Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 17ß-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.
The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cer...
Abstract Dry eye (DE) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance and ocular surface damage. It is one of the most common complaints in daily ophthalmic practice. The risk of DE increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females. In addition, the condition of menopause in aging women may also contribute to DE onset or worsening as a consequence of an overall hormonal imbalance. Sex hormones play a key role in ocular surface physiology and they impact differently on ocular surface tissues. Reduced estrogen levels were historically thought to be responsible in age-related DE onset but more recent investigations have reconsidered the role of androgens that are present and exert a protective function on the ocular surface. Hormone levels themselves, withdrawal changes in hormone levels, and the changes in hormone-receptor responsiveness are all important factors but it remains to be fully elucidated how estrogen or androgen insufficiency act alone or together in a combined imbalance or interplay to raise the risk of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline current scientific evidence on the influence of androgens and estrogens, on the Lachrymal and Meibomian glands and on ocular surface epithelia including conjunctival goblet cells during reproductive and menopausal periods. The role of sex steroids is also discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of different forms of DE and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). The impact of systemic hormone therapy (HT) in DE post-menopausal women still appears as a controversial issue, despite the many clinical studies. Finally, the outcomes of topical applications of steroid-based products are summarized, underlying the need for potential (tear) biomarker(s) in the rationale of DE-targeted therapy. PMID:25290221
Versura, Piera; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Campos, Emilio C
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (Tc) is a transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, with symptoms and signs of acute myocardial infarction. Tc syndrome, which occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women, is characterized by increase of sympathetic activity. Studies on the gender-specific differences in sympatho-vagal regulation and functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) imply that female pattern of dominance is characterized by the left hemisphere, which is believed to have parasympathetic predominance, whereas male pattern indicates dominance of the right hemisphere, which is believed to have sympathetic predominance. Fluctuating levels of female sex steroids are supposed to change FCA, modulating transcallosal inter-hemispheric inhibition across the menstrual cycle. The findings suggest that FCA is enhanced during the low steroid phase (menstrual phase), whereas, during high estrogen and/or progesterone phases (follicular and luteal phase) FCA is reduced. This theory is in line with concept of decreased magnitude of inter-hemispheric cortical lateralization in premenopausal women compared to men and postmenopausal women. Therefore, if postmenopausal women are more lateralized for a variety of cerebral functions, they have less balanced equilibrium between the right-sided sympathetic and left-sided parasympathetic predominance. Decrease of endogenous female sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women leads to reduced influence of estrogens to the left hemisphere, which is believed to have parasympathetic predominance. If both of these mechanisms result in sympatho-vagal imbalance, increasing sympathetic system activity in postmenopausal women, it seems reasonable why postmenopausal women became more susceptible to sympathetically-mediated syndromes such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:25618443
Both extreme underweight or overweight negatively affects reproductive health, but evidence is inconsistent in terms of mechanisms by which low or high BMI causes reproductive problems. The aim of our study was to investigate associations of sex steroids and gonadotropins with BMI in underweight and overweight patients since childhood. In this study 48 underweight and 55 overweight/obese females underwent full clinical-hormonal analyses. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in underweight patients (P=.000). FSH (P=.013) and SHBG (P=.000) levels were higher in patients with low BMI, whilst FT (p=.019) and TT (p=.003) levels were higher in high BMI patients. No difference was found in terms of AMH (P>.05). BMI negatively correlated with FSH (P=.009) and SHBG (P=.001) and positively correlated with FT (P=.001) and TT (P=.002). So sex steroid and gonadotropin levels are determined by particular reproductive disorders, which are associated to childhood BMI and progression of BMI changes. PMID:25541818
Chikvaidze, N; Khristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether there is racial variation in venous umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis between female African-American and white neonates. METHODS: Maternal and birth characteristics and venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 77 African-American and 41 white full-term uncomplicated births at two urban hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Cord blood was measured for testosterone, dehydroespiandroste...
Agurs-collins, Tanya; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Monsegue, Deborah; Akereyeni, Folasade; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Pollak, Michael N.; Platz, Elizabeth A.
Site of first recurrence, disease-free interval (DFI), female sex steroid receptors, ploidy measurements as well as histological grading have been analysed as potentially valuable predictive factors in 313 cases of recurrent breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses show histological grading, site of recurrence and disease free interval to be useful prognostic variables when assessing prognosis once disease has recurred. High concentrations of oestrogen receptors (ER) were found in ...
Blanco, G.; Holli, K.; Heikkinen, M.; Kallioniemi, O. P.; Taskinen, P.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.
José Tadeu, Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa, Gurgel; Marcelo, Alvarenga.
Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK))
The effects of ovine-luteinizing hormone (oLH) or a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Des-Gly10[S-Ala6]-LHRH ethylamide acetate salt (LHRH-A), on the female phase of the protogynous Monopterus albus were investigated, and the plasma levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), 11-oxotestosterone (KT), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone were determined. In the postspawning stage, oLH induced precocious sex reversal in the gonad from female to male and increased plasma levels of Ad, T, KT and OHT. However, such oLH effects in M. albus females were slight at the early prespawning stage, and no significant signs of precocious sex reversal were found either in gonadal structure or in plasma hormones as those in postspawning treatment. After LHRH-A treatment of M. albus females in both postspawning and early prespawning stages, the gonadal structure remained "female type" with no sign of proliferation of either Leydig cells or male germ cells. The plasma levels of E2 were greatly increased after the treatment. PMID:8504919
Yeung, W S; Chen, H; Chan, S T
EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS
Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.
Seyed Ehsan Mousavi
In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations. PMID:21234121
Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando
Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes. The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.
Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes). The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate c...
Zeina Nahleh; Arenas, Juan E.; Arafat Tfayli
Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...
Miners, J. O.; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.
To assess the adverse toxicological effects of steroid hormones on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 180 adult females were exposed to individual or binary combinations of progesterone (1?g/L), testosterone (1?g/L) and 17?-estradiol (1?g/L) for eight days. The expression patterns of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, metallothionein, and cytochrome P450 1A genes in mosquitofish varied according to tissue as well as the specificity of steroids. Treatment by progesterone or testosterone alone inhibited target gene expression in the livers. The expression levels of both vitellogenin A and vitellogenin B mRNAs were up-regulated by17?-estradiol, and a parallel induction of estrogen receptor ? mRNA expression was also observed in the livers. In addition, 17?-estradiol treatment alone suppressed androgen receptor ?, metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA expression in the livers. In general, multiple hormone treatments had different effects on target gene expression compared with corresponding hormone alone. The results demonstrate that steroid hormones cause multiple biological responses including the expression of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor mRNA in the hormone signaling pathways and the expression of metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA in the xenobiotic signaling pathway. PMID:22353216
Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Fang, Yi-Xiang
The risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is higher in women than in men, a sex difference that likely results from the effects of sex steroid hormones. To investigate this relationship, we first compared progression of ?-amyloid (A?) pathology in male and female triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice. We found that female 3xTg-AD mice exhibit significantly greater A? burden and larger behavioral deficits than age-matched males. Next, we evaluated how the organizational effects of sex steroid hormo...
Carroll, Jenna C.; Rosario, Emily R.; Kreimer, Sara; Villamagna, Angela; Gentzschein, Elisabet; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.
This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.
Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)
Oestrogen and progesterone have specific receptors in the central nervous system and are able to regulate neuronal development and plasticity, neuronal excitability, mitochondrial energy production, and neurotransmitter synthesis, release, and transport. On neuronal excitability, estradiol and progesterone seem to have an opposite effect, with estradiol being excitatory and progesterone and its derivative allopregnanolone being inhibitory. Estradiol augments N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated glutamate receptor activity, while progesterone enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated chloride conductance. Sex steroid regulation of the balance of neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory activities may have a role in modulating clinical susceptibility to different neurological conditions such as migraine, catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and premenstrual syndrome. PMID:21533709
Finocchi, C; Ferrari, M
Immune senescence denotes the general decline in immune system function, characterized by a reduced immune response and an increased inflammatory state. Menopause is a natural change in a women's life, the menopause-related low estrogen levels affecting many body functions, among them the immune system. Numerous human studies with menopausal women and animal models with surgically induced menopause show a clear impact of sex steroids in immune responses. Female superiority in vaccination response and predisposition to infections are eliminated after menopause, while during menopause inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?), Interleukins-1?, 6, 8 and 13 (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) are increased, implying a molecular connection of sex steroid loss with immune senescence. Moreover, immune cells modify their number and function after the menopausal transition, this offering another explanation for immune senescence. Until now most of the existing studies have concluded that menopause plays an additional role to aging in immune senescence. While it is clear that we are as yet far from thoroughly understanding the molecular pathways connecting sex steroids and menopause with immune senescence, such knowledge is highly likely to enable future targeted interventions in treatment and prevention of age-related diseases in women. PMID:24852404
Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Zygouris, Dimitrios; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Daniilidis, Angelos; Valsamakis, Georgios; Kalantaridou, Sophia
Gonadal sex in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development. Evidence suggests that temperature determines sex by influencing steroid hormone metabolism and/or sensitivity: steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors or exogenous sex steroid hormones and their man-made analogs override (or enhance) temperature effects on sex determination. Specifically, nonaromatizable androgens and aromatase inhibitors induce testis differentiation ...
Bergeron, J. M.; Willingham, E.; Osborn, C. T.; Rhen, T.; Crews, D.
Plasma profiles of several gonadal steroids and cortisol were examined in a field population of the protandrous, sex-changing anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus to elucidate potential roles of these hormones in gonadal sex change. Sex change was experimentally induced in males by removal of their dominant female pair mates. These sex-changing males were captured and sampled at 5, 10, or 20 days after female removal. Unmanipulated males and females were also sampled. Males had higher plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) than did females, but had lower levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), and estradiol-17 beta (E2). The three androgens showed decreases from male levels at 10 days, then an increasing trend at 20 days after female removal. E2 levels exhibited no changes from male levels until 20 days, when a significant increase over male levels was observed. Mature females had higher levels of Ad, T, and E2 than the 20-day treatment group, indicating that these steroids continue to rise after Day 20. The results support hypothesized roles for androgens in male function and E2 in female function in A. melanopus. However, E2 increases lagged behind oogonial proliferation, arguing against an influence of this steroid in the initiation of female function. Cortisol levels did not differ between males and females, but exhibited an increase during sex change, peaking at 20 days. PMID:8405900
Godwin, J R; Thomas, P
The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture
There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17?-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR mRNA than the ones without steroid replacement. Gonadectomised rams with TC also had greater AR mRNA, ERS1 mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than ewes treated with EB. The relative amount of STAR transcript was not different among the different groups. The results confirm sex differences in ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in sheep, as well as in the expression of the receptor proteins for both 17?-oestradiol and testosterone in the sheep adrenal gland. However, the underlying mechanisms for sex steroid modulation remain unresolved. PMID:24703387
van Lier, E; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A
The plasma levels of both the free and conjugated forms of six sex steroids (androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were determined by radioimmunoassay combined with Celite chromatography in different sexual phases of the protogynous Monopterus albus throughout the reproductive cycle. The amounts of 11-oxotestosterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found to be very low and variable in all the specimens investigated. No conjugated 17 beta-estradiol or free estrone was detected. Female individuals showed a prespawning rise of androstenedione which subsequently dropped to a low level in the spawning period. The estrogen levels in the female phase were found to be higher than those in all other sexual phases during the spawning period, but the testosterone level remained constant throughout the reproductive cycle in the female phase. The level of androstenedione was highest in the early intersexual and mid-intersexual phases during the postspawning/inactive period. Compared with the female specimens in the same reproductive period, the early intersexual individuals showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol, while the mid-intersexual animals showed a higher level of testosterone in the postspawned/inactive period. In the mid-intersexual phase, the levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone dropped progressively in relation to the seasonal reproductive cycle. The male fish had a constant level of androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol. However, the level of testosterone increased as the spawning period approached. The hormonal profile in the late intersexual phase was essentially similar to that in the male phase. The changes in the plasma levels of sex steroids in M. albus apparently were related to the maturation of the female and male sex tissues and to their seasonal reproductive cycle. PMID:3817447
Yeung, W S; Chan, S T
Drosophila adult females but not males contain high levels of the steroid hormone ecdysone, however, the roles played by steroid signaling during Drosophila gametogenesis remain poorly understood. Drosophila germ cells in both sexes initially follow a similar pathway. After germline stem cells are established, their daughters form interconnected cysts surrounded by somatic escort (female) or cyst (male) cells and enter meiosis. Subsequently, female cysts acquire a new covering of somatic cell...
Morris, Lucy X.; Spradling, Allan C.
Full Text Available Abstract Sex steroid hormones, estrogen, progesterone and androgen, play pivotal roles in sex differentiation and development, and in reproductive functions and sexual behavior. Studies have shown that sex steroid hormones are the key regulators in the development and progression of endocrine-related cancers, especially the cancers of the reproductive tissues. The actions of estrogen, progesterone and androgen are mediated through their cognate intracellular receptor proteins, the estrogen receptors (ER, the progesterone receptors (PR and the androgen receptor (AR, respectively. These receptors are members of the nuclear receptor (NR superfamily, which function as transcription factors that regulate their target gene expression. Proper functioning of these steroid receptors maintains the normal responsiveness of the target tissues to the stimulations of the steroid hormones. This permits the normal development and function of reproductive tissues. It can be inferred that factors influencing the expression or function of steroid receptors will interfere with the normal development and function of the target tissues, and may induce pathological conditions, including cancers. In addition to the direct contact with the basal transcription machinery, nuclear receptors enhance or suppress transcription by recruiting an array of coactivators and corepressors, collectively named coregulators. Therefore, the mutation or aberrant expression of sex steroid receptor coregulators will affect the normal function of the sex steroid receptors and hence may participate in the development and progression of the cancers.
Loggie Brian W
The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in ...
Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.
This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-?-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased selffeeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-?-estradiol...
Leal, Esther; Sa?nchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerda?-reverter, Jose? Miguel
Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.
The field of steroid hormone action is well established, although it is barely more than four decades old. Pivotal experiments in the late 1950s and 1960s showed that hormone-binding components exist within nuclei of target tissues and that steroid hormones act by regulating gene expression, rather than directly influencing enzymatic processes. The understanding that steroid hormone receptors interact with the general transcription machinery and alter chromatin structure came in the 1970s and 1980s, and details of this mechanism continue to be elucidated. In addition, the discovery of rapid cellular responses to steroid hormones has led to the identification of putative membrane-bound steroid receptors that act without affecting gene transcription. As noted in the recent Institute of Medicine report "Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?", the effects of steroid hormones and defects in steroid hormone receptor action have a profound impact on human health and disease. Future research directives include the development of potent, selective steroid receptor modulators, the elucidation of nongenomic steroid hormone effects, and further exploration of hormone-genome interactions. PMID:11568172
Fannon, S A; Vidaver, R M; Marts, S A
Abstract The biosynthesis and metabolism of sex steroids are controlled by a series of steroidogenic enzymes. In the placenta and the breast, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3?-HSD1) is essential for the synthesis of all steroid hormones by catalyzing pregnenolone to progesterone (P) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione (A-dione). P450 aromatase (P450arom) converts androgens to estrogens and is therefore critical for estrogen production. 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydro...
Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].
Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ
Background: Despite considerable racial and geographical differences in human phenotypes and in the incidence of diseases that may be associated with sex steroid action, there are few data concerning variation in sex steroid levels among populations. We designed an international study to determine the degree to which geography and race influence sex steroid levels in older men. Methods: Using mass spectrometry, concentrations of serum androgens, estrogens, and sex steroid precursors/metabolit...
Orwoll, Eric S.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Labrie, Fernand; Barrett-connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Ensrud, Kristine; Karlsson, Magnus; Lau, Edith; Leung, P. C.; Lunggren, Osten; Mellstro?m, Dan; Patrick, Alan L.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Nakamura, Kozo
Classical estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors (ERs, PRs, and ARs) localize outside the nucleus at the plasma membrane of target cells. From the membrane, the receptors signal to activate kinase cascades that are essential for the modulation of transcription and nongenomic functions in many target cells. ER, PR, and AR trafficking to the membrane requires receptor palmitoylation by palmitoylacyltransferase (PAT) protein(s). However, the identity of the steroid receptor PAT(s) is unknown. We identified the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins as conserved PATs for the sex steroid receptors. From DHHC-7 and -21 knockdown studies, the PATs are required for endogenous ER, PR, and AR palmitoylation, membrane trafficking, and rapid signal transduction in cancer cells. Thus the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins are novel targets to selectively inhibit membrane sex steroid receptor localization and function. PMID:22031296
Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Deschenes, Robert J; Levin, Ellis R
More than three decades ago, the Framingham study revealed that cardiovascular risk is elevated for all diabetics and that this jeopardy is substantially accentuated for women in particular. Numerous studies have subsequently documented worsened cardiac outcomes for women. Given that estrogen and insulin exert major regulatory effects through common intracellular signaling pathways prominent in maintenance of cardiomyocyte function, a sex-hormone:diabetic-disease interaction is plausible. Underlying aspects of female cardiovascular pathophysiology that exaggerate cardiovascular diabetic risk may be identified, including increased vulnerability to coronary microvascular disease, age-dependent impairment of insulin-sensitivity, and differential susceptibility to hyperglycemia. Since Framingham, considerable progress has been made in the development of experimental models of diabetic disease states, including a diversity of genetic rodent models. Ample evidence indicates that animal models of both type 1 and 2 diabetes variably recapitulate aspects of diabetic cardiomyopathy including diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and cardiac structural pathology including fibrosis, loss of compliance, and in some instances ventricular hypertrophy. Perplexingly, little of this work has explored the relevance and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Only a small number of experimental studies have addressed this question, yet the prospects for gaining important mechanistic insights from further experimental enquiry are considerable. The case for experimental interrogation of sex differences, and of sex steroid influences in the aetiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, is particularly compelling-providing incentive for future investigation with ultimate therapeutic potential. PMID:23792676
Reichelt, Melissa E; Mellor, Kimberley M; Bell, James R; Chandramouli, Chanchal; Headrick, John P; Delbridge, Lea M D
Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588
Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T
Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588
Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.
Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodol...
Pilz, Kevin M.; Adkins-regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert
Drosophila adult females but not males contain high levels of the steroid hormone ecdysone, however, the roles played by steroid signaling during Drosophila gametogenesis remain poorly understood. Drosophila germ cells in both sexes initially follow a similar pathway. After germline stem cells are established, their daughters form interconnected cysts surrounded by somatic escort (female) or cyst (male) cells and enter meiosis. Subsequently, female cysts acquire a new covering of somatic cells to form follicles. Knocking down expression of the heterodimeric ecdysteroid receptor (EcR/Usp) or the E75 early response gene in escort cells disrupts 16-cell cyst production, meiotic entry and follicle formation. Escort cells lose their squamous morphology and unsheath germ cells. By contrast, disrupting ecdysone signaling in males does not perturb cyst development or ensheathment. Thus, sex-specific steroid signaling is essential for female germ cell development at the time male and female pathways diverge. Our results suggest that steroid signaling plays an important sex-specific role in early germ cell development in Drosophila, a strategy that may be conserved in mammals. PMID:23056242
Morris, Lucy X; Spradling, Allan C
During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription ...
Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.
In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, th...
Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.
Ansari Mohammad Abdul
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)of estrogens in males.(author)
Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…
Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.
Full Text Available In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, the onset of breeding. The maximum levels of these hormones were coincident with development of the gonads, secondary sex characters, territorial aggression and sexual behavior. Plasma testosterone and estradiol titers in males and females respectively were evidently bimodal with peaks in January and April which corresponded to the norm of two clutches per breeding season of this species. Progesterone levels in females surged in March, April and May which was the period of egg laying and incubation. Circulating prolactin in females was high during the parental phase of the breeding cycle in April and June. In addition, social cues such as sexual partner and external stimuli such as eggs or nestlings influenced the reproductive endocrinology.
We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.
Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang
Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17?-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production. PMID:24405322
Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra
Evidence of altered primary sex ratios in birds shows that mothers can manipulate the sex of their offspring before oviposition. In birds, females are the heterogametic sex (ZW) and males are homogametic (ZZ). Sex is determined in the first meiotic division, when one sex chromosome is retained in the oocyte and the other segregates to the polar body. Altered primary sex ratios suggest that birds may be capable of biasing the segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis I. During the time of ...
Correa, Stephanie M.; Adkins-regan, Elizabeth; Johnson, Patricia A.
Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.
PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)
Obesity remains a major global health concern. Understanding the metabolic influences of the obesity epidemic in the human population on maintenance of a healthy weight and metabolic profile is still of great significance. The importance and role of white adipose tissue has been long established, particularly with excess adiposity. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), however, has only recently been shown to contribute significantly to the metabolic signature of mammals outside the previously recognised role in small mammals and neonates. BAT's detection in adults has led to a renewed interest and is now considered to be a potential therapeutic target to prevent excess white fat accumulation in obesity, a theory further promoted by the recent discovery of beige fat. Adipose tissue distribution varies significantly between genders. Pre-menopausal females often show enhanced lower and peripheral fat deposition in adiposity deposition compared to the male profile of central and visceral fat accumulation with obesity. This sex disparity is partly attributed to the different effects of sex hormone profiles and interactions on the adipose tissue system. In this review, we explore this intricate relationship and show how modifications in the effects of sex hormones impact on both brown and white adipose tissues. We also discuss the impact of sex hormones on activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and how the three pathways between adiposity, HPA and sex steroids can have a major contribution to the prevention or maintenance of obesity and therefore on overall health. PMID:25390013
Law, James; Bloor, Ian; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E
Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5?-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also stve effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED
Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate
In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a complex component of the "extended amygdala" in rats. Its posterodorsal subnucleus (MePD) has a remarkable expression of gonadal hormone receptors, is sexually dimorphic or affected by sex steroids, and modulates various social behaviors. Dendritic spines show remarkable changes relevant for synaptic strength and plasticity. Adult males have more spines than females, the density of dendritic spines changes in the course of hours to a few days and is lower in proestrous and estrous phases of the ovarian cycle, or is affected by both sex steroid withdrawal and hormonal replacement therapy in the MePD. Males also have more thin spines than mushroom-like or stubby/wide ones. The presence of dendritic fillopodia and axonal protrusions in the MePD neuropil of adult animals reinforces the evidence for local plasticity. Estrogen affects synaptic and cellular growth and neuroprotection in the MeA by regulating the activity of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-related gene products, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-related protein (Arc). These effects on signal transduction cascades can also lead to local protein synthesis and/or rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and subsequent numerical/morphological alterations in dendritic spines. Various working hypotheses are raised from these experimental data and reveal the MePD as a relevant region to study the effects of sex steroids in the rat brain. PMID:22763872
Rasia-Filho, Alberto A; Dalpian, Francine; Menezes, Itiana C; Brusco, Janaína; Moreira, Jorge E; Cohen, Rochelle S
Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.
In female insects, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis, a process required for egg development. By contrast with vertebrates, production of large amounts of hormonal steroids has not been reported in adult male insects. In the present study, we analyzed steroidogenesis in both male and female adult of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and we found that A. gambiae male mosquitoes produce high amounts of the steroid hormone 20E. Impo...
Pondeville, Emilie; Maria, Annick; Jacques, Jean-claude; Bourgouin, Catherine; Dauphin-villemant, Chantal
Full Text Available Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were subjects of the study. Blood was extracted for serum level of androgens, gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD of hip and spine was done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. All tests were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0, Chicago, Illinois, with P value of < 0.05 being statistically significant with confidence interval (CI of 95%. Results : One hundred three consecutive patients with an average age of 27.83 years were studied. Forty-five were males; and 58, females. Low bone mass (osteoporotic/osteopenic was found in 62.2% of the patients in the male group and 67.06% in the female group. In males, testosterone level was not significant between different groups, but total estradiol levels were significantly lower in the osteopenic and osteoporotic patients (P < 0.003 and < 0.01 respectively. In female patients, estradiol and testosterone levels were lower in osteoporotic patients in comparison to non-osteoporotic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.001. Conclusions : Our study indicates that sex steroids play a major role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with SCD
Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system), this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed p...
Dagmara Kwolek; Joachimiak, Andrzej J.
Female receptivity including the immobile hormone-dependent lordosis posture is essential for successful reproduction in rodents. It is well documented that lordosis is organized during the perinatal period when the actions of androgens decrease the males’ ability to display this behavior in adulthood. Conversely the absence of androgens, and the presence of low levels of prepubertal estrogens, preserves circuitry that regulates this behavior in females. The current study set out to determine whether sex chromosomal genes are involved in the differentiation of this behavior. An agonadal mouse model was used to test this hypothesis. The SF-1 gene (Nr5a1) is required for development of gonads and adrenal glands, and knockout mice are consequently not exposed to endogenous gonadal steroids. Thus contributions of sex chromosome genes can be disassociated from the actions of estrogens. Use of this model reveals a direct genetic contribution from sex chromosomes in the display of lordosis and other female-typical sexual behavior patterns. It is likely that the concentrations of gonadal steroids present during normal male development modify the actions of sex chromosome genes on the potential to display female sexual behavior. PMID:22483977
Grgurevic, Neza; Büdefeld, Tomaz; Spanic, Tanja; Tobet, Stuart; Majdic, Gregor
This essay examines how the X became the “female chromosome” and how the association of the X with femaleness influences research questions, models, and descriptive language in human sex chromosome research. I trace how the X is gendered female in scientific and popular discourse; document the contingent technical, material, and ideological factors that led to the feminization of the X during the first decades of sex chromosome research; and track the introduction of the “female chromos...
Richardson, Sarah S.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273
Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer, which may partly be explained by its influence on sex steroid hormone concentrations. Whether different measures of obesity, i.e., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat were differentially associated with circulating levels of sex steroid hormones was examined in 1,265 men, aged 20-90+ years old, attending the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition...
Rohrmann, S.; Shiels, M. S.; Lopez, D. S.; Rifai, N.; Nelson, W. G.; Kanarek, N.; Guallar, E.; Menke, A.; Joshu, C. E.; Feinleib, M.; Sutcliffe, S.; Platz, E. A.
The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…
Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises
From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders. PMID:24406512
Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula
Optimality theory of sex allocation in structured populations has proved remarkably successful in explaining patterns of facultative sex ratio behaviour in numerous species. Extensions to the basic theory have included more specific aspects of species biology, including the relatedness of interacting individuals. We considered the sex ratio decisions made by female Nasonia vitripennis wasps when they were ovipositing on a patch with either relatives or nonrelatives. Theory predicts that femal...
Shuker, Dm; Reece, SE; Taylor, Jal; West, Sa
This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “ne...
Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.
Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)
Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others
Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 ...
Zahoor Ahmad Pampori; Sujata Pandita
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L
Peripheral intracrine sex steroid synthesis from adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate has evolved in humans. We sought to establish if there are differences in intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine regulation of sex steroids by primary cultures of human skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis identified multifunctional genes modulated by steroids, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) mRNA expression, enzymatic assay aromatase activity, scratch assay cell migration, immunocytochemistry ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen gel fibroblast contraction. All steroidogenic components were present, although only keratinocytes expressed the organic anion organic anion transporter protein (OATP) 2B1 transporter. Both expressed the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Steroids modulated multifunctional genes, up-regulating genes important in repair and aging [angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), lamin B1 (LMNB1), and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)]. DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), DHEA, and 17?-estradiol stimulated keratinocyte and fibroblast migration at early (4 h) and late (24-48 h) time points, suggesting involvement of genomic and nongenomic signaling. Migration was blocked by aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors confirming intracrine synthesis to estrogen. Testosterone had little effect, implying it is not an intermediate. Steroids stimulated fibroblast contraction but not ?-SMA expression. Mechanical wounding reduced fibroblast aromatase activity but increased keratinocyte activity, amplifying the bioavailability of intracellular estrogen. Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes provide a biologically relevant model system to investigate the complex pathways of sex steroid intracrinology in human skin.-Pomari, E., Valle, L. D., Pertile, P., Colombo, L., and Thornton, M. J. Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25392269
Pomari, Elena; Valle, Luisa Dalla; Pertile, Paolo; Colombo, Lorenzo; Thornton, M Julie
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Contrary to the long-held postulate of steroid-hormone binding globulin action, these protein carriers of steroids are major players in steroid actions in the body. This manuscript will focus on our work with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and demonstrate how they are actively involved in the uptake, intracellular transport, and possibly release of steroids from cells. This manuscript will also discuss our own findings that the steroid estradiol is taken up into the cell, as demonstrated by uptake of fluorescence labeled estradiol into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and into the cytoplasm where it may have multiple actions that do not seem to involve the cell nucleus. This manuscript will focus mainly on events in two compartments of the cell, the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. PMID:24269740
Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F
Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772
Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J
Obesity has been considered to have a protective effect against the risk of fractures in adults. However, a high frequency of fracture is described in obese adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. To evaluate bone geometry, density and strength in a group of adult obese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and to examine the modulating effect on bone of treatment with growth hormone (GH) and sex steroids. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 41 (17 males, 24 females) obese subjects with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 29.4 ± 8.6 years. Forty-six healthy subjects (22 males and 24 females) served as controls. Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the 2nd metacarpal bone to assess bone geometry, i.e. cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical area (CA), medullary area (MA), metacarpal index (MI) and bone strength evaluated as bending breaking resistance index (BBRI). DEXA was also used to evaluate body composition and bone mineral density (total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck). PWS subjects, after adjusting for height and bone size, had a reduced CSA, CA and BBRI, while bone density was not different. GH treatment had a positive effect and sex steroids a negative effect on bone size and strength. PWS subjects showed a reduced bone size at the metacarpus leading to a reduced strength, while bone density was appropriate for size. GH treatment improves bone geometry but not bone density. Bone strength was significantly reduced in PWS patients who did not receive GH and had been treated with sex steroids. PMID:25577526
Longhi, Silvia; Grugni, Graziano; Gatti, Davide; Spinozzi, Emiliano; Sartorio, Alessandro; Adami, Silvano; Fanolla, Antonio; Radetti, Giorgio
Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.
Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun
Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts...
McPherson Sam; Gutierrez Juan; Anil, Kumar G.; Dandona Lalit; Dandona Rakhi; Samuels Fiona; Bertozzi Stefano M
The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue
The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.
Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders
Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity. PMID:25202876
Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D
A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis. PMID:21357241
Silverman, Jay G
This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595
Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P
Abstract The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender. PMID:25153712
Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F
Kin selection theory predicts that social insects should perform selfish manipulations as a function of colony genetic structure. We describe a novel mechanism by which this occurs. First, we use microsatellite analyses to show that, in a population of the ant Leptothorax acervorum, workers' relatedness asymmetry (ratio of relatedness to females and relatedness to males) is significantly higher in monogynous (single-queen) colonies than in polygynous (multiple-queen) colonies. Workers rear mainly queens in monogynous colonies and males in polygynous colonies. Therefore, split sex ratios in this population are correlated with workers' relatedness asymmetry. Together with significant female bias in the population numerical and investment sex ratios, this finding strongly supports kin-selection theory. Second, by determining the primary sex ratio using microsatellite markers to sex eggs, we show that the ratio of male to female eggs is the same in both monogynous and polygynous colonies and equals the overall ratio of haploids (males) to diploids (queens and workers) among adults. In contrast to workers of species with selective destruction of male brood, L. acervorum workers therefore rear eggs randomly with respect to sex and must achieve their favoured sex ratios by selectively biasing the final caste (queen or worker) of developing females. PMID:11798433
Hammond, R L; Bruford, M W; Bourke, A F G
Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.
The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p?=?0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p?=?0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form. PMID:24782830
Schulze, Jenny J.; Mullen, Jenny E.; Berglund Lindgren, Emma; Ericsson, Magnus; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén
The decreasing water-solubility of steroid esters concomitant with increasing chain lenth of monocarboxylic acids provides a prolonged therapeutic effect of the steroid. Whether a slow release of the steroid from an oily depot in the muscle or a secondary storage of the enter in the body fat ("deep compartment") are responsible for this prolonged action, is open to discussion. The aim of this study was to investigate the steriod ester cleaving enzyme activity of human subcutaneous fatty tissue. The followeing steroid esters were investigated: Testosterone acetate and oenanthate, metenolone acetate and oenanthate, norethisterone acetate and oenanthate, dehydroepiandrosterone acetate and oenanthate, fluocortolone acetate and caproate. In the 10000 X g supernatant phase of the female subcutaneous fatty tissue the rate of enzymatic cleavage of the long-chain oenanthates was considerably greater than that of the corresponding short-chain steroid esters. The nature and position of the ester group in the steroid molecule exhibited a marked effect on the rate of enzymatic cleavage of steroid esters. The cleavage rate of long- and short-chain steroid esters in human myometrium and endometrium resembled that in the fatty tissue. On the other hand, the gastric mucosa, recuts musculature, placenta and vaginal mucosa split the short-chain steroid esters more rapidly than the long-chain esters. The marked differences in the relation of the cleavage rate of long- and short-chain steoid esters in the various tissues allow the assumption that long- and short-chain steroid esters are cleaved by different enzymes. PMID:130782
Bellmann, O; Duhme, H J; Gerhards, E
Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.
Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-? (ER?), but not estrogen receptor-? (ER?). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ER?, or ER? genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ER? genes, but not the ER? gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ER?, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ER? mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ER? mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ER? during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007
Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji
Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyper...
Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A.; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi
The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.
Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.
Full Text Available The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER and androgen receptor (AR in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ER? alone until 1996 when ER? isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC.
Mamta Kalra, Jary Mayes, Senait Assefa, Anil K Kaul, Rashmi Kaul
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações d [...] e esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%). A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0%) que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos). A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas). Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml). Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro. Abstract in english Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and repr [...] oductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males). The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites). These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml). All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.
Neuza R. W., Lima; Juliana de S., Azevedo; Leonardo G. da, Silva; Marilvia, Dansa-Petretski.
Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.
Neuza R. W. Lima
... using illegal steroids. And because all levels of sports — from high school to the pros — are testing athletes for steroid use, there's a growing chance the person will get caught. If caught, he or ... be banned from the sport. But maybe worst of all, any achievements the ...
Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846
Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús
Full Text Available Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen (E2 and progesterone (P4, in female reproductive systems including the uterus and placenta. Thus, in this review, we summarize recent research literature in regards to the expression and regulation of CaBP-9k in mammals and introduce the research data of recent studies by us and others.
Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8-25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls. PMID:24416184
Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Adult females have significantly more leptin than males. We investigated the effect of fetal sex on levels of leptin and other pregnancy hormones (progesterone, estradiol, FSH, LH and âhCG in pregnant females during different stages of pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS : Serum leptin levels in pregnant females followed at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the year 2001 were estimated at the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy as well as after delivery. Progesterone, estradiol, FSH, LH and âhCG levels were also measured. RESULTS : Leptin levels were significantly higher during all three trimesters in the pregnant females carrying female fetuses compared with those with male fetuses, while other hormones did not differ between the two groups. After delivery, the leptin levels decreased in both groups, and were still higher in the females who delivered baby girls, but the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : These finding suggests that leptin might play a role in sex regulation during embryonic development.
Al Atawi F
Following the arrest of estradiol secretion by the ovaries at menopause, all estrogens and all androgens in postmenopausal women are made locally in peripheral target tissues according to the physiological mechanisms of intracrinology. The locally made sex steroids exert their action and are inactivated intracellularly without biologically significant release of the active sex steroids in the circulation. The level of expression of the steroid-forming and steroid-inactivating enzymes is specific to each cell type in each tissue, thus permitting to each cell/tissue to synthesize a small amount of androgens and/or estrogens in order to meet the local physiological needs without affecting the other tissues of the organism. Achieved after 500 million years of evolution, combination of the arrest of ovarian estrogen secretion, the availability of high circulating levels of DHEA and the expression of the peripheral sex steroid-forming enzymes have permitted the appearance of menopause with a continuing access to intratissular sex steroids for the individual cells/tissues without systemic exposure to circulating estradiol. In fact, one essential condition of menopause is to maintain serum estradiol at biologically inactive (substhreshold) concentrations, thus avoiding stimulation of the endometrium and risk of endometrial cancer. Measurement of the low levels of serum estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal women absolutely requires the use of MS/MS-based technology in order to obtain reliable accurate, specific and precise assays. While the activity of the series of steroidogenic enzymes can vary, the serum levels of DHEA show large individual variations going from barely detectable to practically normal "premenopausal" values, thus explaining the absence of menopausal symptoms in about 25% of women. It should be added that the intracrine system has no feedback elements to adjust the serum levels of DHEA, thus meaning that women with low DHEA activity will not be improved without external supplementation. Exogenous DHEA, however, follows the same intracrine rules as described for endogenous DHEA, thus maintaining serum estrogen levels at substhreshold or biologically inactive concentrations. Such blood concentrations are not different from those observed in normal postmenopausal women having high serum DHEA concentrations. Androgens, on the other hand, are practically all made intracellularly from DHEA by the mechanisms of intracrinology and are always maintained at very low levels in the blood in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Proof of the importance of intracrinology is also provided, among others, by the well-recognized benefits of aromatase inhibitors and antiestrogens used successfully for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women where all estrogens are made locally. Each medical indication for the use of DHEA, however, requires clinical trials performed according to the FDA guidelines and the best rules of clinical medicine. PMID:24923731
Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, p
Thomsen, Henrik Holm; MØller, Holger Jon
Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling...
Shervin Assari; Mosaieb Yarmohmmadi Vasel; Mohammad Nafarie; Babak Moazen; Majid Rezazade; Khodabakhsh Ahmadi
Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection.
Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.
Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of proculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection
The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function
Long- and short-range sex pheromones appear to play a crucial role in the mate finding and courtship behaviour of most parasitic Hymenoptera. Yet these parasitoids have been rarely investigated and only a few pheromones have been identified. Recent studies have shown that sexual communication of Trissolcus brochymenae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a quasi-gregarious egg parasitoid of the harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), starts before contact between males and females when chemical compounds produced by virgin females trigger the courtship behaviour of males. In the present study, the pheromone components involved in the short-range recognition of T. brochymenae females by males were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioural methods. Female body extracts were analyzed through EAG and GC-EAD and the active compounds were identified through GC-MS. The behavioural responses of virgin males to the GC-EAD active compounds were subsequently evaluated in closed arena bioassays. Two active compounds in EAG and behavioural tests, tetradecyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-yl acetate, were identified as sex pheromone components. Both compounds triggered intense male antennation and mount when applied to solvent-washed female cadavers. Dose-response tests showed different curves for the two compounds. This is the first study on the identification of sexual pheromones in Platygastridae. PMID:23063499
Salerno, Gianandrea; Iacovone, Alessia; Carlin, Silvia; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Anfora, Gianfranco
A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758
Rogol, Alan D
A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.
Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.
The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.
Max, S. R.; Rance, N.
The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.
Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.
The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10/sup -12/ M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes.
Avvakumov, G.V.; Survilo, L.I.; Strel' chenok, O.A.
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 ex...
Mukherjee, Rajib; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung Sook; Yun, Jong Won
Full Text Available Estrone conjugate (E1C and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG were predominant steroid metabolites of estrogen and progesterone in feces of most primates and could be used to evaluate ovarian function. These metabolites were determined along with records of genital swelling throughout 3-4 months period from three female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch maintained in pairing-typed cage at Schmutzer Primate Center, Jakarta (Ullah and at Taman Margasatwa Taman Sari, Bandung (Donna and Citah. Following methanolic extraction of lyophilized fecal powder, samples were analyzed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for E1C and PdG. In all of the three females observed, both hormone profiles did not indicate any regular cycle of ovarian function even though genital swellings were sometimes observed. In one female (Donna the hormone patterns showed clear signs of cycle irregularities with extended luteal phase of 40 days and erratic pattern of follicular phase. Of the other two females, no ovarian cycle was found. The data indicate that the fecal steroids analysis is a practical and valuable diagnostic tool for providing reliable information on ovarian function in Javan Gibbon. Factors affected reproductive hormonal profile should be taken in consideration in trying to achieve success in captive breeding program for this species.
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytoid focal adenitis leading to mucosal dryness, with 9:1 female dominance and peak incidence at menopause. Due to autoimmune adenitis it can be speculated that the normal epithelial cell renewal has failed, possibly as a result of local intracrine failure to process dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Local intracrine/-cellular DHT deficiency seems to predispose to SS if estrogens are low, in menopausal women and in men. This intracrine failure could be the initial noxious stimulus, factor X, initiating the development of SS. Abnormal release and presentation of exocrine gland-derived antigens (Ag-epitopes), in a complex with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), by migratory dendritic cells (DC) activates T-cells in the regional lymph nodes. B-cells with the same specificity capture and present self-Ag to Th-cells which provide T-cell help. B-cells transform to plasma cells and start to produce autoantibodies (Ab) against these T-cell-dependent Ag. Ab against SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La ribonucleoproteins occur only in HLA-DQw2.1/DQw6 heterozygous individuals, but hY-RNA and RNA polymerase III transcripts in these Ag may in all SS patients stimulate toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9 of the plasmacytoid DCs, because IFN-? and IFN-signature are produced. CD8+?E?7+cytotoxic T-cells activated via cross-presentation recirculate to attack intracrine-deficient, apoptotic epithelial cells expressing self-Ag on their surface. Exocrine glands fall into the sphere of mucosal/gut-associated lymphatic tissue. This together with immune complexes spreads the immunological memory/aggression to extra-glandular sites explaining the systemic nature of the syndrome. Secondary SS could be explained by disturbed lymphocyte recirculation. There is no conclusive evidence that SS in those few men affected is more severe than in women, suggesting that sex steroid endo-/intracrinology has its major impact on the target tissue, not on immune modulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:25158020
Konttinen, Y T; Stegajev, V; Al-Samadi, A; Porola, P; Hietanen, J; Ainola, M
Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction. PMID:24329103
Pack, Allison P; L'engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki
This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957
Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...
Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R.
Beta-carotene in doses of up to 300 mg daily raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels within 2 to 4 weeks in healthy subjects. The authors, in this study, investigate the short-term effects of high-dose beta-carotene upon serum lipids, lipoproteins, and selected sex steroid hormones in 59 adult patients with Type IIa or IIb hyperlipidemia and 36 healthy subjects. Volunteers took beta-carotene (300 mg) or wheat germ oil capsules daily for 30 days. Lipids were measured on days 1, 14, 21, and 30. Beta-carotene, retinol, free and total testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured on days 1 and 30. Total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased 10% (p < 0.01) over baseline in all groups by day 14 but returned to baseline by day 30. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels transiently increased between days 14 and 21 by up to 9%, 8%, and 20%, respectively, only in the patients with hyperlipidemia treated with beta-carotene, but returned to baseline on day 30. Apolipoproteins A and B were unchanged. Despite 20-fold increases of plasma beta-carotene levels there, were no reports of carotenodermia and no alteration in sex steroid hormones, retinol levels, hepatic transaminases, or persistent changes in serum lipids that were attributable to beta-carotene. PMID:8010332
Hughes, G S; Ringer, T V; Francom, S F; Means, L K; DeLoof, M J
Estrogens and androgens exert many biological effects that do not require interactions of their receptors with chromosomal DNA. However, it has been a long-standing question how the sex steroid receptors provoke signal transduction outside the nucleus. Here we have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) directs sex-specific steroid signaling through Src activation. We have revealed that estrogen (E2)-induced Src activation takes place in, not only plasma, but also endomembranes. This was found ascribed to the existence of EGF and the occurrence of EGF receptor (EGFR)-involved endocytosis of estrogen receptor together with Src. EGFR, estrogen receptor, and Src were found to form a complex upon E2 stimulation. The cell growth of breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells was found to remarkably increase through the above EGF-involved estrogen-signaling process. In contrast, the androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced Src activation occurs only in the plasma membrane free from the interaction of EGFR with androgen receptor, irrespective of EGF. The cell growth occurred only moderately as a result. The spatial difference in Src activation between E2 and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone may be responsible for the different extent of observed cell growth. PMID:17284441
Hitosugi, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuki; Sato, Moritoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Umezawa, Yoshio
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711
Onakomaiya, Marie M; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P
Among sexually reproducing species, differences between the sexes within species are ubiquitous. Despite the clear effect of sex differences on sex ratios and population growth rates, demographic models rarely consider both sexes explicitly. Here I explore the causes of extreme female-biased sex ratios in two marine angiosperms (Phyllospadix spp.). Using demographic data, I develop two-sex matrix projection models to assess the magnitude of demographic differences necessary to generate observed sex ratios and the consequences of sex differences for population growth rates. I demonstrate that small sex differences in survival can generate biased sex ratios, but the importance of sexual reproduction differs markedly between species. Even in the absence of a direct trade-off between sexual and asexual reproduction, the presence of two reproductive modes affects both the importance of sex and the sex-ratio bias. Using sensitivity analyses, I quantify the contribution of shared and sex-specific vital rates and show that until males become rare, the sensitivity of sex-specific vital rates is small relative to that of shared vital rates. I demonstrate that placing sex differences in the context of a demographic model that includes biologically motivated life-history trade-offs can explain the maintenance of sex-specific life histories and the persistence of skewed sex ratios. PMID:20109068
Shelton, Andrew Olaf
The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…
Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.
Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children.
Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise
Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism in the male range. Basal testosterone values were elevated. Folicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinising Hormone levels were within normal limits. Dexamethasone suppression test did not alter cortisol or testosterone levels. An ovarian mass was confirmed radiologically. Following a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy, histopathological studies confirmed a left sided steroid-cell ovarian tumor, Leydig cell type (stage T(1)N(0)M(0)), which proved to the etiology of virilization in this patient. Post-operatively her serum testosterone levels declined with near-complete reversal of symptoms over time. PMID:19829991
Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi
Sex-dependent selection often leads to spectacularly different phenotypes in males and females. In species in which sexual dimorphism is not complete, it is unclear which benefits females and males derive from displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex. In barn owls (Tyto alba), females exhibit on average larger black eumelanic spots than males but members of the two sexes display this trait in the same range of possible values. In a 12-year study, we show that selection exerted on spot size directly or on genetically correlated traits strongly favoured females with large spots and weakly favoured males with small spots. Intense directional selection on females caused an increase in spot diameter in the population over the study period. This increase is due to a change in the autosomal genes underlying the expression of eumelanic spots but not of sex-linked genes. Female-like males produced more daughters than sons, while male-like females produced more sons than daughters when mated to a small-spotted male. These sex ratio biases appear adaptive because sons of male-like females and daughters of female-like males had above-average survival. This demonstrates that selection exerted against individuals displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex promoted the evolution of specific life history strategies that enhance their fitness. This may explain why in many organisms sexual dimorphism is often not complete. PMID:20337696
Roulin, Alexandre; Altwegg, Res; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Schaub, Michael
Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males dur...
Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Flowering sex ratios of dioecious plants are commonly male-biased but rarely female-biased. While greater costs of reproduction from females have been repeatedly demonstrated and explain male biases, male reproductive costs almost never exceed female costs, making the origins of female biases enigmatic. I investigated the seagrasses Phyllospadix scouleri and P. serrulatus (surfgrasses), which have some of the most extreme female-biased sex ratios documented (>90% female), to identify the mechanisms driving sex ratio bias. I developed sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and applied them to three P. scouleri life stages at four sites to determine when during the life cycle sex ratio bias arises. Sex ratios were even among seedlings but became more female-biased at later life stages, indicating that sex ratios were driven by male-biased mortality. To identify when during the life cycle sex ratio bias developed, I examined sex differences in survival among seedlings and three aspects of reproductive costs that could potentially generate biased sex ratios under field conditions. No differences in seedling survival between the sexes were detected, and there was no evidence of substantial sex differences in costs of reproduction. I found no support for a trade-off between current and future reproduction or between reproductive investment and growth. Thus, costs of reproduction appear unlikely to drive sex ratio bias in surfgrass. Instead, small sex differences in growth and survival spread across the life cycle appear to be responsible for female-biased sex ratios and suggest that life history trade-offs other than reproductive costs drive sex ratio bias. PMID:20503870
Shelton, Andrew Olaf
It is notable that the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes differs significantly between major lineages of amniote vertebrates. In this respect, birds are especially conspicuous, as multiple sex chromosomes have not been observed in this lineage so far. On the other hand, in mammals, multiple sex chromosomes have evolved many times independently. We hypothesize that this contrast can be related to the different involvement of sex-specific sex chromosomes in female meiosis subjected to the female meiotic drive under male versus female heterogamety. Essentially, the male-specific Y chromosome is not involved in female meiosis and is therefore sheltered against the effects of the female meiotic drive affecting the X chromosome and autosomes. Conversely, the Z and W sex chromosomes are both present in female meiosis. Nonrandom segregation of these sex chromosomes as a consequence of their rearrangements connected with the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes would result in a biased sex ratio, which should be penalized by selection. Therefore, the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes should be less constrained in the lineages with male rather than female heterogamety. Our broader phylogenetic comparison across amniotes supports this prediction. We suggest that our results are consistent with the widespread occurrence of female meiotic drive in amniotes. PMID:24590843
Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402
Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P
• Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes.
Nanami, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideyuki; Yamakura, Takuo
Sex steroid receptor proteins were studied in human normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oestrogen receptor (ER) was detected in nucleosol and cytosol of 4 normal adult and 5 malignant liver specimens and in the cytosol of 6 foetal liver samples. Levels were 27.6-500 fmol mg-1 soluble protein in normal adults (Kd 1.48 X 10(-8) -1.12 X 10(-10) mol 1(-1) ), 45-290 fmol mg-1 in malignant liver tissue (Kd 3.26 X 10(-9) -3.64 X 10(-10) mol 1(-1] and a mean of 93 fmol mg-1 in foetal tis...
Iqbal, M. J.; Wilkinson, M. L.; Johnson, P. J.; Williams, R.
Females who had vaginal sex were interviewed annually in their first two years of college (n=386, ages 17 to 20 at study outset) and asked about risky sex behaviors and substance use. In year one, 60.2%[subscript wt] had intoxicated sex, 31.4%[subscript wt] had multiple sex partners, and 48.9%[subscript wt] had unprotected sex (i.e., without a…
Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Zarate, Elizabeth M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Wish, Eric D.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
Summary Despite reports of sex steroid receptor and COX2 expression in desmoid-type fibromatosis, responses to single agent therapy with anti-estrogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are unpredictable. Perhaps combination pharmacotherapy might be more effective in desmoid tumors that co-express these targets. Clearly, a further understanding of the signaling pathways deregulated in desmoid tumors is essential for development of targeted molecular therapy. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important regulators of fibroblast proliferation and matrix deposition, but little is known about the TGF? superfamily in fibromatosis. A tissue microarray representing 27 desmoid tumors was constructed; 14 samples of healing scar and 6 samples of normal fibrous tissue were included for comparison. Expression of selected receptors and activated downstream transcription factors of TGF? family signaling pathways, ?-catenin, sex steroid hormone receptors and COX2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry; patterns of co-expression were explored via correlational statistical analyses. In addition to ?-catenin, immunoreactivity for phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (indicative of active TGF? signaling) and COX2 was significantly increased in desmoid tumors compared to healing scar and quiescent fibrous tissue. Low levels of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 were detected in only a minority of cases. TGF? receptor type 1 and androgen receptor were expressed in both desmoid tumors and scar, but not in fibrous tissue. Estrogen receptor-? was present in all cases studied. TGF? signaling appears to be activated in desmoid-type fibromatosis and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and COX2 immunoreactivity may be of diagnostic utility in these tumors. Given the frequency of androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-? and COX2 co-expression in desmoid tumors, further assessment of the efficacy of combination pharmacotherapy using hormonal agonists/antagonists together with COX2 inhibitors should be considered. PMID:23035734
Mignemi, Nicholas A.; Itani, Doha M.; Fasig, John H.; Keedy, Vicki L.; Hande, Kenneth R.; Whited, Brent W.; Homlar, Kelly C.; Correa, Hernan; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Black, Jennifer O.; Yi, Yajun; Halpern, Jennifer L.; Holt, Ginger E.; Schwartz, Herbert S.; Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Cates, Justin M. M.
Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...
Context: Both testicular and adrenal steroid secretions are impaired in men with panhypopituitarism (Hypo-Pit), whereas only testicular steroid secretion is impaired in men with isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IHH) caused by normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH) or Kallmann syndrome (KS). Objective: To compare serum levels of sex steroids, precursors and metabolites between men with complete IHH and those with Hypo-Pit. Patients: We studied 42 healthy men, 16 untreated men with IHH (nCHH/KS) and 23 men with Hypo-Pit (14 with craniopharyngioma, 9 with congenital hypopituitarism) receiving hydrocortisone, thyroxin and GH replacement therapy but not testosterone. Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to measure serum levels of sex steroids (testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (E2)), their precursors (pregnenolone, 17hydroxy-pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenediol, progesterone, 17hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione) and their metabolites (androsterone, estrone, estrone sulfate), as well as pregnenolone and DHEA sulfate esters (PREGS and DHEAS). Results: All the above-mentioned steroids, and notably T, DHT and E2, were significantly lower in IHH patients than in controls but remained well above the detection limit of the relevant assays. In Hypo-Pit men, all these steroids were dramatically and significantly lower than in IHH. Interestingly, T, DHT and E2, as well as PREGS and DHEAS, were undetectable or barely detectable in Hypo-Pit men. Conclusions: Steroid deficiencies are marked but partial in men with complete IHH. In contrast, men with Hypo-Pit have a very severe overall steroid deficiency. These deficiencies could affect health and quality of life. PMID:25393641
Giton, Frank; Trabado, Séverine; Maione, Luigi; Sarfati, Julie; Le Bouc, Yves; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Fiet, Jean; Young, Jacques
Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.
Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F
Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E?) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis. PMID:20840852
Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A
Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17? enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17?-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased dels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17?,20?-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes
Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. c our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)
A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversio...
Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Je?ro?me
Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.
Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani
For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on th...
Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.
The purpose of this study was to stabilize transdermal drug-delivery systems (TDDS) highly loaded with sex steroids against recrystallization of drugs during storage. To facilitate the selection of potential crystallization inhibitors a drug-excipient interaction test was also established. Analysis of the thermal behaviour of 1:1 steroid-excipient mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that oestradiol and gestodene interact strongly with silicone dioxide and povidones, e.g. povidone K12. The addition of povidone K12 to polyacrylate-based matrix TDDS containing either 3% oestradiol or 2% gestodene resulted in stable systems which did not recrystallize during storage at 25 degrees C for more than 5 years. Significant recrystallization was, on the other hand, observed in non-stabilized reference patches even after 1 to 2 months storage. The DSC screening model proved very effective for selection of inhibitors of the crystallization of sex steroids in matrix TDDS. The crystallization inhibitor approach is a highly versatile stabilization tool for matrix patches containing high concentrations of sex steroids. PMID:10052847
This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…
Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.
Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.
Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid
Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the respon...
Flanagan-cato, Loretta M.
Adult emergence period, sex ratio, female calling behaviour, and the risky mating behaviour of A. aphidimyza in spider webs are described. We provide evidence that A. aphidimyza females produce a sex pheromone and attract males, and we give a description of the location and structure of the supposed pheromone producing glands of A. aphidimyza based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This is the first demonstration of occurrence of sex pheromones for a zoophagous species of Ceci...
Lenteren, J. C.; Schettino, M.; Isidoro, N.; Romani, R.; Schelt, J.
Microtus cabrerae is a species with blocks of heterochromatin on both sex chromosomes. Polymorphism caused by extensive deletions affecting these heterochromatic segments exists in both X and Y chromosomes. Of a total of 22 males and 22 females studied, four females exhibited sex pair dimorphism similar to that observed in males. C-banding techniques and preliminary data regarding inheritance support the hypothesis that these specimens are XY fertile females and that this sex reversion is most likely inherited through the Y chromosome of these females. PMID:3073913
Burgos, M; Jiménez, R; Díaz de la Guardia, R
Liver has evolved complex enzymatic mechanisms to detoxify a wide array of xenobiotic substances, ranging from dietary components to environmental toxins to pharmaceuticals. Activities of many steroid-metabolizing enzymes in adult rat liver microsomes are sexually differentiated. Toxic effects of lead and cadmium on hepatic tissue have been well established in our earlier studies. We thus monitored the effects of gestational and lactational coexposure to lead and cadmium on hepatic phase I and phase II xenobiotic- and steroid-metabolizing enzyme activities in both male and female F1 generation postnatal day (PND) 56 rats. Adult pregnant female rats were treated subcutaneously [0.05 mg/(kg body wt. day)] with sodium acetate (control group), lead acetate, and cadmium acetate separately and in combination throughout the gestational and lactational period. Hepatic phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (NADPH- and NADH-cytochrome c reductase) activities significantly decreased significantly in all the metal-treated groups in both PND 56 male and female rats as compared with the control group. Hepatic phase II enzymes (uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase) were also highly susceptible to all the metal-treated groups. The observed alterations in the oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in the liver of F1 generation male and female rats resulted from an independent effect of lead and/or cadmium and also from their interaction. Results suggest that early developmental exposure to lead and cadmium both alone and in combination can suppress the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in the liver of F1 generation male and female rats in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:20024958
Pillai, Prakash; Patel, Ritesh; Pandya, Chirayu; Gupta, Sarita
Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urina...
Woodley, S. K.; Cloe, A. L.; Waters, P.; Baum, M. J.
Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tacti...
Grayson Kristine L; De Lisle Stephen P; Jackson Jerrah E; Black Samuel J; Crespi Erica J
Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India.Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis...
Shahmanesh, M.; Wayal, S.; Cowan, F.; Mabey, D.; Copas, A.; Patel, V.
Birdsong serves to attract mates and to deter territorial rivals. Even though song is not restricted to males, this dual function has almost exclusively been demonstrated for male song. To test the generality of hypotheses on birdsong, we investigated female song in the sex-role reversed, classically polyandrous African black coucal (Centropus grillii) in the context of female–female competition. We compared spontaneously vocalizing females with females vocally responding to a playback simu...
Geberzahn, Nicole; Goymann, Wolfgang; Muck, Christina; Ten Cate, Carel
A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518
Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme
Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:21331628
Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni
This article analyses how the subject positions of wife, sex worker and female migrant intersect in the narratives of love of female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark. To a certain extent, the borders between migration, sex work and marriage are fluid. I argue that such narratives of love are highly relevant in studies of transnational sex work if we want to grasp the complexity of female migrants’ selling sexual services. In this connection, conditions such as the Danish migration policy, according to which a non-EU migrant can only be granted a residence permit by marrying a Danish citizen, become relevant. The article analyses the many meanings ascribed to love by female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark.
Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609
Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun
The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)
The effect of the moon light cycle on plasma melatonin rhythms was examined in Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) exposed to natural outdoor or artificial indoor lighting conditions. Furthermore, in a second experiment, the effect of the lunar cycle on vitellogenin and sex steroids (Testosterone, T; Estradiol, E2; 11-ketotestosterone, 11kt) was studied using mature individuals during reproductive season. In the first experiment, during full moon, plasma melatonin peaked at night in covered ...
Oliveira, Catarina R.; Duncan, Neil; Pousa?o-ferreira, P.; Man?ano?s, Evaristo L.; Sa?nchez-va?zquez, F. J.
We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 ye...
Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.
Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapid development of white matter connectivity between subcortical and cortical areas during adolescence and may potentiate aggression. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 258 participants between 8 and 25 years of age by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging to examine the microstructure of white matter connections within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network. Trait aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire and testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in saliva. Results indicated that higher levels of testosterone were associated with less white matter integrity within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network (i.e., higher mean diffusivity [MD] longitudinal [LD], and radial diffusivity [RD]). Furthermore, lower fractional anisotropy and higher MD, LD, and RD values within this network increased expressive forms of aggression and reduced inhibited forms of aggression (hostility). Our study indicates higher levels of testosterone relating to lower quality of structural cortical-subcortical connectivity, arguably resulting in a shift from inhibited towards expressive forms of aggression. Our data adds evidence to the idea that aggressive tendencies are subcortically driven, but individuals with relatively high testosterone might have lower structural connectivity within cortical control areas, resulting in a stronger tendency to act on these aggressive tendencies. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1043-1052, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25359710
Peper, Jiska S; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Schutter, Dennis J L G
Full Text Available Abstract Background S100P, a protein originally detected in the human placenta, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumors. Interestingly, we have recently discovered using data mining that S100P was considerably up-regulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium, but little further information has been available. Methods Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine the expression and location of S100P in the human endometrium and endometrial cells. Estrogen and progesterone were added to the cultured cells to test the response of S100P to sex steroids. Results A dramatic peak, approximately a 100-fold increase in comparison with the proliferative and early- and late-secretory phases, was observed in the endometrium during the mid-secretory phase, which corresponds to the time of embryo implantation. Progesterone regulated the expression of S100P in both primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, but estrogen had no significant effect. Conclusions The results indicate that S100P participates in the periodic change of the endometrium under the regulation of progesterone, may be used as a unique biomarker of the receptive endometrium and play an important role in embryo implantation.
Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor [estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)] defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Can...
James, RE; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Chang-claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schu?tze, M.
Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 mo...
Morisky, Donald E.; Santos, Nina C.; Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p
M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by young athletes has been a primary concern of sports governing bodies because of the implications for unfair advantage in performance and the potential for adverse side effects. Research over several decades indicated a lifetime prevalence of AAS use for adolescent males of 4-6% and for females of 1.5-3%, indicating a problem involving millions of athletes and a potential epidemic of AAS-related pathologies. However, recent studies have questioned the presumption that participation in organised sport is the primary risk factor for AAS use in adolescents as well as the extant estimates of the magnitude of the problem. Increasing evidence indicates that AAS use is associated with non-athletes and is linked to a broader syndrome of problem behaviours rather than efforts to achieve sporting success, and that sports participation may be protective against AAS use. Moreover, employing lifetime prevalence to gauge AAS use limits accurate evaluation of the personal and public health risk as the majority of respondents are not habitual users. Previous studies may have also inflated prevalence values through ambiguously worded survey questions and other design flaws, and few data are available on actual dosages. Prevention efforts need to be focused beyond organised sport and target the general adolescent population rather than athletes and should be founded on interventions with demonstrated efficacy for delinquent, antisocial and self-destructive behaviours rather than the ethical imperative of fair play. PMID:19919946
Harmer, P A
Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate new and improved
There is little data on the prevalence of STIs in female sex workers, Greek and immigrants, working in Athens, Greece, since most of them work without any form of official license. Our aim was to establish the prevalence of STIs in asymptomatic legal Greek and immigrant female sex workers in Athens, Greece. The study involved an evaluation of gonococcal and chlamydial infection, early infectious syphilis, HIV infection, HSV-2 infection, Hepatitis B and C in 299 female sex workers who applied for an official work permit between May 2005 and October 2005. HSV-2 infection was more common in the Greek sex workers. No difference was found for the other STIs. Prevalence was related to age. A significant association was found between HSV-2 and syphilis. No HIV infection was detected. We concluded that asymptomatic sex workers can be a source of STIs which points out the need for a better health system control in Greece. PMID:17229607
Papadogeorgaki, H; Caroni, C; Frangouli, E; Flemetakis, A; Katsambas, A; Hadjivassiliou, M
Full Text Available Abstract Background We use a simulation-based model to study the impact of female philopatry and heterogeneity of habitat quality on the evolution of primary sex ratio. Results We show that these conditions may lead to strongly biased ESS habitat-dependent sex ratios, under two kinds of density-dependent population regulation. ESS sex ratios are always biased towards females in good habitats, towards males in poor habitats, and are generally equilibrated considering the whole population. Noticeably, the predicted bias of sex ratio usually increases with decreasing female philopatry. Conclusion The selection forces responsible for these results are fully described. This study provides a new perspective on the evolutionary significance of temperature sex determination. We discuss the case of turtles by comparing our theoretical results with field observations.
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002
Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu
Examines the occupational aspirations of adolescent women. Subjects were 149 eleventh graders. Results indicate that many teenage females still subscribe to traditional sex-role values in their occupational aspirations. (Author)
This study assesses the incidence and social correlates of the female form of the Chameleon Syndrome--an accommodative response to an environment perceived as hostile to inappropriate sex role behavior--among a sample of 3200 American adolescents. (Author)
Rosen, Bernard C.; Aneshensel, Carol S.
In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effec...
Costine, Beth A.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Davis, Matthew C.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Porter, Donna M.; Leaton, Robert N.; Henderson, Leslie P.
A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710
Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Ca...
Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos
Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related...
Yang, Hongmei; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Hongjie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.
This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies. PMID:23421339
Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana
Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urinary odors in habituation/dishabituation tests. However, VNOi females spent significantly more time than VNOx subjects investigating male urinary odors in these tests. Also, VNOi females, but not VNOx subjects, preferred to investigate day-old male versus female urine spots as well as wooden blocks that had previously been soiled by male versus female ferrets. Both groups of female ferrets preferred to approach volatile odors from a breeding male instead of an estrous female in Y-maze tests and both groups showed similar levels of receptive sexual behavior in response to a male's neck grip. The VNO is apparently not required for olfactory sex discrimination or mate recognition in this carnivore, but instead may play a role in promoting continued contact with nonvolatile body odors previously deposited by opposite-sex conspecifics during territorial scent marking. PMID:15466811
Woodley, S K; Cloe, A L; Waters, P; Baum, M J
Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.
James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin
The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in ...
Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep
The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17?-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell ...
Cittelly, Diana M.; Richer, Jennifer K.; Sartorius, Carol A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.
Purves-Tyson Tertia D
Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...
Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.
The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080
Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving
The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are themosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis
Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male-female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210
Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized ratsrilized rats
Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p .05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors. PMID:24794174
Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N
Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and promotes palmitoylation of the SR. Hsp27-induced acylation occurred on the ERalpha monomer and augmented caveolin-1 interactions with ERalpha, resulting in membrane localization, kinase activation, and DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells. Oligomerization of Hsp27 was required, and similar results were found for the trafficking of endogenous progesterone and androgen receptors to the PMs of breast and prostate cancer cells, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Hsp27 prevented sex SR trafficking to and signaling from the membrane. These results identify a conserved and novel function for Hsp27 with potential as a target for interrupting signaling from membrane sex SRs to tumor biology in hormone-responsive cancers. PMID:20439495
Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R
Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.
Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming
Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies. PMID:25409891
Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M
Seed production and patterns of sex allocation were studied in female and hermaphroditic plants in two gynodioecious populations of Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae). Females produced more flower buds and seeds than hermaphrodites in one of the two study populations. The other female traits measured (pistil biomass, seed number per fruit, individual seed mass) did not differ between the gender morphs. The relative seed fitness of hermaphrodites differed between the study populations, with her...
Ramula, Satu; Mutikainen, Pia
This study was designed to test the association of smoking with four clinically apparent conditions that may be related to altered sex steroids: natural and induced menopause, infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hirsutism. Data were obtained from the personal inventories of 50,145 women ages 20-59 years in TOPS, a weight reduction program. The age-adjusted odds ratios of each condition for heavy smokers compared with nonsmokers were 1.59 for natural menopause, 1.49 for induced menopause, 1.35 fo...
Hartz, A. J.; Kelber, S.; Borkowf, H.; Wild, R.; Gillis, B. L.; Rimm, A. A.
Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elec...
Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.
To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year s...
Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J. H.
Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)
Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698
Sharaf, S M
Background.?Higher prices for unprotected sex threaten the high levels of condom use that contributed to the decline in Zimbabwe's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. To improve understanding of financial pressures competing against safer sex, we explore factors associated with the price of commercial sex in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Methods.?We collected and analyzed cross-sectional data on 311 women, recruited during October–December 2010, who reported that they received payment for their most-recent or second-most-recent sex acts in the past year. Zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors clustered on female sex worker (FSW) were used to explore social and behavioral determinants of price. Results.?The median price of sex was $10 (interquartile range [IQR], $5–$20) per night and $10 (IQR, $5–$15) per act. Amounts paid in cash and commodities did not differ significantly. At the most-recent sex act, more-educated FSWs received 30%–74% higher payments. Client requests for condom use significantly predicted protected sex (P condom use, FSWs effectively use their individual capital to negotiate the terms of condom use. Strengthening FSWs' preferences for protected sex could help maintain high levels of condom use. PMID:25381377
Elmes, Jocelyn; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Hallett, Timothy; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J.; Gregson, Simon
Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone. PMID:10480988
Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. PMID:25058443
Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T
The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be used to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage ...
Denise Monnerat Nogueira; Alves, Maria Alice S.
This study aimed to develop sex reversal procedures targeting the embryonic period as tools to study the early steps of sex differentiation in Nile tilapia with XX, XY, and YY sexual genotypes. XX eggs were exposed to masculinizing treatments with androgens (17?-methyltestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) or aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole), whereas XY and YY eggs were subjected to feminizing treatments with estrogen analog (17?-ethynylestradiol). All treatments consisted of a single or double 4-hr immersion applied between 1 and 36?hour post-fertilization (hpf). Concentrations of active substances were 1000 or 2000??g l(-1) in XX and XY, and 2000 or 6500??g l(-1) in YY. Masculinizing treatments of XX embryos achieved a maximal sex reversal rate of 10% with an exposure at 24?hpf to 1000??g l(-1) of 11-ketotestosterone or to 2000??g l(-1) of Fadrozole. Feminization of XY embryos was more efficient and induced up to 91% sex reversal with an exposure to 2000??g l(-1) of 17?-ethynylestradiol. Interestingly, similar treatments failed to reverse YY fish to females, suggesting either that a sex determinant linked to the Y chromosome prevents the female pathway when present in two copies, or that a gene present on the X chromosome is needed for the development of a female phenotype. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 31-38, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25376842
Gennotte, Vincent; Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Ulysse, Bernard; Akian Djétouan, Dieudonné; Bere Sompagnimdi, Frédéric; Tomson, Thomas; Mélard, Charles; Rougeot, Carole
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also alter their behavior and microhabitat use under a male-biased sex ratio. Consistent with surveys showing reduced detection probabilities for females, our research suggests that females avoid male encounters using edge and substrate habitat. Our work illustrates the integrated suite of impacts that sexual conflict can have on the structure and ecology of a population.
Grayson Kristine L
Human primary placental explant culture is well established for cytokine signaling and toxicity, but has not been validated for steroidogenic or metabolic toxicology. The technique has never been investigated in the mouse. We characterized human and mouse placental explants for up to 96 h in culture. Explant viability (Lactate dehydrogenase) and sex steroid levels were measured in media using spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Expression and activities of the steroidogenic (3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Cytochrome P45017A1, Cytochrome P45019), conjugation (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, sulfotransferase (SULT)), and regeneration (?-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase C (ASC)) enzymes were determined biochemically in tissues with fluorimetric and spectrophotometric assays, and western blot. Explants were viable up to 96 h, but progesterone, estrone, and 17?-estradiol secretion decreased. Steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities were stable in mouse explants and similar to levels in freshly isolated tissues, but were lower in human explants than in fresh tissue (P<0.01). Human and mouse explants exhibited significantly less conjugation after 96 h, SULT was not detected in the mouse, and neither explants had active ASC, although proteins were expressed. Mouse explants may be useful for steroid biochemistry and endocrine disruption studies, but not metabolic conjugation. In contrast, human explants may be useful for studying conjugation for <48 h, but not for steroid/endocrine studies. PMID:25283089
Sato, Brittany L; Ward, Monika A; Astern, Joshua M; Kendal-Wright, Claire E; Collier, Abby C
HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L
Brain nuclei within the song-control system of songbirds are seasonally plastic during adulthood. These nuclei are larger in birds exposed to long, spring-like days than short, winter-like days. There is overwhelming evidence that this effect is mediated by testosterone (T). However, castration studies have also demonstrated that photostimulation has gonad-independent effects on song-control system plasticity, but these studies rarely control for extra-gonadal sources of T. In this study, we used anti-androgen and anti-estrogen treatments in combination with castration to determine the sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on HVC size and doublecortin immunoreactivity in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). Birds were kept on short days or photostimulated for 1 month. Photostimulated birds were intact, castrated and treated with anti-androgens and anti-estrogens, or castrated and treated with T. HVC volumes of photostimulated birds were significantly larger than short-day birds. HVC volume of castrated birds given anti-androgens/-estrogens was significantly larger than short-day birds, indicating a sex steroid-independent effect of photostimulation. Similar results were observed for RA. The number of migrating neurons (immunoreactive for doublecortin) in HVC did not differ between treatment groups. Our data support the view that photostimulation alone can drive song-control system nuclei growth, and that concurrent exposure to T potentiates this growth. Moreover, these effects do not appear dependent on modulation of neuron migration. PMID:24818971
Robertson, Brian D; Hasstedt, Michael R; Vandermeer, Caitlin L; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A
Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control. PMID:23569267
Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between body mass and serum level of female sex hormones among 153 adolescent girls, and 153 postmenopausal women in Korea. Information on lifestyles, and both menstrual and reproductive factors was collected by personal interview. Serum total estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine whe...
Yoo, K. Y.; Kim, H.; Shin, H. R.; Kang, D.; Ha, M.; Park, S. K.; Lee, B. O.; Cho, S. H.
Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc...
Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jorge Villalobos; Perth Rosen; Uribe-salas, Felipe J.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Gudelia Rangel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chen, Nadine E.
Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of pol...
Baratakke R.C.; Patil C.G.; Poornima B; Sankannavar S. H
Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this stud...
Deering Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee Paranita; Bradley Janet; Moses Stephen S; Shannon Kate; Shaw Souradet Y; Washington Reynold; Lowndes Catherine M; Boily Marie-Claude; Ramesh Banadakoppa M; Rajaram S; Gurav Kaveri; Alary Michel
Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic ...
Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
Background and aim: In Iran, HIV prevalence in sex workers is reaching to an epidemic, but still consistent use of condoms is low. This qualitative study aimed to assess barriers to condom use in female sex workers (FSWs). Materials and Methods: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 40 FSWs and 12 partners in the year 2010 in Tehran. The FSWs were purposefully selected from four different groups based on the level of socioeconomic status and history of using substance. Findin...
Zahra Malery khah Langeroudi; Afarin Rahimi movaghar; Shahnaz Delbarpour Ahmadi; Masoumeh Esmaeili
Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684
Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N
Analysis of 283 offspring born at the Duke University Primate Center show that young female ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, produce significantly more daughters, whereas old mothers produce more sons than expected. Data are compared to 3 hypotheses for sex ratio bias: the Trivers-Willard hypothesis which predicts that dominant females produce more males, the local resource competition (LRC) hypothesis which predicts that subordinate females produce more males, and the local resource enhancement (LRE) extension of the LRC hypothesis that females produce the sex that provides later cooperative benefits. In the case of Varecia, this may include alloparenting or cooperative breeding. The results are more consistent with the LRC model. However, observations of 8 mother-daughter relationships show that female dominance rank in free-ranging Varecia groups is age reversed, with daughters aggressively outranking their mothers. Daughters born into the group were not beneficial as future supporters in within-group intermatriline competition as assumed by the LRE model, or as subordinate alloparents, cooperative breeders or aids in territorial defense. Both sex ratio and ranking observations are consistent, however, with the hypothesis that mothers produce daughters when they are young and able to invade elsewhere and sons as they age and are less able to do so. This is supported by a single observation of a mother dispersing which resulted in her daughter inheriting the natal territory. These data are supportive of the LRE model with female alliances and cooperative breeding among dispersed females. PMID:19923845
White, Frances J
Systemic sclerosis is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease. Genetic and environmental factors are known to interplay in the onset and progression of systemic sclerosis. Sex plays an important and determinant role in the development of such a disorder. Systemic sclerosis shows a significant female preponderance. However, the reason for this female preponderance is incompletely understood. Hormonal status, genetic and epigenetic differences, and lifestyle have been considered in order to explain female preponderance in systemic sclerosis. Sex chromosomes play a determinant role in contributing to systemic sclerosis onset and progression, as well as in its sex-biased prevalence. It is known, in fact, that X chromosome contains many sex- and immuno-related genes, thus contributing to immuno tolerance and sex hormone status. This review focuses mainly on the recent progress on epigenetic mechanisms--exclusively linked to the X chromosome--which would contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, we report also some hypotheses (dealing with skewed X chromosome inactivation, X gene reactivation, acquired monosomy) that have been proposed in order to justify the female preponderance in autoimmune diseases. However, despite the intensive efforts in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis, many questions remain still unanswered. PMID:24126759
D'Amico, Fabio; Skarmoutsou, Evangelia; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda
Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.
Kin selection theory predicts that social insects should perform selfish manipulations as a function of colony genetic structure. We describe a novel mechanism by which this occurs. First, we use microsatellite analyses to show that, in a population of the ant Leptothorax acervorum, workers' relatedness asymmetry (ratio of relatedness to females and relatedness to males) is significantly higher in monogynous (single-queen) colonies than in polygynous (multiple-queen) colonies. Workers rear ma...
Hammond, R. L.; Bruford, M. W.; Bourke, A. F. G.
The relationship between urinary concentrations (free + sulfates + glucuronides) of the steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), 17?, 20ß-dihydroxy-4-preg- nen-3-one (17,20ß-P) and 17a,20a-dihydroxy-4-preg- nen-3-one (17,20?-P), and the social behavior of males of the cichlid ?sh Oreochromis mossambicus was inves- tigated. After 8 days of isolation none of the steroids were good predictors of social dominance developed after subsequent formation of ...
Oliveira, R. F.; Almada, V. C.; Canario, Adelino V. M.
Evaluating homology between the sex chromosomes of different species is an important first step in deducing the origins and evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in a clade. Here, we describe the preparation of Z and W chromosome paints via chromosome microdissection from the Australian marbled gecko (Christinus marmoratus) and their subsequent use in evaluating sex chromosome homology with the ZW chromosomes of the Kwangsi gecko (Gekko hokouensis) from eastern Asia. We show that the ZW sex chromosomes of C. marmoratus and G. hokouensis are not homologous and represent independent origins of female heterogamety within the Gekkonidae. We also show that the C. marmoratus Z and W chromosomes are genetically similar to each other as revealed by C-banding, comparative genomic hybridization, and the reciprocal painting of Z and W chromosome probes. This implies that sex chromosomes in C. marmoratus are at an early stage of differentiation, suggesting a recent origin. PMID:25227445
Matsubara, Kazumi; Gamble, Tony; Matsuda, Yoichi; Zarkower, David; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Ezaz, Tariq
Full Text Available Eunice Bruce1, Ludwina Bauai2, Mathias Sapuri3, John M Kaldor4, Christopher K Fairley1, Louise A Keogh51Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Central Papua Mission (CPM of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, Pacific Adventist University, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 3Pacific International Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 4National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Centre for Women's Health, Gender and Society, School of Public Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174 were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142 through focus group discussions and (n = 32 individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms 'sometimes', almost one-sixth 'never' used condoms, only a fraction used condoms 'always' with clients, and none used condoms 'always' with regular sexual partners (RSPs. Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.Keywords: HIV knowledge, risk perception, safer sex practices, female sex workers, clients, regular sexual partners
Theoretical studies predict that females should invest in current reproduction according to both the expected payoffs from mating with different-quality males and their future mating prospects. The Syngnathidae family, with its male pregnancy together with the occurrence of varying degrees of sex-role reversal, constitutes an exceptional model to study female allocation strategies. The present work tests for the influence of male availability and quality (translated into body size) o...
Silva, K.; Almada, Vi?tor Carvalho; Vieira, Maria Natividade; Monteiro, Nuno Miguel
Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals remains poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day length...
Beery, Annaliese K.; Loo, Theresa J.; Zucker, Irving
During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing th...
Zapartidis, I.; Nikolaidou, M. E.; Vareltzis, I.; Kororos, P.
Human breast and prostate cancers are complex diseases caused by the progressive accumulation of gene mutations combined with epigenetic deregulation of critical genes and derangement of signaling pathways. Compelling evidence indicates that steroid hormones elicit non-genomic responses in cytoplasm of target cells. In this cellular location, steroid-coupled receptors recruit signaling effectors or scaffold proteins, thereafter activating multiple pathways leading to proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness. Thus, the immediate challenge is the dissection of key upstream events regulating steroid response in target tissues to prevent progression and improve treatment of breast and prostate cancers. Progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that play a master role in these cancers has strongly stimulated the search for specific inhibitors of key signaling molecules. This review aims to give an up-to-date report of the complex network regulating non-genomic action of steroid hormones in target cells. The final section highlights recent advances from our laboratory and future directions in alternative approaches for the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. PMID:22201885
Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Giraldi, Tiziana; Migliaccio, Antimo; Castoria, Gabriella; Auricchio, Ferdinando
Human breast and prostate cancers are complex diseases caused by the progressive accumulation of gene mutations combined with epigenetic deregulation of critical genes and derangement of signaling pathways. Compelling evidence indicates that steroid hormones elicit non-genomic responses in cytoplasm of target cells. In this cellular location, steroid-coupled receptors recruit signaling effectors or scaffold proteins, thereafter activating multiple pathways leading to proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness. Thus, the immediate challenge is the dissection of key upstream events regulating steroid response in target tissues to prevent progression and improve treatment of breast and prostate cancers. Progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that play a master role in these cancers has strongly stimulated the search for specific inhibitors of key signaling molecules. This review aims to give an up-to-date report of the complex network regulating non-genomic action of steroid hormones in target cells. The final section highlights recent advances from our laboratory and future directions in alternative approaches for the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. PMID:21622172
Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Giraldi, Tiziana; Migliaccio, Antimo; Castoria, Gabriella; Auricchio, Ferdinando
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...
Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Full Text Available Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of polymorphic DNA was used to identify female plants before pre-flowering stage. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-15 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. This sex specific band OPA-15900 was identified only in female lines but not in male lines. This marker may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for female identification in Momordica dioica at pre-flowering stages so that it can be cultivated and utilized for its medicinal purpose.
Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases
Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881
Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A
Recent field studies on the reproductive ecology of western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) from populations in southern Arizona showed significant differences in the concentration of plasma sex steroids (testosterone, T; 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, DHT; and 17beta-estradiol, E2) throughout the active season (March-October), and peak levels were coincident with the two mating periods (late summer and early spring). There is, however, no information on levels of sex steroids during winter. Similar to most snakes, hibernating individuals of C. atrox are typically inaccessible, but in southern Arizona, where environmental conditions are typically mild during winter, adult males frequently bask at or near the entrances of communal dens. Basking activity, therefore, offers a unique logistical opportunity to assess the complete annual profile of plasma sex steroid levels in males of a temperate reptile in nature. From November to February, we measured levels of plasma T, DHT, and E2 in adult male C. atrox that were located basking at communal dens. Additionally, cloacal, core body, and ambient air temperatures were obtained to investigate potential relationships between body temperatures and levels of sex steroids. Mean levels of T, DHT, and E2 were relatively high, and the concentration hierarchy was T>DHT>E2. Mean levels of T, DHT, and E2 showed no significant variation across the four months of sampling; however, E2 levels decreased progressively. In the annul cycle, sex steroid levels during winter were not basal when compared to values obtained during the active season. Mean cloacal temperatures of basking males were significantly higher than core body temperatures of non-basking males (inside dens) from November-December, and in February, which suggests that one function of winter basking is to elevate body temperatures. Steroid levels, nonetheless, were not significantly correlated with cloacal temperatures. We suggest that future field studies of male C. atrox should: (a) investigate sex steroid levels in non-basking individuals and (b) test whether elevated levels of sex steroids during winter facilitate the large increases that occur in early spring, which are coincident with the second mating season. Our findings on the reproductive biology of C. atrox and other viperids are discussed in the context of the associated-dissociated model of reproduction. PMID:16828091
Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Taylor, Emily N; DeNardo, Dale F; Earley, Ryan L; Van Kirk, Edward A; Murdoch, William J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. Methods Detailed output and cost data for the 2002–2003 fiscal year were obtained using standardised methods at 15 HIV prevention programmes for female sex worker in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. The services provided and their relation to the total and unit economic costs were analysed using regression techniques. The trends for the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes since inception up to fiscal year 2004–2005 were examined. Results The 15 programmes provided services to 33941 sex workers in fiscal year 2002–2003 (range 803–6379, median 1970. Of the total number of contacts with sex workers, 41.6% were by peer educators and 58.4% by other programme staff. The number of sex worker contacts in a year by peer educators varied 74-fold across programmes as compared with a 2.7-fold variation in sex worker contacts by other programme staff. The annual economic cost of providing services to a sex worker varied 6-fold between programmes from Indian Rupees (INR 221.8 (US$ 4.58 to INR 1369 (US$ 28.29 with a median of INR 660.9 (US$ 13.66 and mean of INR 517.8 (US$ 10.70. Personnel salaries made up 34.7% of the total cost, and recurrent goods made up 38.4% of which 82.1% was for condoms. The cost per sex worker provided services had a significant inverse relation with the number of sex workers provided services by a programme (p 2 = 0.75; power function. There was no correlation between the full time equivalents of programme staff and the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes, but there was a modest inverse correlation between the number of sex workers served and the average time spent with each sex worker in the year adjusted for the full-time equivalents of programme staff (p = 0.011, R2 = 0.40; exponential function. The average number of sex workers provided services annually by the first batch of 7 programmes started in early 1999 plateaued after the fourth fiscal year to 3500, whereas the 8 second-batch programmes started in late 2000 reached an average of 2000 sex workers in 2004–2005 with an increasing trend up to this fourth fiscal year. Conclusion The HIV prevention efforts in this Indian state would benefit from standardisation of the highly variable services provided by peer educators, who form an important part of the sex worker programmes. The cost per sex worker served decreases with increasing number of sex workers served annually, but this has to be weighed against an associated modest trend of decrease in time spent with each sex worker in some programmes.
There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio. PMID:24816221
Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres
The hypothesis that serum concentrations of pituitary hormones, sex steroid hormones, or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) affect the occurrence of prostatic cancer was tested in a consecutive sample of 93 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated cancer and in 98 population controls of similar ages without the disease. Cases did not differ significantly from controls regarding serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Remarkably close agreement was foun...
Andersson, S. O.; Adami, H. O.; Bergstro?m, R.; Wide, L.
Full Text Available We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.
Marco Caricato, Fabio Ausania, Giovanni Francesco Marangi, Ilaria Cipollone, Gerardo Flammia, Paolo Persichetti, Lucio Trodella, Roberto Coppola
Sex reversal syndrome is a rare congenital condition of complete or disordered gonadal development leading to discordance between the genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sexes, including 46,XX and 46,XY. The gonadoblastoma on the Y-chromosome (GBY) region is associated with an increased risk of developing type II germ cell tumors/cancer. The present study reports a unique case of a phenotypically normal female (age 17 years), presenting with primary amenorrhea and later diagnosed with 46,XY female sex reversal syndrome. Following bilateral gonadectomy, bilateral gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma were diagnosed. Thus, estrogen replacement therapy was administered periodically to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation, and to prevent osteoporosis. A four year follow-up showed no tumor recurrence and a regular menstrual cycle in this patient. PMID:25187804
DU, Xue; Zhang, Xuhong; Li, Yongmei; Han, Yukun
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132
Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M
Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual differentiation in fish. However, in controlled environmental chemical exposures to date, only partial alterations of fish sexual phenotype have been observed. Here we report complete, permanent, and ...
Edmunds, J. S.; Mccarthy, R. A.; Ramsdell, J. S.
To examine the hormonal and immunological mechanisms that mediate sex differences in susceptibility to malaria infection, intact and gonadectomized (gdx) C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected erythrocytes, and the responses to infection were monitored. In addition to reduced mortality, intact females recovered from infection-induced weigh loss and anemia faster than intact males. Expression microarrays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed that gonadally...
Cernetich, Amy; Garver, Lindsey S.; Jedlicka, Anne E.; Klein, Pamela W.; Kumar, Nirbhay; Scott, Alan L.; Klein, Sabra L.
In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway: one mixture with high levels and one mixture with background levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane metabolites (DDT). The concentration of POP measured in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish from Lake Mjøsa to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations, indicating that the experimental fish were exposed to concentrations comparable with wild fish. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included earlier onset of puberty, increased male/female sex ratio, and differences in body weight at 5 mo of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling showed changes in regulation of genes involved in endocrine signaling and growth. The transcriptomics changes include key regulator genes for steroid hormone functions (ncoa3), and growth (c/ebp, ncoa3). The effects observed in the experimental zebrafish model raise the question whether chemical pollution represents a risk to reproductive health of wild fish inhabitating the freshwater system. PMID:20526952
Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Almaas, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik
Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape. PMID:25463265
Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel
Full Text Available During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing the motor abilities of 214 male and 238 female handball players from four age groups (12-12.9, 13-13.9, 14-14.9, and 15-15.9 years. Five motor abilities tests were administered: a ball throwing velocity, b standing long jump, c 30-m running speed, d 20-m shuttle run and e sit-and-reach flexibility. ANCOVA was used to test for sex differences by age group with age, height and weight as covariates. Results showed that in the 12-12.9 age group males and females had similar performances in standing long jump and aerobic capacity. In the older age groups, and besides having the same performance demands and training experience, males performed better than females in motor abilities that are important for handball. It appears that sport-specific training is not sufficient to attenuate sex differences in motor performance of young handball players.
The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.
Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.
There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cross-sex steroid administration in transsexual subjects. First, we compared plasma HVA levels between 38 male and 34 female healthy volunteers (not using hormone replacement therapy) of a mean age o...
Giltay, E. J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B. A.; Verbeek, M. M.; Geurtz, P. B. H.; Geleijnse, J. M.
The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.
Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G
Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria
One unexpected property of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is their ability, at doses well below those that effect 5-HT systems, to raise brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids such as the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone. In women, rapid withdrawal from allopregnanolone when progesterone secretion drops sharply in the late luteal phase precipitates menstrual cycle-linked disorders such as premenstrual syndrome and catamenial epilepsy. Short-term, low-dose fluoxetine during the late luteal phase has the potential to prevent the development of such disorders, by raising brain allopregnanolone concentration. In female rats, withdrawal from allopregnanolone, as ovarian progesterone secretion falls rapidly in the late diestrus phase (similar to late luteal phase in women), induces upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on GABAergic neurons in brain regions involved in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. The functional consequence of this receptor plasticity is disinhibition of principal neurons, hyperexcitable neuronal circuitry and increased behavioral responsiveness to anxiogenic stress. These withdrawal responses were prevented by short-term treatment with fluoxetine during the late diestrus phase, which raised brain allopregnanolone concentration, so blunting the rapid physiological fall. The steroid-stimulating properties of fluoxetine offer untapped opportunities for developing new treatments for menstrual cycle-linked disorders in women, which are precipitated by abrupt falls in brain concentration of allopregnanolone. PMID:23704364
One of the best examples for sex hormone regulation of brain development is found in songbirds. In zebra finches, only males sing because of striking sex differences in the neural circuitry that controls songs. Because developing females treated with estradiol (E2) develop a masculine song system, E2 is considered the normal masculinizing hormone. However, questions about the role of E2 in male development persist, because E2 treatments that masculinize song can demasculinize other sexual behaviors, and there exists contradictory evidence for high levels of circulating E2 in developing males. We remeasured plasma steriods in zebra finches during the first 13 days after hatching. E2 circulated at low levels, and there were no sex differences in circulating E2, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, or dihydrotestosterone. We also measured aromatase activity [( 3H]androstenedione conversion to [3H]estrone and [3H]E2) in gonad, adrenal, brain, and other tissues of hatchlings. Aromatase was abundant in ovary, but was not definitively detected in testes, adrenals, or other nonneural tissues of males. Aromatase was also found in diencephalon and in high amounts in telencephalon, but sex differences were not detected in whole brain or cellular subfractions of telencephalon. Because ovarian steroidogenesis is high, it may be involved in differentiation of the female zebra finch, as in nonpasserine birds. By contrast, the functional estrogen necessary for masculinization of song is most likely derived from brain, supplied with substrate from the adrenals. The puzzle remains why the song system is not masculinized in females, who possess high levels of aromatizable androgens and telencephalic aromatase. PMID:1727704
Schlinger, B A; Arnold, A P
Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.
Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infe [...] ction. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008), the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053) and by their clients (p = 0.005), and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015). The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.
Fabiana Schuelter, Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da, Silva.
The relationship between female mating preferences and sex allocation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support. Typically, choosier females adjust their progeny sex ratio towards sons, who inherit the attractive traits of their father. However, in species with paternal genome elimination, where male sperm do not contain the paternal genome, predictions for the direction of progeny sex ratio biases and their relationship with female choosiness are atypical. Paternal genome elimination also creates a potential for male-female conflict over sex allocation, and any influence of female mate choice on sex ratio outcomes have interesting implications for sexually antagonistic coevolution. Within the Sciaridae (Diptera) are species that produce single-sex progeny (monogenic species) and others in which progeny comprise both sexes (digenic species). Paternal genome elimination occurs in both species. We explore female mate resistance behaviour in a monogenic and digenic species of mushroom gnat from the genus Bradysia. Our experiments confirmed our theoretical predictions, revealing that in the monogenic and digenic species, females producing female-biased progeny were more likely to have resisted at least one mating attempt. PMID:23621366
Featherston, R; Jones, T M; Elgar, M A
The ability to determine hormonal profiles of primate populations using non-invasive techniques can help to monitor physical fitness, stress, and physiological responses to environmental changes. We investigated fecal glucocorticoids (fGC) and DHEAS concentrations in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in relation to environmental, biological, and social factors. The subjects were female Japanese monkeys from 4 months to 31 years old housed in captivity (27 in social groups and 12 in single cages). Fecal samples were collected from all females, and behavioral data from the social groups during the mating season and the following birth season. Hormonal concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Our results revealed that both fGC and fecal DHEAS concentrations are higher in females housed indoors in single cages than in those living outdoors in social groups. We also found that fGC concentrations were higher in the cycling females during the mating (winter) season than the lactating females in the birth (spring) season. Age was negatively associated to both fGC and fecal DHEAS levels, but the relationship between age and fecal DHEAS was more evident in females housed indoors in single cages than in females housed in outdoor social groups. We did not observe any association of dominance rank with either fecal DHEAS or fGC. This study showed that measurement of fecal DHEAS and fGC can be a good method to assess stress in Japanese macaques. These findings provide insights about the physiology of these two adrenal hormones in female Japanese macaques, which can be applied to wild populations and is fundamental for captive management and conservation biology. PMID:24839268
Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Huffman, Michael A; Mouri, Keiko; Garcia, Cécile; Rigaill, Lucie; Shimizu, Keiko
Introduction The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were recruited using the two-stage probability sampling design. FSWs' sexual practice was considered risky if they reported inconsistent condom use with any sexual partner and reported experience of one of the following vulnerabilities to HIV risk: anal sex, alcohol consumption prior to sex and concurrent sexual relationships. Results About 51% of FSWs had engaged in risky sexual practice. The odds of engaging in risky sex were higher among FSWs who were older (35+ years) than younger (18–25 years) (58% vs. 45%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.4), who were currently married than never married (61% vs. 51%, AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5–9.3), who were in sex work for 10+ years than those who were in sex work for less than five years (66% vs. 39%, AOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6–4.2), and who had sex with 3+ clients/day than those who had sex with fewer clients (67% vs. 38%, AOR: 3.7, 95% CI:2.5–5.5). Conclusion FSWs who are older, currently married, practicing sex work for longer duration and with higher clientele were more likely to engage in risky sexual practices. HIV prevention programs should develop strategies to reach these most-at risk group of FSWs to optimize the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:23637991
Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M.; Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel
Abstract There is growing recognition: (1) that sex (male and female) and sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) are important for physiologic functions outside those pertaining expressly to reproduction, and (2) that both classes of sex hormones are active in both sexes, and moreover are produced locally in non-gonadal tissues throughout the body. The visual system, in addition to being of tremendous inherent importance, is unique in a very distinctive way; it possesses an organ - the eye - having a window allowing its interior to be examined with exquisite precision and control in both laboratory and clinical settings. Plus, many diseases manifest in the eye or are exclusive to the eye. This special issue of Current Eye Research contains 12 review articles, each addressing a different topical area important for Sex, Eyes, and Vision: Male/Female Distinctions in Ophthalmic Disorders. Of course, the distinctions between topical areas are blurred, and the overlap between the various lines of knowledge and investigation likewise is substantial. Eye diseases can be both neurodegenerative and involve altered blood flow, for instance. In fact, the thematic overlap is greater yet, in that the articles for this special issue address matters of interest to clinicians and scientists who may identify more with women's health or sex & gender fields than with eye & vision fields. Nevertheless, because this special issue needs a home, the following 12 topical areas each have here their own dedicated review: age-related maculopathy, central nervous system function and cognition & perception, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye, glaucoma, inherited diseases, lens and cataract, neuro-ophthalmology, ocular blood flow, ocular inflammatory disorders, optical coherence tomography, and sex/gender eye care disparities. This overview article itself raises additional points expressly concerning: (1) the estrogen therapy timing hypothesis, and (2) breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. PMID:25329177
Denne ph.d.-afhandling, der består af fire artikler, undersøger, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters sexkøb konstruerer kvindelighed forankret i en række subjektpositioner som mor, hustru og sexarbejder i forhold til allerede eksisterende subjektpositioner konstrueret inden for det danske politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og ’intimitet’? Den anden del består af fire artikler. Den første artikel analyserer forandringerne inden for prostitutionspolitikfeltet med fokus på handlingsplanerne for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel. Den anden artikel trækker på litteratur om globale omsorgskæder, medborgerskab og transnational migration. Artiklen analyserer, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranter konstruerer transnationalt og lokalt moderskab i forhold til, hvordan moderskab konstrueres inden for det sociale arbejde og i forhold til dansk politik om familiesammenføring. Den tredje artikel undersøger, hvordan kategorierne ægtefælle, sexarbejder og kvindelig migrant sammenflettes i kvindelige thailandske sexarbejderes fortællinger om romantisk kærlighed. Den sidste artikel anvender Butlers kønsteori og teori om rum. Artiklens formål er at analysere, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters kønsfremførelser afhænger af rum.
This article explores the role of eroticism, kinship and gender in transactional sexual relationships between young women called curtidoras and older white men in Maputo. I draw on postcolonial feminism to argue that curtidoras’ erotic powers are a central part of sexual-economic exchanges with men and that senior female kin are deeply involved in processes of seduction and extraction of money. Relationships between curtidoras, female kin and male partners are conceptualized as “gendered triads of reciprocity" in order to unsettle Western stereotypes of female victims and patriarchal structures in Africa. Transactional sex often makes the partners mutually dependent and emotionally vulnerable and although moralities of exchange collide, young women tend to redistribute accumulated money from men among female seniors and kin.
Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250?g), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5?g), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy metabolism, whereas combined creatine and sex steroids acted in a neuroprotective manner in gonadectomized rats, potentially by reducing metabolic complications associated with castration or ovariectomy. PMID:25560941
Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B
During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. PMID:24331903
In fish, the onset of puberty, the transition from juvenile to sexually reproductive adult animals, is triggered by the activation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion and its timing is influenced by external and internal factors that include the growth/adiposity status of the animal. Kisspeptins have been implicated in the activation of puberty but peripheral signals coming from the immature gonad or associated to the metabolic/nutritional status are also thought to be involved. Therefore we hypothesize the importance of the galinergic system in the brain and testis of pre-pubertal male sea bass as a candidate to translate the signals leading to activation of testicular maturation. Here, the transcripts for four galanin receptors (GALR), named GALR1a, 1b, 2a and 2b, were isolated from European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the previously reported duplication of GALR1 in teleost fish, and unravelled the duplication of GALR2 in teleost fish and in some tetrapod species. Comparison with human showed that the key amino acids involved in ligand binding are present in the corresponding GALR1 and GALR2 orthologs. Transcripts for all four receptors are expressed in brain and testes of adult fish with GALR1a and GALR1b abundant in testes and hardly detected in ovaries. In order to investigate whether GALR1 dimorphic expression was dependent on steroid context we evaluated the effect of 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol treatments on the receptor expression in brain and testes of pre-pubertal males. Interestingly, steroid treatments had no effect on the expression of GALRs in the brain while in the testes, GALR1a and GALR1b were significantly up regulated by 11KT. Altogether, these results support a role for the galaninergic system, in particular the GALR1 paralog, in fish reproductive function. PMID:25016048
Martins, Rute S T; Pinto, Patrícia I S; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V M
Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1...
Schwartz, Sheree R.; Erin Papworth; Odette Ky-Zerbo; Simplice Anato; Ashley Grosso; Henri Gautier Ouedraogo; Sosthenes Ketende; Vincent Palokinam Pitche; Stefan Baral
Objective: We have analyzed the association between clusterin expression in endometrial cancer cells and their resistance to paclitaxel. We also analyzed whether the effects of female sex hormones on clusterin expression by these cell lines affect their resistance to paclitaxel. Methods: The expression of estrogen receptors ? and ?, progesterone receptors AB and B, and clusterin mRNA and protein was assayed in the ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and Western ...
Yong Sung Won, Sung Jong Lee
Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs) was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 we...
Carr Jean K; Sanchez José L; Montano Silvia M; Carrion Gladys; Eyzaguirre Lindsay M; Pando María A; Avila María M
Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW) in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common ty...
Hernandez Brenda Y; Vu Nguyen Thuong
Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriat...
Bradley Janet; Rajaram S; Alary Michel; Isac Shajy; Washington Reynold; Moses Stephen; Bm, Ramesh
Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with th...
Euser, Sjoerd M.; Dennis Souverein; Pushpalatha Rama Narayana Gowda; Chandra Shekhar Gowda; Diana Grootendorst; Rajendra Ramaiah; Snehal Barot; Sunil Kumar,; Oise Jenniskens, Fran X. E.; Shiv Kumar.; Jeroen Den Boer
Female Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during scotophase, and this production is stimulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), presumably carried in the hemolymph. Several lines of evidence indicate that the central nervous system plays another critical role in this regulation. Pheromone biosynthesis was induced during photophase by electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord or the peripheral nerves pro...
Christensen, T. A.; Itagaki, H.; Teal, P. E.; Jasensky, R. D.; Tumlinson, J. H.; Hildebrand, J. G.
Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related risk behaviors, such as becoming intoxicated with alcohol and using drugs. Among women who engaged in commercialsex, only 28% of them consistently used condoms during the last three episodes of sexualintercourse. Women who had ever engaged in commercialsex demonstrated greater depressive symptoms than those without such a history (p<.01). Female migrants, especially those engaging in commercial sex, were vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Sexualrisk reduction and condom promotion are urgently needed among this population. Further studies are needed to examine the causal relationship between depression and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:15804913
YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; CHEN, XINGUANG; LIU, HONGJIE; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; MAO, RONG
Understanding how selection acts on traits individually and in combination is an important step in deciphering the mechanisms driving evolutionary change, but for most species, and especially those in which sexual selection acts more strongly on females than on males, we have no estimates of selection coefficients pertaining to the multivariate sexually selected phenotype. Here, we use a laboratory-based mesocosm experiment to quantify pre- and post-mating selection on female secondary sexual traits in the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), a sexually dimorphic, sex-role-reversed species in which ornamented females compete for access to choosy males. We calculate selection differentials and gradients on female traits, including ornament area, ornament number and body size for three episodes of selection related to female reproductive success (number of mates, number of eggs transferred and number of surviving embryos). Selection is strong on both ornament area and ornament size, and the majority of selection occurs during the premating episode of selection. Interestingly, selection on female body size, which has been detected in previous studies of Gulf pipefish, appears to be indirect, as evidenced by a multivariate analysis of selection gradients. Our results show that sexual selection favours either many bands or larger bands in female Gulf pipefish. PMID:25292365
Flanagan, S P; Johnson, J B; Rose, E; Jones, A G
It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the Apc(Min/+) mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192
Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C B; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G; Groothuis, Patrick G; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F; van den Brink, Gijs R
Introduction: Previous studies showed that higher testosterone levels are associated with greater risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women, but the literature is scant and inconsistent. Methods: In a prospective nested case-control study of 104 premenopausal women with incident breast cancer and 225 matched controls, all characterized by regular menstrual cycles throughout their lifetime, we measured the concentration of estradiol, total and free testosterone (FT), progesterone, sex hormo...
Schernhammer, Eva S.; Sperati, Francesca; Razavi, Pedram; Agnoli, Claudia; Sieri, Sabina; Berrino, Franco; Krogh, Vittorio; Abbagnato, Carlo Alberto; Grioni, Sara; Blandino, Giovanni; Schunemann, Holger J.; Muti, Paola
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.
Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed intere...
Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7?cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3?cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life. PMID:24982953
Vaginocervical stimulation (VCS), produced either by copulation with intromission or by manual stimulation of vagina and cervix with a glass rod, induces neuroendocrine and behavioral responses that are critical for female reproduction in many species. We and others have shown that Fos mRNA and protein are induced within different estrogen-concentrating and -non-concentrating regions of the female rat brain following copulation with intromission and manual VCS. In the present study, we investigated the amount of distributed VCS required to induce Fos immunoreactivity within estrogen-concentrating regions of the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, medial amygdala, and mesencephalic central gray, and whether estrogen and progesterone could alter the threshold or pattern of induction. Ovariectomized rats were administered estradiol benzoate (10 micrograms) 48 h and progesterone (500 micrograms) 4 h before receiving either 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod. Ovariectomized hormone control rats received injections of the sesame oil vehicle 48 and 4 h before VCS. All rats were sacrificed 75 min after the first VCS. Fos immunoreactivity was induced differentially by VCS within the different regions, and the hormones either augmented, inhibited, or had no effect on the induction. These data demonstrate that cells within different estrogen-concentrating regions of the female rat brain are differentially sensitive to VCS, and that steroid hormones can either increase or decrease the amount of Fos induced by different amounts of VCS. Different brain regions may participate in gating the sensory information of VCS into different behavioral and neuroendocrine events. PMID:9001738
Pfaus, J G; Marcangione, C; Smith, W J; Manitt, C; Abillamaa, H
The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts sex biases in parental investment according to parental condition. In addition, parents may need to sex bias their investment if there is an asymmetry between the sexes in offspring fitness under different conditions. For studying maternal differential investment, egg resources are ideal subjects because they are self contained and allocated unequivocally by the female. Recent studies show that yolk androgens can be beneficial to offspring, so here we test for sex-biased investment with maternal investment of yolk testosterone (T) in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) eggs. From the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, we predicted females to invest more in male eggs in optimum circumstances (e.g. good-condition mother, early-laid egg), and more in female eggs under suboptimal conditions (e.g. poor-condition mother, late-laid egg). This latter prediction is also because in this species there is a female nestling disadvantage in poor conditions and we expected mothers to help compensate for this in female eggs. Indeed, we found more yolk T in female than male eggs. Moreover, in accordance with our predictions, yolk T in male eggs increased with maternal quality relative to female eggs, and decreased with laying order relative to female eggs. This supports our predictions for the different needs and value of male and female offspring in zebra finches. Our results support the idea that females may use yolk androgens as a tool to adaptively manipulate the inequalities between different nestlings.
Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Hazon, Neil; Graves, Jefferson A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.
Kohan Donald E
Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (ames can help promoting safer practices. (author)
The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels
The level of binding sites for (/sup 3/H)scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E/sub 2/) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels.
The regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) expression by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in the oviduct, uterus and cervix of female lambs was studied. The animals received three intramuscular injections of E2, P4 or vehicle with an interval of 24 h and they were slaugthered 24 h after the third injection. Determinations of ER and PR were performed by binding assays and mRNAs of ER? and PR by solution hybridization. High levels of ER and PR in both cervix and ...
Rodríguez-Piñón M; Eg, Garo?falo; Meikle A; Tasende C; Sahlin L
The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D.), weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cor...
Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani; Maria Rahmani; Mohammad Javad Rasaee; Farshad Tojari; Parisa Pournemat; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stephan Robert Stannard
The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.
Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe
The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mediating neuroendocrine responses in female mice is well known; however, whether the VNO is equally important for sex discrimination is more controversial as evidence exists for a role of the main olfactory system in mate recognition. Therefore, we studied the effect of VNO removal (VNOx) on the ability of female mice to discriminate between volatile and non-volatile odours of conspecifics of the two sexes and in different endocrine states using Y-m...
Keller, Matthieu; Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie
Gametogenesis in males and females differs in many ways. An important difference in Drosophila is that recombination between homologous chromosomes occurs only in female meiosis. Here, we report that this process relies on the correct functioning of Sex-lethal (Sxl) which is primarily known as the master gene in somatic sex determination. Certain alleles of this gene (Sxl(fs)) disrupt the germline, but not the somatic function of Sxl and cause an arrest of germ cell development during cystocy...
Bopp, D.; Schu?tt, C.; Puro, J.; Huang, H.; No?thiger, R.
A remarkable aspect of cancer distribution in Europe is the large spatial variability of the male-female incidence ratio, from no difference up to 50%. Given the evidence of the predominantly environmental origin of cancer, we studied the ability of a set of socioeconomic indicators of the female condition to model the spatial variability of the sex difference in tumor incidence at two different scales: between countries (Europe) and between provinces (Italy). The sex difference in tumor inci...
Benigni, R.; Giaimo, R.; Matranga, D.; Giuliani, A.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a new improved enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens from female commercial sex workers, in comparison with a conventional EIA test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. METHODS: A high risk group of 163 female commercial sex workers who visited a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in order to undergo screening for major STDs, including chlamydial inf...
Tanaka, M.; Nakayama, H.; Yoshida, H.; Takahashi, K.; Nagafuji, T.; Hagiwara, T.; Kumazawa, J.
This study uses multilevel analysis to examine individual, organizational and community levels of influence on condom use among female commercial sex workers (FSW) in the Philippines. A randomized controlled study involving 1,382 female commercial sex workers assigned to three intervention groups consisting of peer education, managerial training, combined peer and managerial intervention and a usual care control group was conducted. The results of the multilevel analysis show that FSWs who wo...
Ang, Alfonso; Morisky, Donald E.
Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.
Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n=562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptio...
Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad
Background/objectives: Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers.
Wee, S.; Barrett, M.; Lian, W.; Jayabaskar, T.; Chan, K.
Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia results in a female bias. However, pedigree analysis reveals that other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female-determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species.
Vanthournout, B; Deswarte, K
Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia results in a female bias. However, pedigree analysis reveals that other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female-determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species. PMID:24850893
Vanthournout, B; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H; Bilde, T; Lambrecht, B; Hendrickx, F
Full Text Available The aim of this sutdy is to prepare Histocompatability Y(HY antibody in female mouse at the first phase (current study, and to separate mouse embryos with regard to their sex, to be able to obtain offsprings of disired sex, by means of HY antibody, at the second phase. Totally 421 BALB/C inbred mice were used. Antibodies were produced in females by intraperitonial injections of spleen and testis cells of neonatal male mice. The sera of females were tested by five different immunological techniques, as follows: Double gel diffusion, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis, Plain electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence and Cytotoxicity test. The first two techniques showed no positive results, but the remaining three methods proved the existence of HY antibody in sera. In electrophoresis, an increase in gamma-globulin and total globulins index, over albumin, was detected in injected mice sera. In immunofluorescence assay HY antigen was revealed on the surface of the mouse testis and spleen cells. Cytotoxicity test has been the most suitable method for detecting HY antibody. Also, the possibility to differentiate X-bearing and Y-bearing embryos could be used in prevention of X-linked diseases as well as in population control.
This paper describes the sex work characteristics and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur district of high HIV prevalence Indian state, Nagaland. The study recruited 426 FSWs in 2006 using respondent-driven sampling. The prevalence of syphilis was 21.1% and HIV prevalence was 11.7%. Approximately half were under 25 years of age. Clients were solicited mainly in public places (32.7%), while hotels/lodges/rented rooms were the most common places of entertainment (57.2%). Condom use during the last sex was 36.5% with occasional and 27% with regular clients. Being married, being widowed/divorced/separated, being illiterate or having a history of drug use increased the likelihood of syphilis infection. Entertaining clients in bars/booze joints decreased the probability of syphilis. FSWs who moved between soliciting in public places or bars/booze joints and then entertaining in hotels/lodges/rented rooms had a higher vulnerability to syphilis. In summary, we found that the vulnerability to syphilis among mostly young FSWs in Dimapur varied according to their sex work characteristics, marital and educational status and drug use habits. They may be more vulnerable to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) due to the low rate of condom use. The findings have direct implications for HIV/STI prevention programmes in Northeast India. PMID:23514833
Medhi, G K; Mahanta, J; Hazarika, I; Armstrong, G; Adhikary, R; Mainkar, M; Paranjape, R S
This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984
Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong
Objective: To study the effect of high altitude hypoxia on the secretion of female sex hormones. Methods: Serum progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured with RIA in 738 women who were moved from plain to Lhasa (3685 meter) and stayed there for various years and 430 controls. Results: The serum P and E2 levels in the newly arrived subjects (within one year) were significantly lower than those in the controls. The levels gradually increased as acclimation occurred (up to 20 year) but dropped again later (probably due to advancing age). Conclusion: Hypoxia might be the cause of decreasing serum famale sex hormones levels in subjects moved to high altitude. (authors)
This study describes HIV risk and preventive behaviors and their correlates among Armenian female commercial sex workers (CSWs) as a prerequisite to developing gender and culturally appropriate interventions. Ninety-eight CSWs from three Armenian cities were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Quantitative findings were further elaborated by focus group discussions (N = 25) and key informant interviews (N = 8). Inconsistent condom use with all types of sexual partners was reported, as were condom tear/slippage, alcohol and drug use, and sex with drug injecting clients. Prominent misconceptions regarding HIV transmission, prevention and disease manifestations were noted. Correlates of condom use intentions included history of substance use, attitudes regarding condom use, risk perception, and comfort negotiating condom use. Intentions to use condoms were strongly associated with recent frequency of condom use. Understanding the relationship between condom use and its determinants is critical in the design and implementation of effective prevention programs tailored for Armenian CSWs. PMID:16823626
Markosyan, Karine M; Babikian, Talin; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Grigoryan, Samvel; del Rio, Carlos
Full Text Available Sexual health services are relatively rare in Nepal. Female sex workers (FSWs do not use health services as much as would be desirable. A study was conducted to identify barriers to access of sexual health services by FSWs in Nepal. A mixed-method approach consisting of a 425 questionnaire-based survey and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007.One fifth of the FSWs had never visited health facilities. FSWs turned to private clinics followed by clinics belonging to non-governmental organisations and pharmacies for treatment. A combination of personal and service-related factors acted as critical barriers in accessing health services. Lack of confidentiality, discrimination and negative attitudes held by health care providers, poor communication between service providers and fear of exposure to the public as a sex worker were the major barriers to seeking sexual health services. These barriers should be taken into account while planning for sexual health services.
... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...
Sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila are implemented by the ratio of X-chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A ratio). Our aim was to change this X:A ratio during development, and to assess the response of the affected cells in sexually dimorphic structures. For this purpose, clones of XO constitution were produced in female embryos and larvae of two genotypes in which almost the entire euchromatic arm of one X-chromosome was translocated to the third chromosome. Genotype I w...
Sa?nchez, L.; No?thiger, R.
While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlying complementary sex determination remain an unresolved pussle and the link between dietary differences and female phenopypic plasticity has yet to be indentified. In the present PhD projekt different aspects of both types of development was explored using a combination of high throughourt sequencing and functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development
A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product. PMID:24307127
Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H
Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSW...
Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K.; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim
Few data are available on factors contributing to sexual activity and condom use in custody settings, particularly among self-identified sexual minority prisoners. To address this gap, we undertook a study of sexual behavior and condom use of 101 randomly-selected men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender inmates in a segregated Los Angeles jail unit that has weekly condom access. Most survey participants (53%) reported anal sex during custody. Although 65% of these repor...
Harawa, Nina T.; Sweat, Jeffery; George, Sheba; Sylla, Mary
Full Text Available Male-to-female transsexual issues, especially their sexual orientation, has become complicated due to their tendency to regard themselves as women, and are exclusively attracted to men. This paper explores one group in male-to-female transsexuals, which is homosexual transsexuals, and their attraction towards homosexual and heterosexual men. The objective of this paper is to identify aspects of sexual attraction in the body or nature of the men that attract homosexual transsexuals to develop romantic relationship with them. Qualitative methods were used in gathering the data. This includes in-depth interviews that have been carried out on six homosexual transsexuals, which were selected using purposive and snowball sampling. The location of the fieldwork was Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The result shows that facial appearance, specific body parts such as chest, calves and buttocks, and specific social behaviors, especially caring and affectionate, have been regarded as men’s sex symbols.
Hatchling sex ratios in the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta were estimated by placing electronic temperature recorders in seven nests at Kuriat islands (Tunisia) during the 2013 nesting season. Based on the mean temperatures during the middle third of the incubation period, and on incubation duration, the sex ratio of hatchlings at Kuriat islands was highly male-biased. Presently, the majority of hatchling sex ratio studies are focused on major nesting areas, whereby the sex ratios are universally believed to be heavily female-biased. Here we present findings from a minor nesting site in the Mediterranean, where the hatchling sex ratio was found to be male-biased, suggesting a potential difference between major and minor nesting sites. PMID:25379528
Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine
Selection on males to mate at a higher rate than females often results in male harassment of females and counteracting female responses. When the reproductive value of copulation changes over time, these mating strategies are expected to be time dependent. Here, we demonstrate that variation in the intensity of male harassment leads to drastic changes in female daily mating patterns. In feral populations of fowl Gallus gallus domesticus, male harassment is intense, particularly in the evening when inseminations are most likely to result in fertilization. We experimentally manipulated the intensity of male harassment through similar-sized groups of different sex ratios. Male mating propensity was always higher than females', particularly in male-biased groups and in the evening, when males were closer to and more likely to approach females. Females counteracted male harassment by escalating resistance to mating and--crucially--by shifting their daily mating pattern: in strongly female-biased groups with relaxed sexual harassment, females solicited sex in the evening, while in male-biased groups, they solicited sex in the morning, thus avoiding harassment in the evening. Together, these results indicate that intersexual conflict may occur not only over mating rates but also over when in the day to copulate. PMID:17853985
Løvlie, Hanne; Pizzari, Tommaso
The correlated evolution of genitalia between sexes has been demonstrated in many taxa. However, it remains unclear whether female rather than male genitalia can play a key role in the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia. We conducted an extensive cross-population analysis of the divergence patterns of genital structures, weights of whole genital organs, and the bodies of both sexes, and male genital length in a group of xystodesmid millipedes showing diverse genital morphologies. We demonstrate that the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia toward exaggerated states has occurred in the millipedes, which have evolved novel traits in both males (forceps-like gonopods) and females (retractable bellows). Enlargement and elongation of forceps-like gonopods may be advantageous in sperm competition, whereas enlargement and elongation of the bellows may facilitate acceptance/rejection of insemination for ensuring the female's fitness. These male and female genital parts have affected the correlated evolution in the opposite sex, resulting in diversification and exaggeration of genital morphology. Our study suggests that evolutionary novel traits in not only males but also in females could play an important role in the correlated evolution of genitalia between the sexes. PMID:24116383
Tanabe, Tsutomu; Sota, Teiji
It has been reported recently that oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in the oral cavity and cervix of female sex workers in Japan. Oral and cervical swabs were taken from 196 female sex workers who visited a clinic for regular medical checkups in 2007, and genomic DNA was extracted from those specimens. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers, and genotyping was performed using the Kurabo GeneSquare Microarray or by sequencing cloned PCR products. HPV DNA was detected in the oral cavity of 12 (6.1%) women, with HPV-56 being the most common type (7/12). Likewise, HPV DNA was detected in the cervix of 103 (52.6%) women, with HPV-52 (30/103, 29.1%), followed by HPV-16 (24.3%) and HPV-56 (18.4%), being the most common. Of the 12 women with oral HPV infection, only two were infected with the concordant HPV genotype in the cervix. These findings suggest that oral HPV infection occurs independently of cervical HPV infection in this population, and that oral HPV infection may play a role in HPV transmission in Japan. PMID:21266753
Matsushita, Kaori; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Miyashita, Michiko; Ishizaki, Azumi; Morishita, Atsushi; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hoshina, Shinji; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ichimura, Hiroshi
The phenotype of male Hymenoptera and the peculiar role of males has been neglected and greatly understudied, given the spectacular cooperative behavior of female social insects. In social insects there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind haplodiploid sex determination but, beyond that, very little is known concerning the neural, endocrine, and genetic correlates of sexual selection in males. An opportunity is being missed: the male phenotype in Hymenoptera is a natural experiment to compare the drives of natural versus sexual selection. In contrast to females, males do not work, they usually display far from the nest to gain mates, compete among rivals in nuptial flights or for a symbolic territory at leks, and engage in direct or ritualized conflicts. By comparing the available data on male paper wasps with studies on other social Hymenoptera, we summarize what we currently know about the physical, hormonal, neural and behavioral traits in a model system appropriate to examine current paradigms on sexual selection. Here we review male behavior in social Hymenoptera beyond sex stereotypes: the subtle role of "drones" in the colony, the lack of armaments and ornaments, the explosive mating crowds, the "endurance" race, the cognitive bases of the "choosy" male and his immune defense. Social insect males are not just simple-minded mating machines, they are shaped, constrained and perhaps trapped by sexual selection. PMID:25280909
Beani, Laura; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Cappa, Federico; Toth, Amy
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial component of the descending modulatory network to control on nociceptive transmission and autonomic functions. Also, accumulated evidence has suggested that the PAG plays a crucial role in regulating migraine headache, a neurovascular disorder. The purpose of this study was to employ ELISA methods to examine the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the PAG of rats who received ovariectomy and subsequent hormone replacement with 17?-estradiol, progesterone, or the combination of 17?-estradiol and progesterone. In addition, using Western blot analysis we examined expression of subtypes of PGE2 receptor in the PAG of rats with different conditions of female sex hormones. Results of our study demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly increased the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the dorsolateral PAG (PPAG (r=092, PPAG of ovariectomized animals (PPAG; (2) a lower level of 17?-estradiol and/or progesterone augments PGE2 and its EP3 receptor; and (3) PGE2 plays a role in regulating expression of CGRP in the PAG. PMID:25175853
Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Jian; Li, Jingqing; Yu, Shengyuan; Guo, Xinjin
Hypospadias is rarely reported in dogs. In this study we pre-sent 2 novel cases of this disorder of sexual development and, in addition, a case of hereditary sex reversal in a female with an enlarged clitoris. The first case was a male Moscow watchdog with a normal karyotype (78,XY) and the presence of the SRY gene. In this dog, perineal hypospadias, bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and testes were observed. The second case, representing the Cocker spaniel breed, had a small penis with a hypospadic orifice of the urethra, bilateral cryptorchidism, testis and a rudimentary gonad inside an ovarian bursa, a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene. This animal was classified as a compound sex reversal (78,XX, SRY-negative) with the hypospadias syndrome. The third case was a Cocker spaniel female with an enlarged clitoris and internally located ovotestes. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene, while histology of the gonads showed an ovotesticular structure. This case was classified as a typical hereditary sex reversal syndrome (78,XX, SRY-negative). Molecular studies were focused on coding sequences of the SRY gene (case 1) and 2 candidates for monogenic hypospadias, namely MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) and SRD5A2 (steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2). Sequencing of the entire SRY gene, including 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, did not reveal any mutation. The entire coding sequence of MAMLD1 and SRD5A2 was analyzed in all the intersexes, as well as in 4 phenotypically normal control dogs (3 females and 1 male). In MAMLD1 2 SNPs, including 1 missense substitution in exon 1 (c.128A>G, Asp43Ser), were identified, whereas in SRD5A2 7 polymorphisms, including 1 missense SNP (c.358G>A, Ala120Thr), were found. None of the identified polymorphisms cosegregated with the intersexual phenotype, thus, we cannot confirm that hypospadias may be associated with polymorphism in the coding sequence of the studied genes. PMID:21893969
Switonski, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Bartz, M; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Szczerbal, I; Colaço, B; Pires, M A; Ochota, M; Nizanski, W
Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593
Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso
The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mediating neuroendocrine responses in female mice is well known; however, whether the VNO is equally important for sex discrimination is more controversial as evidence exists for a role of the main olfactory system in mate recognition. Therefore, we studied the effect of VNO removal (VNOx) on the ability of female mice to discriminate between volatile and non-volatile odours of conspecifics of the two sexes and in different endocrine states using Y-maze tests. VNOx female mice were able to reliably distinguish between male and female or male and gonadectomized (gdx) male volatile odours. However, when subjects had to discriminate between male and female or gdx male non-volatile odours, VNOx females were no longer able to discriminate between sex or different endocrine status. These results thus show that the VNO is primarily involved in the detection and processing of non-volatile odours, and that female mice can use volatile odours detected and processed by the main olfactory system for mate recognition. However, VNO inputs are needed to promote contact with the male, including facilitation of lordosis responses to his mounts. A single subcutaneous injection with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) partially reversed the deficit in lordosis behaviour observed in VNOx females suggesting that VNO inputs may reach hypothalamic GnRH neurons to influence the display of sexual behaviour. PMID:16420459
Keller, Matthieu; Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie
The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.
Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva
The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare. PMID:9707482
Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K
This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions. PMID:21667231
Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio
Full Text Available This study analyzed some conversations in the male, female and male-female groups of some university students. Using McCarthy's classification of topics, the results show that 'Persons' is the typical topic in the female group, while 'Objects/ belongings' is the most favorite topic in the male group. In the mixed-sex group, it is interesting to see how both sexes negotiated the topics by proposing the typical topics of the other sex group.
This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education ...
Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data ...
Verma Ravi K; Battala Madhusudana; Saggurti Niranjan; Swain Suvakanta N; Jain Anrudh K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.
Deering Kathleen N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases. Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P?=?0.075. Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period.
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037
Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H
Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ?18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997
Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.
Using data from both partners in female same-sex couples, individual and dyadic (individual/actor-partner) level analyses were conducted to determine the associations between couple members' global mental health, internalized homophobia, and perceptions of relationship qualities and satisfaction (N = 90). Findings at the dyadic level indicated that an individual's global mental health was uniquely associated with her partner's assessment of relationship satisfaction and qualities, beyond the effects of the individual's own mental health and internalized homophobia. Implications for further research on the strengths and challenges within female same-sex couple relationships are discussed. PMID:16873225
Otis, Melanie D; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S
Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and con...
Gschwend, Andrea R.; Qingyi Yu; Paul Moore; Christopher Saski; Cuixia Chen; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Ray Ming
The evolution of chemical communication and the origin of pheromones are among the most challenging issues in chemical ecology. Current theory predicts that chemical communication can arise from compounds primarily evolved for non-communicative purposes but experimental evidence showing a gradual evolution of non-informative compounds into cues and true signals is scarce. Here we report that females of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma use the defensive compound (-)-iridomyrmecin as a semiochemical cue to avoid interference with con- and heterospecific competitors and as the main component of a species-specific sex pheromone. Although competition avoidance is mediated by (-)-iridomyrmecin alone, several structurally related minor compounds are necessary for reliable mate attraction and recognition. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of insect pheromones by demonstrating that the increasing specificity of chemical information is accompanied by an increasing complexity of the chemical messengers involved and the evolution of the chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:24231727
Weiss, Ingmar; Rössler, Thomas; Hofferberth, John; Brummer, Michael; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes
The evolution of chemical communication and the origin of pheromones are among the most challenging issues in chemical ecology. Current theory predicts that chemical communication can arise from compounds primarily evolved for non-communicative purposes but experimental evidence showing a gradual evolution of non-informative compounds into cues and true signals is scarce. Here we report that females of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma use the defensive compound (?)-iridomyrmecin as a semiochemical cue to avoid interference with con- and heterospecific competitors and as the main component of a species-specific sex pheromone. Although competition avoidance is mediated by (?)-iridomyrmecin alone, several structurally related minor compounds are necessary for reliable mate attraction and recognition. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of insect pheromones by demonstrating that the increasing specificity of chemical information is accompanied by an increasing complexity of the chemical messengers involved and the evolution of the chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:24231727
Weiss, Ingmar; Rössler, Thomas; Hofferberth, John; Brummer, Michael; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes
Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.
Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.
Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947
Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ? 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.
Full Text Available Background and aim: In Iran, HIV prevalence in sex workers is reaching to an epidemic, but still consistent use of condoms is low. This qualitative study aimed to assess barriers to condom use in female sex workers (FSWs. Materials and Methods: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 40 FSWs and 12 partners in the year 2010 in Tehran. The FSWs were purposefully selected from four different groups based on the level of socioeconomic status and history of using substance. Findings were extracted and coded manually and the responses of the groups were categorized and compared. Results: Almost all FSWs had not used condoms regularly in the past six months. The main barriers of condom use were: lack of awareness of the modes of transmission of HIV and prognosis of the disease, doubt on the role of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, fear of violence or rejection by male customers, reluctance of sexual partners to use condoms due to diminution of sexual pleasure, and believing in health of some customers. Conclusions: Increasing awareness of the FSWs through education about HIV, ways to prevent the disease and empowering them on negotiating skills to use condoms as part of harm reduction programs are recommended .
Zahra Malery khah Langeroudi
Based on a cross-sectional survey with 1,022 female sex workers (FSWs) recruited from different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China, we examined their Internet-using behaviors and explored the feasibility of Internet-based HIV/STI intervention in this population. About 75% of FSWs were Internet users; among them 57% were frequent users, and 40% had searched HIV/STI information online. Internet use was significantly associated with younger age, more schooling, higher income, and engagement in a social network of Internet users. Frequent use of the Internet was associated only with factors of the social environment, such as peers' Internet use. Two thirds of Internet-using FSWs were willing to participate in an online HIV/STI prevention program. Multivariate analyses showed that willingness to participate in an online HIV/STI prevention intervention was significantly associated with higher Internet use and younger age. Our data suggest that Internet may offer a promising strategy to deliver low-cost HIV/STI prevention programs for FSWs in China. PMID:21082341
Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Chen
Ischemic heart disease is the single leading cause of death and a significant cause of morbidity among women in industrialized countries. Current guidelines recommend antiplatelet therapy as the main cornerstone for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, evidence is emerging that the response to antiplatelet drugs differs according to sex, although the biological basis for this gender disparity is unknown. In order to explain the epidemiological data showing a more severe clinical expression of cardiovascular disease in addition to adverse outcomes despite optimal pharmacological and interventional approaches in women compared to men, differences in platelet reactivity related to sex and gender are currently under investigation. In this report, we review available data from clinical trials of antiplatelet drugs administered for primary and secondary prevention, focusing on the underenrollment of female subjects in interventional randomized studies and weak community awareness of the impact of cardiovascular disease on life expectancy in women. Based on our findings, the development of real gender-oriented evidence-based guidelines for antiplatelet use in the setting of cardiovascular disease is urgently required. PMID:25421901
Stefania, Basili; Valeria, Raparelli; Marco, Proietti; Gaetano, Tanzilli; Flavia, Franconi
Full Text Available Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae and heteromorphic (Paleognatae sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system. DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc. in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex determination (GSD, although the effect of estrogen metabolites is noted for birds. For birds epigenetic mechanisms of regulation (methylation of DNA and non-coding RNA have been described for sex controlling genes such as CYP19A1 and DMRT1.
Antonina V. Trukhina
A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901
Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C
Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection was identified in 6 out of 90 (6.7% female commercial sex workers from Imbituba, Santa Catarina, and was associated to age. Frequencies of 5.6% of anti-latent and 3.3% of anti-lytic antibodies were detected. Considering non-endemic areas from Brazil, the anti-latent antibodies frequency seems elevated and requires further investigation on referent female population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA is an often-used murine model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Earlier studies have shown potent anti-arthritic effects with the female sex hormone estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM raloxifene in CIA in DBA/1-mice. B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice are B10.Q mice with a mutated Ncf1 gene. In B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice, CIA develops as a chronic relapsing disease, which more accurately mimics human RA. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids and raloxifene in the course of this model of chronic arthritis. We also examined whether treatment would prevent the development of inflammation-triggered generalized osteoporosis. Methods Female B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized, and CIA was induced. 22 days later, when 30% of the mice had developed arthritis, treatment with raloxifene, estradiol or vehicle was started, and the clinical disease was evaluated continuously. Treatment was continued until day 56 after immunization. At termination of the experiment (day 73, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed, paws were collected for histological examination, and sera were analyzed for markers of cartilage turnover and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Raloxifene and estradiol treatment, as well as endogenous estrogen, decreased the frequency of arthritis, prevented joint destruction and countered generalized osteoporosis. These effects were associated with lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Conclusions This is the first study to show that raloxifene and estradiol can ameliorate established erosive arthritis and inflammation-triggered osteoporosis in this chronic arthritis model. We propose that treatment with raloxifene could be a beneficial addition to the treatment of postmenopausal RA.
In somatic cells of Drosophila, the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes (X:A ratio) determines sex and dosage compensation. The present paper addresses the question of whether germ cells also use the X:A ratio for sex determination and dosage compensation. Triploid female embryos were generated which, through the loss of an unstable ring-X chromosome, contained some germ cells of 2X;3A constitution in their ovaries. Such germ cells were shown to differentiate along one of two alternative pat...
The female sex pheromone of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium, was analyzed by GC-EAD and GC-MS. Ten EAD active compounds-n-hexyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-hexanoate, n-hexyl (E)-2-hexenoate, n-octyl n-butyrate, n-octyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-octenyl n-hexanoate, n-pentyl n-hexanoate, n-hexyl n-butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-butyrate, and n-hexyl (E)-2-butenoate-were detected in the ratio of 1,000:414-491:trace-5:5-11:55-71:50-63:trace-3:225:90:32 from female body extracts, and in the ratio of 1,000:271-342:10-43:1-3:58-78:14-19:trace:178:36:26 from male body extracts. Field trapping tests with these synthetic compounds indicated that n-hexyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-hexanoate, and n-octyl n-butyrate are pheromone components, and mixtures in ratios of 1,000:400-500:10-100 were more attractive to males. Doses ranging from 4.29 microg to 14.3 microg of the three-component mixture in the ratio of 1,000:400:30 loaded into glass capillary tubes were most attractive to males. PMID:11789951
Kakizak, M; Sugie, H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.
Hernandez Brenda Y
The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of stored legumes in warm temperate and tropical climates. The female sex attractant pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from containers that housed virgin females. The extracts were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active components in the fractions were screened by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis with male antennae. Two compounds that elicited electrophysiological responses were isolated, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and micro-chemical analyses suggested that the active compounds were homofarnesals, (2Z,6E)- and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienals. Males of C. chinensis were significantly attracted to filter paper discs loaded with the synthetic compounds at 0.01-0.1 ng compared to solvent control in a Y-tube olfactometer assay. These pheromone components represent unique chemical structures within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:18351422
Shimomura, Kenji; Nojima, Satoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju
Introduction: The West and Central Africa (WCA) sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systemat...
Erin Papworth; Nuha Ceesay; Louis An; Marguerite Thiam-Niangoin; Odette Ky-Zerbo; Claire Holland; Fatou Maria Dramé; Ashley Grosso; Daouda Diouf; Baral, Stefan D.
Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques, would generate the same findings. In a replication study of men, we obtained the same findings of less GMV in dyslexics in left middle/inferior temporal gyri and right postcentral/supramarginal gyri as reported in the literature. However, comparisons in women with and without dyslexia did not yield left hemisphere differences, and instead, we found less GMV in right precuneus and paracentral lobule/medial frontal gyrus. In boys, we found less GMV in left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal/angular gyri), again consistent with previous work, while in girls differences were within right central sulcus, spanning adjacent gyri, and left primary visual cortex. Our investigation into anatomical variants in dyslexia replicates existing studies in males, but at the same time shows that dyslexia in females is not characterized by involvement of left hemisphere language regions but rather early sensory and motor cortices (i.e., motor and premotor cortex, primary visual cortex). Our findings suggest that models on the brain basis of dyslexia, primarily developed through the study of males, may not be appropriate for females and suggest a need for more sex-specific investigations into dyslexia. PMID:23625146
Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Eden, Guinevere F
Photoperiod and temperature are known as the main synchronizers of seasonal reproduction in fish. This paper studied the role of photoperiod on the synchronization of F1 Senegal sole reproduction rhythms. Fish were maintained under constant short-photoperiod (9L:15D) from the winter solstice onwards (experimental group) or under naturally-changing photoperiod (control group), and water temperature naturally oscillated in both groups. Blood samples were collected during the reproduction season at pre-spawning (March), spawning (April) and post-spawning (May) to determine the endocrine status. Spawning events and egg quality parameters were also monitored. The results revealed a significant increase in nocturnal melatonin concentration from March to May in the control group, while in the experimental group such seasonal change did not occur. As to plasma levels of vitellogenin, testosterone, estradiol and 11keto-testosterone, differences between groups were found mostly in March, while in April and May levels were often similar. Spawning was observed in both groups, although the experimental group started slightly earlier and also finished earlier than the control group, perhaps as a result of the increase in sex steroids and VTG observed at pre-spawning. Briefly, reproduction rhythms persisted in the absence of the natural lengthening of photoperiod, although photoperiod manipulation altered the seasonal modulation of melatonin, increased sex steroids and vitellogenin at pre-spawning, and slightly advanced the timing of spawning. PMID:21466857
Oliveira, Catarina; Mañanós, Evaristo; Ramos, Jesus; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier
The New View Campaign is a grassroots initiative begun in 1999 to challenge the over-medicalization of sex in the wake of publicity following the release of Viagra. This paper describes the history of the campaign and its activities, which started with analysing the construction of female sexual dysfunction, and moved on to develop a critical understanding of sexuality as a market for the pharmaceutical industry to exploit. The campaign has also had much to say about a positive model for sexuality, sex education, treatment of sex problems, and sex research. From 2006, we began to look at the new female cosmetic genital surgery industry. In 2008, we wrote letters to many government and medical professional groups expressing our concerns about female cosmetic genital surgery and asking for support. We also organised a demonstration outside the office of a New York surgeon who was doing this surgery and developed a webpage as a resource for students, scholars, journalists and activists. In 2009, we held an event in an art gallery that celebrated artists who support and encourage female sexual diversity. Supporters and colleagues of the campaign have published books and articles, and created visual and training materials, including a project called Vulvagraphics. PMID:20541084
In South India, where the majority of the country's cases of HIV are concentrated, transmission of infection occurs mainly within networks composed of female sex workers, their clients and the other sexual partners of the latter. This study aims to determine how gender relations affect the risks of HIV transmission in this region. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 clients and analysed qualitatively. Results show that clients perceive sexual relations with female sex workers as a vice involving loss of control and contact with women at the bottom of the social ladder. Paradoxically, this sometimes allows them to conform to the masculine ideal, in giving sexual satisfaction to a woman, in a context of incompatibility between the idealised and actual masculine and feminine archetypes. Attitudes to condoms, affected by various facets of the client-female sex worker relationship, are indicators of the link between this relationship and the risks of contracting HIV. The results suggest that there is a need for expanding targeted HIV prevention towards clients and female sex workers alongside more general interventions on gender issues, particularly among young people, focusing on the structural elements moulding current relations between men and women, with particular consideration of local cultural characteristics. PMID:22574910
Aubé-Maurice, Joanne; Clément, Michèle; Bradley, Janet; Lowndes, Catherine M; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel
Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.
Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N?=?61) and of infants in 2010 (N?=?12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. Am. J. Primatol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399677
B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C
Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the role of sex hormones on changes in brain edema intracranialpressure (ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CCP after trauma brain injury (TBI in ovarectomizedfemale (OVX rats.Material and Methods: In this study female rats are divided into five groups. Control group(Intact sham group and other groups include: vehicle, estrogen group (1mg/kg and progesteronegroup (8 mg/kg which on all groups TBI was induced by Marmarou method. 30 minutes after TBI,drugs were injected i.p. ICP was measured in spinal cord using a standard procedure. CPP wascalculated by the mean arterial pressure (MAP - ICP. Neurologic scores were measured by motor,eye and respiratory reflexResults: The results showed after TBI, water content was significantly lower in estrogen andprogesterone groups (P<0.001 compared with vehicle group. Analysis showed a stable ICP up to 24hours. The ICP in estrogen and progesterone groups was significantly decreased at 4 and 24 hours ascompared to vehicle group (P<0.001in both cases. The CPP at 24 hours after TBI, significantlyincreased in estrogen and progesterone groups compared with vehicle (P<0.001. Also after TBI,neurologic scores was significantly higher in estrogen and progesterone groups as compared withvehicle (at 1hours P<0.05, and at 24hours P<0.001 for estrogen, (at 1hours P<0.01 for progesterone.Conclusion: Our findings indicated an improvement of ICP, CPP and neurologic scores producedby pharmacologic doses of estrogen and progesterone after TBI in OVX rat. These effects may becontribute to neuroprotective effects of these hormones.
Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518
Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A
The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669
Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.
Sjoerd M. Euser
Infanticide is the custom of killing girls at birth. The female child unborn and born was unwelcome to such an extent that parents were event willing to kill. Various methods like poisoning the milk, strangling , burning alive or even drowning were used to do away with female babies. In Tamil Nadu, the Kallar community were practising this evil. Even though they liberalized their womenfolk within the caste rules, they committed female infanticide due to the problem of poverty. This practice i...
In some captive and free-ranging populations, unmanipulated female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) routinely court, mount (with pelvic thrusting), compete for, and even prefer, on occasion, certain female sexual partners over certain males. The goal of this study was to determine if the cytoarchitecture of the dorsocentral portion of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), was male-typical in female Japanese macaques drawn from one such population. The AHdc is located in the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamus (MPO-AH), a region of the brain that is known to regulate sexual behaviour in primates. Despite their potential for male-typical sexual behaviour and sexual partner preference, our female subjects did not possess male-typical AHdc. The AHdc was significantly larger in males than it was in females, a difference that could be attributed to the significantly larger number of neurons in the male AHdc compared to that of the females. The AHdc of female Japanese macaques were no more male-typical in size than those of female rhesus macaques, a closely related sister species in which females rarely exhibit male-typical sexual behaviour. Although the AHdc may be involved in the regulation of sexual behaviour, this study indicates that a male-typical AHdc is not a prerequisite for the expression of male-typical sexual behaviour and sexual partner preference in Japanese macaques. This study is the first to examine the relationship between sex-atypical sexual activity and the cytoarchitecture of a hypothalamic nucleus in hormonally unmanipulated females. PMID:15639177
Vasey, Paul L; Pfaus, James G
Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partn...
Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna
There is lack of barrier method use among sex workers (SWs) in China. Our objective was to find new ways to introduce female condoms (FCs) among SWs, and to increase knowledge of, support for, and use of this method in this population. We used the intervention study method and provided the SWs of experimental groups with information, education, and communication on FCs and provided them with FCs. We recruited 330 SWs as the participants of the study in Enping City, China. The selected 330 SWs were randomly divided into the experimental group (165 SWs to use female condom) and the others into the reference group (165 SWs to use male condom). Questionnaires were used to evaluate the intervention study. At the end of our study, 15 SWs were lost of follow-up, so only 315 were included in the analysis. After intervention, about 97% of SWs in the intervention group expressed that they would use FC in the future. The rate of SWs who reported liking FC increased from 60% at pre-intervention to 94% at post-intervention. The rate of SWs who considered their clients could accept FC increased from 27% to 92%, and the rate of SWs who were willing to recommend FC to others increased from 19% to 70%. In comparison with the first several uses, during last several uses about 80% of SWs expressed that it became easier to use FC. Our intervention increased knowledge of, positive attitudes towards, and correct use of FC in this population of SWs. PMID:12384207
Yimin, Cheng; Zhaohui, Li; Xianmi, Wang; Shiying, Wang; Lingzhi, Hu; Yueying, Xie; Xiaolan, Huang; Lifen, Xu; Yunzhen, Wu; Shaolan, Zheng; Yulian, Liu
We used baseline data from a study of Black MSM/MSMW in 6 US cities to examine the association of female partnership types with disease prevalence and sexual behaviors among the 555 MSMW participants. MSMW reported more than three times as many total and unprotected sex acts with each primary as they did with each non-primary female partner. We compared MSMW whose recent female partners were: (1) all primary ("PF only", n = 156), (2) both primary and non-primary ("PF & NPF", n = 186), and (3) all non-primary ("NPF only", n = 213). HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly across groups but sexual behaviors did. The PF only group had the fewest male partners and was the most likely to have only primary male partners; the PF & NPF group was the most likely to have transgender partners. PF & NPF men reported the most sex acts (total and unprotected) with females; NPF only men reported the fewest. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are discussed. PMID:24523006
Harawa, N; Wilton, L; Wang, L; Mao, C; Kuo, I; Penniman, T; Shoptaw, S; Griffith, S; Williams, J K; Cummings, V; Mayer, K; Koblin, B
A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them. PMID:22930291
Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M
We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies - RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE) - and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population. PMID:24834869
Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Weir, Sharon; Chen, Xiangsheng
Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a pest of stored legumes through the Afro-tropical region. In laboratory bioassays, males of C. rhodesianus were attracted to volatiles collected from virgin females. Collections were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active component isolated using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses suggested that the active compound was 2,3-dihydrohomofarnesal, i.e., 7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. The structure was confirmed by non-stereoselective and enantioselective total synthesis. Using chiral gas chromatography, the absolute configuration of the natural compound was confirmed as (3S,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. Y-tube olfactomter assays showed that only the (S)-enantiomer attracted males of C. rhodesianus. The (R)-enantiomer and racemate did not attract males, suggesting that the (R)-enantiomer inhibits the activity of the natural compound. In combination with previous reports about sex attractant pheromones of congeners, we suggest that a saltational shift of the pheromone structure arose within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:20607368
Shimomura, Kenji; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Arata; Matsumoto, Noriko; Kagohara, Yuuma; Kamada, Koichi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju
Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.
Carr Jean K
This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission. PMID:21535906
Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine
Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.
Estradiol is considered to be a critical factor in the growth induction of some breast cancer cells, like MCF-7 cell line. Among other compounds involved in the control of neoplastic mammary cell growth, cAMP has been suggested, on the other hand, to exert an antiproliferative effect. Sex steroid binding protein (SBP) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for both androgens and estradiol, recognizes a specific receptor located on membranes of estrogen- and androgen-sensitive...
Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela
Background: In species with paternal genome elimination, both sexes are diploid. However, in males the chromosomes inherited from the father are deactivated during early development and eliminated from the germ line. Sex allocation theory predicts that, all else being equal, females should bias their offspring sex ratio towards the sex that competes least with relatives. Organism: The mealybug Planococcus citri, a cosmopolitan pest on a wide range of agricultural and ornamental plant species....
Ross, L.; Langenhof, Mbw; Pen, I.; Beukeboom, Lw; West, Sa; Shuker, Dm
The aim of this research, is to provide empirical data to either support or challenge the view that subculture has an impact on how sex appeal in advertising is perceived. It looks at young females of two specific British subcultural groups, Anglo-Saxon and Asian-Islamic British. It reveals that there are differences in the perception of sex appeal, since the Asian-Islamic British have a rather more negative attitude towards this particular appeal, while the Anglo-Saxon have a much more posit...
Veloutsou, C.; Ahmed, S. R.
Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propo...
Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun
Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17?-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates. PMID:25527645
Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena
Behavioural serial sentinel surveillance survey for female sex workers (FSWs) was carried out in the Government Social Hygiene Clinics in Hong Kong during 1999 and 2000. A total of 1366 and 1451 FSWs participated in the questionnaire survey respectively. The results showed that the majority of FSWs attending the clinics were of Chinese ethnicity (83.8%, 87.6%) while Thai (13.0%, 9.49%) and Filipino (2.1%, 2.7%) were the main foreign ethnic groups. The karaoke night club was the most frequent reported workplace (32.0%, 32.6%) followed by a club (8.9%, 11.7%) and free-lancing (8.6%, 9.0%). The proportion of FSWs who always used condoms in vaginal sex with commercial sex partners was 70.9% and 75.0% respectively (P=0.038). Compared with previous results, a rising trend of condom use by FSWs in commercial sex was observed. However, there was a relatively low condom use during commercial oral sexual intercourse (30.7%, 36.6%) and sex with their regular sex partners in all forms of sexual activities. Client dislike is the main attributed factor for not wearing condoms. The point prevalence of both infectious syphilis and HIV infection was 0.1% in both years. These data are useful for planning, resource allocation and evaluation of outreach activities and STI services targeting at FSWs and their clients. They provide a sampling framework for further surveillance. PMID:12537733
Chan, Michael Kam Tim; Ho, King Man; Lo, Kuen Kong
We have previously reported that bacterial endotoxin stimulated membrane phosphoinositide metabolism, which resulted in liberation of arachidonic acid and preterm initiation of parturition. The aim of this study was to explore whether ovarian steroids alter the stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover by endotoxin. The phosphoinositide turnover was evaluated by [32P] phosphate incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) in human endometrial fibroblasts. When the cells were exposed to endotoxin from Escherichia colli, 32P-labeling of PA and PI was increased in a dose-dependent manner; EC50 was 10 ng/ml. Preincubation with estradiol-17 beta (1 microM) and progesterone (1 microM) for 24 hours, but not for a few hours, enhanced the rate of the endotoxin-stimulated phosphorylation of the lipids in the fibroblasts by decreasing EC50 value of endotoxin to 1 ng/ml. Estradiol or progesterone alone failed to show any effects. These findings demonstrated that the sex steroids may increase the sensitivity of host cells to endotoxin, suggesting the mechanism(s) by which the preterm labor associated with intra-amniotic infection is initiated. PMID:2171112
Khan, A A; Imai, A; Tamaya, T
Synthesising Butler's theory with space, the objective of this paper is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as these are reproduced in the sex industry in two different settings. I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work. Likewise, the paper analyses the ways in which sex work plays a significant part in how the Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. The analysis of the Thai migrant sex workers becoming intelligible or non-intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. In this paper I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.
The objective of this article is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as they are reproduced in the Danish sex industry. To do so I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work and the ways in which sex work plays a significant role in how Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. Whether Thai migrant sex workers become intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. Based on two case stories I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection was identified in 6 out of 90 (6.7%) female commercial sex workers from Imbituba, Santa Catarina, and was associated to age. Frequencies of 5.6% of anti-latent and 3.3% of anti-lytic antibodies were detected. Considering non-endemic areas from Brazil, the anti-l [...] atent antibodies frequency seems elevated and requires further investigation on referent female population.
Adele, Caterino-de-Araujo; Elizabeth, Santos-Fortuna; Mariana Cavalheiro, Magri; Fabiana, Schuelter-Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius, Silva.