Sample records for female sex steroid

  1. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

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    Azevedo R.B.


    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  2. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids. (United States)

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I


    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation. PMID:18056697

  3. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.


    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  4. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo


    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  5. Sex Steroids Do Not Modulate TRPM2-Mediated Injury in Females following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion(1,2,3). (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Grewal, Himmat; Klawitter, Jelena; Herson, Paco S


    Calcium-permeable transient receptor potential M2 (TRPM2) ion channel activation contributes to cerebral ischemic injury specifically in males. In male mice, circulating androgens are required for TRPM2 inhibition with clotrimazole (CTZ) to provide protection following experimental stroke. Sufficient levels of circulating androgens are necessary to support ischemia-induced activation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and consequent activation of TRPM2 channels. In this study, we tested whether differences in sex steroids contribute to the lack of CTZ neuroprotection in females. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed using adult female mice that were hormonally intact, ovariectomized (OVX) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treated. CTZ or vehicle was administered at the time of reperfusion, animals were euthanized 24 h later and brains and serum were collected. Infarct analysis revealed no effect of CTZ in intact females or females lacking endogenous sex steroids (OVX). Interestingly, treatment of female mice with the potent androgen receptor agonist DHT had no effect on ischemic injury and did not permit CTZ neuroprotection. Similarly, DHT-treated females did not exhibit increased levels of ADPribose, the TRPM2 ligand generated by PARP, following ischemia. No differences in TRPM2 or androgen receptor expression were observed between males and females. These data suggest that the lack of TRPM2 activation in females following experimental stroke is not due to the presence of estrogen or the absence of androgens. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that while circulating androgens are necessary for PARP-mediated TRPM2 injury in males, they are not sufficient to produce TRPM2 activation in females. PMID:26464961

  6. Seasonal variations in plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids in male and female Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina. (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F; Tift, Michael S; Meyer, Jennifer L; Crocker, Daniel E; Williams, Rod N


    The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a widespread species that has recently experienced precipitous declines throughout its range. Although many studies have documented aspects of reproduction in box turtles, reproductive physiology of free-ranging animals is unknown and can be crucial in this species' recovery. Over a two-year period, we measured reproductive parameters, (vitellogenin [Vtg], estradiol-17β [E2], and total testosterone [TT]), in plasma of 116 free-ranging Eastern Box Turtles across their active season. We found similar seasonal variations of Vtg and E2 within females. Mid-season, females showed a sharp peak in E2 that correlates with the putative beginning of the ovarian cycle. Individual females lacking these expected peaks of both Vtg and E2 suggest that some female T. c. carolina may not reproduce annually. Females typically expressed undetectable levels of TT, yet there was a small peak in TT early in the active season. Male Eastern Box Turtles exhibited a dual peak in TT. Elevated TT in males was significantly associated with observed sexual behaviors and smaller home ranges. Body condition had no effect on the concentration of TT or E2 in either sex. This is the first study to (1) document Vtg and sex steroid hormones in free-ranging animals of this genus, and (2) relate those metrics to individuals, the population, the purported annual cycle, and to other chelonian species. PMID:23174697

  7. Sex-Steroid Regulation of Relaxin Receptor Isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) Expression in the Patellar Tendon and Lateral Collateral Ligament of Female WKY Rats


    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Yusof, Ashril; Salleh, Naguib


    The incidence of non-contact knee injury was found higher in female than in male and is related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. This raised the possibility that female sex-steroids are involved in the mechanism underlying this injury via affecting the expression of the receptors for relaxin, a peptide hormone known to modulate ligament laxity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of sex-steroids on relaxin receptor isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) expression in the ligaments and...

  8. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Zakieh Keshavarzi


    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  9. Female sex steroids and glia cells: Impact on multiple sclerosis lesion formation and fine tuning of the local neurodegenerative cellular network. (United States)

    Kipp, Markus; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Schmitz, Christoph; Beyer, Cordian


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease that shows a female-to-male gender prevalence and alleviation of disease activity during late stage pregnancy. In MS-related animal models, sex steroids ameliorate symptoms and protect from demyelination and neuronal damage. Underlying mechanisms of these protective avenues are continuously discovered, in part by using novel transgenic animal models. In this review article, we highlight the regulation of glia cell function by female sex steroids. We specifically focus on the relevance of glia cells for immune cell recruitment into the central nervous system and show how estrogen and progesterone can modulate these cell-cell communication pathways. Since MS is considered to have a strong neurodegenerative component, principal neuroprotective mechanisms, exerted by sex-steroids will be discussed as well. Activation of steroid receptors might not just act as immunosuppressant but at the same time harmonize brain-intrinsic networks to dampen neurodegeneration and, thus, disease progression in MS. PMID:26698019

  10. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors


    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando


    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migrat...

  11. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  12. Sex Steroid Signaling: Implications for Lung Diseases


    Sathish, Venkatachalem; Martin, Yvette N.; Y. S. Prakash


    There is increasing recognition that the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are...

  13. Oogenesis and plasma levels of sex steroids in cultured females of brown trout (Salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) in Chile. (United States)

    Estay, Francisco; Díaz, Andrés; Pedrazza, Rodrigo; Colihueque, Nelson


    Naturalized brown trout populations in Chile are a valuable genetic resource with aquaculture potential. The oogenesis of a three-year-old brown trout cultured population was studied in southern Chile. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth, gonadal microscopic characteristics, and plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-HP) were measured bimonthly for a nine-month period before spawning. The maximum GSI level (22%) was similar to that described for other salmonids, although it was reached in May, more than one month before the population started spawning. Oocyte growth increases strongly from January when diameter reaches more than 1 mm. The vitellogenic period (six-seven months) is consistent with the long vitellogenesis, described for salmonid females maturing at three years old. E2 shows a slow increase from November, reaching its peak value in March (65.2+/-0.7 ng/ml), during maximal vitellogenic activity. T increases as oogenesis progresses, reaching a maximum of 90+/-20 ng/ml during May, and falling considerably during ovulation. Following a typical pattern of progestogens in salmonid oogenesis, 17alpha-HP stays at basal levels during most of oogenesis, but experiences a strong surge (2.0+/-0.4 ng/ml) just before ovulation. PMID:12840840

  14. Controlled Cohort Study of Serum Gonadal and Adrenocortical Steroid Levels in Males Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis (pre-RA: A Comparison to pre-RA Females and Sex Differences among the Study Groups

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    Alfonse T. Masi


    Full Text Available Serum testosterone levels are generally reported to be lower in male rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, but it is not determined if a deficiency may occur before clinical onset of disease (pre-RA. Lower testosterone levels were recently reported in males many years before RA onset but were predictive only of rheumatoid factor (RF—negative disease. A preceding prospective study did not reveal androgenic-anabolic hormone association with risk of RA in men or women. This cohort study of males analyzed baseline serum levels of gonadal and adrenocortical steroids, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in 18 pre-RA versus 72 matched non-RA control (CN subjects. Findings in males were compared to those in female pre-RA and CN subjects in the same cohort, and sex differences were analyzed. Steroidal and hormonal levels, including total testosterone, were similar between male study groups. In females, mean (±SE serum androstenedione (nmol/L was slightly (P=0.048 lower in 36 pre-RA (6.7 ± 0.36 than 144 CN (7.6 ± 0.22. With the exception of 3 partial correlations of hormonal variables observed to differ between pre-RA versus CN subjects, the patterns were similar overall. However, partial correlations of hormonal variables differed frequently by sex, both within and between study groups.

  15. Probing the impact of sex steroids and menopause-related sex steroid deprivation on modulation of immune senescence. (United States)

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Zygouris, Dimitrios; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Daniilidis, Angelos; Valsamakis, Georgios; Kalantaridou, Sophia


    Immune senescence denotes the general decline in immune system function, characterized by a reduced immune response and an increased inflammatory state. Menopause is a natural change in a women's life, the menopause-related low estrogen levels affecting many body functions, among them the immune system. Numerous human studies with menopausal women and animal models with surgically induced menopause show a clear impact of sex steroids in immune responses. Female superiority in vaccination response and predisposition to infections are eliminated after menopause, while during menopause inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukins-1β, 6, 8 and 13 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) are increased, implying a molecular connection of sex steroid loss with immune senescence. Moreover, immune cells modify their number and function after the menopausal transition, this offering another explanation for immune senescence. Until now most of the existing studies have concluded that menopause plays an additional role to aging in immune senescence. While it is clear that we are as yet far from thoroughly understanding the molecular pathways connecting sex steroids and menopause with immune senescence, such knowledge is highly likely to enable future targeted interventions in treatment and prevention of age-related diseases in women. PMID:24852404

  16. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives. (United States)

    Balasch, Juan


    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for


    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  18. Modulatory Effects of Sex Steroids Progesterone and Estradiol on Odorant Evoked Responses in Olfactory Receptor Neurons (United States)

    Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns


    The influence of the sex steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol on physiology and behavior during menstrual cycles and pregnancy is well known. Several studies indicate that olfactory performance changes with cyclically fluctuating steroid hormone levels in females. Knowledge of the exact mechanisms behind how female sex steroids modulate olfactory signaling is limited. A number of different known genomic and non-genomic actions that are mediated by progesterone and estradiol via interactions with different receptors may be responsible for this modulation. Next generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq transcriptome data from the murine olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) revealed the expression of several membrane progestin receptors and the estradiol receptor Gpr30. These receptors are known to mediate rapid non-genomic effects through interactions with G proteins. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining results provide evidence for progestin and estradiol receptors in the ORNs. These data support the hypothesis that steroid hormones are capable of modulating the odorant-evoked activity of ORNs. Here, we validated this hypothesis through the investigation of steroid hormone effects by submerged electro-olfactogram and whole cell patch-clamp recordings of ORNs. For the first time, we demonstrate that the sex steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol decrease odorant-evoked signals in the OE and ORNs of mice at low nanomolar concentrations. Thus, both of these sex steroids can rapidly modulate the odor responsiveness of ORNs through membrane progestin receptors and the estradiol receptor Gpr30. PMID:27494699

  19. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  20. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward. (United States)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R


    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  1. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

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    Elvar Theodorsson


    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  2. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;


    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  3. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication. (United States)

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie


    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

  4. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

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    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for

  5. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja;


    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women...... to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to...

  6. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions. (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos


    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  7. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease


    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.


    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  8. Multiple Sclerosis in relation to sex steroid exposure


    Kempe, Per


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially severe chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is usually diagnosed between 20 and 40 years of age. The incidence of MS is two to three times higher among women and the type and course of the disease often differ between the sexes. Sex steroids, especially estrogens, have been shown to influence the immunopathology involved in MS and the mouse model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), as well as radiological and ...

  9. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  10. Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control


    Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.


    There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

  11. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet


    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  12. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour


    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  13. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes. (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor


    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  14. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ


    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  15. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Vicelli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental

  16. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian;


    . Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0...

  17. Are sex steroids essential for gonadal differentiation of the ornate frog, Microhyla ornata? (United States)

    Mali, P V; Gramapurohit, N P


    Knowledge about sensitivities and responses of amphibian larvae to sex steroids and the chemicals alike is the first step towards understanding and assessing the effect of diverse chemicals that interfere with gonadal development and other endocrine functions. Herein, we used Microhyla ornata to determine the role of sex steroids on its gonad differentiation and sex ratio. Our results show that the exposure to increasing concentrations of estradiol-17β throughout larval development did not affect gonad differentiation resulting in 1:1 sex ratio at metamorphosis. But, females emerging from estradiol-17β treatment had larger ovaries with larger sized follicles. Further, testes of some males contained lumens, the number of which was dose dependent. Similarly, exposure to testosterone propionate had negligible effects on gonad differentiation. However, the mean diameter of the largest follicles was smaller in treated ovaries. Treatment of tadpoles with tamoxifen had no effect on gonad differentiation and ovary development while testicular development was accelerated at the highest concentration. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with cyproterone acetate had little effect on gonad differentiation as well as development, hence the sex ratios at the end of metamorphosis. Further, in tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of formestane, gonad differentiation was normal resulting in 1:1 sex ratio. Thus, in M. ornata, both estradiol and testosterone are essential for the development of ovaries and testes respectively but, they are not critical to gonadal differentiation. Hence, the effects of sex steroids and other endocrine disrupting chemicals could be species-specific; different species may have differential sensitivities to such chemicals. PMID:27181751

  18. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ally R.HARARI; Hadass STEINITZ


    The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection,particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness,has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars.However,the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection) and in competition over breeding resources (social selection) has been largely ignored.The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute,while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates) has not yet been considered.As a result of natural selection,variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low,and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females.Sexual selection,on the other hand,should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females,and males are expected to choose females based on this variation.Moreover,social selection resulting from more general social interactions,for example competition among females for breeding sites and food,should also promote variance among female sex pheromones.Here,we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait.We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations.

  19. Digit Ratio (2D:4D: A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eManning


    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D, which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that there is little in the way of associations. Here we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones one must consider both foetal organising and adult activating effects of testosterone and oestrogen. In particular, we hypothesise that 2D:4D correlates with early organising effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this can be especially observed through an elevated propensity in adults to produce testosterone in challenging conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

  20. The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation. (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.


    Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

  1. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  2. Sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior of captive wild-caught zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Yap, Kang Nian; Adomat, Hans H; Mainwaring, Mark C; Fokidis, H Bobby; Guns, Emma S; Buchanan, Katherine L; Griffith, Simon C; Soma, Kiran K


    Here, we studied the life-long monogamous zebra finch, to examine the relationship between circulating sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior in pairs of wild-caught zebra finches (paired in the laboratory for >1 month). We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine a total of eight androgens and progestins [pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol, pregnan-3,17-diol-20-one, androsterone, androstanediol, and testosterone]. In the plasma, only pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone were above the limit of quantification. Sex steroid profiles were similar between males and females, with only circulating progesterone levels significantly different between the sexes (female > male). Circulating pregnenolone levels were high in both sexes, suggesting that pregnenolone might serve as a circulating prohormone for local steroid synthesis in zebra finches. Furthermore, circulating testosterone levels were extremely low in both sexes. Additionally, we found no correlations between circulating steroid levels and pair-maintenance behavior. Taken together, our data raise several interesting questions about the neuroendocrinology of zebra finches. PMID:26610331

  3. Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal (United States)

    Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca


    Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

  4. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. (United States)

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A


    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  5. Disparate Changes in Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus After Sex Steroid Manipulation Reveal Differential Regulation of the Two KNDy Peptides in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M;


    prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained...... upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation...

  6. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang


    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  7. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine;


    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).......Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  8. Seasonal changes in sex and adrenal steroid hormones of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). (United States)

    Ott, J A; Mendonça, M T; Guyer, C; Michener, W K


    We sampled a population of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) from May to October 1997 to determine seasonal cycles of steroid hormones (testosterone, T; 17beta-estradiol, E; and progesterone, P) and related them to observations of mating behavior. In males, plasma T levels peaked in July and August and remained elevated through October. This coincides with the reported time of peak mating and spermatogenesis, indicating that males display an associated pattern of reproduction. In females, E levels were high in September and October. Plasma T levels in females were elevated in May, decreased to basal levels in June and July, and rose again in August and September. Elevated E and T levels correspond to the reported time of peak vitellogenic activity, indicating that females also display an associated cycle. Plasma P in females remained basal throughout the active season, suggesting that ovulation occurs in late winter. We also determined levels of corticosterone (B) to assess the influence of capture stress on tortoises and correlated B levels with tortoise activity patterns and sex steroid levels. We found no seasonal variation in levels of B in males or females. Plasma B levels were not correlated with levels of T or E, but were positively correlated with female P levels. Further, we found no relationship between plasma B levels in males and mean distance moved, mean number of burrows used, or mean home range size. However, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma B levels and male body size. In females, there was no relationship between B levels and mean distance moved, but B levels were significantly negatively correlated with the number of burrows females occupied. Lastly, there was no relationship between levels of B and the number of minutes required to obtain blood from an animal. However, B levels increased with the length of time that a tortoise spent in a trap, suggesting that trapped tortoises do exhibit capture stress. PMID

  9. Urinary Sex Steroid Excretion Levels During a Soy Intervention Among Young Girls: A Pilot Study


    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Novotny, Rachel; Nordt, Frank J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z


    Soy intake early in life may protect against breast cancer later in life, possibly by altering sex hormone metabolism. We evaluated the feasibility of assessing urinary sex steroid excretion among 20 young girls aged 8–14 yr in an 8-wk trial. The girls consumed one daily soy serving, collected weekly overnight urine samples, and reported Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development. Sex steroid excretion was measured in duplicate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and adjusted for...

  10. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  11. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  12. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior


    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.


    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  13. Steroids (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  14. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders. (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle


    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  15. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.


    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  16. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  17. Sex steroid deficiency-associated bone loss is microbiota dependent and prevented by probiotics. (United States)

    Li, Jau-Yi; Chassaing, Benoit; Tyagi, Abdul Malik; Vaccaro, Chiara; Luo, Tao; Adams, Jonathan; Darby, Trevor M; Weitzmann, M Neale; Mulle, Jennifer G; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Jones, Rheinallt M; Pacifici, Roberto


    A eubiotic microbiota influences many physiological processes in the metazoan host, including development and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have shown that the intestinal microbiota modulates inflammatory responses caused by sex steroid deficiency, leading to trabecular bone loss. In murine models, sex steroid deficiency increased gut permeability, expanded Th17 cells, and upregulated the osteoclastogenic cytokines TNFα (TNF), RANKL, and IL-17 in the small intestine and the BM. In germ-free (GF) mice, sex steroid deficiency failed to increase osteoclastogenic cytokine production, stimulate bone resorption, and cause trabecular bone loss, demonstrating that the gut microbiota is central in sex steroid deficiency-induced trabecular bone loss. Furthermore, we demonstrated that twice-weekly treatment of sex steroid-deficient mice with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or the commercially available probiotic supplement VSL#3 reduces gut permeability, dampens intestinal and BM inflammation, and completely protects against bone loss. In contrast, supplementation with a nonprobiotic strain of E. coli or a mutant LGG was not protective. Together, these data highlight the role that the gut luminal microbiota and increased gut permeability play in triggering inflammatory pathways that are critical for inducing bone loss in sex steroid-deficient mice. Our data further suggest that probiotics that decrease gut permeability have potential as a therapeutic strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27111232

  18. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers


    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  19. Sex-related differences in steroid concentrations in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea. (United States)

    Zabrzańska, Sandra; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Anna; Konieczna, Lucyna; Bączek, Tomasz; Wołowicz, Maciej


    This paper reports on sex-related differences in free steroid hormone concentrations including the concentrations of three naturally occurring estrogens (17β-estradiol E2, estrone E1, and estriol E3) and one androgen (testosterone T) in the tissues (gills and gonads) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis trossulus sampled from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea, Poland). The dissimilarity in steroid concentrations between tissues was particularly evident in the T concentration with a level in gills almost three times higher compared to gonads (on average, 15.38 ng/g w.w. and 5.31 ng/g w.w., respectively, p=0.00008), suggesting its exogenous origin. In general, a tendency towards a skewed steroid profile related to sex, with E2 more abundant for males and T for females, was observed. Female gonads were characterized by a higher level of T than testis (4.61 ng/g w.w. for females and 0.70 ng/g w.w. for males, p=0.0121). At the same time, the level of E2 found in the testis was higher than in the ovary (4.81 ng/g w.w. and 3.86 ng/g w.w., respectively); however, the difference was not statistically significant. As for gills, similar trend with T and E2 being more abundant in males was observed. At the same time, no disturbances in the sex ratio and gametogenesis process were observed which suggests i) efficient deactivation of free forms of steroids, and/or ii) their little or no physiological role. PMID:25536333

  20. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus). (United States)

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone β-subunit (lhβ) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (fshβ) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fshβ in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ≥31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  1. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, and androgen (AR receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test. ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.

  2. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kwolek


    Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.

  3. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters. (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others


    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  4. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano


    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  5. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids. (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others


    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  6. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse


    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.


    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  7. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe


    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to...... recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...... intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy...

  8. Vitellogenin, sex steroid levels and gonadal biomarkers in wild Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from NW Mediterranean fishing grounds. (United States)

    Solé, M; Mañanós, E; Blázquez, M


    Specimens of Solea solea and Solea senegalenesis at different developmental stages were obtained from seven fishing grounds along the NW Mediterranean. Gonad development in males was classified into five stages, from early spermatogenesis to recovery, while four stages were considered in females, from growth to maturation. Vitellogenin (VTG) and sex steroid levels including an estrogen (estradiol, E2), two androgens (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) and a progestin (17,20β-dihydroxy pregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β-P or maturation inducing steroid, MIS) were analysed in plasma. Their levels were more clearly related to the developmental stage of the gonads than to the sampling site characteristics. In addition, enzyme activities in gonads, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) were gender-dependent and higher in males than in females. Gonadal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was enhanced in the most anthropogenic impacted sites. VTG was absent in males and very low or undetectable in immature females, while mature females exhibited high VTG levels, clearly related to the gonado-somatic index. Sex steroid levels (ng/ml) varied in males and females regardless of the species. E2 levels in females ranged from 0.22 to 6.98 while in males ranged from 0.11 to 0.27. T varied from 0.12 to 0.93 in females and from 0.56 to 1.36 in males, while 11KT in females fluctuated from 0.03 to 0.57 and from 0.26 to 6.42 in males. Similarly, MIS in females ranged from 0.75 to 3.71 and from 1.12 to 5.61 in males. The lack of endocrine disturbances was confirmed by histological examination of the gonads. This study informs on basal sex hormone levels and enzyme activities during gonadal maturation of wild Solea spp. that can be useful in the identification and further remediation of possible pollution events. PMID:27088613

  9. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions. (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R


    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  10. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain


    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; ERDEM, Ayşen


    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differe...

  11. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes. (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru


    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  12. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes


    FumihikoMaekawa; HirokoOhki-hamazaki


    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on...

  13. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises


    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  14. Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy


    GARDNER, Andy


    Haplodiploid sex determination allows unmated females to produce sons. Consequently, a scarcity of males may lead to a significant proportion of females remaining unmated, which may in turn give rise to a surfeit of males in the following generation. Stable oscillation of the sex ratio has been predicted by classic models, and it remains a puzzle as to why this is not observed in natural populations. Here, I investigate the dynamics of sex allocation over ecological and evolutionary timescale...

  15. Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders. (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; And Others


    Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

  16. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik;


    The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and...... precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  17. Sex Steroids Influence Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Secretion From Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Freeman, Michelle R; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S


    Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is emerging as an important player in airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperreactivity. Separately, there is increasing evidence that sex hormones contribute to pathophysiology in the lung. BDNF and sex steroid signaling are thought to be intricately linked in the brain. There is currently little information on BDNF and sex steroid interactions in the airway but is relevant to understanding growth factor signaling in the context of asthma in men versus women. In this study, we assessed the effect of sex steroids on BDNF expression and secretion in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Human ASM was treated with estrogen (E2 ) or testosterone (T, 10 nM each) and intracellular BDNF and secreted BDNF measured. E2 and T significantly reduced secretion of BDNF; effects prevented by estrogen and androgen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (1 μM), and flutamide (10 μM), respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were observed in intracellular BDNF mRNA or protein expression. High affinity BDNF receptor, TrkB, was not altered by E2 or T. E2 (but not T) significantly increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Notably, Epac1 and Epac2 expression were significantly reduced by E2 and T. Furthermore, SNARE complex protein SNAP25 was decreased. Overall, these novel data suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of E2 or T inhibit BDNF secretion in human ASM, suggesting a potential interaction of sex steroids with BDNF in the airway that is different from brain. The relevance of sex steroid-BDNF interactions may lie in their overall contribution to airway diseases such as asthma. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1586-1592, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566264

  18. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. (United States)

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao


    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  19. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center


    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  20. Sex steroids affect triglyceride handling, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and insulin sensitivity: a 1-week randomized clinical trial in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; 't Hart, Leen M;


    To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition.......To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition....

  1. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan


    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  2. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny;


    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study is the...... first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  3. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao


    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  4. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells (United States)

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.


    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats. PMID:27110242

  5. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen


    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  6. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths? (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres


    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  7. Sex Genotype and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Growth Differences Between Male and Female Channel Catfish (United States)

    Channel catfish have an XX:XY genotypic system of sex determination, and until the present study, the influence of sex genotype on growth could not be distinguished from sex phenotype. Genotypic male fish (XY) were produced by mating normal (XX) female fish with YY male fish. A subsample from eac...

  8. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa


    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  9. Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.

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    Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

  10. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik;


    estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  11. The impact of female sex hormones on competitiveness


    Buser, T.


    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first under a piece rate and then under a competitive tournament scheme. Subjects can then choose which compensation scheme to apply in a third round. We find that sex hormones have a strong effect on w...

  12. HIV due to female sex work: regional and global estimates.

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    Annette Prüss-Ustün

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. METHODS: Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. RESULTS: An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. DISCUSSION: Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. CONCLUSION: FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population.

  13. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.


    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  14. Steroids, sex and the cerebellar cortex: implications for human disease


    Dean, Shannon L.; McCarthy, Margaret M.


    Neurosteroids play an important role in the development of the cerebellum. In particular, estradiol and progesterone appear capable of inducing increases in dendritic spine density during development, and there is evidence that both are synthesized de novo in the cerebellum during critical developmental periods. In normal neonates and adults, there are few differences in the cerebellum between the sexes and most studies indicate that hormone and receptor levels also do not differ significantl...

  15. Virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor in a 40 year old South Indian female: a case report


    Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi


    Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyper...

  16. Prostate diseases--role of sex steroids and their inhibitors. (United States)

    Welén, Karin; Damber, Jan-Erik


    The normal prostate as well as prostatic diseases are influenced by androgens. The exact reason for an altered and uncontrolled response to androgens, whether benign as in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or malignant as in the case of prostate cancer (PC), is not known in detail. Nevertheless, restriction of androgen receptor activation by reduction of available androgens is of great clinical value in both diseases. In BPH the inhibition of the conversion of testosterone into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase (5AR) is highly efficient and used in general practice, while the situation in PC is more complex. Specific inhibition of 5AR does not provide as efficient relief of symptoms as general androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and the use of 5ARI for PC prevention is still under debate. Further, the altered steroid metabolism in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) together with the complex paracrine signalling between different androgen responsive cell types, make the development of more specific drugs targeting androgen receptor signalling both more relevant and challenging. PMID:21397203

  17. HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa. (United States)

    Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K


    Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the

  18. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamta Kalra; Jary Mayes; Senait Assefa; Anil K Kaul; Rashmi Kaul


    The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ERα alone until 1996 when ERβ isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC. 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

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    Neuza R. W. Lima


    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as

  20. Pharmacokinetics of sex steroids in patients with beta thalassaemia major.


    Katz, M; De Sanctis, V.; Vullo, C; Wonke, B; McGarrigle, H. H.; Bagni, B


    AIMS--To assess the pharmacokinetics of oral, intramuscular, or transdermal hormone replacement in patients with beta thalassaemia major. METHODS--Oral (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg) and intramuscular (testosterone propionate 15 mg, phenylpropionate 30 mg, isocaproate 30 mg and decanoate 50 mg) testosterone and transdermal (17 beta oestradiol 25 micrograms and 50 micrograms) oestradiol were evaluated in 21 male (16-29 years) and 11 female (19-26 years) patients with beta thalassaemia major ...

  1. Health behavior among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway



    In a public health perspective there has been a strong focus on HIV/AIDS and STDs when addressing the health of sex workers. However, a more holistic approach to the topic of sex work and health has been called for, both in terms of research, interventions and services. This project is a contribution to the somewhat neglected research issue of sex work and health in a Norwegian context. This study explores the health behaviour among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway. Through a qu...

  2. Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors. (United States)

    Natale, Christopher A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Junqian; Sadeghi, Rochelle; Dahal, Ankit; O'Brien, Kevin Tyler; Cookson, Rosa; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Ridky, Todd W


    The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. This is intriguing given that we also show that normal primary human MCs lack classical estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER or PR). Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). Activity of these receptors was activated or inhibited by synthetic estrogen or progesterone analogs that do not bind to ER or PR. As safe and effective treatment options for skin pigmentation disorders are limited, these specific GPER and PAQR7 ligands may represent a novel class of therapeutics. PMID:27115344


    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  4. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that...

  5. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men


    Wulaningsih, W.; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K.; Kanarek, N.; Nelson, W G; Ix, J. H.; Platz, E. A.; Rohrmann, S


    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Healt...

  6. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran. (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh


    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation. PMID:26317368

  7. Female sex offender recidivism: a large-scale empirical analysis. (United States)

    Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J


    Using a sample of 1,466 females convicted of a sexual offense in New York State, the current study explored the following: (a) offending prior to the commission of the offenders' first sexual offense, (b) rates of recidivism following their first sexual offense conviction, and (c) factors associated with the likelihood of sexual recidivism. Results showed the recidivism rates of female sex offenders to be lower than those of male sex offenders for all types of recidivism studied (any rearrest, felony rearrest, violent [including violent sexual] felony rearrest, and sexual rearrest). Several significant differences were found between the group of female sex offenders who sexually recidivated and the group who did not, including crime of first sexual conviction and measures of prior offending. PMID:19901239

  8. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

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    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.


    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  9. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

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    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ERα or ERβ, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ERα or ERβ. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ERα, but not ERβ, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ERα and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMaliqueo


    Full Text Available Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations.

  11. Metabolite profiling of sex developmental steroid conjugates reveals an association between decreased levels of steroid sulfates and adiposity in obese girls. (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyeon; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Won-Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Park, Mi Jung; Choi, Man Ho


    Free and conjugated steroids coexist in a dynamic equilibrium due to complex biosynthetic and metabolic processes. This may have clinical significance related to various physiological conditions, including sex development involving the reproductive system. Therefore, we performed quantitative profiling of 16 serum steroids conjugated with glucuronic and sulfuric acids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All steroid conjugates were purified by solid-phase extraction and then separated through a 3-μm particle size C18 column (150mm×2.1mm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min in the negative ionization mode. The LC-MS-based analysis was found to be linear (r(2)>0.99), and all steroid conjugates had a limit-of-quantification (LOQ) of 10ng/mL, except for cholesterol sulfate and 17β-estradiol-3,17-disulfate (20ng/mL). The extraction recoveries of all steroid conjugates ranged from 97.9% to 110.7%, while the overall precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 4.8% to 10.9% and from 94.4% to 112.9% at four different concentrations, respectively. Profiling of steroid conjugates corrected by adiposity revealed decreased levels of steroid sulfates (Psteroid conjugates and for understanding the pathophysiology and relative contributions of adiposity in childhood obesity. PMID:27154415

  12. Female sex and obesity increase photophobic behavior in mice. (United States)

    Rossi, Heather L; Lara, Orlando; Recober, Ana


    Migraine affects predominantly women. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that obesity is a risk factor for migraine and this association is influenced by sex. However, the biological basis for this bias is unclear. To address this issue, we assessed light avoidant behavior, a surrogate of photophobia, in female C57BL/6J mice fed regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat). We first assessed sex differences in basal photophobia in 20-25-week-old mice and found that both obese and lean females spent significantly less time in light than their male counterparts. Next, we assessed photophobia evoked by trigeminal stimulation with intradermal capsaicin. Females at 20-25weeks of age did not display capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior unless they had diet-induced obesity. When we tested 8-11-week-old females to determine if the diet alone could be responsible for this effect, we found that both HFD and RD 8-11-week-old females exhibit capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior. This is in contrast to what we have previously shown in males and indicates a sex difference in the photophobic behavior of mice. Comparison of 20-25-week-old RD mice with 8-11-week-old RD mice suggests that age or age-related weight gain may contribute to capsaicin-evoked photophobic behavior in males, but not in females. These findings suggest that obesity exacerbates photophobia in both sexes, but additional work is needed to understand the sex- and age-specific mechanisms that may contribute to photophobia and trigeminal pain. PMID:27328418

  13. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.


    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  14. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.


    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  15. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

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    Basaria Shehzad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  16. A comparison of sex offenders against female and male minors. (United States)

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D


    Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons. PMID:3694689

  17. Oestradiol synthesized by female neurons generates sex differences in neuritogenesis (United States)

    Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Rune, Gabriele M.; Arevalo, Maria-Angeles


    Testosterone produced by the foetal testis is converted by male neurons to oestradiol, which masculinizes neuronal morphology. Female neurons are known to synthesize oestradiol in absence of exogenous testosterone. However, the role of neuronal oestradiol on the differentiation of foetal female neurons is unknown. Here we show that, due to endogenous neuronal oestradiol synthesis, female hippocampal neurons have higher expression of the neuritogenic protein Neurogenin 3 and enhanced neuritogenesis than males. Exogenous application of testosterone or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone increases Neurogenin 3 expression and promotes neuritogenesis in males, but reduces these parameters in females. Together our data indicate that gonadal-independent oestradiol synthesis by female neurons participates in the generation of sex differences in hippocampal neuronal development. PMID:27553191

  18. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker


    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  19. Ecdysteroids: the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paradigm, still around in textbooks, that 'in insects sex is strictly genetic,thus that they do not have sex hormones', is mainly based on a wrong interpretation of the 'gynandromorph argument'. It is no longer tenable. Given the fact that vertebrates and invertebrates probably had a common, sexually reproducing ancestor, there is no reason to assume that only vertebrates need sex hormones. The major function of sex hormones is to inform the somatoplasm about developmental changes that take place in the gonads. In contrast to juvenile hormone and neuropeptides, ecdysteroids meet all criteria to act as sex hormones, which was probably their ancient role. Their much better documented role in moulting and metamorphosis was a secondary acquisition that enabled arthropods to cope with growth problems, imposed by a rigid cuticle. Female insects use 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), secreted by the follicle cells of the ovary, in a similar way as females of egg-laying vertebrates use estrogens. For a variety of reasons, the possibility that ecdysteroids, in particular ecdysone (E), might also act as sex hormones in male insects, thus as the counterpart of testosterone of vertebrates, has been very much overlooked. Thanks to the recent discovery of the molecular basis of the haploid-diploid system of sex determination in the honeybee, the characterization of Halloween genes, proteomics, RNAi and so on, it now becomes possible to verify whether in insects, as with vertebrates, males are the endocrinologically default gender form.

  20. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology


    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  1. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  2. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin. (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S


    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  3. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

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    Ashraf Soliman


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  4. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features. (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M


    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  5. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA


    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo; Ana Laura Rodríguez-Morales; Fidel Orlando Buendía-González; Margarita Aguilar-Sánchez; Jorge Morales-Montor; Martha Legorreta-Herrera


    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower ...

  6. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  7. Influence of female sex hormones on periodontium: A case series


    Jafri, Zeba; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Sawai, Madhuri; Sultan, Nishat


    Dental plaque is the primary etiologic factor for the periodontal diseases. Although pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque are necessary for the incidence of periodontal disease, but a susceptible host is as important. The susceptibility of the host can be modified by various systemic factors with hormones level being one. The periodontium shows an exaggerated inflammatory response to plaque modified by female sex hormone during puberty, pregnancy, in women taking oral contraceptives and at th...

  8. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

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    Sara Caceres


    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  9. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C


    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  10. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.


    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  11. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;


    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  12. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;


    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  13. Female sex bias in human embryonic stem cell lines. (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-Raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eiges, Rachel


    The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combining the results of all PGD-derived HESC lines published to date (148) and all normal karyotyped HESC lines derived from spare in vitro fertilization embryos worldwide (397). Further, gender determination of embryos demonstrated that this difference originates from the actual derivation process rather than from unequal representation of male and female embryos. It can therefore be concluded that the clear-cut tendency for female preponderance is attributed to suboptimal culture conditions rather than from a true gender imbalance in embryos used for derivation of HESC lines. We propose a mechanism in which aberrant X chromosome inactivation and/or overexpression of critical metabolic X-linked genes might explain this sex dimorphism. PMID:21585244

  14. Anabolic Steroids (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  15. Anabolic Steroids (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  16. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). (United States)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P


    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  17. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism. (United States)

    Shi, Liang


    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  18. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

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    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  19. MicroRNA: sex steroids, hormonal carcinogenesis, hormonal sensitivity of tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malek


    indicating the involvement of microRNAs in the phenomenon of breast cancer and prostate cancer cells hormone resistance are discussed in the review.Conception of the possible primary role of microRNAs in the process of malignant transformation and distortion of hormonal regulation is based on a smaller number of scientific reports. In general, in accordance with the main biological role of microRNAs, latter may affect sex hormones function via interaction with the mRNAs of hormone receptors and inhibition of their synthesis. As a result, the effect of many microRNA is converging on the single mRNA, results in suppression of corresponding protein function and, in the end, leads to inhibition of regulatory cascade downstream of sex steroids.Finally, the analysis of the fundamental aspects of sex hormones – microRNA interplay is supplemented by brief overview of clinically significant problems. The prospects for development and introduction into clinical practice innovative methods of diagnosis, prediction and optimization of therapy of breast and prostate cancers are discussed as well.

  20. A female-biased sex ratio reduces the twofold cost of sex. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Eisuke


    The evolution of sexual reproduction remains a fascinating enigma in biology. Theoretically, populations of sexual organisms investing half of their resources into producing male offspring that don't contribute to reproduction should grow at only half the rate of their asexual counterparts. This demographic disadvantage due to male production is known as the twofold cost of sex. However, the question of whether this cost is truly twofold for sexual females remains unanswered. The cost of producing males should decrease when the number of male offspring is reduced. Here, we report a case where the cost of males is actually less than twofold. By measuring the numbers of sexual strain coexisting with asexual strain among thrips, our survey revealed that the sexual strain showed female-biased sex ratios and that the relative frequency of sexual strain is negatively correlated with the proportion of males in the sexual strain. Using computer simulations, we confirmed that a female-biased sex ratio evolves in sexual individuals due to the coexistence of asexual individuals. Our results demonstrate that there is a cost of producing males that depends on the number of males. We therefore conclude that sexual reproduction can evolve with far fewer benefits than previously assumed. PMID:27035400


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani


    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  2. The effect of non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide on luteinizing hormone pulsatile secretion in male-to-female transsexual subjects. (United States)

    Giusti, M; Falivene, M R; Carraro, A; Cuttica, C M; Valenti, S; Giordano, G


    We evaluated LH pulsatile patterns before and 4 weeks after the oral administration of flutamide (750 mg/day) in 9 male-to-female transsexuals (age range 17-28 yr) requesting gender reassignment. Flutamide was given to explore the feedback role of androgens on the LHRH-LH unit in LH pulsatility in transsexuals. Seven normal age-matched men served as a control group, without receiving flutamide, due to ethical considerations. LH pulsatility was evaluated on samples collected every 15 min for 360 min. FSH, PRL, cortisol, SHBG and sex steroids were evaluated on pooled samples. LH pulses were analyzed by the Santen and Bardin algorithm, slightly modified. No differences in FSH, PRL, total- or free-testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels were noted between transsexuals and controls. Normal circadian cortisol decline was observed in all subjects. Mean LH levels (p < 0.05) and LH pulses (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in transsexuals. Flutamide induced an increase in mean LH and testosterone levels (p < 0.01). After flutamide administration there was an increase in LH pulse frequency (P < 0.01) and the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses in transsexuals were restored to levels observed in controls. No differences in FSH, PRL or estradiol levels were found after flutamide. These data suggest that a decrease in LH pulse frequency could be an endocrine marker in male-to-female transsexuals. An increase in endogenous androgen negative feed-back could be speculated in these subjects. However, normal testosterone levels indirectly suggest that a normal that a normal qualitative LH secretion is maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594235

  3. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

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    Karine Markosyan


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.

  4. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore.

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    Junice Y S Ng

    Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.

  5. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.


    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S.; Grewal, Savraj S.


    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expre...

  6. Neonatal exposure to estradiol in female rats influences neuroactive steroid concentrations and behaviour in the adult rat


    Berretti, Roberta


    The gonadal steroids, in particular estradiol, exert an important action during perinatal period in the regulation of sexual dimorphism and neuronal plasticity, and in the growth and development of nervous system. Exposure of the developing female to estrogens during perinatal period may have long-lasting effects that are now regarded as “programming” the female neuroendocrine axis to malfunction in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a single administration of ...

  7. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  8. Simvastatin decreases steroid production in the H295R cell line and decreases steroids and FSH in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Guldvang; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Weisser, Johan J;


    .3 (L), 5.0 (M), and 20.0 (H)mg SV/kg bw/day for 14 days. 10 Steroids were investigated in H295R growth media, and in tissues and plasma from rats using GC-MS/MS. Plasma LH and FSH were quantified by ELISA. In the H295R assay, SV and SVA particularly decreased progestagens with IC50-values from 0...

  9. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers


    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T.; Strathdee, S.A.; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W


    Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported gender based violence. Results Of 267 female s...

  10. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse (United States)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro


    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  11. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees


    Nanami, Satoshi; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; Yamakura, Takuo


    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes.

  12. Female commercial sex workers in Kramat Tunggak, Jakarta, Indonesia. (United States)

    Sedyaningsih-Mamahit, E R


    Indonesia is predicted to face a severe AIDS epidemic in the near future. More than 60% of the reported HIV-positive cases in Indonesia can be attributed to heterosexual transmission; therefore, by the nature of their work, female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) constitute one of the communities at risk. No meaningful or effective STD/HIV prevention programs for FCSWs can be planned if there is no contextual understanding of these women as persons, the nature and the risks of their job and their relations with their clients and managers. Just as it is incorrect to assume that all women enter prostitution for the same reasons, educational approaches that are modeled on shallow stereotypes will be ineffective. Interweaving qualitative and quantitative methods, this research investigates the FCSWs in an 'official' brothel complex in Jakarta, Indonesia. Results of this study give insights of four typologies of FCSWs observed in Kramat Tunggak. The personal, professional, social and other differences which influenced the women into full-time sex work and affected their willingness and ability to engage in healthy and protective behaviors, are presented. Finally, based on those findings a recommendation on how to deliver health messages to the FCSWs is offered. PMID:10475673

  13. S100P Expression in response to sex steroids during the implantation window in human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100P, a protein originally detected in the human placenta, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumors. Interestingly, we have recently discovered using data mining that S100P was considerably up-regulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium, but little further information has been available. Methods Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine the expression and location of S100P in the human endometrium and endometrial cells. Estrogen and progesterone were added to the cultured cells to test the response of S100P to sex steroids. Results A dramatic peak, approximately a 100-fold increase in comparison with the proliferative and early- and late-secretory phases, was observed in the endometrium during the mid-secretory phase, which corresponds to the time of embryo implantation. Progesterone regulated the expression of S100P in both primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, but estrogen had no significant effect. Conclusions The results indicate that S100P participates in the periodic change of the endometrium under the regulation of progesterone, may be used as a unique biomarker of the receptive endometrium and play an important role in embryo implantation.

  14. Anthropometric measures, endogenous sex steroids and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a study within the EPIC cohort.


    Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lahmann, Petra H; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Biessy, Carine; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Nagel, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob


    In a large case-control study on breast cancer risk and serum hormone concentrations, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we examined to what extent the relationship of excess body weight with breast cancer risk may be explained by changes in sex steroids. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and serum measurements of testosterone [T], androstenedione [Delta4], dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [DHEAS], estradiol [E2], estrone [...

  15. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa


    Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew; Temmerman, Marleen; Lüchters, Stanley


    Background. In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. Objectives. To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. Methods. Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Ru...

  16. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient

  17. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim


    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  18. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)


    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  19. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP

  20. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions (United States)

    Strickland, Susan M.


    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  1. Expression of Sex-Related Genes in Chicken Embryos During Male-to-Female Sex Reversal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing


    Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.

  2. Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work


    Wilson, Erin C; Garofalo, Robert; Harris, Robert D.; Herrick, Amy; Martinez, Miguel; Martinez, Jaime; Belzer, Marvin; ,


    This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV positive. Many factors were significantly associated with sex work for this sample population. A final multivariate logistic ...

  3. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid


    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Interactions of 16α-[18F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 16α-Fluoroestradiol ([18F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [18F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [18F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [18F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [18F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [18F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [18F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [18F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [18F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [18F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [18F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation

  5. The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.


    This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

  6. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies. (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; West, Brooke S; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazen, Babak; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate


    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  7. Modulation of the firing activity of female dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurons by neuroactive steroids. (United States)

    Robichaud, M; Debonnel, G


    Important gender differences in mood disorders result in a greater susceptibility for women. Accumulating evidence suggests a reciprocal modulation between the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and neuroactive steroids. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that during pregnancy, the firing activity of 5-HT neurons increases in parallel with progesterone levels. This study was undertaken to evaluate the putative modulation of the 5-HT neuronal firing activity by different neurosteroids. Female rats received i.c.v. for 7 days a dose of 50 micro g/kg per day of one of the following steroids: progesterone, pregnenolone, 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione (5beta-DHP), 5beta-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one, 5beta-pregnan-3beta-ol,20-one, 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol,20-one (allopregnanolone, 3alpha,5alpha-THP), 5alpha-pregnane-3beta-ol,20-one and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). 5beta-DHP and DHEA were also administered for 14 and 21 days (50 micro g/kg per day, i.c.v.) as well as concomitantly with the selective sigma 1 (sigma1) receptor antagonist NE-100. In vivo, extracellular unitary recording of 5-HT neurons performed in the dorsal raphe nucleus of these rats revealed that DHEA, 5beta-DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP significantly increased the firing activity of the 5-HT neurons. Interestingly, 5beta-DHP and DHEA showed different time-frames for their effects with 5beta-DHP having its greatest effect after 7 days to return to control values after 21 days, whereas DHEA demonstrated a sustained effect over the 21 day period. NE-100 prevented the effect of DHEA but not of 5beta-DHP, thus indicating that its sigma1 receptors mediate the effect of DHEA but not that of 5beta-DHP. In conclusion, our results offer a cellular basis for potential antidepressant effects of neurosteroids, which may prove important particularly for women with affective disorders. PMID:15225127

  8. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity


    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.


    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the respon...

  9. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine. (United States)

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu


    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

  10. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal. (United States)

    Saunders, Paul A; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric


    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X(*)Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  11. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  12. Effects of Vomeronasal Organ Removal on Olfactory Sex Discrimination and Odor Preferences of Female Ferrets


    Woodley, S.K.; Cloe, A.L.; Waters, P; Baum, M.J.


    Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urina...

  13. Perspectives of medical interns regarding female feticide and declining sex ratio in India


    Shubhada Avachat; Pritish Raut; Mrinal Zambare; Dilipkumar Gund; Rutuja Pundkar


    Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigne...

  14. Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic


    Shahmanesh, M; Wayal , S.; Cowan, F; Mabey, D.; Copas, A.; Patel, V.


    Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India.Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis...

  15. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system. (United States)

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete


    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  16. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae). (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo


    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  17. Female sex worker social networks and STI/HIV prevention in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Tucker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-structured interviews with 34 low-income female sex workers and 28 health outreach members were used to examine how social relationships affected condom use and negotiation, STI/HIV testing and health-seeking behaviors, and dealing with violent clients. These data suggested that sex worker's laoxiang (hometown social connections were more powerful than relationships between women selling sex at the same venue in establishing the terms and risk of commercial sex. Female sex workers from the same hometown often migrated to the city with their laoxiang and these social connections fulfilled many of the functions of nongovernmental organizations, including collective mobilization, condom promotion, violence mitigation, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. Outreach members observed that sex workers accompanied by their laoxiang were often more willing to accept STI/HIV testing and trust local sexual health services. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Organizing STI/HIV prevention services around an explicitly defined laoxiang social network may provide a strong foundation for sex worker health programs. Further research on dyadic interpersonal relationships between female sex workers, group dynamics and norm establishment, and the social network characteristics are needed.

  18. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman


    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  19. Sjögren's syndome and extragonadal sex steroid formation: a clue to a better disease control? (United States)

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegajev, V; Al-Samadi, A; Porola, P; Hietanen, J; Ainola, M


    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytoid focal adenitis leading to mucosal dryness, with 9:1 female dominance and peak incidence at menopause. Due to autoimmune adenitis it can be speculated that the normal epithelial cell renewal has failed, possibly as a result of local intracrine failure to process dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Local intracrine/-cellular DHT deficiency seems to predispose to SS if estrogens are low, in menopausal women and in men. This intracrine failure could be the initial noxious stimulus, factor X, initiating the development of SS. Abnormal release and presentation of exocrine gland-derived antigens (Ag-epitopes), in a complex with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), by migratory dendritic cells (DC) activates T-cells in the regional lymph nodes. B-cells with the same specificity capture and present self-Ag to Th-cells which provide T-cell help. B-cells transform to plasma cells and start to produce autoantibodies (Ab) against these T-cell-dependent Ag. Ab against SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La ribonucleoproteins occur only in HLA-DQw2.1/DQw6 heterozygous individuals, but hY-RNA and RNA polymerase III transcripts in these Ag may in all SS patients stimulate toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9 of the plasmacytoid DCs, because IFN-α and IFN-signature are produced. CD8+αEβ7+cytotoxic T-cells activated via cross-presentation recirculate to attack intracrine-deficient, apoptotic epithelial cells expressing self-Ag on their surface. Exocrine glands fall into the sphere of mucosal/gut-associated lymphatic tissue. This together with immune complexes spreads the immunological memory/aggression to extra-glandular sites explaining the systemic nature of the syndrome. Secondary SS could be explained by disturbed lymphocyte recirculation. There is no conclusive evidence that SS in those few men affected is more severe than in women, suggesting that sex steroid endo

  20. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten;


    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene...... the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential...... for entire female development and that the csd gene exclusively processes the heterozygous state. Fem activity is also required to maintain the female determined pathway throughout development, which we show by mosaic structures in fem-repressed intersexuals. We use expression of Fem protein in males...

  1. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum. (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M


    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  2. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula




    The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conv...

  3. Patriarchy and Gender-Based Violence: Experiences of Female Sex Workers in India


    Sharvari Karandikar; Caren Frost; Lindsay GezinskiLindsay Gezinski


    This qualitative study explored gender-based violence among female sex workers in India. Ten sex workers from Kamathipura, Asia's largest red-light area based in Mumbai, were interviewed. Radical sexual pluralist feminist theory informed data analysis and data interpretation. Results revealed high incidence of gender-based violence with sex workers reporting intense physical and sexual violence and coercion from male partners, pimps and clients. The exposure to violence significantly contribu...

  4. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  5. Relevance of Stress and Female Sex Hormones for Emotion and Cognition


    ter Horst, J. P.; Kloet, E.R. de; Schächinger, H.; Oitzl, M. S.


    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions ...

  6. Defense Mechanisms in Females as a Function of Sex-Role Orientation. (United States)

    Evans, Ronald G.


    Studied influence of sex roles on defense mechanisms. Females completed Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Low masculinity on the BSRI was associated with high Turning Against Self on the DMI. High masculine subjects indicated greater willingness to attack objects of frustration. (Author)

  7. The effect of cryptic female choice on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Scharer, Lukas; Pen, Ido


    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites has focused primarily on the effects of sperm competition, but the role of mate choice has so far been neglected. We present a model to study the coevolution of cryptic female choice and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites. We show that

  8. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter


    Introduction In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the

  9. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size. (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S


    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  10. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.


    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2014), s. 755-768. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2014

  11. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts


    Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.


    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

  12. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  13. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females. (United States)

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.


    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  14. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle. (United States)

    Reneker, Jaymie L; Kamel, Stephanie J


    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female's ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction. PMID:27363786

  15. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming


    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  16. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L


    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

  17. Single-sex Classes: Female Physics Students State Their Case. (United States)

    Streitmatter, Janice


    Examines data collected from a girls-only physics class in a public coeducational high school. Interview and observation data from this class, as well as from coeducational physics classes taught by the same teacher, illustrate that the girls in the single-sex class made substantial gains in both academic achievement and in perceptions of…

  18. Disciplining the Sex Ratio:Exploring the Governmentality of Female Feticide in India


    Purewal, Navtej K.


    The ‘girl child’ has attracted a considerable amount of attention in India as an object of policy addressing gender discrimination. This article examines the field of campaigns seeking to address female foeticide and positions the public discourse on the ‘girl child’ and sex selective abortion in India within a broad cultural backdrop of son preference. The article argues that anti-female foeticide campaigns exist within a disciplinary domain of female foeticide which both generates a disc...

  19. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery


    Vojkan Vukadinovic; Borko Stojanovic; Marko Majstorovic; Aleksandar Milosevic


    Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and...

  20. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests. (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M; Cooper, Jason D; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bahn, Sabine


    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  1. Sex and stress steroids in adolescence: Gonadal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. (United States)

    Green, Matthew R; McCormick, Cheryl M


    This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors. HPA function is influenced by both organizational (programming) and activational effects of gonadal hormones. Typically, in adult rats, estradiol increases and androgens decrease the HPA response to stressors, thereby contributing to sex differences in HPA function, and sensitivity of the HPA axis to gonadal steroids is in part determined by exposure to these hormones in early development. Although developmental differences in HPA function are well characterized, the extent to which gonadal steroids contribute to age differences in HPA function is not well understood. Deficits in the understanding of the relationships between the HPA and HPG axes are greatest for the adolescent period of development. The critical outstanding questions are, when do gonadal hormones begin to regulate HPA function in adolescence, and what mechanisms precipitate change in sensitivity of the HPA axis to the HPG axis at this stage of life. PMID:26851306


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru


    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  4. Network of nuclear receptor ligands in multiple sclerosis : Common pathways and interactions of sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolf, Linda; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond; Huitinga, I.; Smolders, Joost


    Sex steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules have all been subject to experimental studies and clinical trials in a plethora of autoimmune diseases. These molecules are all derived from cholesterol metabolites and are ligands for nuclear receptors. Ligation of these receptors resul

  5. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo;


    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  6. The relation of ovarian steroid levels in young female rats to subsequent estrous cyclicity and reproductive function during aging. (United States)

    Lapolt, P S; Matt, D W; Judd, H L; Lu, J K


    In multiparous rats, the incidence of regular estrous cyclicity and fertility decreases markedly at middle age. However, recent studies have shown that repeated pregnancies or progesterone (P) implants can subsequently cause retired breeder females to maintain regular cyclicity for an extended period of time; these results suggest a P-mediated deceleration of reproductive aging. In the present study, we examined the relation of ovarian steroid levels in young virgin females to their subsequent estrous cyclicity and reproductive function during aging as compared to multiparous females. Beginning at 4 mo of age and continuing to 6 mo of age, regularly cyclic virgin rats received either consecutive P implants (n = 41) or no implants (controls, n = 45) for 3 wk, followed by implant removal for 1 wk. Additional females (n = 72) were mated and allowed to undergo repeated pregnancies at 4, 6 1/2, and 8 mo of age. Blood samples were obtained throughout the estrous cycle (virgin females), during pregnancy (multiparous rats), and on Day 11 of successive treatments with P implants (virgins with P implants) for P, estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) measurements. Subsequently, regularly cyclic females from all three groups were mated with fertile males to undergo term pregnancies at 10 and 12 mo of age. While the virgin controls showed cyclic increases in P, T, and E2 secretion during their estrous cycles, the P-implanted females had persistently low E2 and high P and T levels during treatment, which indicates an inhibition of ovarian E2 synthesis by P.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3828428

  7. Dosage Effects of Fadrozole on Growth and Development of Sex-Reversed Genetic Female Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-rong; JIANG He-sheng; ZHENG Jiang-xia; QU Lu-jiang; CHEN Si-rui; LI Jun-ying; XU Gui-yun; YANG Ning


    Fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, can masculinize genetic female chickens and high-dose decreases the hatchability. Therefore, it is important to study the growth and development of sex-reversed females after hatch. Chick embryos from a population of CAU3 egg-type were treated with different concentrations of Fadrozole prior to the sexual differentiation at E3.0 (st18). At hatch, the phenotypic sex and genetic sex were identified by vent sexing and genetic diagnosis with CHD1, respectively. Body weight and shank length of sex reversal were tested at 8 and 20 wk, respectively. Testicular development, oviduct and ovarian degeneration were observed and serum concentration of estradiol and testosterone were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) at 30 wk. The results showed that body weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were not significantly different between low-dose groups (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg for F1, F2, and F3, respectively) and high-dose groups (1.0 and 1.3 mg for F4 and F5, respectively) (P>0.05). Left and right testes or ovotestes in F2, F3, F4, and F5 groups were heavier than that of in F1 group (P<0.05). While the gonad weight of treatment groups were less than that in male control (P<0.05), oviduct weight in F2, F3, F4, and F5 groups were significant differences compared with female control and F1 group (P<0.05). Egg number from onset of laying egg to 30 wk in F4 and F5 groups were less than in female control, F1 and F2 groups (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in F5 group was significant higher compared with female control, F1, F2, F3, and F4 groups (P<0.05), but significant lower compared with male control (P<0.05). While concentration of serum estradiol in F5 group was significant lower compared with female control, F1, F2, and F4 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, the concentration of Fadrozole do not affect postnatal growth of sex-reversed female chicken and the degree of sex-reversed females elevate with the increase of Fadrozole concentration at

  8. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments


    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc


    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha


    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships. PMID:22304493

  10. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls. (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann


    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  11. Perspectives of medical interns regarding female feticide and declining sex ratio in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Avachat


    Full Text Available Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigned structured questionnaire. Chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Z tests were used to test the significance level. Results: Knowledge of current sex ratio was significantly better among female interns than male interns. Majority of interns opined that creating awareness is an effective measure to combat declining sex ratio and only 33 interns had correct knowledge regarding all measures. Only 37.9% of interns knew all the legal indications for use of prenatal diagnostic techniques. However, 81% of interns were aware of punishments mentioned for violation of the Act. Mean score of knowledge was 22.06 among males and 24.4 among females. Conclusion: The findings in our study underline the need to sensitize doctors regardingevery aspect of Pre-Conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act and selective sex determination.

  12. Perspectives of Medical Interns Regarding Female Feticide and Declining Sex Ratio in India (United States)

    Avachat, Shubhada; Raut, Pritish; Zambare, Mrinal; Gund, Dilipkumar; Pundkar, Rutuja


    Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigned structured questionnaire. Chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Z tests were used to test the significance level. Results: Knowledge of current sex ratio was significantly better among female interns than male interns. Majority of interns opined that creating awareness is an effective measure to combat declining sex ratio and only 33 interns had correct knowledge regarding all measures. Only 37.9% of interns knew all the legal indications for use of prenatal diagnostic techniques. However, 81% of interns were aware of punishments mentioned for violation of the Act. Mean score of knowledge was 22.06 among males and 24.4 among females. Conclusion: The findings in our study underline the need to sensitize doctors regardingevery aspect of Pre-Conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act and selective sex determination. PMID:24083222

  13. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also

  14. Reproductive periodicity and steroid hormone profiles in the sex-changing coral-reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus (United States)

    Frisch, A. J.; McCormick, M. I.; Pankhurst, N. W.


    The reproductive biology of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) was investigated by correlating gonadal condition with plasma levels of gonadal steroids. Female fish were found to be regressed from mid-summer to early spring, after which rapid and cyclical increases in gonado-somatic index ( I G), maximum oocyte diameter (MOD) and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17β and testosterone were detected. Male fish, in contrast, commenced recrudescence slightly earlier in winter and responded with less dramatic increases in both I G and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. The mode of oocyte development was multiple group-synchronous, and cyclical fluctuations in reproductive parameters ( I G, MOD and gonadal steroid concentrations) were synchronized with new-moon lunar phases. It is likely, therefore, that individual P. leopardus have the capacity to spawn on multiple occasions, with lunar periodicity. However, evidence suggests that early bouts of reproduction may be more important in terms of reproductive investment than subsequent bouts later in the same season. It is concluded that patterns of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in P. leopardus are similar to the patterns displayed by other tropical groupers, suggesting that management regimes and propagation protocols developed for these fishes may also be appropriate for use with P. leopardus.

  15. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions. (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D


    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes. PMID:15582858

  16. Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Female-to-Male Transsexual


    Monstrey, Stan J.; Ceulemans, Peter; Hoebeke, Piet


    In female-to-male transsexuals, the operative procedures are usually performed in different stages: first the subcutaneous mastectomy which is often combined with a hysterectomy-ovarectomy (endoscopically assisted). The next operative procedure consists of the genital transformation and includes a vaginectomy, a reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra, a scrotoplasty and a penile reconstruction usually with a radial forearm flap (or an alternative). After about one year, penile (...

  17. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies


    Scott A Miles; Robbin A Miranda; Ullman, Michael T.


    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups we...

  18. A relational model of therapists’ experience of affect regulation in psychological therapy with female sex addiction


    McKinney, Fiona


    This study investigated how therapists work with female sex addicts on affect regulation from a relational perspective in psychotherapy. I used a grounded theory approach, embedded in a social constructionist epistemology, and implemented a relativist constructionist methodology (Bryant & Charmaz, 2010). A total of twelve experienced psychotherapists and psychologists who worked in the sex addiction field participated in conversational, semi-structured interviews. Analysis revealed seventeen ...

  19. Outreach Syphilis Testing Services by Different Health Providers to Female Sex Workers in Southern China


    Xiang-Sheng Chen; Yue-Ping Yin; Guo-Gu Liu; Wan-Hui Wei; Hong-Chun Wang; Yuan-Lin Yu; Mabey, David C.; Peeling, Rosanna W.


    Health providers have played important roles on delivering prevention and care services to control syphilis in China. The current study was aimed to evaluate the performance of different health providers in providing outreach syphilis testing services to female sex workers (FSWs). The current study carried out during April to August 2009 in Liuzhou was aimed to investigate the services delivered by two different types of clinics in China. A total of 1,808 FSWs recruited from sex work venues w...

  20. Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt Among Female Sex Workers in China


    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran


    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a rural county of Guangxi, China. About 14% of FSWs had thought of suicide and 8% had attempted suicide in the past 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those FSWs who were dissatisfied with life, abused alcohol, were deceived or forced into commercial sex, and had stab...

  1. Condom Use and Prevalence of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Among the Korean Female Sex Workers


    Lee, Joongyub; Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Dong Seok; Jung, Minsoo; Park, Byung-Joo


    OBJECTIVES Since 2004, availability of resources for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in Korean female sex workers (FSWs) has decreased because of strict application of a law against prostitution. This study is to evaluate the condom use and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among FSWs in Korea. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of FSWs from 15 major sex work sites in Korea from June to November 2008, using convenience sampling. Self-administered questionnaires and urine ...

  2. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele


    Chen, Nadine E.; Steffanie A Strathdee; Gudelia Rangel; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Perth Rosen; Jorge Villalobos; Kimberly C Brouwer


    Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stab...

  3. Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China


    Yan Hong; Chen Zhang; Xiaoming Li; Wei Liu; Yuejiao Zhou


    BACKGROUND: Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Vio...

  4. Death before Birth : Negotiating Reproduction, Female Infanticide and Sex Selective Abortion in Tamil Nadu, South India


    Perwez, Mohammad Shahid.


    This thesis deals with the cultural and political underpinnings of female infanticide and sex selective abortion in contemporary South India. Based on a fifteen months' ethnographic fieldwork in western parts of Salem district in Tamil Nadu, I explore the ideas and practices around deaths of (un)born children - particularly in the context of issues of gender-selective child survival, use and control over new reproductive technologies for sex selection, fertility and reproductio...

  5. Sex differences in orbitofrontal connectivity in male and female veterans with TBI


    McGlade, Erin; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah


    More female soldiers are now serving in combat theaters than at any other time. However, little is known about possible sex differences underlying the neuropathology and manifestation of one of modern war’s signature injuries, traumatic brain injury (TBI). The paucity of information regarding sex differences in TBI is particularly evident when examining changes in executive function and emotion regulation associated with post concussive events. The current study objective was to observe wheth...

  6. Female Sex Workers in the City of Bogotá: From Stigma to Empowerment


    Maria Adelaida Martinez; Catalina Correa Salazar; Laura Martínez Apráez


    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bogotá, Colombia experience stigmatization due to their work, which results in a violation of basic human rights. The article describes the social challenges and violations faced by this group due to different types of stigma present in Colombian society and discusses current political debates around the legality of sex work. It proposes that through empowering these women using a participatory approach and giving them access to technology such as photography and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna


    Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

  8. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar


    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  9. Determinants of condom use in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. (United States)

    Joesoef, M R; Kio, D; Linnan, M; Kamboji, A; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A


    In the developing world condom use among sex workers and their clients plays a dominant role in the transmission of HIV/STD. In Surabaya, Indonesia, data from the 1993 STD prevalence survey in female sex workers (brothels, street, massage parlours, barber shops, call-girl houses, and nightclubs) reveal that only 5% (33/692) of the brothel workers and 14% (25/177) of the street walkers had condoms in their possession at the time of the interview. During the last paid sexual intercourse, sex workers from the brothels, streets, and nightclubs used condoms infrequently (14%, 20%, and 25%, respectively). Sex workers from massage parlours, barber shops, and call girls were about 5 to 3 times more likely to use condoms than sex workers from nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 3.5, 4.9, and 4.2, respectively); thus condom promotion programmes should be targeted at sex workers at brothels, streets, and nightclubs. Programmes should include: (1) free distribution of condoms to sex establishments at the initial stage, and condom social marketing at later stages; (2) penalties, including legal sanctions, against any sex establishments that do not consistently use condoms; (3) participation of brothel owners and madams in encouraging sex workers to consistently have clients use condoms during sexual intercourse; and (4) establishment of sentinel surveillance to monitor STD/HIV and condom-use compliance. PMID:10772092

  10. Interpretation of Opposite-Sex Friendship Based on Social Ecology Model in Iranian Females


    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Chaman, Reza


    Objective: One of the main cultural issues in universities is relationships between male and female students. Due to the adverse consequences of this issue, explaining of the beyond the causes of friendship with opposite-sex, is one of the first steps in planning for youth issues. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Nineteen female university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions through four sessions were used to gather required data. Two t...

  11. Sexual Desire in Iranian Female University Students: Role of Marital Satisfaction and Sex Guilt


    Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi


    Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfacti...

  12. Female sexual inversion: same-sex desires in Italian and British sexology, ca. 1870-1920


    Beccalossi, Chiara


    Between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, a number of women were diagnosed as sexual inverts in Britain and Europe. This book examines the ways in which female same-sex desires were represented across a wide range of Italian and British medical writings during this period. Chiara Beccalossi has undertaken extensive archival research to bring to light new documents and give a detailed account of how the female invert was positioned alongside other figures ...

  13. Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae

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    Hao-Yuan Hu


    Full Text Available Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. Theories predict that females of parasitoid wasps would adjust the offspring sex ratio to environmental conditions in the oviposition patch, but the diet and age of females would also affect the sex ratio adjustment. Our focus was to test the effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875. Our results showed that females fed with honey had significantly less female biased offspring sex ratio than those fed only with water. Offspring sex ratio (male percentage decreased with female age or female longevity at the beginning of oviposition but increased at the end. There should be a sperm limitation in P. vindemmiae females at the end of oviposition, and a higher frequency of unfertilized eggs were laid then. Females also laid more unfertilized eggs at the beginning of oviposition, which would be necessary to insure the mating among offspring. Male offspring developed faster and emerged earlier, which would also reduce the risk of virginity in offspring with female-biased sex ratio.

  14. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler;


    BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS: A...... entered the analyses. Primary outcome measures were changes from baseline in depressive symptoms assessed on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and SERT binding as imaged by [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography. Outcome measures were acquired at baseline in the follicular phase (cycle day 6...

  15. Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa

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    Browne Felicia A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW and non-sex workers (non-SW in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506 comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

  16. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men


    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY


    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  17. Racial Disparities between the Sex Steroid Milieu and the Metabolic Risk Profile


    Loreto Jackson; Ronald Goldberg; Robert Ross; Arlette Perry; Xuewen Wang


    Aims and Method. The present study examined the relationship between the metabolic risk profile (MRP) and total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone using the free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 36 Caucasian American (CA) and 30 African-American (AA) women volunteering for a weight loss study. Results. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between TT and diastolic blood pressure (P = .004 and P = .015 in CA and AA women, resp.). Ad...

  18. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E;


    the following asthma indicators: self-reported asthma, wheezing, cough at exertion, and use of medication for asthma. The study sample comprised 1536 premenopausal and 3016 postmenopausal women who participated in the third round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-4. A total of 377 women were...... taking OCP (24.5% of premenopausal women) and 458 were on HRT (15.2% of postmenopausal women). RESULTS: In premenopausal women 4.8% reported having asthma. The prevalence of self-reported asthma, wheeze, use of asthma medication, and cough at exertion was not significantly related to use of OCP. In...... postmenopausal women the prevalence of self-reported asthma was 6.2%. A weak but consistent association was observed between HRT and self-reported asthma (OR 1.42 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.12)), wheeze (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.64)), cough at exertion (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77)), and use of asthma medication (OR 1...

  19. Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats


    Löfgren, Magnus


    Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

  20. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  1. A qualitative exploration of barriers to condom use among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections. The purpose of this study was to explore women's work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers in Guangzhou, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts.

  2. Sex steroids do not affect shigatoxin cytotoxicity on human renal tubular or glomerular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohan Donald E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.

  3. Does Sex (Female versus Male) Influence the Impact of Class Attendance on Examination Performance? (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.


    The "conventional wisdom" is that grades are related to class attendance, i.e., students who attend classes more frequently obtain better grades and class attendance dramatically contributes to enhanced learning. However, the influence of sex (female vs. male) on this relationship is understudied. Furthermore, there have been several studies…

  4. Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basuki, E.; Wolffers, I.; Devillé, W.; Erlaini, N.; Luhpuri, D.; Hargono, R.; Maskuri, N.; Suesen, N.; Beelen, N. van


    The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by K

  5. Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery


    Caricato, Marco; Ausania, Fabio; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Cipollone, Ilaria; Flammia, Gerardo; Persichetti, Paolo; Trodella, Lucio; Coppola, Roberto


    We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.

  6. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes (United States)

    Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki


    Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

  7. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment (United States)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu


    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  8. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conventional norms of society; while Sula throughout her life rejects the traditional notions of feminine ‘responsibility’ and refuses to see women as only wives and mothers. This paper also explains how these norms and environment of gender, sex and love destroy the relationship between not only men and women but also women themselves.

  9. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Braunstein; C.M. Ingabire; E. Geubbels; J. Vyankandondera; M.M. Umulisa; E. Gahiro; M. Uwineza; C.J. Tuijn; D. Nash; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert


    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interv

  10. Inhaled Steroids (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...