01

    The bleeding problems experienced by users of subdermal levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) remain unexplained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) distribution in levonorgestrel-treated endometrial biopsies from 31 subjects recruited in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to compare the sex steroid receptor immunostaining with that of endometrium from 58 normally cycling women from Melbourne, Australia. Sex steroid receptor immunoreactivity was additionally compared with days of exposure to subdermal levonorgestrel, serum oestradiol and progesterone levels and days of bleeding during a 90-day reference period. An immunohistochemical technique with an alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) detection system for use in formalin-fixed paraffin wax embedded endometrial tissue was employed. Significantly greater mean immunostaining scores of stromal PR were observed in Norplant compared with control endometrium at all stages across the cycle. No significant correlations were demonstrated between sex steroid receptor immunostaining and days of exposure to subdermal levonorgestrel, serum oestradiol or progesterone concentrations or days of bleeding during a 90-day reference period. Whether the elevated stromal PR immunostaining in Norplant-treated endometrium is a consequence of increased synthesis or reduced turnover of receptor remains unclear. As yet it is undetermined whether increased PR immunoreactivity corresponds to an increase in number of functional PR. PMID:8300819

  14. Are Bioactive and Free Sex Steroids Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Middle Aged Men? - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Melek Sezgin; Burak Çimen; Handan Çamdeviren Ankaralı; İsmet As; Neslihan Erçetin; Özlem Bölgen Çimen; Günşah Şahin

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether bioactive and free sex steroids are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in middle aged men. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifteen out of 165 volunteers aged 35-65 years presenting to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. Serum albumin, total testosterone (T), total estradiol (E2), SHBG, osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) levels were measured. Free and bioactive sex steroids, free androgen index ...

  15. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on th...

  16. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; WAGNER, KARLA D.; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of differ...

  17. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  18. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  19. Modulation of the firing activity of female dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurons by neuroactive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, M; Debonnel, G

    2004-07-01

    Important gender differences in mood disorders result in a greater susceptibility for women. Accumulating evidence suggests a reciprocal modulation between the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and neuroactive steroids. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that during pregnancy, the firing activity of 5-HT neurons increases in parallel with progesterone levels. This study was undertaken to evaluate the putative modulation of the 5-HT neuronal firing activity by different neurosteroids. Female rats received i.c.v. for 7 days a dose of 50 micro g/kg per day of one of the following steroids: progesterone, pregnenolone, 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione (5beta-DHP), 5beta-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one, 5beta-pregnan-3beta-ol,20-one, 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one (allopregnanolone, 3alpha,5alpha-THP), 5alpha-pregnane-3beta-ol,20-one and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). 5beta-DHP and DHEA were also administered for 14 and 21 days (50 micro g/kg per day, i.c.v.) as well as concomitantly with the selective sigma 1 (sigma1) receptor antagonist NE-100. In vivo, extracellular unitary recording of 5-HT neurons performed in the dorsal raphe nucleus of these rats revealed that DHEA, 5beta-DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP significantly increased the firing activity of the 5-HT neurons. Interestingly, 5beta-DHP and DHEA showed different time-frames for their effects with 5beta-DHP having its greatest effect after 7 days to return to control values after 21 days, whereas DHEA demonstrated a sustained effect over the 21 day period. NE-100 prevented the effect of DHEA but not of 5beta-DHP, thus indicating that its sigma1 receptors mediate the effect of DHEA but not that of 5beta-DHP. In conclusion, our results offer a cellular basis for potential antidepressant effects of neurosteroids, which may prove important particularly for women with affective disorders. PMID:15225127

  20. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

  1. Interactions of 16α-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 16α-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  2. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  3. Perceptions of Sex Discrimination among Female University Faculty and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 60 faculty and staff women at a mid-sized university to determine the extent to which they perceived sex discrimination. Faculty women perceived sex discrimination more than did staff women and were less likely to believe that academia was a meritocracy. Differences in perception of sex discrimination were found based upon the gender…

  4. Perspectives of Medical Interns Regarding Female Feticide and Declining Sex Ratio in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada Avachat; Pritish Raut; Mrinal Zambare; Dilipkumar Gund; Rutuja Pundkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigne...

  5. A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jrme

    2004-09-22

    A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

  6. Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats

  7. An Analysis of Females Convicted of Sex Crimes in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J.; Meehan, D. Cricket

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of female sex offenders has been poorly explored in the scientific literature. In particular, little exploration of possible subtypes of female offenders has been conducted. In the current study, 279 female sexual offenders convicted of a total of 940 separate criminal offenses were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis.…

  8. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  9. Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?

    OpenAIRE

    Cittelly, Diana M; Richer, Jennifer K.; Sartorius, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17β-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell p...

  10. The relaxant effect of sex steroids in rat myometrium is independent of the gamma-amino butyric acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusqua, M; Villaln, C M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of action on the uterine-relaxant effect of sex steroids has been suggested to involve an interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors. However, other lines of evidence do not seem to support this suggestion. In view of this controversy, this study was designed to investigate the potential relaxant effect of GABA, muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), testosterone, progesterone and their 5-reduced metabolites in rat uterus at different endocrine stages (pregnant, nonpregnant and estrogenized), with particular emphasis on verifying if the relaxant effect of steroids involves an interaction with GABA(A) receptors. Contractions from uterine rings were recorded by isometric method, the sequential addition of either GABA (at different concentrations) on the spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction or muscimol (also at different concentrations) on the contraction induced by KCl was devoid of any significant effect. In contrast, the sequential addition of progesterone relaxed the tonic KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of progesterone was mimicked by its 5-reduced metabolites. The 5(beta)-configured isomers were more potent than progesterone and the 5(alpha)-configured ones. Interestingly, the relaxation produced by the above steroids was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, but was reversed by calcium. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the relaxant action of the sex steroids analyzed in this study is not mediated by an interaction with GABA(A) receptors, instead a blockade of calcium influx appears to be responsible. PMID:8786697

  11. Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Basuki, E.; I. Wolffers; Devillé, W.; Erlaini, N.; Luhpuri, D.; Hargono, R.; Maskuri, N.; Suesen, N.; Beelen, N. van

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a sample of 204 female sex workers. Qualitative data were collected by conducting focus group discussions and in-depth interviews among female sex wor...

  12. Role of sex hormones in hypercapnia-induced activation of the locus coeruleus in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H

    2016-01-28

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity. PMID:26601772

  13. The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

  14. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

  15. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schchinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions with and without stress. First, female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone affect emotions and cognition, contributing to sex differences in behavior. Second, females respond differently to stress than males which might be related to the phase of the estrous cycle. For example, female rats and mice express less anxiety than males in a novel environment. Proestrus females are less anxious than females in the other estrous phases. Third, males perform in spatial tasks superior to females. However, while stress impairs spatial memory in males, females improve their spatial abilities, depending on the task and kind of stressor. We conclude that the differences in emotion, cognition and responses to stress between males and females over the different phases of the estrous cycle should be used in animal models for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:22113371

  16. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  17. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  18. l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed hormonal pheromones because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here we ...

  19. Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)

  20. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S M

    2012-05-01

    Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

  1. Transitions Between Male and Female Heterogamety Caused by Sex-Antagonistic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Van Doorn, G. Sander; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Many animal taxa show frequent and rapid transitions between male heterogamety (XY) and female heterogamety (ZW). We develop a model showing how these transitions can be driven by sex-antagonistic selection. Sex-antagonistic selection acting on loci linked to a new sex-determination mutation can cause it to invade, but when acting on loci linked to the ancestral sex-determination gene will inhibit an invasion. The strengths of the consequent indirect selection on the old and new sex-determina...

  2. The Chameleon Syndrome: A Social Psychological Dimension of the Female Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bernard C.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and social correlates of the female form of the Chameleon Syndrome--an accommodative response to an environment perceived as hostile to inappropriate sex role behavior--among a sample of 3200 American adolescents. (Author)

  3. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hbner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant?s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin. PMID:26300058

  4. Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Satarupa

    2013-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

  5. Drosophila Sex-lethal protein mediates polyadenylation switching in the female germline

    OpenAIRE

    Gawande, Bharat; Robida, Mark D; RAHN, ANDREW; Singh, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    The Drosophila master sex-switch protein Sex-lethal (SXL) regulates the splicing and/or translation of three known targets to mediate somatic sexual differentiation. Genetic studies suggest that additional target(s) of SXL exist, particularly in the female germline. Surprisingly, our detailed molecular characterization of a new potential target of SXL, enhancer of rudimentary (e(r)), reveals that SXL regulates e(r) by a novel mechanismpolyadenylation switchingspecifically in the female germ...

  6. Behaviour change and associated factors among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. Methods This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of beha...

  7. Defense Mechanisms in Females as a Function of Sex-Role Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald G.

    1982-01-01

    Studied influence of sex roles on defense mechanisms. Females completed Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Low masculinity on the BSRI was associated with high Turning Against Self on the DMI. High masculine subjects indicated greater willingness to attack objects of frustration. (Author)

  8. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone; Faxelid Elisabeth; Sychareun Vanphanom; Thomsen Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Sa...

  9. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  10. Single locus sex determination and female heterogamety in the basket willow (Salix viminalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pucholt, P; Rönnberg-Wästljung, A-C; Berlin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Most eukaryotes reproduce sexually and a wealth of different sex determination mechanisms have evolved in this lineage. Dioecy or separate sexes are rare among flowering plants but have repeatedly evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors possibly involving male or female sterility mutations. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are predominantly dioecious and are members of the Salicaceae family. All studied poplars have sex determination loci on chromosome XIX, however, the position ...

  11. HIV-Related Risk Factors Associated with Commercial Sex Among Female Migrants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongmei; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; CHEN, XINGUANG; LIU, HONGJIE; Fang, Xiaoyi; LIN, DANHUA; Mao, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related...

  12. Different male vs. female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Graeme C.; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Schofield, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD), such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceed...

  13. Correlates of Current Transactional Sex among a Sample of Female Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, MD

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2...

  14. A study to correlate histopathology, biochemical marker and immunohistochemical expression of sex-steroid receptors in prostatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukla Naskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate gland is a fibromusculoglandular structure situated at the neck of urinary bladder. So, enlargement or growth of prostate due to nodular hyperplasia (NHP or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN or adenocarcinoma may give rise to bladder outlet obstruction. Malignant growth i.e., PIN or adenocarcinoma cases are associated with increased blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and increased expression of different sex-steroid receptors because the growth is dependent on the interactions of androgen, progesterone and estrogen. The aim of our study is to correlate the histopathology, PSA levels and expression of different sex-steroid receptors by immunohistochemistry in different prostatic growth lesions. Among the total 50 cases received, inclusive of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and radical prostatectomy, 34 cases were diagnosed as NHP, 4 cases as PIN and 12 cases as adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Serum PSA values above 10 ng/ml were seen in 2 cases of PIN and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and none of NHP. Estrogen receptor (ER ( expressions were negative in all cases. Progesterone receptor (PR expressions were strongly positive in 35% cases of both NHP and adenocarcinoma, whereas androgen receptor (AR expressions were strong among all cases of adenocarcinoma and only in four cases of NHP. By observing these findings it can be suggested that antiandrogen and antiprogesterone therapy simultaneously will do better than antiandrogen alone in treating prostatic growth lesions.

  15. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  16. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2014), s. 755-768. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2014

  17. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  18. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  19. Fertility in Tall Men and Women Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence and Genetic Determinants of Tall Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Emile

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes in a large group of constitutional tall men and women the long-term effects of high-dose sex steroid treatment to reduce final height and the genetic determinants of tall stature. In part 1 we evaluated fertility and gonadal function in later life of two independent cohorts of tall women and one cohort of tall men who did or did not receive high-dose sex steroid treatment in adolescence. We found that estrogen treated women experienced more difficult...

  20. Sex chromosome pairing and heterochromatin body appearance in Cydia pomonella females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis

  1. IMPORTANCE OF ANDROGYNY SCORE IN DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SEXES AND AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SCHIZOPHRENIC FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Importance of androgyny score in differentiation between sexes and as a diagnostic tool in schizophrenic females. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 23 schizophrenic females diagnosed on basis of DSM - IV - TR criteria by consultant psychiatrist of M.Y. Hospital , M.G.M. medical college, Indore. 60 controls (28 females and 32 males were also included in the study. Biacromial and bi - iliac diameter were measured by Martin's sliding anthropometer and androgyny score was calculated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mean and standard deviation were calculated. Further analysis of data was done using student’s t - test. RESULT: Significant lower androgyny score was not observed in schizophrenic females in both groups and difference between androgyny was highly significa nt when males and females were compared. CONCLUSION: Androgyny score is very effective to differentiate between the sexes but not an effective tool for diagnosis in schizophrenic females.

  2. "Preparation of HY Antibody in Female Mice as a Model for Sex Preselection"

    OpenAIRE

    Andonian, L; MB Eslami; AA Mohammadi; J Akbarzadeh; HR Soleimanpour; DD Farhud

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this sutdy is to prepare Histocompatability Y(HY) antibody in female mouse at the first phase (current study), and to separate mouse embryos with regard to their sex, to be able to obtain offsprings of disired sex, by means of HY antibody, at the second phase. Totally 421 BALB/C inbred mice were used. Antibodies were produced in females by intraperitonial injections of spleen and testis cells of neonatal male mice. The sera of females were tested by five different immunological tec...

  3. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  4. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

  5. Precise, highly female-biased sex ratios in a social spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, L; McCormack, J; Cutter, A; Bukowski, T

    2000-07-22

    It has been recognized for some time that the risk of producing maleless clutches should select for a lower than binomial variance in the sex ratio of organisms with female-biased sex ratios, small clutches and breeding groups containing the clutch of a single female. However, to date, precise sex ratios have only been reported for organisms with haplodiploid sex determination, a system which allows direct control of the sex of individual offspring. In contrast, under heterogametic sex determination chance is expected to play a crucial role in determining the sex composition of any one family, in particular when males are the heterogametic sex. Here, we present evidence of precise or underdispersed primary sex ratios in the Neotropical social spider Anelosimus domingo Levi. We show that this diplodiploid species with male heterogamety has not only beaten the odds of meiosis by producing mostly daughters, but has also attained relative precision in the proportion of sons and daughters produced in any one clutch. The latter finding suggests the existence of mechanisms that allow sorting of the two types of sperm in this spider species. PMID:10983829

  6. Automation of radioimmunoassays for some sex steroids with use of both iodinated and tritiated ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an automated technique for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, in which System Olli 3000 pipetting and incubation units are used. After extraction or chromatography, steroids are redissolved in ethanol or buffer, and duplicate aliquots are arranged for radioimmunoassay in 24-tube blocks. Addition of antibodies, tracers (125I or 3H), dextran-coated charcoal for separating free and bound ligands, and removal of a portion of the supernate for counting are all performed by the pipetting instrument. Incubations are at 370C in the incubation unit, or at 40C. After counting, steroid concentrations are computed from punch tape records by a Nova 840 computer. The management of assays in 24-tube units, and accurate simultaneous pipetting has reduced experimental error, and because there is no carryover, many different assays can be performed concurrently or in rapid sequence. Various scintillation media are compared

  7. The relation of ovarian steroid levels in young female rats to subsequent estrous cyclicity and reproductive function during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapolt, P S; Matt, D W; Judd, H L; Lu, J K

    1986-12-01

    In multiparous rats, the incidence of regular estrous cyclicity and fertility decreases markedly at middle age. However, recent studies have shown that repeated pregnancies or progesterone (P) implants can subsequently cause retired breeder females to maintain regular cyclicity for an extended period of time; these results suggest a P-mediated deceleration of reproductive aging. In the present study, we examined the relation of ovarian steroid levels in young virgin females to their subsequent estrous cyclicity and reproductive function during aging as compared to multiparous females. Beginning at 4 mo of age and continuing to 6 mo of age, regularly cyclic virgin rats received either consecutive P implants (n = 41) or no implants (controls, n = 45) for 3 wk, followed by implant removal for 1 wk. Additional females (n = 72) were mated and allowed to undergo repeated pregnancies at 4, 6 1/2, and 8 mo of age. Blood samples were obtained throughout the estrous cycle (virgin females), during pregnancy (multiparous rats), and on Day 11 of successive treatments with P implants (virgins with P implants) for P, estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) measurements. Subsequently, regularly cyclic females from all three groups were mated with fertile males to undergo term pregnancies at 10 and 12 mo of age. While the virgin controls showed cyclic increases in P, T, and E2 secretion during their estrous cycles, the P-implanted females had persistently low E2 and high P and T levels during treatment, which indicates an inhibition of ovarian E2 synthesis by P.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3828428

  8. Are Bioactive and Free Sex Steroids Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Middle Aged Men? - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Sezgin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether bioactive and free sex steroids are associated with bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover markers in middle aged men. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifteen out of 165 volunteers aged 35-65 years presenting to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. Serum albumin, total testosterone (T, total estradiol (E2, SHBG, osteocalcin (OC and C-terminal telopeptide (CTx levels were measured. Free and bioactive sex steroids, free androgen index (FAI and free estrogen index (FEI were calculated. BMD in the lumbar spine and the hip was measured in all participants and effects of sex steroids on BMD and bone turnover markers were investigated. Results: The mean age and the mean body mass index (BMI in all participants were 52.4±7.8 years and 26.1±3.4 kg/m2 respectively. There was no significant difference in sex hormone levels and bone turnover markers between the individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia and the individuals with normal BMD (p>0.05. There was a significant relation between age and FAI (r=-0.23, p=0.01, but there was no significant relation between age and bioactive and free sex steroids, FEI and SHBG. However, there was a positive correlation between BMI and bioactive E2 (r=0.35, p:0001, free E2 (r=0.29, p:0.002 and FEI (r=0.39, p=0.0001. After an adjustment for variables effective on BMD was made; no relation was found between BMD measures from the lumbar spine and the hip and serum bioactive sex steroids, free sex steroids, FAI, FEI and SHBG (p>0.05. However, there was a weak positive relation between serum bioactive T, FEI and OC, CTx levels (p=0.05. Conclusion: We think that bioactive and free sex steroids are not independent variables effective on BMD in the spine and the hip in middle aged men and that further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of idiopathic male osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:59-65

  9. Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S

    1999-09-01

    Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone. PMID:10480988

  10. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-06-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  11. Sex Hormone Levels During and Between Attacks At Female Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat DEMIRKAYA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study is to investigate the relation between the serum levels of sex hormones and migraine headache in female migraine patients. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine were measured during the headache attack and in the interval period in female migraine patients with or without aura.Materials and Methods: 46 female migraine patients who had no systemic disease were enrolled in this study. The patients ranging in age from 15 to 45 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients during the headache attack and in the interval period. We measured the serum level of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine.Results: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the interval period level (absolute value; t>1.96. There were no differences in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period (absolute value; t<1.96.Conclusion: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the serum level of interval period. However no differences were found in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period. It was described that significant variations occur in the serum levels of sex hormones during headache attack or in the interval period in female migraine patients. The examination of serum sex hormones levels can be useful to determine the etiopathogenesis and treatment in female migraine patients.

  12. Perspectives of medical interns regarding female feticide and declining sex ratio in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Avachat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigned structured questionnaire. Chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Z tests were used to test the significance level. Results: Knowledge of current sex ratio was significantly better among female interns than male interns. Majority of interns opined that creating awareness is an effective measure to combat declining sex ratio and only 33 interns had correct knowledge regarding all measures. Only 37.9% of interns knew all the legal indications for use of prenatal diagnostic techniques. However, 81% of interns were aware of punishments mentioned for violation of the Act. Mean score of knowledge was 22.06 among males and 24.4 among females. Conclusion: The findings in our study underline the need to sensitize doctors regardingevery aspect of Pre-Conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act and selective sex determination.

  13. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also alter their behavior and microhabitat use under a male-biased sex ratio. Consistent with surveys showing reduced detection probabilities for females, our research suggests that females avoid male encounters using edge and substrate habitat. Our work illustrates the integrated suite of impacts that sexual conflict can have on the structure and ecology of a population.

  14. Government crackdown of sex work in China: responses from female sex workers and implications for their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

  15. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714

  16. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

  17. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions. PMID:26460849

  18. Aging affects sex categorization of male and female faces in opposite ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Damm, Madeleine; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2015-06-01

    Faces are rich in social information; they easily give away a person's sex, approximate age, feelings, or focus of attention. Past research has mostly focused on investigating the distinct facial signals and perceptual mechanisms that allow us to categorize faces on these individual dimensions. It is less well understood how the different kinds of facial information interact. Here we investigated how the age of a face affects the ease with which young and older adults categorize its sex. Disconfirming everyday intuition, we showed that sex categorization is not generally hampered for older faces. Although categorization of female faces took progressively more time with increasing age, the opposite was found for male faces (Experiment 1). Differential effects of stimulus blurring and inversion for male and female faces of different ages (Experiment 2) strongly suggest one feature as a crucial mediator of the interdependence of age and sex perception - skin texture. PMID:25974392

  19. Sex-role stereotyping by high school females in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockell, Edward L.; Lobonc, Susan

    Although the participation by females in upper-level occupations and positions has expanded considerably in recent years, science is still considered a masculine career field. The results of this study show that only the physical sciences in particular (not science in general) are clearly viewed as masculine academic areas. Furthermore, the results suggest that the perception by girls of the physical sciences as masculine is much more likely to occur in coed classes than in all-female classes. The results can best be explained by two factors: (1) the attitudes conveyed by teachers and by society may predispose students toward a greater acceptance of women in biology than in the physical sciences; and (2) when girls perceive themselves as a deviant minority in physical science classes, their performance and preference for the physical sciences is reduced, perhaps because of competition and comparison with males. In all-female classes, however, girls are not a deviant minority, and therefore they are able to perform and develop preferences without inhibition.

  20. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes. PMID:15582858

  1. Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2014-09-01

    The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. PMID:25082156

  2. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nadine E; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Gudelia Rangel; Patterson, Thomas L; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Perth Rosen; Jorge Villalobos; BROUWER, KIMBERLY C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stab...

  3. Condom Use and Prevalence of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Among the Korean Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joongyub; Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Dong Seok; Jung, Minsoo; Park, Byung-Joo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Since 2004, availability of resources for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in Korean female sex workers (FSWs) has decreased because of strict application of a law against prostitution. This study is to evaluate the condom use and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among FSWs in Korea. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of FSWs from 15 major sex work sites in Korea from June to November 2008, using convenience sampling. Self-administered questionnaires and urine ...

  4. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    OpenAIRE

    Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; SCHPF, VERONIKA

    2014-01-01

    Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and da...

  5. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female street sex workers in Padua:

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, Fabiana; Gallina, Pietro; Tarantello, Marco; Veller-Fornasa, Cleto

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and condom use in a population of young female street sex workers from eastern Europe and other non-EU countries basedin the Padua area (north-eastern Italy). To assess whether any aspects oftheir behavior might foster the spread of STDs. Study design: Street sex workers (prostitutes) were approached on the streets or during non-STD medicalappointments, their knowledge of STDs and con...

  6. Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a histo...

  7. Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt Among Female Sex Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; ZHAO, Ran

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a rural county of Guangxi, China. About 14% of FSWs had thought of suicide and 8% had attempted suicide in the past 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those FSWs who were dissatisfied with life, abused alcohol, were deceived or forced into commercial sex, and had stab...

  8. Death before Birth : Negotiating Reproduction, Female Infanticide and Sex Selective Abortion in Tamil Nadu, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Perwez, Mohammad Shahid.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cultural and political underpinnings of female infanticide and sex selective abortion in contemporary South India. Based on a fifteen months' ethnographic fieldwork in western parts of Salem district in Tamil Nadu, I explore the ideas and practices around deaths of (un)born children - particularly in the context of issues of gender-selective child survival, use and control over new reproductive technologies for sex selection, fertility and reproductio...

  9. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; STANTON, BONITA

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic ...

  10. Female Sex Workers in the City of Bogotá: From Stigma to Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Adelaida Martinez; Catalina Correa Salazar; Laura Martínez Apráez

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bogotá, Colombia experience stigmatization due to their work, which results in a violation of basic human rights. The article describes the social challenges and violations faced by this group due to different types of stigma present in Colombian society and discusses current political debates around the legality of sex work. It proposes that through empowering these women using a participatory approach and giving them access to technology such as photography and ...

  11. Ovarian steroids regulate gene expression in the dorsal raphe of old female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kohama, Steven G; Reddy, Arubala P; Urbanski, Henryk F

    2016-01-01

    With extended life spans in modern humans, menopause has become a significant risk factor for depression, anxiety, loss of cognitive functions, weight gain, metabolic disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical studies have found beneficial neural effects of ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the menopausal transition and data are emerging that it can be continued long term. To further understand molecular underpinnings of the clinical studies, we used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to examine gene expression in the serotonergic dorsal raphe of old (>18 years) rhesus macaques, focusing on genes related to depression, cellular resilience, and neurodegenerative diseases. The animals were ovariectomized (Ovx, surgically menopausal) and subjected to either estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone HT, or to placebo, starting 2 months after Ovx and continuing for ∼ 4 years. Significant changes were observed in 36 of 48 genes examined that encode proteins supporting serotonin neurotransmission, synapse assembly, glutamate neurotransmission, DNA repair, chaperones, ubiquinases and transport motors, as well as genes encoding proteins that have potential to delay the onset of neuropathologies. The data reveal important gene targets for chronic HT that contribute to neural health. Alternatively, the loss of ovarian steroids may lead to loss of functions at the gene level that contribute to many of the observable neural deficits after menopause. PMID:26686671

  12. THE COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

  13. High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arreola-Cháidez, Emilio; López, Juan; Salcido-Meraz, Karla Itzel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Hernández-Ochoa, Marcia; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Through an age- and sex-matched case-control study, we sought to determine whether female sex workers have an increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and to determine the sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these workers associated with T. gondii exposure. Female workers (n = 136) and controls (n = 272) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgM positive sera were additionally tested ...

  14. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  15. Sex structure and potential female fecundity in a Epinephelus guttatus spawning aggregation: Applying ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, E.A.; Jennings, C.A.; Nemeth, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging was used to determine the spawning population structure and develop a fecundity estimation model for a red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning aggregation within the Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District, St Thomas, U.S.V.I. The spawning population showed considerable within-month and between-month variation in population size- and sex-structure. In the spawning season studied, males appeared to arrive at the aggregation site first in December although females represented a large proportion of the catch early in the aggregation periods in January and February. Spawning occurred in January and February, and size frequency distributions suggested that an influx of small females occurred during the second spawning month. An overall sex ratio of 2.9:1 (female:male) was recorded for the whole reproductive season. The sex ratio, however, differed between months and days within months. More females per male were recorded in January than in February when the sex ratio was male biased. Fecundity estimates for this species predicted very high potential fecundities (2.4 ?? 105-2.4 ?? 106 oocytes). The ultrasound model also illustrated a rapid increase in potential female fecundity with total length. Ultrasonic imaging may prove a valuable tool in population assessment for many species and locations in which invasive fishing methods are clearly undesirable. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Sex reversal in female Betta splendens as a function of testosterone manipulation and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, L L; Friedman, H

    1988-09-01

    In Experiment 1, female Betta given daily injections of testosterone (T) for 9 weeks acquired anatomical features characteristic of males as indicated by changes in fin length, body coloration, and gonadal morphology. These findings suggested that a potential for sex reversal exists in females of this species. In Experiment 2 we measured changes in aggressive behavior during testosterone-induced anatomical changes. Aggression decreased toward females and increased toward males as treatment with T progressed. The final displays of aggressive behavior and anatomical characteristics of fish injected with T resembled those of typical males. In Experiment 3, female Betta primed with T injections for 3 or 6 weeks and permitted to interact socially with females continued to display characteristics of sex reversal after T supplementation ceased. Sex reversal in isolated fish injected with T for 3 or 6 weeks was not sustained, and fish receiving only the control vehicle showed negligible change in both the isolated and community conditions. We discuss the results in terms of similarities with the sex change process found in isolated communities of coral reef fish. PMID:3180734

  17. Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaya, Kasumi

    2002-01-01

    Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS. PMID:12216990

  18. The effects of female sexual steroids on gastric function and barrier resistance of gastrointestinal tract following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the alteration of gastric function and barrier function of gastrointestinal (GI tract following diffuse brain injury in varying ovarian hormone status. Materials and Methods: Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI was induced by Marmarou method. Rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups: Intact, sham + ovariectomized female (OVX, TBI, TBI + OVX, vehicle, estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, E2 + P, estrogen receptor alpha agonist and estrogen receptor beta agonist (DPN. Endotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. All the parameters were measured 5 days after TBI. Results: Intragastric pressure was significantly decreased in TBI as compared to the intact group (P < 0.001 and this was lower in TBI group versus TBI + OVX group (P < 0.05. Pretreatment with steroid hormones and their agonists did not have any effect on the gastric pressure compared to TBI + OVX or vehicle groups. Inflammation, congestion, ulcer and erosion were seen in the TBI rats. All treatment groups worsen the tissue condition so that the presence of thrombosis also was seen. The trauma induction did not have any effect on the serum and intestinal endotoxin levels. DPN had caused a significant reduction in serum levels of endotoxin compared with OVX + TBI group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Pretreatment with sexual steroids is not useful in the treatment of GI dysfunction induced by TBI. The treatment with all sexual female hormones worsens the gastric tissue condition. Furthermore, the applied weight was not enough for releasing of endotoxin. It seems that estrogen reduced the endotoxin levels by estrogen beta receptor.

  19. Female sexual inversion: same-sex desires in Italian and British sexology, ca. 1870-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Beccalossi, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, a number of women were diagnosed as sexual inverts in Britain and Europe. This book examines the ways in which female same-sex desires were represented across a wide range of Italian and British medical writings during this period. Chiara Beccalossi has undertaken extensive archival research to bring to light new documents and give a detailed account of how the female invert was positioned alongside other figures ...

  20. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Leinfelder, I.; De Vries, Han; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate groups where competition for monopolizable resources is high, grooming among females is based, at least partly, on the interchange of grooming for rank-related benefits, and that rank thus influences t...

  1. Interpretation of Opposite-Sex Friendship Based on Social Ecology Model in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Chaman, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: One of the main cultural issues in universities is relationships between male and female students. Due to the adverse consequences of this issue, explaining of the beyond the causes of friendship with opposite-sex, is one of the first steps in planning for youth issues. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Nineteen female university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions through four sessions were used to gather required data. Two t...

  2. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  3. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881

  4. Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; BRIDDEN, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

  5. Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

  6. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E; Ulrik, C S; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    the following asthma indicators: self-reported asthma, wheezing, cough at exertion, and use of medication for asthma. The study sample comprised 1536 premenopausal and 3016 postmenopausal women who participated in the third round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-4. A total of 377 women were...... taking OCP (24.5% of premenopausal women) and 458 were on HRT (15.2% of postmenopausal women). RESULTS: In premenopausal women 4.8% reported having asthma. The prevalence of self-reported asthma, wheeze, use of asthma medication, and cough at exertion was not significantly related to use of OCP. In...... postmenopausal women the prevalence of self-reported asthma was 6.2%. A weak but consistent association was observed between HRT and self-reported asthma (OR 1.42 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.12)), wheeze (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.64)), cough at exertion (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77)), and use of asthma medication (OR 1...

  7. Sex-steroids associated with the reproductive cycle in male and female bolson tortoise, Gopherus flavomarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Gonz\\u00E1lez Tr\\u00E1paga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos los ciclos de esteroides sexuales de machos y hembras en estado silvestre de la tortuga del Bolsn en la Reserva de la Bisfera de Mapim (Durango. Tomamos muestras de sangre por venipuncin de la yugular a intervalos bisemanales durante un perodo de 14 meses, determinndose los niveles circulantes de esteroides por medio de radioinmunoensayos. Los niveles hormonales mostraron tendencias estacionales. En las hembras, la testosterona tuvo un valor mximo al salir de la brumacin, en asociacin con el incremento en la receptividad sexual, y el nivel de estradiol aument despus de la emergencia asociado con la maduracin folicular. El nivel de estos dos esteroides se increment con las lluvias estacionales, cuando ocurrieron el crecimiento folicular y la vitelognesis. La progesterona mostr niveles bajos a la emergencia, los cuales aumentaron con el incremento de la duracin del dia y la temperatura, llegando al mximo antes del pico de la oviposicin. La cada en los niveles de las tres hormonas estuvo asociada con la oviposicin. Las hembras probablemente almacenan esperma durante parte del otoo y el invierno para usarlo en la siguiente estacin reproductiva. Los machos salieron de la hibernacin con bajos niveles de testosterona, pero exhibieron conductas reproductivas poco despus. Junto con un incremento de la testosterona, el cortejo y la frecuencia de apareamientos se incrementaron con estmulos ambientales, prolongndose hasta principios del otoo. Los niveles de testosterona y la actividad reproductiva disminuyeron conforme se aproximaba el inicio de la hibernacin. Los niveles mximos de testosterona en machos de esta especie son mayores que los conocidos para cualquier otro vertebrado.

  8. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

  9. Hyperlipidaemia and premature coronary artery disease associated with sex-change in a female.

    OpenAIRE

    ffrench-Constant, C. K.; Spengel, F. A.; Thompson, G R

    1985-01-01

    We describe the management of a genotypic female who developed hyperlipidaemia and premature coronary artery disease following bilateral oophorectomy and methyltestosterone administration, and present evidence to suggest that the therapeutic androgenization involved in the sex-change was responsible for the hyperlipidaemia.

  10. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  11. HIV risk behaviors among three classes of female sex workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai-Nhung; D'Onofrio, Carol N; Rogers, John D

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the rate of HIV infection in Vietnam among female sex workers and their clients require more effective preventive interventions based on a better understanding of this population and important subgroups within it. Because little was known about women in the hospitality sex industry, this study compared demographic and work characteristics, history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use among a sample of 310 female sex workers in low-, middle-, and high-class hospitality businesses in Ho Chi Minh City (mean age = 26.77 years, SD = 6.17). Data were collected through individual, face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Logistic regression models were used to identify demographic predictors of the incidence of STIs and reported condom use. Low occupational status was most strongly associated with a history of STIs, and use of condoms with new and regular clients also differed by occupational class. Implications are discussed. PMID:19499456

  12. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sharful I

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60% had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%. Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively, but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively, more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively. Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

  13. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  14. Reproduction in female copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix): plasma steroid profiles during gestation and post-birth periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles F; Schuett, Gordon W; Hoss, Shannon K

    2012-04-01

    We investigated levels of plasma progesterone (P4), 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and corticosterone (CORT) during gestation and post-birth periods in wild-collected female copperhead snakes (Viperidae; Agkistrodon contortrix). We also sought to determine whether CORT levels at (or near) birth dramatically increase and were correlated with duration of labor and litter size. Specifically, pregnant subjects (N = 14) were collected during early- to mid-gestation, held in the laboratory, and repeatedly bled to obtain plasma for steroid analyses. Progesterone showed significant changes during gestation, with the highest levels at the onset of sampling (circa 50 days prior to birth); P4 progressively declined up to parturition, and basal levels were observed thereafter. At the onset of sampling, E2 was at peak levels and fell sharply at circa 30 days prior to birth, a trend observed throughout the post-birth sampling period. Throughout the entire sampling period, T was undetectable. Although CORT showed no significant changes during gestation and several days following parturition, there was a highly significant peak at the time of birth. Our findings mirror the results of previous studies on pregnancy and steroid hormones of other live-bearing snakes, lizards, and mammals. As expected, there was a significant relationship between duration of labor and litter size; however, although levels of CORT did not achieve significance, there was a positive trend with litter size. We suggest that elevation of CORT at birth is involved in the mobilization and regulation of energy stores necessary for the physiological process of parturition and as a possible mechanism to trigger birth. PMID:22468838

  15. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria

  16. Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew F; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) internal and 46.3% (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41% lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed. PMID:23238581

  17. Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels

  18. Regulation of VEGF in the reproductive tract by sex-steroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hyder, S M; Stancel, G M

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis. In adults, angiogenesis is an infrequent event in the normal tissue except in the female reproductive tract where angiogenesis occurs frequently during the cyclical repair and regeneration of the endometrium as well as in the ovary. Little is known about angiogenesis in the male reproductive tract. The role of VEGF in controlling reproductive tract physiology and the role of hormones ...

  19. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  20. Sex steroid receptors and apoptosis-related proteins are differentially expressed in polycystic ovaries of adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Lupi Jnior, Luiz Antonio; da Maia Lima, Alfredo Feio

    2016-02-01

    In Polycystic Ovaries (PCOs), the dynamics of sex hormone receptors and follicle-related apoptotic signaling remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of androgen receptors (AR), estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), and apoptosis-related molecules (BAX, active caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Survivin) on different follicular stages of PCOs in adult dogs. Clinical evidences of high estradiol and testosterone levels, persistent estrus and vaginal discharge were observed. Inhibin B immunolabeling was increased in primary and 2 to 5-mm follicles, and a marked epithelial hyperplasia was common in the ovarian surface. Ovarian epithelia and primary follicles showed low expression of AR, ER?, and ER?, whereas a moderate immunoexpression of AR was found in theca cells of secondary follicles and cysts. In PCOs, growing follicles displayed ER? expression, and secondary follicles exhibited higher ER? expression. In addition, while few ER?-positive cells were found in the cysts, ER? was moderately expressed in growing follicles and cysts. BAX was upregulated in the ovarian epithelium, primary follicles, and in the wall of follicular cysts. Active caspase-3 was significantly downregulated in the epithelium, primary follicles, and follicular cysts, whereas growing follicles had a strong immunoexpression in the granulosa cells. Bcl-2 and survivin were increased in the epithelium and primary follicles, and only survivin was upregulated in secondary and growing follicles. While Bcl-2 had a diffuse immunexpression in the follicular cysts, survivin was overexpressed by these cells. We concluded that sex steroid receptors and apoptotic proteins are differentially expressed in the follicles of adult dogs with PCOs. PMID:26767421

  1. Sex steroids are necessary in the second postnatal week for the expression of male alloparental behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochragaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kristin M; Perry, Adam N; Golbin, Dina; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-10-01

    Sex steroids play a significant role in organizing male social behavior, which is associated with low levels of pro-social behavior and high levels of aggression. However, the role of steroids in organizing behavior in highly social males is unclear. The authors tested the hypothesis that low levels of sex steroids facilitate the expression of pro-social behavior in male prairie voles (Microtus ochragaster), predicting that inhibition of testosterone and estradiol would reduce spontaneous-alloparental behavior. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD) or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide, days 8-14, significantly reduced the expression of alloparental behavior in 21-day old males. While both treatments reduced alloparental behavior and increased pup-directed aggression, there were differential treatment effects. Flutamide altered initial response, increasing latency to enter the pup cage and the likelihood of retreat from initial contact. ATD-treated males that were alloparental showed increases in sniffing and latencies to lick and huddle. Results indicate that endogenous steroids play a role in the development of male pro-social behavior and the effects of estrogens and androgens differ. PMID:19824762

  2. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani2; Maria Rahmani; Mohammad Javad Rasaee; Farshad Tojari; Parisa Pournemat; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stephan Robert Stannard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D.), weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortiso...

  3. HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

  4. Experience-independent sex differences in newborn macaques: Females are more social than males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Nicolini, Ylenia; Shetler, Melissa; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Human females exhibit greater social interest and skills relative to males, appearing in infancy, suggesting biological roots; however, male and female infants may be treated differently, potentially causing or amplifying sex differences. Here, we tested whether sex differences in social motivation emerge in infant monkeys (n?=?48) reared in a controlled postnatal environment. Compared to males, females at 23 weeks looked more at conspecifics faces (d?=?0.65), especially the eyes (d?=?1.09), and at 45 weeks exhibited more affiliative behaviors (d?=?0.64), including gesturing, looking, and proximity to familiar and unfamiliar human caretakers. In sum, converging evidence from humans and monkeys suggests that female infants are more social than males in the first weeks of life, and that such differences may arise independent of postnatal experience. Individual differences in social interest have wide-ranging developmental consequences, impacting infants social interaction quality and opportunities for learning. Understanding the evolution of sex differences and their developmental emergence is necessary to best support infants with varying levels of sociality. PMID:26794858

  5. Experience-independent sex differences in newborn macaques: Females are more social than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Shetler, Melissa; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Human females exhibit greater social interest and skills relative to males, appearing in infancy, suggesting biological roots; however, male and female infants may be treated differently, potentially causing or amplifying sex differences. Here, we tested whether sex differences in social motivation emerge in infant monkeys (n?=?48) reared in a controlled postnatal environment. Compared to males, females at 2-3 weeks looked more at conspecifics' faces (d?=?0.65), especially the eyes (d?=?1.09), and at 4-5 weeks exhibited more affiliative behaviors (d?=?0.64), including gesturing, looking, and proximity to familiar and unfamiliar human caretakers. In sum, converging evidence from humans and monkeys suggests that female infants are more social than males in the first weeks of life, and that such differences may arise independent of postnatal experience. Individual differences in social interest have wide-ranging developmental consequences, impacting infants' social interaction quality and opportunities for learning. Understanding the evolution of sex differences and their developmental emergence is necessary to best support infants with varying levels of sociality. PMID:26794858

  6. Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayata,Koshi

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with both electrochemical detection (ECD and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2, estrone (E1, testosterone (T, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP and progesterone (P in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51. Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

  7. Effects of sex steroids on bones and muscles: Similarities, parallels, and putative interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James A; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2015-11-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles and are responsible for their sexual dimorphism. A decline in their circulating levels leads to loss of mass and functional integrity in both tissues. In the article, we highlight the similarities of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of sex steroids in the two tissues; the commonality of a critical role of mechanical forces on tissue mass and function; emerging evidence for an interplay between mechanical forces and hormonal and growth factor signals in both bones and muscles; as well as the current state of evidence for or against a cross-talk between muscles and bone. In addition, we review evidence for the parallels in the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with advancing age and the potential common mechanisms responsible for the age-dependent involution of these two tissues. Lastly, we discuss the striking difference in the availability of several drug therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, as compared to none for sarcopenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:26453497

  8. Sex steroids level in blood plasma and ovarian follicles of the chimeric chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Lakota, P; Wojtysiak, D; Hrabia, A; Mika, M; Lisowski, M; Czekalski, P; Rzasa, J; Kapkowska, E; Bednarczyk, M

    2006-12-01

    The study was performed to determine the hormonal status of mature germline chimeras obtained by blastodermal cell transfer from chicken embryos of a donor breed [Green-legged Partridgelike breed (GP) x Araucana (AR)] to those of a recipient breed [White Leghorn (WL)] being at the same stage of embryonic development. The egg-laying chimeras and WL hens (control) of the same age were used in the experiment. At first, blood samples were taken from each bird at 0.5, 5, 12.5 and 18.5 h following oviposition. Subsequently, the chimeras and the WL hens were decapitated 1-2 h after ovulation. A stroma and the following follicles were isolated from the ovary: white normal (1-4, 4-6 and 6-8 mm), white atretic and yellow preovulatory follicles (F4-F1). Sex hormones, progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The activity of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in the granulosa and theca layers of the follicles was analysed histochemically. In chimeric chickens, a higher level of T in blood plasma during the ovulatory cycle was noticed. However, in the stroma, white prehierarchical and medium-size preovulatory ovarian follicles the level of T was significantly lower. With respect to E2, its elevated levels were found both in blood and in the ovarian follicles. There were no significant differences in P4 concentrations in blood plasma while in ovarian follicles a higher level was observed only in white 6-8 mm follicles. 3beta-HSD activity in granulosa and theca layers of the ovarian follicles in chimeras was not different from that in the WL hens. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that germline chimeras exhibit significant alterations in sex hormone levels in the ovary and blood plasma, which in turn may affect their reproductive abilities. PMID:17105570

  9. Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Haerer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces simil...

  10. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

  11. Female resistance behaviour and progeny sex ratio in two Bradysia species (Diptera: Sciaridae) with paternal genome elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherston, R; Jones, T M; Elgar, M A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between female mating preferences and sex allocation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support. Typically, choosier females adjust their progeny sex ratio towards sons, who inherit the attractive traits of their father. However, in species with paternal genome elimination, where male sperm do not contain the paternal genome, predictions for the direction of progeny sex ratio biases and their relationship with female choosiness are atypical. Paternal genome elimination also creates a potential for male-female conflict over sex allocation, and any influence of female mate choice on sex ratio outcomes have interesting implications for sexually antagonistic coevolution. Within the Sciaridae (Diptera) are species that produce single-sex progeny (monogenic species) and others in which progeny comprise both sexes (digenic species). Paternal genome elimination occurs in both species. We explore female mate resistance behaviour in a monogenic and digenic species of mushroom gnat from the genus Bradysia. Our experiments confirmed our theoretical predictions, revealing that in the monogenic and digenic species, females producing female-biased progeny were more likely to have resisted at least one mating attempt. PMID:23621366

  12. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 ?g), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 ?g), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy metabolism, whereas combined creatine and sex steroids acted in a neuroprotective manner in gonadectomized rats, potentially by reducing metabolic complications associated with castration or ovariectomy. PMID:25560941

  13. Development of a combined method to assess the complex effect of atrazine on sex steroid synthesis in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háhn, Judit; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Krifaton, Csilla; Kovács, Krisztina J; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, cost-effective combined testing method to assess the indirect effect of compounds interfering with sex steroid synthesis and to determine complex effects of atrazine on estrogen and androgen synthesis in vitro on H295R human cell line. Steroidogenic assay was performed on H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Instead of standard analytical methods, bioluminescence bioreporter assays (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS) were used to measure estrogenic and androgenic effects of sex steroid hormones released by human cells in response to atrazine. Atrazine resulted in elevated estrogen production presumably due to its well documented inductive effect on aromatase on H295R cell line, detected by BLYES. Interestingly, results of BLYAS test showed concentration-dependent increase of androgen production in H295R cells. That indicates that atrazine can not only increase estrogen level via aromatase induction, but may interfere in androgen synthesis as well. The combined method allows us to assess the androgenic and estrogenic effect of sex steroids produced by human cells in increased or decreased quantity as a result of the different chemicals, without determining specific analytical measurement endpoints, by using the yeast based bioluminescent bioreporter test. PMID:27085065

  14. Cisgender male and transgender female sex workers in South Africa: gender variant identities and narratives of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work. PMID:26242843

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  16. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These findings provide a mechanistic rationale for female susceptibility to AD and suggest a potential window of opportunity for AD prevention and risk reduction in women. PMID:27143423

  17. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodol...

  18. Single-sex versus coeducational environment and achievement in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L

    1992-01-01

    For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment. PMID:1414569

  19. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be partly due to a common dependence on this memory system. More generally, because declarative memory is well studied at many levels, evidence that music cognition depends on this system may lead to a powerful research program generating a wide range of novel predictions for the neurocognition of music, potentially advancing the field. PMID:26973574

  20. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be partly due to a common dependence on this memory system. More generally, because declarative memory is well studied at many levels, evidence that music cognition depends on this system may lead to a powerful research program generating a wide range of novel predictions for the neurocognition of music, potentially advancing the field. PMID:26973574

  1. [Male and female sexuality--differences according to sex and age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockott, G

    1994-02-01

    Sexual physiology, sexual behaviour and attitude to sexuality vary according to sex and age. The sexual reaction cycle is very uniform in men, but much more variable in women; at a more advanced age the reactions of this cycle are delayed in both sexes. While hormones have been proved to influence male sexuality, their influence on female sexuality has not been clarified. Sexual appetite changes with age. It reaches a climax earlier in men than women, but also declines more in men with increasing age. In the last three decades the number of women who masturbate has considerably increased. The difference between the sexes as far as attitude to sexuality is concerned is particularly evident in those with sexual difficulties: men usually see their problems in an isolated way as a purely physical disorder, whereas women are usually aware of the connection between their sexual problems and personal, partner or work problems. PMID:8128393

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, Shirley J; Stockman, Jamila K.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. Methods FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) we...

  3. Stigma against HIV/AIDS among female sex workers and general migrant women in eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Lin, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Feng YU; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV related stigma is a recognized barrier to early detection of HIV and causes great suffering for those affected. However, data regarding HIV related stigma among female sex workers (FSW) in China was limited, with none for comparison between FSW and general migrant women (GMW). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine HIV related stigma among FSW and GMW in Shanghai, China. Methods A community based cross-sectional study with face-to-face interviews was conducted in Shang...

  4. Social and Cultural Contexts of HIV Risk Behaviors among Thai Female Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs ...

  5. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Predictors for Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; SUN, XINHUA; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; VERMUND, STEN H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Weste...

  6. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants...

  7. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kanae Takatsu; Kaori Miyaoku; Shimi Rani Roy; Yuki Murono; Tomohiro Sago; Hideyuki Itagaki; Masaru Nakamura; Toshinobu Tokumoto

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sectio...

  8. Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Aude Boislard P.; Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck

    2011-01-01

    Sexual subjectivity (SS) includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, ...

  9. A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, N; Koetsawang, S

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions...

  10. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    van Teijlingen Edwin R; Smith W; Ghimire Laxmi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This s...

  11. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for two age cohorts of female Cooper's hawks in Wisconsin. PMID:26445658

  12. Endothelin, sex, and pregnancy: unique considerations for blood pressure control in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Ellen E; Sasser, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2016-04-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor, and dysregulation of the endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in the development of hypertension. Sex differences in the ET system have been identified in ET receptor expression and activation, levels of ET-1, and downstream mediators of the ET system. More specifically, males have greater ET-1/ETAreceptor activation, whereas females exhibit greater ETBreceptor activation. These differences have been suggested to contribute to the sex differences observed in blood pressure control, with greater ETBreceptor activation in females potentially acting as an important pathway contributing to the lower prevalence of hypertension in young females compared with age-matched males. This hypothesis is further supported by studies in pregnancy; the role of the ET system is enhanced during pregnancy, with dysregulation of the ET system resulting in preeclampsia. Further research is necessary to elucidate the relative roles of the ET system in blood pressure control in both sexes and to further explore the potential benefits of pharmacological ET blockade in women. PMID:26936781

  13. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  14. Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO-PAES J. T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

  15. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Sian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

  16. Flow cytometric sexing of spider sperm reveals an equal sperm production ratio in a female-biased species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H; Bilde, Trine; Lambrecht, B; Hendrickx, F.

    2014-01-01

    -determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species....... other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female...

  17. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Marcelle Deschamps

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI (1.8-9.0] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial.

  18. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Keith H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.

  19. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith H. Carter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.

  20. Further investigations of the relation between polymorphisms in sex steroid related genes and autistic-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Anna; Karlsson, Sara; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Melke, Jonas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Westberg, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more prevalent in boys than in girls, indicating that high levels of testosterone during early development may be a risk factor. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from studies showing associations between fetal testosterone levels, as well as indirect measures of prenatal androgenization, and ASDs and autistic-like traits (ALTs). In a recent study we reported associations between ALTs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, type 2 (SRD5A2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a subset (n=1771) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The aim of the present study was to try to replicate these findings in an additional, larger, sample of individuals from the CATSS (n=10,654), as well as to analyze additional SNPs of functional importance in SHBG and SRD5A2. No associations between the previously associated SNPs in the genes ESR1 and SRD5A2 and ALTs could be seen in the large replication sample. Still, our results show that two non-linked SNPs (rs6259 and rs9901675) at the SHBG gene locus might be of importance for language impairment problems in boys. The results of the present study do not point toward a major role for the investigated SNPs in the genes ESR1 and SRD5A2 in ALTs, but a possible influence of genetic variation in SHBG, especially for language impairment problems in boys, cannot be ruled out. PMID:26930261

  1. Similarities and Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Young Black MSM Who Do and Do Not Have Sex with Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica; Hickson, DeMarc

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether young Black MSM who also have sex with females report similar levels of sexual risk behaviors as those not having sex with females. YBMSM (N = 400) were recruited from an STI clinic, located in the Southern U.S. Men completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview and donated specimens for STI/HIV testing. Forty-three percent recently engaged in penile-vaginal sex. They were less likely to report having concurrent partners (P = .01), unprotected fellatio (P = .04), multiple partners as a bottom (P sex as a bottom (P sex (P = .007). They were equally likely to report favorable attitudes toward serosorting (P = .80), multiple male partners as a top (P = .20), unprotected anal insertive sex with males (P = .15). Frequency of sex with males as a top (P = .61) or bottom (P = .61) did not differ. Compared to YBMSM not having sex with females, those having sex with females may be exercising greater caution. PMID:26547716

  2. Female Fertilization: Effects of Sex-Specific Density and Sex Ratio Determined Experimentally for Colorado Potato Beetles and Drosophila Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Vahl, Wouter K.; Boiteau, Gilles; de Heij, Maaike E; MacKinley, Pamela D.; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    If males and females affect reproduction differentially, understanding and predicting sexual reproduction requires specification of response surfaces, that is, two-dimensional functions that relate reproduction to the (numeric) densities of both sexes. Aiming at rigorous measurement of female per capita fertilization response surfaces, we conducted a multifactorial experiment and reanalyzed an extensive data set. In our experiment, we varied the density of male and female Leptinotarsa decemli...

  3. Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)

  4. High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arreola-Cháidez, Emilio; López, Juan; Salcido-Meraz, Karla Itzel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Hernández-Ochoa, Marcia; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Through an age- and sex-matched case-control study, we sought to determine whether female sex workers have an increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and to determine the sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these workers associated with T. gondii exposure. Female workers (n = 136) and controls (n = 272) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgM positive sera were additionally tested with enzyme linked-fluorescence immunoassay (ELFA). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 21 (15.44%) of 136 cases and in 10 (3.67%) of 272 controls (OR = 4.05; 95% CI: 1.84–8.89; P = 0.0001). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were found in 13 (9.6%) of 136 cases and in 8 (2.9%) of 272 controls (P = 0.007). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in two cases and in six controls by EIA, but all were negative by ELFA. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 10.47; 95% CI: 2.9–36.8; P < 0.01), injuries during sex work (OR = 6.30; 95% CI: 1.1–33.7; P = 0.03), and soil contact (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.2–14.0; P = 0.02). This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and female sex workers. PMID:26716017

  5. Sex-biased investment in yolk androgens depends on female quality and laying order in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Hazon, Neil; Graves, Jefferson A.

    2005-04-01

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts sex biases in parental investment according to parental condition. In addition, parents may need to sex bias their investment if there is an asymmetry between the sexes in offspring fitness under different conditions. For studying maternal differential investment, egg resources are ideal subjects because they are self contained and allocated unequivocally by the female. Recent studies show that yolk androgens can be beneficial to offspring, so here we test for sex-biased investment with maternal investment of yolk testosterone (T) in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) eggs. From the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, we predicted females to invest more in male eggs in optimum circumstances (e.g. good-condition mother, early-laid egg), and more in female eggs under suboptimal conditions (e.g. poor-condition mother, late-laid egg). This latter prediction is also because in this species there is a female nestling disadvantage in poor conditions and we expected mothers to help compensate for this in female eggs. Indeed, we found more yolk T in female than male eggs. Moreover, in accordance with our predictions, yolk T in male eggs increased with maternal quality relative to female eggs, and decreased with laying order relative to female eggs. This supports our predictions for the different needs and value of male and female offspring in zebra finches. Our results support the idea that females may use yolk androgens as a tool to adaptively manipulate the inequalities between different nestlings.

  6. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, Andr Ramos; Martelini, Andr Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, Jos Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This studys objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, Gr and Gr had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; Gr (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and Gr (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469

  7. Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under the control of cyclic changes in estradiol secretion. Women also appear to eat more sweets during the luteal phase of the cycle than other phases, possibly due to simultaneous increases...

  8. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  9. The vomeronasal organ is required for the expression of lordosis behaviour, but not sex discrimination in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Matthieu; Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mediating neuroendocrine responses in female mice is well known; however, whether the VNO is equally important for sex discrimination is more controversial as evidence exists for a role of the main olfactory system in mate recognition. Therefore, we studied the effect of VNO removal (VNOx) on the ability of female mice to discriminate between volatile and non-volatile odours of conspecifics of the two sexes and in different endocrine states using Y-m...

  10. Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)

    OpenAIRE

    Vioque, J.; Hernandez-Aguado, I; Fernandez, G; d Garcia,; Alvarez-Dardet, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before Decembe...

  11. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Stout, William E.; Giovanni, Matthew D.; Levine, Noah H.; Cava, Jenna A.; Hardin, Madeline G.; Haynes, Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population‐level estimates of se...

  12. Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1μm in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals.

  13. Control of Drosophila Sex-lethal pre-mRNA splicing by its own female-specific product.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, H.; Inoue, K.; Higuchi, I.; Ono, Y.; Shimura, Y

    1992-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster somatic sexual differentiation is accomplished by serial function of the products of sex-determination genes. Sex-lethal (Sxl), is one such gene. It is functionally expressed only in female flies. The sex-specific expression of this gene is regulated by alternative mRNA splicing which results in either the inclusion or exclusion of the translation stop codon containing third exon. Although previous genetic and molecular analyses suggest that functional Sxl expression i...

  14. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Shane P.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are current...

  15. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor pattern in a vertebrate species. PMID:26888974

  16. "Preparation of HY Antibody in Female Mice as a Model for Sex Preselection"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "L Andonian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this sutdy is to prepare Histocompatability Y(HY antibody in female mouse at the first phase (current study, and to separate mouse embryos with regard to their sex, to be able to obtain offsprings of disired sex, by means of HY antibody, at the second phase. Totally 421 BALB/C inbred mice were used. Antibodies were produced in females by intraperitonial injections of spleen and testis cells of neonatal male mice. The sera of females were tested by five different immunological techniques, as follows: Double gel diffusion, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis, Plain electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence and Cytotoxicity test. The first two techniques showed no positive results, but the remaining three methods proved the existence of HY antibody in sera. In electrophoresis, an increase in gamma-globulin and total globulins index, over albumin, was detected in injected mice sera. In immunofluorescence assay HY antigen was revealed on the surface of the mouse testis and spleen cells. Cytotoxicity test has been the most suitable method for detecting HY antibody. Also, the possibility to differentiate X-bearing and Y-bearing embryos could be used in prevention of X-linked diseases as well as in population control.

  17. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of Tischeria ekebladella, an oak leafmining moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Béla Péter; Tröger, Armin; Toshova, Theodora B; Subchev, Mitko; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Koster, J C Sjaak; Szőcs, Gábor; Tóth, Miklós; Francke, Wittko

    2012-10-01

    The native leafmining moth Tischeria ekebladella (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) feeds on oaks and recently has become a pest of silviculture and urban green areas in central Europe. The behavioral responses of male moths to hexane extracts of whole bodies of calling females or males were tested under laboratory conditions. Only extracts of females elicited responses from males. Analysis of extracts by coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection revealed the presence of two electroantennogram-active peaks. Structure elucidation of these compounds, by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and independent synthesis revealed them to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene and (3Z,6Z,9Z,19Z)-tricosa-3,6,9,19-tetraene. While the triene was present in both sexes, the tetraene was female-specific. The latter is a new structure for a pheromone component of Lepidoptera and a novel natural product. Field trapping tests, carried out in a mixed oak forest near Budapest (Hungary), using synthetic compounds applied to rubber dispensers, showed that the tetraene per se elicited catches of males in large numbers. When the triene was added to the tetraene in a ratio of 1:1, there was no increase in trap catch; the triene alone did not elicit catches of males. For monitoring this insect, the tetraene, applied to rubber dispensers at a dose of 300 μg, is a potent sex attractant. PMID:23053915

  18. Heterogeneous and vulnerable: the health risks facing transnational female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y P

    2011-01-01

    Representations of transnational sex workers have been dominated by the trafficked victim discourse that often overlooks the heterogeneity of this population and variations in the health risks that different sub-groups face. This paper addresses this deficiency by examining differences in the socio-economic backgrounds, working conditions, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and vulnerability to health risks of female sex workers from Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Mainland China currently working in the Chinese city of Macau. It also examines the correlates of three health risks: client-perpetrated violence, non-condom use and condom failure. The results show major differences in the socio-economic profiles, working conditions and exposure to health risks of the four groups of workers studied. They also suggest that age, ethnicity, education, economic pressure, AIDS and STI knowledge, and workplace condom-use norm are significant correlates of the three health risks examined. The findings shed light on the importance of locating the social and cultural contexts that constrain the response of different groups of transnational sex workers to health risks, and the need to tailor intervention measures to meet the specific conditions of individual groups. They also point out the urgency of tackling the interpersonal and structural obstacles to safe sex practices among marginalised populations. PMID:20942821

  19. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984

  20. Effect of high altitude (3685 meter) on the serum levels of female sex hormones (progesterone, estradiol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of high altitude hypoxia on the secretion of female sex hormones. Methods: Serum progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured with RIA in 738 women who were moved from plain to Lhasa (3685 meter) and stayed there for various years and 430 controls. Results: The serum P and E2 levels in the newly arrived subjects (within one year) were significantly lower than those in the controls. The levels gradually increased as acclimation occurred (up to 20 year) but dropped again later (probably due to advancing age). Conclusion: Hypoxia might be the cause of decreasing serum famale sex hormones levels in subjects moved to high altitude. (authors)

  1. Relation of female sex to left atrial diameter and cardiovascular death in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Raparelli, Valeria; Basili, Stefania; Olshansky, Brian; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female sex is associated with thromboembolism related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Left atrial (LA) diameter independently predicted incident cardiovascular (CV) major events in the general population. In AF patients, LA enlargement is associated to AF occurrence and recurrence. No data...... have previously been reported on the relationship between LA enlargement, sex and CV death in AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients enrolled in the AFFIRM Trial with available data about LA dimension were included in this post-hoc analysis. Of the 2615 eligible for the present analysis, LA...... enlargement was recorded in 67.0%, more commonly in women than in men (p=0.032). Patients with LA enlargement had higher body mass index (BMI), and were more frequently hypertensive, diabetic, and diagnosed with a structural heart disease, prior coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). BMI, left...

  2. Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity may be sex hormones related. The effects of sex hormones on GM induced nephrotoxicity in gonadectomized rats were investigated. Methods. Ovariectomized rats received 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/week of estradiol (ES) alone or accompanied with 10 mg/kg/week of progesterone (Pro) for two weeks followed by GM (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Castrated rats were also treated with 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/week of testosterone (TS) for two weeks and then received GM. In addition, a single castrated group received 0.25 mg/kg/week of ES plus GM. Results. GM increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P GM in female while neither TS nor ES had beneficial effect on nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male, although ES aggravated it.

  3. Female Sex Workers in the City of Bogotá: From Stigma to Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaida Martinez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs in Bogotá, Colombia experience stigmatization due to their work, which results in a violation of basic human rights. The article describes the social challenges and violations faced by this group due to different types of stigma present in Colombian society and discusses current political debates around the legality of sex work. It proposes that through empowering these women using a participatory approach and giving them access to technology such as photography and video, empathy can be mobilized and can reduce the barriers that FSWs and their children are facing. By raising awareness of the problem of stigmatization, it becomes possible to effect change on a political level through critical social inclusion praxis. The article begins by analyzing different stigmas that exist in Colombian society and the problems that result from such stigmas, before offering a review of social initiatives and proposing a project outline and policy options using participatory methods.

  4. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8 % reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions. PMID:25905909

  5. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Malay K. Mridha; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSW...

  6. Barriers to Utilisation of Sexual Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi Ghimire; Edwin van Teijlingen

    2009-01-01

    Sexual health services are relatively rare in Nepal. Female sex workers (FSWs) do not use health services as much as would be desirable. A study was conducted to identify barriers to access of sexual health services by FSWs in Nepal. A mixed-method approach consisting of a 425 questionnaire-based survey and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007.One fifth of the FSWs had never visited health facilities. FSWs turned to private clinics followed by clinics belonging to non-governmental ...

  7. Ovarian steroids alter dopamine receptor populations in the medial preoptic area of female rats: implications for sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Gardner Gregory, James; Hussain, Dema; Brake, Wayne G; Pfaus, James G

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) plays a critical role in the control of appetitive sexual behaviour in the female rat. We have shown previously that a DA D1 receptor (D1R)-mediated excitatory state appears to occur in females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P), whereas a DA D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibitory state appears to occur in females primed only with EB. The present experiment employed three techniques to better understand what changes occur to DA receptors (DARs) in the mPOA under different hormonal profiles. Ovariectomized females were randomly assigned to one of three steroid treatment groups: EB+P (10 and 500?g, respectively), EB+Oil, or the control (Oil+Oil), with hormone injections administered at 48 and 4h prior to euthanizing. First, the number of neurons in the mPOA that contained D1R or D2R was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Second, the mPOA and two control areas (the prelimbic cortex and caudate putamen) were analysed for DAR protein levels using western blot, and DAR functional binding levels using autoradiography. Ovarian steroid hormones affected the two DAR subtypes in opposite ways in the mPOA. All three techniques supported previous behavioural findings that females primed with EB have a lower D1R:D2R ratio, and thus a D2R-mediated system, and females primed with EB+P have a higher D1R:D2R ratio, and thus a D1R-mediated system. This provides strong evidence for a DA-driven pathway of female sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour that is modified by different hormone priming regimens. PMID:26536143

  8. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  9. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

  10. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  11. Oct-GnRH, the first protostomian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide and a critical mini-review of the presence of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies. Interestingly, cephalopods studied so far are characterized by a single molecular form of oct-GnRH with a C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence, which is critical for gonadotropin-releasing activity in vertebrates. Other molluscan GnRH-like peptides lack the C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence but have -X-NH2 or -Pro-Gly although all protostome GnRH-like peptides have yet to be sequenced. In marine molluscs, relationships between GnRH-like peptides and sex steroids have been studied to verify the hypothesis that molluscs have vertebrate-type sex steroid system. However, it is currently questionable whether such sex steroids are present and whether they play endogenous roles in the reproductive system of molluscs. Because molluscs uptake and store steroids from the environment and fishes release sex steroids into the external environment, it is impossible to rule out the contamination of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs. The function of key enzymes of steroidogenesis within molluscs remains unclear. Thus, evidence to deny the existence of the vertebrate-type sex steroid system in molluscs has been accumulated. The elucidation of substances, which regulate the maturation and maintenance of gonads and other reproductive functions in molluscs will require rigorous and progressive scientific study. PMID:26319132

  12. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. PMID:26878754

  13. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Clia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Marchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stphanie; Couppi, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  14. Where have all the females gone? Male biased sex-ratio in Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) in alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibrat, U.; Brancelj, A.

    2009-04-01

    In populations with both males and females sex-ratio is one of the driving forces of population dynamics. It influences fecundity, inbreeding and social interactions. Sex-ratio is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors, either by selective killing of one sex or by inducing migrations. In alpine lakes of Triglav National Park, Slovenia, an extremely male biased sex-ratio in Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) was regularly observed since 1992. We analysed population dynamics and sex-ratio of A. alpinus in three alpine lakes (Jezero v Ledvicah, Rjavo jezero and Zgornje Kriško jezero) from Triglav National Park in Slovenia. In addition to seasonal dynamics we also researched long-term changes in sex-ratio (in a period of 11 years from autumn samples) as a result of increased air-temperature, and zooplankton diurnal vertical migrations. Adults of both sexes were found to appear at the same time in the water collumn with males prevailing throughout the season. A similar trend was found in copepodites CV. The percent of adult females began increasing in late summer, when there were no more copepodites and recrutation from copepodites CV to adults stopped, while male mortality increased. All cohorts of A. alpinus were found to perform diurnal vertical migrations. Both adult and CV females remained close to the bottom during the day and migrated vertically during the night. Results of the long-term study show no changes in sex-ratio in autumn.

  15. Sex Differences in Spatial Memory in Brown-Headed Cowbirds: Males Outperform Females on a Touchscreen Task

    OpenAIRE

    Guigueno, Mélanie F.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.; Sherry, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in females and males can differ in species in which there are sex-specific patterns in the use of space. Brown-headed cowbirds are brood parasites that show a reversal of sex-typical space use often seen in mammals. Female cowbirds, search for, revisit and parasitize hosts nests, have a larger hippocampus than males and have better memory than males for a rewarded location in an open spatial environment. In the current study, we tested female and male cowbirds in breeding an...

  16. Menstrual cycle, sex hormones in female inflammatory bowel disease patients with and without surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Kulkarni, Geeta; Shen, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Healthy women at reproductive age experience a cyclical alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology during their menstrual cycle. Additionally, the majority of healthy women also complain of worsening of GI symptoms either during the premenstrual or menstrual phase. Despite conflicting evidence, studies suggest that sex hormones may increase GI transit time during the luteal phase. Similar phenomenon is also observed in women with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism underlying this complex pathophysiology is still not completely understood. However, a possible influence of sex hormones on the brain-gut-microbiota axis is hypothesized. The diagnosis of IBD is associated with a delay in menarche as well as menstrual function irregularities including alterations in cycle length and the duration of flow. There is little data on the effect of menopause on IBD disease activity and conflicting data on the effect of IBD diagnosis on the onset of menopause. The role of contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies on the development or disease activity of IBD has not been yet established. Moreover, IBD patients with concomitant dysmenorrhea report heightened pain during menses. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in treating primary dysmenorrhea on the disease course of IBD is unknown. In addition, the effect of IBD medications including immunomodulators and biologics on menstrual function remains unclear. Also, the role of IBD surgery on menstrual irregularities needs to be fully elucidated. Hence, understanding the influence of menstrual function on IBD disease activity and vice versa and the maintenance of normal menstrual function in those patients is important in improving overall reproductive health and fertility and outcome of IBD. PMID:25851437

  17. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: The emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states

    OpenAIRE

    Navani-Vazirani, S; D. Solomon; Krishnan, G.; Heylen, E; Srikrishnan, AK; Vasudevan, CK; Ekstrand, ML

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers’ solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusi...

  18. A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    YI, HUSO; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; ZENG, JING; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-01-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk ...

  19. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo; Micic, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  20. A Framework for Sexual Decision-Making Among Female Sex Workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Althea; Figueroa, J Peter

    2016-05-01

    The Jamaican government has provided targeted HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment, and other services for female sex workers (FSW) since 1989. HIV prevalence among FSW declined from 20 to 12 % between 1989 and 1994, then to 9 % in 2005, 5 % in 2008, and 4.1 % in 2011. This article distills the literature and two decades of experience working with FSW in Jamaica. Drawing on the constant comparative method, we put forward an innovative conceptual framework for explaining sexual decision-making and risk behaviors within both transactional and relational sexual situations. This framework helps fill the gaps in existing models that focus on individual behaviors. The model identifies interactions between environmental and structural elements of sex work, and three individual-level factors: risk perception, perceived relationship intimacy, and perceived control, as the four primary mediating factors influencing sexual decision-making among FSW. We propose that other factors such as violence, socioeconomic vulnerability, and policy/legal frameworks influence sexual decision-making through these primary mediating factors. This conceptual model may offer a useful framework for planning and evaluating prevention interventions among sex workers. However, it remains to be tested in order to establish its value. PMID:25836026

  1. Hypospadias in a male (78,XY; SRY-positive) dog and sex reversal female (78,XX; SRY-negative) dogs: clinical, histological and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Bartz, M; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Szczerbal, I; Colaço, B; Pires, M A; Ochota, M; Nizanski, W

    2012-01-01

    Hypospadias is rarely reported in dogs. In this study we pre-sent 2 novel cases of this disorder of sexual development and, in addition, a case of hereditary sex reversal in a female with an enlarged clitoris. The first case was a male Moscow watchdog with a normal karyotype (78,XY) and the presence of the SRY gene. In this dog, perineal hypospadias, bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and testes were observed. The second case, representing the Cocker spaniel breed, had a small penis with a hypospadic orifice of the urethra, bilateral cryptorchidism, testis and a rudimentary gonad inside an ovarian bursa, a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene. This animal was classified as a compound sex reversal (78,XX, SRY-negative) with the hypospadias syndrome. The third case was a Cocker spaniel female with an enlarged clitoris and internally located ovotestes. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene, while histology of the gonads showed an ovotesticular structure. This case was classified as a typical hereditary sex reversal syndrome (78,XX, SRY-negative). Molecular studies were focused on coding sequences of the SRY gene (case 1) and 2 candidates for monogenic hypospadias, namely MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) and SRD5A2 (steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2). Sequencing of the entire SRY gene, including 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, did not reveal any mutation. The entire coding sequence of MAMLD1 and SRD5A2 was analyzed in all the intersexes, as well as in 4 phenotypically normal control dogs (3 females and 1 male). In MAMLD1 2 SNPs, including 1 missense substitution in exon 1 (c.128A>G, Asp43Ser), were identified, whereas in SRD5A2 7 polymorphisms, including 1 missense SNP (c.358G>A, Ala120Thr), were found. None of the identified polymorphisms cosegregated with the intersexual phenotype, thus, we cannot confirm that hypospadias may be associated with polymorphism in the coding sequence of the studied genes. PMID:21893969

  2. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  3. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  4. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight ...

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degenhardt Louisa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. Results All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority.

  6. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

  7. Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in a Prospective Nairobi-Based Female Sex Worker Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Lyle R; Izulla, Preston; Nagelkerke, Nico; Munyao, Julius; Wanjiru, Tabitha; Shaw, Souradet Y; Gichuki, Richard; Kariuki, Cecilia; Muriuki, Festus; Musyoki, Helgar; Gakii, Gloria; Gelmon, Lawrence; Kaul, Rupert; Kimani, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    With two million new HIV infections annually, ongoing investigations of risk factors for HIV acquisition is critical to guide ongoing HIV prevention efforts. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of HIV uninfected female sex workers enrolled at an HIV prevention clinic in Nairobi (n = 1640). In the initially HIV uninfected cohort (70 %), we observed 34 HIV infections during 1514 person-years of follow-up, i.e. an annual incidence of 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.6-3.1 %). In multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, HIV acquisition was associated with a shorter baseline duration of sex work (aHR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.63-0.91), minimum charge/sex act (aHR 2.74, 0.82-9.15, for low vs. intermediate; aHR 5.70, 1.96-16.59, for high vs. intermediate), N. gonorrhoeae infection (aAHR 5.89, 95 % CI 2.03-17.08), sex with casual clients during menses (aHR 6.19, 95 % CI 2.58-14.84), Depo Provera use (aHR 5.12, 95 % CI 1.98-13.22), and estimated number of annual unprotected regular partner contacts (aHR 1.004, 95 % CI 1.001-1.006). Risk profiling based on baseline predictors suggested that substantial heterogeneity in HIV risk is evident, even within a key population. These data highlight several risk factors for HIV acquisition that could help to re-focus HIV prevention messages. PMID:26091706

  8. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, S L; Ingabire, C.M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M.M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Nash, D.; Wijgert, van de, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing for HIV-1/2, HSV-2 and pregnancy, and BED-CEIA and Avidity Index (AI) to identify recent infections among HIV-infected women. Results: Prevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and pregnancy w...

  9. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G; Christensen, I J; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    1982-01-01

    develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early...

  10. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  11. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.

  12. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lianne A. Urada; Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education ...

  13. Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenship, Kim M; Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statist...

  14. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; de la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarc...

  15. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: A multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.; BROUWER, KIMBERLY C.; Shira M Goldenberg; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taki...

  16. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    K Peltzer; P Seoka; S. Raphala

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS trans...

  17. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  18. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Marlise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases. Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075. Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period.

  19. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens. PMID:26192990

  20. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  1. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  2. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100 and immediately following (n = 112 the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001. Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001, there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use.

  3. Intravaginal Practices in Female Sex Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Hor, Leng Bun; Scheurer, Michael E; Vidrine, Damon J; Markham, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with several adverse health outcomes, including HIV infection. However, few studies have examined this topic in Asian cultures, particularly in female sex workers (FSWs). This theory-based qualitative study aimed to describe the IVPs and to identify salient determinants of these practices in FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions with 30 FSWs in July-August 2014. We analyzed data using thematic content analysis, with thematic codes based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that the most common IVP was a combination of intravaginal washing and wiping, to which we refer as intravaginal cleansing. There was a clear and close connection between IVP and sex work. Perceived benefits of intravaginal cleansing were numerous, while the perceived risks were few. As a result, the attitude toward intravaginal cleansing was favorable. A common misperception of benefit was that intravaginal cleansing could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Local physicians considerably influenced the subjective norm related to IVP. Intention to quit IVPs was suboptimal. In conclusion, the psychological factors associated with IVPs in FSWs were somewhat different from those in the general population of Cambodian women and women in other countries. Behavioral beliefs, attitude, and subjective norms appeared salient and important factors in IVPs. Interventions aimed at reducing IVPs should target these constructs as well as the sex-work-associated economic motives. Local physicians may be an agent to change IVP and an effective channel to deliver interventions. PMID:26742508

  4. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong; Meng, Siying; Tang, Xiaojun; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs) are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100) and immediately following (n = 112) the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001). Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001), there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use. PMID:25602971

  5. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert

    2009-11-01

    India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access. PMID:19821725

  6. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  7. Correlates of Self-efficacy for Condom Use among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmann, Tyson; WAGNER, KARLA D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past four month...

  8. Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

  9. Changes in circulating LH, sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and corticosterone in relation to breeding and molting in captive humboldt penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti) kept in an outdoor open display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, R; Aoki, K; Hori, H; Wada, M

    1998-02-01

    Penguins are highly adapted to marine life. Their hydrodynamic efficiency depends on feathers which wear with age and need to be replaced regularly. During molting, penguins can not enter the sea to forage and are forced to fast. Therefore the duration of molting is necessarily brief. To better understand molting in penguins, we collected plasma samples from 16 (8 pairs) Humboldt penguins kept in an open display pen at Tokyo Sea Life Park from May to September, 1994 and estimated circulating concentrations of LH, testosterone, estradiol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone. Body mass was also measured at each blood sampling. Throughout the year, reproductive activities (egg laying, incubation, hatching and rearing) and molting were observed and recorded. Humboldt penguins maintained reproductive activity from January to December except during molting. Each pair started molting between the end of July and early August; usually males started earlier. The duration of molting was 13.4 +/- 0.8 days for males and 12.9 +/- 0.3 days for females. Body masses were highest just before the start of molting in both sexes. Plasma concentrations of LH were high, (> 2 ng/ml) in May in both sexes, then gradually decreased, to 0.53 +/- 0.38 ng/ml in males and 0.72 +/- 0.11 ng/ml in females by the end of July. Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in plasma decreased and were lowest during molting. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of T4 were low until early July (ca. 20 ng/ml) and then doubled within 10 days; the high levels were maintained for one month and then decreased greatly in males and slightly in females. When the plasma concentrations of T4 started to decrease, plasma concentrations of LH increased. Changes in plasma T3 were not consistent with molting. These results indicate that the decrease of plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and the sharp increase of T4 induced molting, which lasted only for a short period. PMID:9615622

  10. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.420.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.480.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.530.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.342.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.081.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  11. Homofarnesals: female sex attractant pheromone components of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kenji; Nojima, Satoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2008-04-01

    The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of stored legumes in warm temperate and tropical climates. The female sex attractant pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from containers that housed virgin females. The extracts were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active components in the fractions were screened by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis with male antennae. Two compounds that elicited electrophysiological responses were isolated, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and micro-chemical analyses suggested that the active compounds were homofarnesals, (2Z,6E)- and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienals. Males of C. chinensis were significantly attracted to filter paper discs loaded with the synthetic compounds at 0.01-0.1 ng compared to solvent control in a Y-tube olfactometer assay. These pheromone components represent unique chemical structures within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:18351422

  12. Opposite-directional sex change in functional female protandrous anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii: effect of aromatase inhibitor on the ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Masaru; MIURA, Saori; Nozu, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, is a protandrous hermaphrodite. Under appropriate social conditions, male fish can become female. Previous studies indicated that estrogens are important regulators of sex change in this fish. However, the mechanism of sexual plasticity in the gonad of this fish is still unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the sexual plasticity in the ovary of female anemonefish, an aromatase inhibitor (AI, 500 μg/g diet) was administered to the fu...

  13. Sex Differences in (+)-Amphetamine- and (+)-Methamphetamine-induced Behavioral Response in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; McMillan, Donald E.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Byrnes-Blake, Kelly A.; Owens, S. Michael

    2007-01-01

    (+)-Methamphetamine (METH) and (+)-amphetamine (AMP) are structurally similar drugs that are reported to induce similar pharmacological effects in rats of the same sex. Because pharmacokinetic data suggest female rats should be more affected than males, the current studies sought to test the hypothesis that the behavioral and temporal actions of METH and AMP should be greater in female Sprague-Dawley rats than in males. Using a dosing regimen designed to reduce the possibility of tolerance an...

  14. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. PMID:25963301

  15. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  16. Prevalence and sex-related risk factors of premarital pregnancy and reproductive tract infections among female undergraduates in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Xiao, Han; Yan, Hong; Li, Jingjing; Li, Shiyue

    2015-03-01

    In China, more and more female college students engage in premarital sex. Few seek reproductive health services, increasing their risk for unintended pregnancy and reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The present study aims to explore the prevalence and sex-related risk factors of premarital pregnancy and RTIs among female undergraduates in China. A total of 4769 females were recruited using randomized cluster sampling and anonymously completed questionnaires. Of the 4,769 females, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, 17.5% of which had become pregnant, and 22.7% had contracted RTIs. Younger age or not using a condom at first sex and having multiple sex partners contributed to premarital pregnancy. Majoring in arts, being from less-developed regions of China, having multiple partners, and self-reported pregnancy contributed to RTIs. Findings suggest importance of sexual health education among undergraduates, especially women from less-developed regions of China and/or majoring in arts. PMID:25675953

  17. Activism on the medicalization of sex and female genital cosmetic surgery by the New View Campaign in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefer, Leonore

    2010-05-01

    The New View Campaign is a grassroots initiative begun in 1999 to challenge the over-medicalization of sex in the wake of publicity following the release of Viagra. This paper describes the history of the campaign and its activities, which started with analysing the construction of female sexual dysfunction, and moved on to develop a critical understanding of sexuality as a market for the pharmaceutical industry to exploit. The campaign has also had much to say about a positive model for sexuality, sex education, treatment of sex problems, and sex research. From 2006, we began to look at the new female cosmetic genital surgery industry. In 2008, we wrote letters to many government and medical professional groups expressing our concerns about female cosmetic genital surgery and asking for support. We also organised a demonstration outside the office of a New York surgeon who was doing this surgery and developed a webpage as a resource for students, scholars, journalists and activists. In 2009, we held an event in an art gallery that celebrated artists who support and encourage female sexual diversity. Supporters and colleagues of the campaign have published books and articles, and created visual and training materials, including a project called Vulvagraphics. PMID:20541084

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  19. Sex allocation in fungus-growing ants: worker or queen control without symbiont-induced female bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2008-01-01

    sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonies tended to raise mainly a single sex, which could be partly explained by variation in queen number...

  20. Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

  1. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  2. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten; Hause, Gerd; Otte, Marianne; Beye, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene...

  3. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  4. Type of female sex worker and other risk factors of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinda Roselinda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Sifilis termasuk salah satu dari penyakit infeksi menular seksual kronis disebabkankuman Treponema pallidum yang dapat menyebabkan kecacatan pada penderita dan anak yang dilahirkan.Tujuan analisis ini adalah untuk melihat hubungan tipe dan lama kerja sebagai Wanita Pekerja Seks(WPS dengan kejadian penyakit sifilis di 7 kota di Indonesia.Metode: Data dari Survei WPS menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur di 7 kota (Kupang, Samarinda,Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar dan Tangerang di Indonesia tahun 2007, desain potong lintangdan responden dipilih secara cluster random sampling dari WPS langsung dan tidak langsung yangmemenuhi kriteria definisi operasional. Diagnosa Sifilis ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan laboratoriumRapid Plasma Reagent (RPR dan Treponema pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA.Hasil: Sebanyak 1750 responden ikut dalam penelitian dan 12.2% terindikasi sifilis. Kota Makassar mempunyaiprevalensi yang tertinggi sebesar 55,2%. WPS yang berlokasi di luar pulau Jawa memiliki risiko terinfeksi sifilis3,16 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan WPS yang berlokasi dipulau Jawa [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 3,16 ;P= 0,000]. Tipe WPS tidak langsung memiliki risiko 46% lebih banyak untuk terinfeksi sifilis dibandingkan denganWPS langsung (RRa = 1,46 ; 95%; P = 0,002, sedangkan WPS yang mencari pengobatan ke dokter memiliki risiko58% lebih besar dibandingkan yang berobat ke sarana kesehatan langsung (RRa = 1,58; P = 0.006.Kesimpulan: Lokasi WPS yang berada di luar pulau Jawa, tipe WPS tidak langsung memiliki risiko lebihtinggi untuk terinfeksi penyakit sifilis. Wanita pekerja seks yang mencari pengobatan ke dokter menyebabkanpenyakit terindikasi lebih tinggi dibandingkan jika berobat ke sarana pelayanan kesehatan lainnya. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:132-6Kata kunci: sifilis, wanita pekerja seks, Indonesia AbstractBackground: Syphilis is one of the chronicle sexual transmission diseases which is caused by Treponema pallidumbacteria that can cause disability in patients and babies born. This analysis aims at looking at the relationship typeand work duration as Female Sex Workers (FSW and the syphilis cases within 7 cities in Indonesia.Methods: The data was taken from Survey on FSW using a structured questionnaire in 7 cities (Kupang,Samarinda, Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar and Tangerang in Indonesia in 2007, the crosssectionaldesign and respondents are selected by cluster random sampling directly and indirectly towardsthe WPS who fulfill the operational definition criteria. Syphilis diagnosis was confirmed by laboratorytests Rapid Plasma Reagents (RPR and Treponema pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA.Results: There were 1750 respondents who participated in the study and about 12.2% were infected withthe syphilis. Makassar has the highest prevalence about 55.2%. The WPS who are located outside of Javahave the syphilis infection risk about 3.16 times higher than the WPS located in Java (adjusted relative risk(RRa = 3.16; P = 0.000. The indirect WPS had 46% more risk for syphilis infection compared to directWPS (RRa = 1.46; P = 0.002, whereas the FSW who seek treatment from doctor have a risk about 58%tmore risk compared to the direct health facilities treatment [RRa = 1.58; P = 0.006.Conclusion: The location of FSW which is outside of Java, the FSW does not directly have a higher riskof being infected with syphilis. Female sex workers who seek the doctor treatment are able to be indicatedearlier rather than they are who seek treatment to other health care facilities. (Health Science Journal ofIndonesia 2015;6:132-6Keyword: Syphilis, Female Sex Worker, Indonesia

  5. Pilot study assessing HIV vaccine trial readiness among female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users, and men who have sex with men in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, María Florencia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Meroño, Mercé; Sierra, Ernesto; Del Romero, Jorge; Evans, Jennifer L; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Jacques, Constanza; Rojas, Daniela; Segú, Marta; Gatell, José María; Joseph, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess HIV risk and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in three high risk populations in Spain. Eight hundred and forty-four participants, comprising female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs and NIDUs, respectively), and men who have sex with men were tested for HIV and surveyed for risk and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. HIV seroprevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 2-11). HIV infection was associated with transgender identification, IDU in the past year, and sex with an IDU or other drug-using partner. The majority (82%) expressed their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Substantial sexual and parenteral risk in all groups and concomitant willingness to participate in vaccine trials was found, particularly among women and IDUs. Additional longitudinal cohort studies in Spain are needed to plan future vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:19037720

  6. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use. PMID:25315353

  7. Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Euser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

  8. A Female-Specific Lethal Lesion in an X-Linked Positive Regulator of the Drosophila Sex Determination Gene, SEX-LETHAL

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization of a partial-loss-of-function, female-specific lethal mutation has identified an X-linked genetic element ( 1-34.3; 10B4) that functions as a positive regulator of Sxl, a central gene controlling sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster . The name, sisterless-a, was chosen both to suggest functional similarities that exist between this gene and another positive regulator of Sxl, the maternally acting gene daughterless (da), and also to highlight an important difference; ...

  9. Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    McPhie-Lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY− females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY−Sry males (testes-be...

  10. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. PMID:25941053

  11. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

  12. Transmission of gametes with normal or translocation chromosomes in male and female single-sex mouse chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, P; van der Hoeven, F A; Schöller, J M

    1992-01-01

    Three male and four female mouse single-sex chimeras derived from fusions of Rb(11.13)4Bnr T(1;13)70H homozygous embryos with +/+ embryos were caged with T(1;13)70H homozygotes of the opposite sex and followed through their reproductive lifespans. Six animals (three males and three females) were germline chimeras. The fz gene was used as a marker for the T70H reciprocal translocation. The ratio of fz/fz to fz/+ offspring did not change with increasing age in males, but decreased in two of the three female chimeras. Within males, there was generally good agreement between the proportions of translocation and nontranslocation germ cells from spermatogonial mitosis through the first and second meiotic division. In one male, this ratio was also reflected in the offspring. In the other two males, there was significant selection during haplophase, from which both types of spermatozoa could benefit. PMID:1544325

  13. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

  14. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-03-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work. PMID:26477781

  15. Female Choice or Male Sex Drive? The Advantages of Male Body Size during Mating in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Shah, Ushma; Chakrabarti, Debarti; Singh, Rama S.

    2015-01-01

    The mating success of larger male Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory and the wild has been traditionally been explained by female choice, even though the reasons are generally hard to reconcile. Female choice can explain this success by virtue of females taking less time to mate with preferred males, but so can the more aggressive or persistent courtships efforts of large males. Since mating is a negotiation between the two sexes, the behaviors of both are likely to interact and influence mating outcomes. Using a series of assays, we explored these negotiations by testing for the relative influence of male behaviors and its effect on influencing female courtship arousal threshold, which is the time taken for females to accept copulation. Our results show that large males indeed have higher copulation success compared to smaller males. Competition between two males or an increasing number of males had no influence on female sexual arousal threshold;females therefore may have a relatively fixed arousal threshold that must be reached before they are ready to mate, and larger males appear to be able to manipulate this threshold sooner. On the other hand, the females physiological and behavioral state drastically influences mating; once females have crossed the courtship arousal threshold they take less time to mate and mate indiscriminately with large and small males. Mating quicker with larger males may be misconstrued to be due to female choice; our results suggest that the mating advantage of larger males may be more a result of heightened male activity and relatively less of female choice. Body size per se may not be a trait under selection by female choice, but size likely amplifies male activity and signal outputs in courtship, allowing them to influence female arousal threshold faster. PMID:26658421

  16. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  17. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  18. Types of female partners reported by black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and associations with intercourse frequency, unprotected sex and HIV and STI prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, N; Wilton, L; Wang, L; Mao, C; Kuo, I; Penniman, T; Shoptaw, S; Griffith, S; Williams, J K; Cummings, V; Mayer, K; Koblin, B

    2014-08-01

    We used baseline data from a study of Black MSM/MSMW in 6 US cities to examine the association of female partnership types with disease prevalence and sexual behaviors among the 555 MSMW participants. MSMW reported more than three times as many total and unprotected sex acts with each primary as they did with each non-primary female partner. We compared MSMW whose recent female partners were: (1) all primary ("PF only", n = 156), (2) both primary and non-primary ("PF & NPF", n = 186), and (3) all non-primary ("NPF only", n = 213). HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly across groups but sexual behaviors did. The PF only group had the fewest male partners and was the most likely to have only primary male partners; the PF & NPF group was the most likely to have transgender partners. PF & NPF men reported the most sex acts (total and unprotected) with females; NPF only men reported the fewest. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are discussed. PMID:24523006

  19. Respondent-driven sampling estimators under real and theoretical recruitment conditions of female sex workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Fisher, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of multiple respondent-driven sampling estimators under different sample recruitment conditions in hidden populations of female sex workers in the midst of China’s ongoing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We first examine empirically calibrated simulations grounded in survey data to evaluate the relative performance of each estimator under ideal sampling conditions consistent with respondent-driven sampling assumptions and under conditions that mimic observed respondent-driven sampling recruitment processes. One estimator, which incorporates respondents’ reports on their network of contacts, substantially out-performs the others under all conditions. We then apply the estimators to empirical samples of female sex workers collected in two Chinese cities which include unique data on respondents’ networks. These empirical results are consistent with the simulation results, suggesting that traditional respondent-driven sampling estimators overestimate the proportion of female sex workers working in low tiers of sex work and are likely to overstate the STI risk profiles of these populations. PMID:26214337

  20. HIV INFECTION AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN CONCENTRATED AND HIGH PREVALENCE EPIDEMICS: WHY A STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS FRAMEWORK IS NEEDED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews the current state of the epidemiological literature on female sex work and HIV from the past 18 months. We offer a conceptual framework for structural HIV determinants and sex work that unpacks intersecting structural, interpersonal, and individual biological and behavioural factors. Recent findings Our review suggests that despite the heavy HIV burden among female sex workers (FSWs) globally, data on the structural determinants shaping HIV transmission dynamics have only begun to emerge. Emerging research suggests that factors operating at macrostructural (e.g., migration, stigma, criminalized laws), community organization (e.g., empowerment) and work environment levels (e.g., violence, policing, access to condoms HIV testing, HAART) act dynamically with interpersonal (e.g., dyad factors, sexual networks) and individual biological and behavioural factors to confer risks or protections for HIV transmission in female sex work. Summary Future research should be guided by a Structural HIV Determinants Framework to better elucidate the complex and iterative effects of structural determinants with interpersonal and individual biological and behavioural factors on HIV transmission pathways among FSWs, and meet critical gaps in optimal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care for FSWs globally. PMID:24464089

  1. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  2. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Calotes versicolor (Agamidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Shanbhag; R S Radder; S K Saidapur

    2002-09-01

    Adult males and females of the seasonally breeding lizard Calotes versicolor were subjected to various social situations under semi-natural conditions to explain the role of socio-sexual factors in gonadal recrudescence. They were grouped as: (i) males and females, (ii) males and females separated by a wire mesh, (iii) same sex groups of males or females, (iv) castrated males with intact females and (v) ovariectomized (OvX) females with intact males from postbreeding to breeding phase. Specimens collected from the wild during breeding season served as the control group. Plasma sex steroid levels (testosterone in male and 17-estradiol in female), spermatogenetic activity and vitellogenesis were the criteria to judge gonadal recrudescence. In intact males and females that were kept together, gonadal recrudescence and plasma sex steroids levels were comparable to those in wild-caught individuals. Gonadal recrudescence was at its least in all male and all female groups, and plasma sex steroids were at basal levels. Association with OvX females initiated testicular recrudescence but spermatogenetic activity progressed only up to the spermatid stage while males separated from females by wire mesh showed spermatogenetic activity for a shorter period. Females grouped with castrated males and those separated from males by wire mesh produced vitellogenic follicles. However, the total number and diameter of vitellogenic follicles, and plasma estradiol levels were lower than in the females grouped with intact males. The findings indicate that association with members of the opposite sex with progressively rising titers of sex steroids is crucial in both initiating and sustaining gonadal recrudescence in the lizard. Thus, members of the opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor.

  3. A role for sex chromosome complement in the female bias in autoimmune disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Bouvier, Deborah L.; Divekar, Anagha A.; Sasidhar, Manda; Du, Sienmi; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K; King, Jennifer K.; Arnold, Arthur P.; Singh, Ram Raj; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2008-01-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are more common in women than in men. This may be caused by differences in sex hormones, sex chromosomes, or both. In this study, we determined if there was a contribution of sex chromosomes to sex differences in susceptibility to two immunologically distinct disease models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and pristane-induced lupus. Transgenic SJL mice were created to permit a comparison between XX and XY within a common gonadal type. Mice of the XX s...

  4. Perception of sex appeal in print advertising by young female Anglo-Saxon and second generation Asian-Islamic British

    OpenAIRE

    Veloutsou, C.; Ahmed, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research, is to provide empirical data to either support or challenge the view that subculture has an impact on how sex appeal in advertising is perceived. It looks at young females of two specific British subcultural groups, Anglo-Saxon and Asian-Islamic British. It reveals that there are differences in the perception of sex appeal, since the Asian-Islamic British have a rather more negative attitude towards this particular appeal, while the Anglo-Saxon have a much more posit...

  5. Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them

  6. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  7. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

    1999-12-01

    This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

  8. Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female and Male Response of Ephestia calidella (Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex pheromone gland of female oases date moth, Ephestia calidella is located inter segmentally between eight and nine abdominal segment. Effect of three sub sterilizing doses 75, 100 and 125 Gy of gamma radiation on pheromone production and on male response were studied. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation reduce the pheromone production by female and the responsiveness of male. The effect was increased by increasing the radiation dose. Histological studies of pheromone gland also, indicated that gamma irradiation disturb epithelial cells of the gland and becoming thin at certain parts. Also, gland hairs ruptured or completely disappeared at the highest dose of 125 Gy.

  9. From Female Infanticide To Female Foeiticide – A Case Study In A Low Sex Ratio Districts Of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Elangovan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Infanticide is the custom of killing girls at birth. The female child unborn and born was unwelcome to such an extent that parents were event willing to kill. Various methods like poisoning the milk, strangling , burning alive or even drowning were used to do away with female babies. In Tamil Nadu, the Kallar community were practising this evil. Even though they liberalized their womenfolk within the caste rules, they committed female infanticide due to the problem of poverty. This practice is not confined to the Kallars alone. Tribal people like the Todas have practiced female infanticide. The steady growth of this evil forced the British Administrators to take some preventive measures. Two regulations were passed by the Government to suppress infanticide, namely, Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804. During the first half of the Nineteenth Century, a few British Officials took an active role in abolition of female infanticide. In 1890, the Infanticide Act (Act III was passed which required for its working special police surveillance of the suspected. Statistics shows that in Madras in 19920 out of every thousand babies born as 199 die within the year of birth. The cause for such death rate are early marriage, poverty, low standard of living, bad nourishment, low vitality of mothers and overwork in the case of expectant mothers. This evil has occurred not only in several cultures across history, but is known to occur in contemporary societies as well. Female infanticide in India has been documented for period of British colonial rule by several scholars. In the period since infanticide, the gruesome practice has been reported as occurring in many parts of the country including Tamil Nadu, where the phenomenon is of recent origin, and was not known to exist before independence , except among the Todas

  10. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and female-biased sex ratio in the Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ankola; Dorothea Brueckner; H P Puttaraju

    2011-12-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in India. A total of nine butterfly species belonging to four different families were screened using PCR with Wolbachia-specific wsp and ftsZ primers. The presence of the Wolbachia super group ‘B’ in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T. nyseus, suggesting a putative role for Wolbachia in the observed female-biased sex ratio distortion.

  11. The HIV Care Continuum among Female Sex Workers: A Key Population in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kathryn Elizabeth; Powers, Kimberly A.; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chadwick, Katy; Go, Vivian F.; Pence, Brian W.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW), a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome. Results HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138). Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 2228). Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 317). The majority (69%) of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes. Conclusions FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered. PMID:26808043

  12. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  13. Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH. PMID:24122121

  14. Timing of SOX9 downregulation and female sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maldonado, L; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Landa, A; Merchant-Larios, H

    2001-09-15

    The SRY-related gene SOX9 is involved in the differentiation of Sertoli cells in male gonads of vertebrates with different kinds of sex determination. In the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), the SOX9 protein is expressed at stages 21-24 in medullary cells in gonads of embryos incubated at both male-(MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). However, at FPT the expression of SOX9 protein decreases at stage 25 and disappears at stage 26, suggesting this as the critical period for SOX9 regulation by temperature. Here, we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect SOX9 transcripts in gonads of embryos switched from MPT to FPT at stage 23 and sampled at days 6-14. Simultaneously, groups of embryos were switched back to MPT and gonadal sex was established. SOX9 transcripts were detected at days 6-12 of switching, when embryos reached stage 25 and were no longer detected at day 14, when the embryos were at stage 26. Embryos switched back to MPT at days 6 or 8 formed testes, whereas embryos switched at days 10 or 14 developed ovaries. Results suggest that at MPT the male sex-determining pathway that maintains SOX9 expression in male gonads is established at stage 24. In contrast, at FPT, the female sex-determining pathway involved in downregulation of SOX9 in female gonads occurs within two days at stage 25. J. Exp. Zool. 290:498-503, 2001. PMID:11555857

  15. The use of cffDNA in fetal sex determination during the first trimester of pregnancy of female DMD carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Hou, Qiaofang; Li, Tao; Chu, Yan; Guo, Qiannan; Kang, Bing; Liao, Shixiu

    2012-11-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis for fetal sex determination is generally the first step in the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) techniques such as measurement of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma are preferable given the procedure-related miscarriage rate of CVS. We determined fetal sex during the first trimester using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of cffDNA in pregnant carriers of DMD. The fetal sex was confirmed by amniocentesis karyotype analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) at 16 weeks. This procedure may avoid unnecessary CVS or amniocentesis of female fetuses. PMID:25343090

  16. High Burden of HIV Infection and Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in Three Main Urban Areas of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Ângelo do Rosário; Young, Peter W; Horth, Roberta Z; Inguane, Celso; Sathane, Isabel; Ngale, Katia; Benedetti, Marcos; Cummings, Beverley; Botão, Carlos Francisco Sande; Baltazar, Cynthia Amino Semá; Frank, Heidi; Fagan, Jennifer; Fisher Raymond, Henry; McFarland, Willi

    2016-04-01

    This is the first integrated biological and behavioral survey among female sex workers (FSW) in Mozambique. Using respondent-driven sampling, 400, 411 and 429 FSW were enrolled respectively in Maputo, Beira and Nampula in 2011-2012. Estimates were produced using RDSAT 7.1. HIV prevalence was 31.2, 23.6, and 17.8 % in each location respectively. Among HIV-positive FSW, 48.1, 79.8 and 89.6 % in each city, were unaware of their serostatus. Condom use at last sex with a client was 85.8, 73.4 and 62.8 % among FSW, respectively. HIV was associated with current age, age of first sex for money, low educational level, and having had a genital ulcer in the last 6 months. Results suggest the urgent need to increase behavioral and structural interventions in this key population. PMID:26238035

  17. Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: Involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeung Eui-Bae; Leung Peter CK; Choi Kyung-Chul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex stero...

  18. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Sexual Violence Among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs on the United States–Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, Lotus; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Sirotin, Nicole; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; RAJ, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of miscarriage/stillbirth among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and measures its associations with physical and sexual violence. Baseline data from 582 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an HIV intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were used for current analyses. 30% of participants had experienced at least one miscarriage/stillbirth, 51% had experienced sexual violence, and 49% had experienced physical violence. History of miscarriage/sti...

  19. Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care

    OpenAIRE

    Beard Jennifer; Biemba Godfrey; Brooks Mohamad I; Costello Jill; Ommerborn Mark; Bresnahan Megan; Flynn David; Simon Jonathon L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these often fragile families. This review synthesizes evidence from disparate sources describing the vuln...

  20. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Nadine E; Strathdee Steffanie A; Uribe-Salas Felipe J; Patterson Thomas L; Rangel Maria; Rosen Perth; Brouwer Kimberly C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent ST...

  1. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nadine E; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria; Rosen, Perth; BROUWER, KIMBERLY C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation cor...

  2. Systematic review of facility-based sexual and reproductive health services for female sex workers in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dhana, Ashar; Lüchters, Stanley; Moore, Lizzie; Lafort, Yves; Roy, Anuradha; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors place female sex workers (FSWs) at heightened risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. FSW projects in many settings have demonstrated effective ways of altering this risk, improving the health and wellbeing of these women. Yet the optimum delivery model of FSW projects in Africa is unclear. This systematic review describes intervention packages...

  3. Social and behavioral factors associated with condom use among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in tarlac, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura-Takahashi, Tazuko; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro; Cabigon, Josefina; Ohi , Gen; Naka, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    This study examines social and behavioral factors associated with condom use among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Tarlac, the Philippines. One hundred and twenty-one CSWs who visited a social hygiene clinic for regular check-ups were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire with thirty-one items. More than 80% of the respondents had experience of using condoms with clients. However, only 48% of them used consistently. Six factors, level of education, knowledge of condom ap...

  4. Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention to reduce risky sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.; Calzavara, L; Mendelsohn, JB; O'Leary, A; Kang, L.; Pan, Q.; Myers, T; Ren, J; Cha, Y; Shi, G.; X. LIU; X. Tian; Fan, H; Ni, Y.; Remis, RS

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. We implemented an HIV/STI preventive intervention among FSWs in Shanghai that aimed to increase condom use, improve HIV knowledge, and reduce STI and HIV incidence. From six districts in Shanghai, 750 randomly selected venue-based FSWs were allocated to either a behavioural intervention or control group. In the intervention and control groups, 221 and 278 participants, respectively, had at l...

  5. Characteristics of Female Sex Workers in Southern India Willing and Unwilling to Participate in a Placebo Gel Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mensch, Barbara S.; Friedland, Barbara A; Abbott, Sharon A.; Katzen, Lauren L.; Tun, Waimar; Kelly, Christine A.; Sarna, Avina; Aylur K Srikrishnan; Solomon, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling was used to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) for a community survey conducted in southern India. After survey completion, participants were given a brochure describing a clinical trial that entailed daily use of a placebo vaginal gel for four months. This study assessed predictors of screening among survey respondents, predictors of enrollment among those eligible for the trial, and predictors of visit attendance and retention among those enrolled. FSWs who reporte...

  6. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    OpenAIRE

    Swe LA; Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amo...

  7. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Leafminer Holocacista capensis Infesting Grapevine in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Geertsema, Henk; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-01-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly effective for collection of the pheromone from calling females. The volatiles collected by SPME were analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD). Three compounds eliciting ...

  8. Evaluation of a targeted HIV prevention programme among female commercial sex workers in the south of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    van Griensven, G. J.; Limanonda, B.; Ngaokeow, S.; Ayuthaya, S. I.; Poshyachinda, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a targeted HIV prevention programme among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the south of Thailand. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pretest-post-test comparison group study was carried out in Sungai Kolok and Betong between June and December 1994. In June 408 CSWs were entered in Sungai Kolok (the intervention area) and 343 CSWs were enrolled in Betong (the comparison area). In December 1994, 416 women were enrolled in Sungai Kolok and 342 in Betong. Of these women 3...

  9. Trends in condom use among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: the impact of a community mobilisation intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Biradavolu, Monica; Reed, Elizabeth; Burroway, Rebekah; Blankenship, Kim M

    2012-01-01

    Background Community mobilisation interventions for HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSWs) aim to organise FSWs for collective action and challenge the structures of power that underlie HIV risk. Assessing intervention impact is challenging because the importance of direct individual exposure to intervention components may decrease over time as change occurs at social-normative, policy and other structural levels. In this paper, the authors examine changes over time in consistent cond...

  10. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, A; Prabhakar, P; P. Narayanan; Neilsen, G; Wi, T; Kumta, S.; G. Rao; R. Gangakhedkar; Risbud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study pa...

  11. Prevalence and predictors of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among female sex workers in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ray Y; Sharp, Gerald B.; Ma, Yanling; Wang, Guixiang; Ding, Guowei; Wu, Zhenglai

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and to evaluate the relationship between HSV-2 infection and sociodemographic factors and the sexual practices of female sex workers (FSWs) in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan Province, China. This cross-sectional study involved 737 FSWs and was carried out from March to May 2006 with confidential interviews and laboratory tests for HSV-2 and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). HSV-2 was the m...

  12. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Laurence; Chersich, Matthew; Steen, Richard; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Dhana, Ashar; Vuylsteke, Bea; Lafort, Yves; Scorgie, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, a...

  13. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  14. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove

  15. Acute restraint stress activates functional NK1 receptor in the colon of female rats: involvement of steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Bradesi, S.; Eutamène, H.; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L.

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Psychological factors have been implicated in the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome characterised by intestinal altered motility and visceral hypersensitivity. Similar disorders have been found in rats under stressful conditions. The role of tachykinins in bowel dysfunctions caused by stress is not fully documented. Therefore, we investigated the influence of stress on NK1 receptor activation at the colonic level in female rats.

  16. The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge and Attitude of Female Sex Workers in Preventing High Risk Sexual Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Larki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P

  17. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl ?-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer. PMID:24369389

  18. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE)+luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRH?2) (0.5mgCPEkg(-1)BW for first injection and 2mgCPEkg(-1)BW+10gLHRH?2kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5mgkg(-1)BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15mlkg(-1)BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6h after first injection, 6h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17? as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17? following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5kg. These results suggest that among inducing agents, applied here, CPE can provide more reasonable response in reproduction of female B. sharpeyi. PMID:26164861

  19. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  20. Non-Cationic Proteins Are Associated with HIV Neutralizing Activity in Genital Secretions of Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birse, Kenzie D. M.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; McKinnon, Lyle; Ball, Terry B.; Westmacott, Garrett R.; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Frank; Cole, Alexander M.; Burgener, Adam; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cationic proteins found in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) are known to contribute to the early antiviral immune response against HIV-infection in vitro. We here aimed to define additional antiviral factors that are over-expressed in CVS from female sex workers at high risk of infection. Methods CVS were collected from Kenyan HIV-seronegative (n = 34) and HIV-seropositive (n = 12) female sex workers, and were compared with those from HIV-seronegative low-risk women (n = 12). The highly exposed seronegative (HESN) sex workers were further divided into those with less (n = 22) or more (n = 12) than three years of documented sex work. Cationic protein-depleted CVS were assessed for HIV-neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based HIV-neutralizing assay, and then characterized by proteomics. Results HIV neutralizing activity was detected in all unprocessed CVS, however only CVS from the female sex worker groups maintained its HIV neutralizing activity after cationic protein-depletion. Differentially abundant proteins were identified in the cationic protein-depleted secretions including 26, 42, and 11 in the HESN>3yr, HESN<3yr, and HIV-positive groups, respectively. Gene ontology placed these proteins into functional categories including proteolysis, oxidation-reduction, and epidermal development. The proteins identified in this study include proteins previously associated with the HESN phenotype in other cohorts as well as novel proteins not yet associated with anti-HIV activities. Conclusion While cationic proteins appear to contribute to the majority of the intrinsic HIV neutralizing activity in the CVS of low-risk women, a broader range of non-cationic proteins were associated with HIV neutralizing activity in HESN and HIV-positive female sex workers. These results indicate that novel protein factors found in CVS of women with high-risk sexual practices may have inherent antiviral activity, or are involved in other aspects of anti-HIV host defense, and warrant further exploration into their mode of action. PMID:26090884

  1. Analysis of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in sex reversed patients: point-mutation in SRY causing sex-reversion in a 46,XY female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Jørn; Schwartz, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1992-01-01

    changing a codon for lysine to a stop codon. This information supports the hypothesis that SRY is significant in normal male sex differentiation. The two remaining 46,XY individuals had an intact HMG box, but it is possible that a mutation may be found in a regulatory gene or further downstream in the gene...... been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has to be...

  2. Risk of sexual, physical and verbal assaults on men who have sex with men and female sex workers in coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Methods Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to estimate the risk of rape, physical assault and verbal abuse, and to assess associations between first occurrence of assault with individual and recent behavioural factors. Results Incidence of first reported rape was similar for MSM [3.9, confidence interval (CI) 3.15.0 per 100 person-years (pyrs)] and FSW (4.8 CI 3.56.4 per 100 pyrs), P =0.22. Incidence of first reported physical and verbal assault was higher for FSW than MSM (21.1 versus 12.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.14 and 51.3 versus 30.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.03 respectively). Recent alcohol use was associated with reporting of all forms of assault by MSM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, CI 0.93.5] and FSW (AOR 4.4, CI 1.4114.0), as was recent sale of sex for MSM (AOR 2.0, CI 1.13.8). Exclusive sex with men, active sex work, and group sex were also specifically associated with reporting rape for MSM. Perpetrators of sexual and verbal assault were usually unknown, whilst perpetrators of physical violence toward FSW were usually regular sexual partners. Conclusion MSM and FSW experienced a similarly high incidence of sexual assault in coastal Kenya, in addition to physical and verbal assault. Current national policies focus heavily on gender-based violence against women and young girls, but need to be inclusive of MSM and FSW. PMID:26562812

  3. An Estrogen-Responsive Module in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Selectively Drives Sex-Specific Activity in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Correa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα neurons in the ventrolateral region of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL control an array of sex-specific responses to maximize reproductive success. In females, these VMHVL neurons are believed to coordinate metabolism and reproduction. However, it remains unknown whether specific neuronal populations control distinct components of this physiological repertoire. Here, we identify a subset of ERα VMHVL neurons that promotes hormone-dependent female locomotion. Activating Nkx2-1-expressing VMHVL neurons via pharmacogenetics elicits a female-specific burst of spontaneous movement, which requires ERα and Tac1 signaling. Disrupting the development of Nkx2-1+ VMHVL neurons results in female-specific obesity, inactivity, and loss of VMHVL neurons coexpressing ERα and Tac1. Unexpectedly, two responses controlled by ERα+ neurons, fertility and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, are unaffected. We conclude that a dedicated subset of VMHVL neurons marked by ERα, NKX2-1, and Tac1 regulates estrogen-dependent fluctuations in physical activity and constitutes one of several neuroendocrine modules that drive sex-specific responses.

  4. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Darden, Safi K.; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W.; Croft, Darren P.

    2009-01-01

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experien...

  5. Developing human rights-based strategies to improve health among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agns; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Mwananawe, Aimable; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irwin, Alec; Karema, Corine

    2010-01-01

    How governments should address sex work is a topic of current debate in Rwanda and other countries. Some constituencies propose harsher punishment of sex workers as the cornerstone of an improved policy. We argue that an adequate policy response to sex work in the Rwandan context must prioritize public health and reflect current knowledge of the social determinants of health. This does not imply intensified repression, but a comprehensive agenda of medical and social support to improve sex workers' access to health care, reduce their social isolation, and expand their economic options. Evidence from social epidemiology converges with rights-based arguments in this approach. Recent field interviews with current and former sex workers strengthen the case, while highlighting the need for further social scientific and epidemiological analysis of sex work in Rwanda. Rwanda has implemented some measures that reflect a rights-based perspective in addressing sex work. For example, recent policies seek to expand access to education for girls and support sex workers in the transition to alternative livelihoods. These policies reinforce the model of solidarity-based public health action for which Rwanda has been recognized. Whether such measures can maintain traction in the face of economic austerity and ideological resistance remains to be seen. PMID:21178192

  6. Female-biased sex ratios in marine pelagic copepods: Comment on Gusmao et al. (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Bonnet, D; Conway, DVP; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gusmao et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 482:279-298) review causes of sex ratio skew in pelagic copepods and in doing so repeatedly dispute the paper of Hirst et al. (2010) ‘Does predation control adult sex ratios and longevities in marine pelagic copepods?’ Here we respond to some important error...... in their citation of our paper and briefly highlight where future work is needed in order to attribute the causes of strong sex ratio skew seen in some copepod families......Gusmao et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 482:279-298) review causes of sex ratio skew in pelagic copepods and in doing so repeatedly dispute the paper of Hirst et al. (2010) ‘Does predation control adult sex ratios and longevities in marine pelagic copepods?’ Here we respond to some important errors...

  7. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  9. Hippocampus and Cerebellum Function Following Imipenem Treatment in Male and Female Rats: Evaluation of Sex Differences During Developmental Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Vahidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The B-Lactam antibiotics have been suggested to have some degree of neurotoxicity in experimental animals as well as in clinical situations. This study has been elucidated the alteration in hippocampal and cerebellum function following adolescent imipenem exposure in male and female rats. Hippocampus and cerebellum related behavioral dysfunction in imipenem -treated [intraperitoneally, 40 and 80 mg/kg/day for one week from 23-day-old] rats were analyzed using explorative, motor function, learning and memory tasks [grasping, rotarod, open field shuttle box and Morris water maze tests]. Exposure to imipenem especially in high dosage impaired the motor coordination in male and female rats. There werent any differences in grasping time in male and female rats. When the rearing and grooming frequency of their recorded in open field test, both males and females were dramatically affected by exposure to imipenem. Compared to the saline, male and female rats trained one week after imipenem injection showed significant memory deficits in the shuttle box and Morris water maze tests. Results in this study suggested that animals treated with imipenem suffer from motor activity and cognitive impairment. However, hippocampal and cerebellum functions of male and female rats were profoundly affected by exposure to imipenem while no sex-differences in the most variable were evident.

  10. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  11. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno?based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1?S), androsterone sulfate (ADT?S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg?S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg?S). E1?S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1?S binding elimination on Oasis WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA?S, E1-S, ADT?S, Preg?S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1?S, ADT?S and Preg?S while for Allopreg?S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. PMID:25595042

  12. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Seoka, P; Raphala, S

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as "targeted" sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined. PMID:15168620

  13. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  14. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as targeted sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  15. Effect of tamoxifen treatment at adolescent age on the sexual behaviour and steroid hormone receptor binding of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Karabélyos, C; Inczefi-Gonda, A

    2001-01-01

    Hormonal imprinting takes place perinatally, at the first encounter between the target hormone and its developing receptor. However, there is a secondary critical period of imprinting at puberty. In these periods molecules similar to the hormones (members of the same hormone family, antagonists, certain environmental pollutants, etc.) can cause faulty imprinting with lifelong consequences. In the present experiments 5+2 days of tamoxifen treatment (120 microg/day) at adolescent age dramatically (from approx. 40% to 10%) reduced the sexual activity (Meyerson index and lordosis quotient) of female rats, soon after the finishment of the treatment and between four to six weeks after treatment. Similar results were observed in animals neonatally treated with allylestrenol and tamoxifen treated at puberty. Thymic glucocorticoid receptor and uterine estrogen receptor binding capacity were not influenced. PMID:11999805

  16. Male-Dependent Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA and Female-Dependent Sex-Ratio in the Mussel Mytilus Galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, C; Reyero, M. I.; Zouros, E.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated sex ratio and mitochondrial DNA inheritance in pair-matings involving five female and five male individuals of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The percentage of male progeny varied widely among families and was found to be a characteristic of the female parent and independent of the male to which it was mated. Thus sex-ratio in Mytilus appears to be independent of the nuclear genotype of the sperm. With a few exceptions, doubly uniparental inheritance ...

  17. Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Kim K.; Björkman, Christer; Parachnowitsch, Amy L.; Stenberg, Johan A.

    2016-01-01

    Associational effects of plant genotype or species on plant biotic interactions are common, not least for disease spread, but associational effects of plant sex on interactions have largely been ignored. Sex in dioecious plants can affect biotic interactions with herbivores and pollinators; however, its effects on plant-pathogen interactions are understudied and associational effects are unknown. In a replicated field experiment, we assessed Melampsora spp. leaf rust infection in monosexual a...

  18. It's all about sex: male-female differences in lung development and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michelle A.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Voltz, James W.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gender impacts the incidence, susceptibility and severity of several lung diseases. Gender also influences lung development and physiology. Data from both human and animal studies suggests that sex hormones may contribute to disease pathogenesis or serve as protective factors, depending on the disease involved. In this review, the influence of gender and sex hormones on lung development and pathology will be discussed, with specific emphasis on pulmonary fi...

  19. It's all about sex: male-female differences in lung development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle A.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Voltz, James W.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that gender impacts the incidence, susceptibility and severity of several lung diseases. Gender also influences lung development and physiology. Data from both human and animal studies suggests that sex hormones may contribute to disease pathogenesis or serve as protective factors, depending on the disease involved. In this review, the influence of gender and sex hormones on lung development and pathology will be discussed, with specific emphasis on pulmonary fibrosis, asthma and cancer. PMID:17764971

  20. Correlation between female sex and allergy was significant in patients presenting with dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    LAURIELLO, M.; ANGELONE, A.M.; RIENZO BUSINCO, L.; Passali, D.; Bellussi, L.M.; Passali, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of allergy in patients affected by both organic and/or functional vocal fold disorders. The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between sex and allergy in dysphonic patients. A retrospective chart review was performed on dysphonic patients. A total of 76 patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy to assess the objective picture. Logistic regression analyses have been conducted to assess the association between sex and the...

  1. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ankomah A; Omoregie G; Akinyemi Z; Anyanti J; Ladipo O; Adebayo S

    2011-01-01

    Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk...

  2. Male harassment drives females to alter habitat use and leads to segregation of the sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Darden, Safi K.; Croft, Darren P.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual conflict is ubiquitous across taxa. It often results in male harassment of females for mating opportunities that are costly for females, in some cases reducing reproductive success and increasing mortality. One strategy that females may employ to avoid sexual harassment is to segregate spatially from males. In fact, we do find sexual segregation in habitat use in species that have high levels of sexual conflict; however, the role of sexual harassment in driving such segregation remains...

  3. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year

  4. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  5. Reducing harm from HIV/AIDS misconceptions among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: A cross sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson Angela M; Ojeda Victoria D; Nguyen Lucie; Lozada Remedios; Martnez Gustavo A; Strathdee Steffanie A; Patterson Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexicos Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations education, empowerment, and access to preventive services are important components of harm reduction strategies. Given the increasing interest in adapting harm reduction principles from drug use to sex work and other public health responses to the HIV epidemic, we used a sex work harm reduction framew...

  6. HIV prevention while bulldozers roll: developing evidence based HIV prevention intervention for female sex workers following the demolition of Goa’s redlight area

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmanesh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal to HIV prevention in India. Societal factors and legislation around sex-work are potential barriers to achieving this. In recent years several high profile closures of red-light areas and dance bars in India have occurred. In this thesis I describe the effects of the demolition of Goa’s red-light area on the organsiation of sex-work, HIV risk environment, and implications for evidence-based HIV prevention...

  7. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  8. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  9. Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, R S; Kang, L; Calzavara, L; Pan, Q; Liu, J; Myers, T; Ren, J; Tang, X

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, we examined HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in 750 female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (mean age 27 years) were interviewed and tested for HIV and selected STIs. Prevalence was: HIV 0·13%, chlamydia 14·7%, gonorrhoea 3·5% and syphilis 1·3%. In a demographic multivariate model, younger age, higher income and originating from provinces other than Zhejiang and Shanghai were independently associated with STI. In a social and sexual behavioural model, women working in small venues with fewer clients per week, use of drugs, and higher price charged per sex act indicated a greater risk for STI. Although HIV appears rare in Shanghai FSWs, chlamydial infection is common, especially in women aged share similar risk factors, preventive intervention measures should be implemented immediately based on the venues and characteristics of FSWs to prevent future spread of HIV. PMID:24759515

  10. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,

  11. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe LA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom

  12. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of prepubertal male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly screen environmental chemicals for potential toxic effects such as increased cancer risk and risk of infertility resulting from actions similar to those of female sex steroids such as estrogens, it is essential to understand the effects of treatment with the most important femal...

  13. Analysis of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in sex reversed patients: point-mutation in SRY causing sex-reversion in a 46,XY female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Jrn; Schwartz, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1992-01-01

    been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has to be...... determined. We have tested three human females with 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis and two 46,XX males for the presence of SRY using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. Both 46,XX males contained SRY, whereas one of the 46,XY females had suffered a point mutation in SRY......The first and essential step in normal sexual differentiation takes place during the 5th-6th week of gestation. The testis determining factor (TDF) directs the undifferentiated gonad into a testis, which secretes hormones responsible for normal male development. A new candidate for TDF has recently...

  14. The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge and Attitude of Female Sex Workers in Preventing High Risk Sexual Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Larki; Mahin Taffazoli; Robab Latifnejad Roudsari; Ali Babaee

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim:  The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 4...

  15. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  16. Increased HIV Prevention Program Coverage and Decline in HIV Prevalence Among Female Sex Workers in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Alary, Michel; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Thamattoor, Usha K.; Mainkar, Mandar K; Paranjape, Ramesh; Adhikary, Rajatashurva; Duchesne, Thierry; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background As one way of assessing the impact of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, we examined the association between HIV prevention program indicators and changes in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) between 2005 and 2009. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis from 2 large cross-sectional surveys (2005–2006 and 2008–2009) across 24 districts in south India (n = 11,000 per round). A random-effect multilevel logistic regression ana...

  17. Spermatogenesis, epididymis morphology and plasma sex steroid secretion in the male lizard Podarcis sicula exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Anna; Comitato, Raffaella; Angelini, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigates the effects of diuron, a substituted urea-based herbicide, in the male lizard Podarcis sicula utilizing quantitative and qualitative morphological features of the reproductive system and endocrinological analysis. Besides the control group, lizards were divided into three groups ([a-c]) (n=6/group) and placed for 3 weeks in terraria on polluted soil substrate sprayed with 3.75 L/ha of herbicide Toterbane 50F (50% diuron). Each terrarium was supplemented either with drinking water contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 1.08 microg/mL of diuron; group [a]), or with food contaminated by herbicide (i.e. 5.4 mg of diuron; group [b]), or with drinking water and food contaminated as described above (group [c]). None of the animals exposed to the contaminant showed any signs of general toxicity or death during the course of the experiments. Severe testicular effects are evidenced in all herbicide-treated groups, although, such effects are of a greater magnitude in lizards exposed to contaminated water (groups [a] and [c]). The main degenerative changes observed include: (1) a significant decrease in the mean gonadosomatic index of 55% in group [a] (P<0.001), 21% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 34% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group; (2) a significant shrinking (P<0.001) of seminiferous tubule diameter (more than 60% of the control) in groups [a] and [c], and about 18% in group [b] (P<0.01); (3) a significant decrease in the crude numbers of spermatogonia of 92% in group [a] (P<0.001), 27% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 62% in group [c] (P<0.001) compared with control group. A complete loss of meiotic and mature germ cells in groups [a] and [c], and a reduction of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids (more than 27% of the control) and a decrease of spermatozoa (more than 90% of the control) in group [b]; and (4) an hypertrophy of interstitial connective tissue which contains numerous lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes. The decrease and/or loss of germ cells seems to be related to an induction of inflammation (necrosis) rather than to apoptotic processes. Indeed, this hypothesis is supported by a TUNEL-assay, which failed to reveal any apoptotic cells either in the seminiferous epithelium or in the interstitial space in the testis of all exposed groups. Also the epididymis appears affected by diuron exposure. In particular, in experimental groups [a] and [c] it is regressed with abundant connective tissue and low epithelial cells without secretory granules, whereas in group [b] it appears partially regressed, with some secretory granules still present. At the same time, an impairment of the plasma sex-hormone levels is observed in treated lizards, as evidenced by RIA analysis. Testosterone values significantly decreased by 43% in group [a] (P<0.001), 34% in group [b] (P<0.01) and 52% in group [c] compared with control group. Instead, 17beta-estradiol plasma content is undetectable in all diuron-exposed lizards. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that diuron exposure resulted in direct male reproductive toxicity and reveal that this lizard is suitable as a laboratory reptile species for toxicological investigations. PMID:18760409

  18. Association of serum sex steroid levels and bone mineral density with CYP17 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M B; Pazarbasi, A; Guzel, A I; Kocaturk-Sel, S; Kasap, H; Kasap, M; Urunsak, I F; Basaran, S; Alptekin, D; Demirhan, O

    2011-01-01

    Many clinical conditions, including osteoporosis, are associated with serum levels of sex steroids. Enzymes that regulate rate-limiting steps of steroidogenic pathways, such as CYP17 and CYP19, are also regarded as significant factors that may cause the development of these conditions. We investigated the association of two common polymorphisms, in the promoter region (T→C substitution) of CYP17 and exon 3 (G→A) of CYP19, with bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck and serum androgen/estradiol, in a case-control study of 172 postmenopausal women aged 62.3 ± 9.6 years (mean ± SD). The CYP17 TC genotype was significantly overrepresented in patients compared to controls, and TC genotype neck T-score and lumbar T-score values were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. CYP17 TC and TT genotype testosterone and DHEA-SO(4) levels were lower in patients compared to controls. All three genotypes of CYP19 had almost the same distribution among patients. The CYP19 AG genotype, however, was most frequent among controls. CYP19 lumbar BMD levels were close to each other among the different genotypes; however, AA and AG genotypes were significantly lower in patients. Testosterone and DHEA-SO(4) levels in the CYP19 GG genotype were higher compared to those of the other genotypes in patients but not in controls. CYP19 GA individuals had lower E(2) levels and lower BMD in controls and patients. Femoral neck BMD and lumbar T-score were also diminished with GA transition. In conclusion, CYP17 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms were found to be associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Turkey. PMID:21948762

  19. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee; Koopman, Peter

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable...... as the primary testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans....

  20. Female characters in ten mature rated game trailers according to a sex object test

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Sexual objectification is a topic that is frequently discussed but its importance is underestimated by many in the game industry as well as the general public. This thesis examines and analyses ten mature rated game-trailers with the help of a sex object test to determine if the trailers are sexual objectified. The Sex Object Test (SOT) originally was developed by PhD Caroline Heldman (2012) to measure the presence of sexual objectification in images, a research she based of Martha Nussbaum (...