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NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FEMALE SEX STEROIDS IN CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA  

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Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 17ß-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

Dra?a Sanja

2013-01-01

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Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids  

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Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex ...

2010-01-01

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Roles of Sex Steroids in the Crowings with Sexual and Non-Sexual Motivations in Female Japanese Quail, Coturnix Japonica  

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Full Text Available To examine the sex differences in the crowing behavior of the Japanese quail, we investigated the effects of sex steroids on calling behaviors using female birds, and the data were compared with those obtained in our previous study in male birds which was performed using the same experimental procedures as those in the present study. We injected the female quails daily from 11 to 41 days after hatching with testosterone propionate (TP, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; a non-aromatizable androgen, estradiol benzoate (EB or vehicle, and examined their calling behaviors in both sexual and non-sexual contexts. In a non-sexual context of the birds being isolated in a recording chamber, androgens, either TP or DHT, induced crowing in place of distress calling while EB simply inhibited distress calling. These effects of sex steroids on the calling behaviors were almost identical to those in the male quails. In a sexual context of the birds being left undisturbed in their home cages, crowing was induced by chronic treatment with TP, but not either DHT or EB, suggesting that both estrogenic and androgenic actions are required to induce the sexually motivated crowing. Although these results were basically the same as those in the male quails, the crowing in the female quails occurred much less frequently compared to that of the male quails. These data suggest that in the Japanese quail, crowing behavior, when it is restricted to sexually motivated one, is quantitatively different between male and female in the responsiveness to sex steroids.

Atsuhiko Chiba

2013-07-01

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The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

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Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

Zakieh Keshavarzi

2011-05-01

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In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

1978-01-01

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Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

Vicelli, José Tadeu; Gurgel, Maria Salete Costa; Alvarenga, Marcelo.

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Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli

2006-10-01

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Sex, Sex steroids and Brain injury  

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Biologic sex and sex steroids are important factors in clinical and experimental stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Laboratory data strongly show that progesterone treatment after TBI reduces edema, improves outcomes and restores blood brain barrier function. Clinical studies to date agree with these data, and there are ongoing human trials for progesterone treatment after TBI. Estrogen has accumulated an impressive reputation as a neuroprotectant when evaluated at physiologically relev...

2009-01-01

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In vitro inhibition of CYP1A2 by model inhibitors, anti-inflammatory analgesics and female sex steroids: predictability of in vivo interactions.  

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The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 is crucial for the metabolism of many drugs, for example, tizanidine. As the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and female sex steroids on CYP1A2 activity in vitro are unknown, their effects on phenacetin O-deethylation were studied and compared with the effects of model inhibitors in human liver microsomes, followed by prediction of their interaction potential with tizanidine in vivo. In vitro, fluvoxamine, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and rofecoxib potently inhibited CYP1A2 [the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) 200 microM). At 100 microM, the other tested NSAIDs and steroids inhibited CYP1A2 less than 35%. Pre-incubation increased the inhibitory effects of rofecoxib, progesterone and desogestrel. Using the free portal plasma inhibitor concentration and the competitive inhibition model, the effect of fluvoxamine and the lack of effects of tolfenamic acid and celecoxib on tizanidine pharmacokinetics in human beings were well predicted. However, the effects of ciprofloxacin, rofecoxib and oral contraceptives were greatly underestimated even when the predictions were based on their total portal plasma concentration. Besides rofecoxib, and possibly mefenamic acid, other NSAIDs were predicted not to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 in human beings. The type of enzyme inhibition, particularly metabolism-dependent inhibition, free inhibitor concentration and accumulation of the inhibitor into the hepatocytes should be considered in extrapolations of in vitro results to human beings. PMID:18816299

Karjalainen, Marjo J; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

2008-08-01

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Selected variants of the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 and the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and PGR: no association with female pattern hair loss identified.  

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Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. Although understanding of its etiopathogenesis is incomplete, an interaction between genetic and hormonal factors is assumed to be important. The involvement of an androgen-dependent pathway and sex steroid hormones is the most likely hypothesis. We therefore selected a total of 21 variants from the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 (oestrogen receptor) and PGR (progesterone receptor) and genotyped these in a case-control sample of 198 patients (145 UK; 53 German patients) and 329 controls (179 UK; 150 German). None of these variants showed any significant association, either in the overall UK and German samples or in the subgroup analyses. In summary, the present results, while based on a limited selection of gene variants, do not point to the involvement of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2 or PGR in FPHL. PMID:22509838

Redler, Silke; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Drichel, Dmitriy; Birch, Mary P; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Dobson, Kathy; Giehl, Kathrin A; Refke, Melanie; Kluck, Nadine; Kruse, Roland; Lutz, Gerhard; Wolff, Hans; Böhm, Markus; Becker, Tim; Nöthen, Markus M; Betz, Regina C; Messenger, Andrew

2012-05-01

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Sex steroids regulation of appetitive behavior.  

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Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution. PMID:22827220

Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E

2012-10-01

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The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

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Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

1983-01-01

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In vivo effects of oLH and LHRH-analog on sex reversal and plasma sex steroid profiles in the female Monopterus albus.  

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The effects of ovine-luteinizing hormone (oLH) or a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Des-Gly10[S-Ala6]-LHRH ethylamide acetate salt (LHRH-A), on the female phase of the protogynous Monopterus albus were investigated, and the plasma levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), 11-oxotestosterone (KT), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone were determined. In the postspawning stage, oLH induced precocious sex reversal in the gonad from female to male and increased plasma levels of Ad, T, KT and OHT. However, such oLH effects in M. albus females were slight at the early prespawning stage, and no significant signs of precocious sex reversal were found either in gonadal structure or in plasma hormones as those in postspawning treatment. After LHRH-A treatment of M. albus females in both postspawning and early prespawning stages, the gonadal structure remained "female type" with no sign of proliferation of either Leydig cells or male germ cells. The plasma levels of E2 were greatly increased after the treatment. PMID:8504919

Yeung, W S; Chen, H; Chan, S T

1993-04-01

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Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes. The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh

2013-05-01

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Regulation of reproduction- and biomarker-related gene expression by sex steroids in the livers and ovaries of adult female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the adverse toxicological effects of steroid hormones on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 180 adult females were exposed to individual or binary combinations of progesterone (1?g/L), testosterone (1?g/L) and 17?-estradiol (1?g/L) for eight days. The expression patterns of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, metallothionein, and cytochrome P450 1A genes in mosquitofish varied according to tissue as well as the specificity of steroids. Treatment by progesterone or testosterone alone inhibited target gene expression in the livers. The expression levels of both vitellogenin A and vitellogenin B mRNAs were up-regulated by17?-estradiol, and a parallel induction of estrogen receptor ? mRNA expression was also observed in the livers. In addition, 17?-estradiol treatment alone suppressed androgen receptor ?, metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA expression in the livers. In general, multiple hormone treatments had different effects on target gene expression compared with corresponding hormone alone. The results demonstrate that steroid hormones cause multiple biological responses including the expression of vitellogenin, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor mRNA in the hormone signaling pathways and the expression of metallothionein and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA in the xenobiotic signaling pathway. PMID:22353216

Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Fang, Yi-Xiang

2012-05-01

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Steroid abuse in female athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

Honour, J W

1997-06-01

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Activation of PPAR? by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats  

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the lon...

Mansour, Mahmoud; Coleman, Elaine; Dennis, John; Akingbemi, Benson; Schwartz, Dean; Braden, Tim; Judd, Robert; Plaisance, Eric; Stewart, Laura Ken; Morrison, Edward

2009-01-01

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Divergence in Sex Steroid Hormone Signaling between Sympatric Species of Japanese Threespine Stickleback  

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Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric be...

2011-01-01

19

Sex steroids in Sjögren's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the review is to consider pathomechanisms of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which could explain the female dominance (9:1), the most common age of onset (40-50 years) and targeting of the exocrine glands. Estrogens seem to specifically protect secretory glandular acinar cells against apoptosis whereas lack of estrogens during menopause and climacterium specifically leads to increased apoptosis of the exocrine secretory cells. Male gonads produce testosterone and convert it in exocrine glands to dihydrotesterosterone (DHT), which is anti-apoptotic and protects against acinar cell apoptosis. Estrogen-deficient women need to produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal glands and convert it to DHT in exocrine glands in a complex and branching reaction network in which individual enzymatic reactions are catalyzed in forward and backward directions by a myriad of different isoforms of steroidogenic enzymes. Tailoring DHT in peripheral tissues is much more complex and vulnerable in women than in men. In SS the intracrine steroidogenic enzyme machinery is deranged. These endo-/intracrine changes impair acinar remodeling due to impaired integrin ?1?1 and integrin ?2?1 expression so that the intercalated duct progenitor cells are unable to migrate to the acinar space, to differentiate to secretory acinar cells upon contact with laminin-111 and laminin-211 specifically found in the acinar basement membrane. The disarranged endo-/intracrine estrogen/androgen balance induces acinar cells to release microparticles and apoptotic bodies and to undergo apoptotis and/or anoikis. Membrane particles contain potential autoantigens recognized by T- (TCRs) and B-cell receptors (BCRs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In membrane particles (or carrier-complexes) antigen/adjuvant complexes could stimulate professional antigen capturing, processing and presenting cells, which can initiate auto-inflammatory and autoimmune cascades, break the self-tolerance and finally lead to SS. PMID:22300712

Konttinen, Yrjö T; Fuellen, Georg; Bing, Yan; Porola, Pauliina; Stegaev, Vasily; Trokovic, Nina; Falk, Steffi S I; Liu, Yi; Szodoray, Peter; Takakubo, Yuya

2012-08-01

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Bidirectional sex change induced by sex steroid implantation in the hermaphrodite fish, Pseudolabrus sieboldi.  

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Sex steroids have been suggested to be involved in gonadal sex change in hermaphrodite fish. Aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens into estrogens, is a principal enzyme regulating gonadal sex. However, the detailed functions of each steroid hormone remain to be evaluated. Recent studies have demonstrated that estradiol-17? (E2) is synthesized via estrone (E1) in some hermaphrodite species. On the other hand, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) is produced in the testis via testosterone (T). In this study, we hypothesized that E1 and T are also involved in the sex change as precursors for E2 and 11KT, respectively. We implanted females of the wrasse, Pseudolabrus sieboldi, with T and 11KT, and males with E1 and E2, by use of sustained-release capsules. In females, testicular tissues and body color change were observed after androgen administration, in which 11KT was more effective than T. In contrast, after estrogen administration, the gonads of males contained oocytes. In females, the administration of T and 11KT resulted in reduced serum E2 levels. Conversely, serum 11KT levels decreased in the E1- and E2-treated males. Thus, we successfully induced bidirectional sex change in the gonad by estrogen and androgen administration in vivo. Moreover, this study raises the possibility that E1 and T are involved in the sex change as precursors for E2 and 11KT, respectively. PMID:22927221

Ohta, Kohei; Sakai, Mami; Sundaray, Jittendra Kumar; Kitano, Takeshi; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Sex steroid modulation of cortisol secretion in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17?-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR mRNA than the ones without steroid replacement. Gonadectomised rams with TC also had greater AR mRNA, ERS1 mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than ewes treated with EB. The relative amount of STAR transcript was not different among the different groups. The results confirm sex differences in ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in sheep, as well as in the expression of the receptor proteins for both 17?-oestradiol and testosterone in the sheep adrenal gland. However, the underlying mechanisms for sex steroid modulation remain unresolved. PMID:24703387

van Lier, E; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A

2014-06-01

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The plasma sex steroid profiles in the freshwater, sex-reversing teleost fish, Monopterus albus (Zuiew).  

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The plasma levels of both the free and conjugated forms of six sex steroids (androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were determined by radioimmunoassay combined with Celite chromatography in different sexual phases of the protogynous Monopterus albus throughout the reproductive cycle. The amounts of 11-oxotestosterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found to be very low and variable in all the specimens investigated. No conjugated 17 beta-estradiol or free estrone was detected. Female individuals showed a prespawning rise of androstenedione which subsequently dropped to a low level in the spawning period. The estrogen levels in the female phase were found to be higher than those in all other sexual phases during the spawning period, but the testosterone level remained constant throughout the reproductive cycle in the female phase. The level of androstenedione was highest in the early intersexual and mid-intersexual phases during the postspawning/inactive period. Compared with the female specimens in the same reproductive period, the early intersexual individuals showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol, while the mid-intersexual animals showed a higher level of testosterone in the postspawned/inactive period. In the mid-intersexual phase, the levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone dropped progressively in relation to the seasonal reproductive cycle. The male fish had a constant level of androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol. However, the level of testosterone increased as the spawning period approached. The hormonal profile in the late intersexual phase was essentially similar to that in the male phase. The changes in the plasma levels of sex steroids in M. albus apparently were related to the maturation of the female and male sex tissues and to their seasonal reproductive cycle. PMID:3817447

Yeung, W S; Chan, S T

1987-02-01

23

Sex steroid–related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders  

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Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormon...

Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

2008-01-01

24

The evolution of female sex pheromones  

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Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

2013-08-01

25

The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women  

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Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty...

Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

2009-01-01

26

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

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A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

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Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease  

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Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.

2012-01-01

28

Mapping of sex hormone receptors and their modulators along the nephron of male and female mice.  

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Renal functions are regulated by steroid sex hormones, but the exhaustive identification of their receptors along the nephron is still lacking. Here, we have localized all known nuclear or membrane-bound sex hormone receptors and some of their activators along the nephron of male and female mice. Almost all receptors are present in male and female kidney, some of them having very restricted localization. Only one gene tested among 11 (ARA54) exhibits a gender difference in the level of its expression. This first "renal map" of sex steroid receptor expression may serve as a pre-requisite for investigating the role of these hormones on kidney functions. PMID:19401201

Grimont, Adrien; Bloch-Faure, May; El Abida, Boutaïna; Crambert, Gilles

2009-05-19

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Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control  

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There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

2008-01-01

30

DHHC-7 and -21 are palmitoylacyltransferases for sex steroid receptors.  

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Classical estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors (ERs, PRs, and ARs) localize outside the nucleus at the plasma membrane of target cells. From the membrane, the receptors signal to activate kinase cascades that are essential for the modulation of transcription and nongenomic functions in many target cells. ER, PR, and AR trafficking to the membrane requires receptor palmitoylation by palmitoylacyltransferase (PAT) protein(s). However, the identity of the steroid receptor PAT(s) is unknown. We identified the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins as conserved PATs for the sex steroid receptors. From DHHC-7 and -21 knockdown studies, the PATs are required for endogenous ER, PR, and AR palmitoylation, membrane trafficking, and rapid signal transduction in cancer cells. Thus the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins are novel targets to selectively inhibit membrane sex steroid receptor localization and function. PMID:22031296

Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Deschenes, Robert J; Levin, Ellis R

2012-01-01

31

Sex, sex steroids, and diabetic cardiomyopathy: making the case for experimental focus.  

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More than three decades ago, the Framingham study revealed that cardiovascular risk is elevated for all diabetics and that this jeopardy is substantially accentuated for women in particular. Numerous studies have subsequently documented worsened cardiac outcomes for women. Given that estrogen and insulin exert major regulatory effects through common intracellular signaling pathways prominent in maintenance of cardiomyocyte function, a sex-hormone:diabetic-disease interaction is plausible. Underlying aspects of female cardiovascular pathophysiology that exaggerate cardiovascular diabetic risk may be identified, including increased vulnerability to coronary microvascular disease, age-dependent impairment of insulin-sensitivity, and differential susceptibility to hyperglycemia. Since Framingham, considerable progress has been made in the development of experimental models of diabetic disease states, including a diversity of genetic rodent models. Ample evidence indicates that animal models of both type 1 and 2 diabetes variably recapitulate aspects of diabetic cardiomyopathy including diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and cardiac structural pathology including fibrosis, loss of compliance, and in some instances ventricular hypertrophy. Perplexingly, little of this work has explored the relevance and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Only a small number of experimental studies have addressed this question, yet the prospects for gaining important mechanistic insights from further experimental enquiry are considerable. The case for experimental interrogation of sex differences, and of sex steroid influences in the aetiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, is particularly compelling-providing incentive for future investigation with ultimate therapeutic potential. PMID:23792676

Reichelt, Melissa E; Mellor, Kimberley M; Bell, James R; Chandramouli, Chanchal; Headrick, John P; Delbridge, Lea M D

2013-09-15

32

Brain steroid contents in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: sex and gonad stage-specific changes.  

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Neurosteroids are those which are synthesized in the central nervous system independently of supply by peripheral endocrine glands. In the present study, brain contents of the steroid hormones, estradiol-17? (E(2)), testosterone (T), corticosteroids, and progestins were investigated in both male and female catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in prespawning (vitellogenic) and spawning (post-vitellogenic) phases using ELISA or HPLC. The data show that the measured steroid hormones showed both stage-specific and sex-related variations. Brain E(2) was significantly higher in males in the prespawning phase and in females in the spawning phase. Testosterone was significantly higher in males in comparison with females in the prespawning phase. Cortisol was significantly higher in the prespawning and spawning phases in males than in females. Corticosterone level was low in the brain. 21-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone were significantly higher in the prespawning phase than in the spawning phase. Male brain recorded the highest concentration of deoxycorticosterone. Progesterone (P(4)) was high in the prespawning phase and low in the spawning phase in both sexes. Levels of 17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-DP) and the metabolites of P(4) were the highest in females in the prespawning phase. The stage-specific and sexual differences in the content of the steroids suggest their biosynthesis in the brain, which may have implications in brain functions, in addition to reproductive regulation. PMID:22002168

Chaube, R; Mishra, S

2012-06-01

33

Sex parties: female teen sexual experimentation.  

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Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a sex party as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved sex acts without vaginal intercourse. Data were collected through 22 semistructured interviews with female adolescents, ages 15-18. All the participants knew of sex parties, however, only a subgroup of these adolescents actually participated in activities loosely defined by teens as sex parties. Alcohol was common at these parties, but female teens asserted that they consumed alcohol willingly to relax, as opposed to being coerced to do so. Some teens expressed regret following participation in a sex party, although none reported sexual coercion or abuse. PMID:17172201

Toscano, Sharyl Eve

2006-10-01

34

Sex steroid receptors, secondary bile acids and colorectal cancer. A possible mechanism of interaction.  

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AIM: The aim of the work was to study in colon-rectum cancer mucosae the binding charateristics, as sex steroid receptors. METHODS: Specific androgen (AR), estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors were measured in the tissue samples of 35 patients (15 males, 20 females) undergoing colectomy or coloproctectomy for adenocarcinoma. The characteristics of androgen receptor (AR, DHT-R: dihydrotestosterone receptor) were also investigated using competitive activity of cyproterone acetate, cor...

Gaetini, Alessandro; Radice, Elisabetta; Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Bargoni, Alessandro; Fronticelli Baldelli, Carlomaria

2003-01-01

35

Acute Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones on Susceptibility to Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Simulation Study  

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Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hor...

Yang, Pei-chi; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Clancy, Colleen E.

2010-01-01

36

Activation of PPAR? by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats  

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR? activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR? activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione). Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR? mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR? activation. PPAR? activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR? activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR? by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

Mansour, Mahmoud; Coleman, Elaine; Dennis, John; Akingbemi, Benson; Schwartz, Dean; Braden, Tim; Judd, Robert; Plaisance, Eric; Stewart, Laura Ken; Morrison, Edward

2009-01-01

37

Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice  

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Decreases in testosterone (T) and 17?-oestradiol (E2) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in beta amyloid (A?) and tau pathologic lesions. While recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, virtually none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in T and E2 concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain T levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (ir) cell number in either the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal T levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau may up regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E2 levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-ir cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Further, E2 levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E2. Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

Ma, Chunqi; Taves, Matthew D.; Soma, Kiran K.; Mufson, Elliott J.

2014-01-01

38

Sex steroids inhibit osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells.  

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Osmotic swelling of glial cells may contribute to the development of retinal edema. We investigated whether sex steroids inhibit the swelling of glial somata in acutely isolated retinal slices and glial cells of the rat. Superfusion of retinal slices or cells from control animals with a hypoosmolar solution did not induce glial swelling, whereas glial swelling was observed in slices of postischemic and diabetic retinas. Progesterone, testosterone, estriol, and 17beta-estradiol prevented glial swelling with half-maximal effects at approximately 0.3, 0.6, 6, and 20 microM, respectively. The effect of progesterone was apparently mediated by transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, P2Y1, and adenosine A1 receptors. The data suggest that sex steroids may inhibit cytotoxic edema in the retina. PMID:20238484

Neumann, Florian; Wurm, Antje; Linnertz, Regina; Pannicke, Thomas; Iandiev, Ianors; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

2010-04-01

39

Direct Transcriptional Targets of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bone  

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The sex steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, via their respective nuclear receptors, regulate bone mineral density in humans and mice. Very little is known about the direct targets of the androgen and estrogen receptors in bone cells. First, models of hormone and receptor deficiency in mouse and human bone are discussed. This review then focuses on the direct targets of the receptors in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A direct target of a NR is defined here as a gene that is regulated by N...

Krum, Susan A.

2011-01-01

40

Effects of sex steroid hormones on sertoli cells metabolic pathways  

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Developing germ cells use lactate, derived from glucose metabolism of Sertoli cells (SCs), as their main energy source. Androgens and estrogens have been implicated in the modulation of testicular cells energy metabolism, particularly in SCs. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the effects of sex steroid hormones on glucose metabolic pathways in rat SCs. The mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and lactate dehydrogenase cha...

Martins, Ana Catarina Dias

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Consistent sex ratio bias of individual female dragon lizards  

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Sex ratio evolution relies on genetic variation in either the phenotypic traits that influence sex ratios or sex-determining mechanisms. However, consistent variation among females in offspring sex ratio is rarely investigated. Here, we show that female painted dragons (Ctenophorus pictus) have highly repeatable sex ratios among clutches within years. A consistent effect of female identity could represent stable phenotypic differences among females or genetic variation in sex-determining mech...

Uller, Tobias; Mott, Beth; Odierna, Gaetano; Olsson, Mats

2006-01-01

42

Steroid cell tumor: a rare cause of hirsutism in a female  

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Summary Ovarian steroid cell tumors are very rare functioning sex-cord stromal tumors. They comprise lipoid cell tumors, one-third of these tumors are considered malignant with the mean age of presentation at around 40 years. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with 2-year history of hirsutism, virilization, and amenorrhea. She was diagnosed with left ovarian tumor, for which she underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology revealed not otherwise specified subtype of steroid cell tumors. The patient resumed menses 2 months after the features of masculinization regressed. Within 1 year of surgery, the patient successfully conceived a full-term baby without any complications. In a young female, the neoplastic etiology of a rapid virilization or menses changing should always be kept in mind. Though commonly observed in adult females, steroid cell tumors have very good surgical outcomes if age at presentation is less and tumor is unilateral, and there are no evidences of bilateral malignancy. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is not required. Learning points In a case of severe rapid hirsutism and virilization with serum testosterone level more than 200?ng/dl or more than threefold of the normal range, neoplastic conditions should always be suspected.Steroid cell tumor in young women without evidence of malignancy on histopathology has excellent surgical outcomes.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the surgery of choice.As the frequency of bilateralism is only 6%, prophylactic unaffected side oophorectomy need not be done.

Swain, Jayshree; Sharma, Shruti; Prakash, Ved; Agrawal, N K; Singh, S K

2013-01-01

43

Rapid and efficient method for extraction and separation of glucocorticosteroids and sex steroids from urines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of different pH values on the recoveries of glucocorticosteroids and sex steroids from Kieselguhr-filled minicolumns has been investigated. While the recoveries of all steroids tested were similar if samples had acidic or neutral pH values, sex steroids could effectively be separated from glucocorticosteroids by increasing the pH value to 13.7: recoveries were 1.7% for glucocorticosteroids and 56-76% for sex steroids. For the determination of sex steroids in biological samples it is recommended to adjust samples to a strong alkaline pH before extraction; this holds especially true for samples with very high glucocorticosteroid levels. PMID:8548032

Fenske, M

1995-08-18

44

Serum sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostatic hyperplasia  

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Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.

Ansari Mohammad Abdul

2008-01-01

45

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

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In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, th...

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

46

Digit Ratio (2D:4D: A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations  

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Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D, which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that there is little in the way of associations. Here we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones one must consider both foetal organising and adult activating effects of testosterone and oestrogen. In particular, we hypothesise that 2D:4D correlates with early organising effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this can be especially observed through an elevated propensity in adults to produce testosterone in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

JohnManning

2014-01-01

47

The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.

2002-01-01

48

The membrane receptor for sex steroid binding protein is not ubiquitous.  

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The tissue distribution of the membrane receptor for the Sex Steroid Binding Protein (SBP) has been studied, either in estrogen/androgen dependent tissues and in tissues not strictly sex steroid dependent. A specific interaction of SBP with cell membranes has been observed to occur only in estrogen/androgen dependent tissues, some of them had been previously shown by our laboratory and by other authors to possess a specific receptor for the protein. Thus, the sex steroid dependence of the tis...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1992-01-01

49

Skeletal Involution by Age-associated Oxidative Stress and Its Acceleration by Loss of Sex Steroids*  

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Both aging and loss of sex steroids have adverse effects on skeletal homeostasis, but whether and how they may influence each others negative impact on bone remains unknown. We report herein that both female and male C57BL/6 mice progressively lost strength (as determined by load-to-failure measurements) and bone mineral density in the spine and femur between the ages of 4 and 31 months. These changes were temporally associated with decreased rate of remodeling as evidenced by decreased osteo...

Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Martin-millan, Marta; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Stewart, Scott A.; Roberson, Paula K.; Kousteni, Stavroula; O’brien, Charles A.; Bellido, Teresita; Parfitt, A. Michael; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2007-01-01

50

Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment. PMID:24018182

Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C

2014-02-01

51

Hepatic haemangiomas: possible association with female sex hormones  

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Background and aims: The association of hepatic haemangiomas with female sex hormones is not entirely clear. We prospectively evaluated the impact of female sex hormones on the natural history of liver haemangiomas.

2004-01-01

52

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, the onset of breeding. The maximum levels of these hormones were coincident with development of the gonads, secondary sex characters, territorial aggression and sexual behavior. Plasma testosterone and estradiol titers in males and females respectively were evidently bimodal with peaks in January and April which corresponded to the norm of two clutches per breeding season of this species. Progesterone levels in females surged in March, April and May which was the period of egg laying and incubation. Circulating prolactin in females was high during the parental phase of the breeding cycle in April and June. In addition, social cues such as sexual partner and external stimuli such as eggs or nestlings influenced the reproductive endocrinology.

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

53

Responses to sulfated steroids of female mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rodent vomeronasal organ plays an important role in many social behaviors. Using the calcium imaging technique with the dye fluo-4 we measured intracellular calcium concentration changes induced by the application of sulfated steroids to neurons isolated from the vomeronasal organ of female mice. We found that a mix of 10 sulfated steroids from the androgen, estrogen, pregnanolone, and glucocorticoid families induced a calcium response in 71% of neurons. Moreover, 31% of the neurons responded to a mix composed of 3 glucocorticoid-derived compounds, and 28% responded to a mix composed of 3 pregnanolone-derived compounds. Immunohistochemistry showed that neurons responding to sulfated steroids expressed phosphodiesterase 4A, a marker specific for apical neurons expressing V1R receptors. None of the neuron that responded to 1 mix responded also to the other, indicating a specificity of the responses. Some neurons responded to more than 1 individual component of the glucocorticoid-derived mix tested at high concentration, suggesting that these neurons are broadly tuned, although they still displayed strong specificity, remaining unresponsive to high concentrations of the ineffective compounds. PMID:22923146

Celsi, Fulvio; D'Errico, Anna; Menini, Anna

2012-11-01

54

Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2008-02-14

55

Trioecy, a Unique Breeding Strategy in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia diaphana and Its Association with Sex Steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive development of anthozoans reveals wide range of breeding strategies. Here, we report the occurrence of trioecy in the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana (co-occurrence of males, females, and hermaphrodites), which so far was well documented only in plants. Age-homogeneous populations were obtained from pedal lacerates (asexual propagules) and cultured under control conditions. Careful documentation of growth, gamete morphology, and vertebrate-like steroid (i.e., progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) levels were carried out over a 9-wk period between 4 and 12 wk postlaceration (wpl). First phenotypic signs of gametes development were observed in 6-wk-old anemones, pointing to the differentiation of males and hermaphrodites. While the males exhibited cellular progression of spermatogenesis, the hermaphrodites underwent a process of sex allocation, giving rise to male, female, and hermaphrodite phenotypes. Testosterone levels were relatively high prior to gamete appearance (4 wpl) and later on during gamete maturation (10 wpl). Conversely, estradiol levels steadily increased from 6 to 10 wpl, reaching their peak concomitant with oocyte maturation. Interestingly, increased oocyte atresia incidences were recorded during 9-12 wpl, coinciding with declining levels of steroid hormones. These results point to a strong similarity between the activity of sex steroids in vertebrates and that of vertebrate-like sex steroids on critical stages of A. diaphana's sexual differentiation and gametogenic cycle. The reproductive characteristics of A. diaphana make this anthozoan an important model species for the study of evolutionary drivers and processes underlying sexual development. PMID:24790160

Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi; Schlesinger, Ami; Rosenfeld, Hanna

2014-06-01

56

The role of age, sex and steroid sex hormones in radiation cataractogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is critical to identify and gain a better understanding of the factors that enhance or reduce the risk of cataractogenesis, to minimize the possibility of occurrence after deliberate (e.g., radiation therapy, interplanetary travel) or unintentional exposure to ionizing radiation. Both gender and age at the time of exposure have been established as key determinants of cataractogenesis induced by sparsely ionizing (low-LET) and densely ionizing (high-LET) radiation. However, animal data from several older studies are often conflicting and somewhat difficult to interpret, in that the experiments suffered from small group sizes, limited dose ranges or short periods of observation, and human data are sparse or statistical significance is sometimes limited. Steroid sex hormones (SSH) may underlie age and gender-based differences in the progression and prevalence of cataracts that otherwise occur spontaneously in humans and animal models, and may also underlie age and sex-related differences in radiation cataractogenesis. Here, we review data that have aided in our understanding of the role of age, sex and steroid sex hormones in radiation cataractogenesis. PMID:24261552

Dynlacht, Joseph R

2013-12-01

57

Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were subjects of the study. Blood was extracted for serum level of androgens, gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD of hip and spine was done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. All tests were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0, Chicago, Illinois, with P value of < 0.05 being statistically significant with confidence interval (CI of 95%. Results : One hundred three consecutive patients with an average age of 27.83 years were studied. Forty-five were males; and 58, females. Low bone mass (osteoporotic/osteopenic was found in 62.2% of the patients in the male group and 67.06% in the female group. In males, testosterone level was not significant between different groups, but total estradiol levels were significantly lower in the osteopenic and osteoporotic patients (P < 0.003 and < 0.01 respectively. In female patients, estradiol and testosterone levels were lower in osteoporotic patients in comparison to non-osteoporotic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.001. Conclusions : Our study indicates that sex steroids play a major role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with SCD

Sadat-Ali Mir

2008-05-01

58

Phylogenetic Comparisons Implicate Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in “Masculinization” of the Female Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)  

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Exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). Because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma SHBG regulates their access to tissues, we compared the Shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant...

2012-01-01

59

Sex and stress steroid modulation of GABA mediated chloride ion flux in rat CNS  

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Background: Sex and stress steroids are metabolized to 3a-hydroxy-pregnane-steroid metabolites such as allopregnanolone (Allo) and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). Allo and THDOC are neuroactive steroids that are metabolized in the brain and act in brain as potent positive GABAA receptor function modulators. Allo as well as THDOC levels increase during stress. Allo has been associated with a number of symptoms and malfunctions such as impaired memory function and negative mood symptoms ...

Stro?mberg, Jessica

2007-01-01

60

Sexing the X: How the X Became the “Female Chromosome”  

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This essay examines how the X became the “female chromosome” and how the association of the X with femaleness influences research questions, models, and descriptive language in human sex chromosome research. I trace how the X is gendered female in scientific and popular discourse; document the contingent technical, material, and ideological factors that led to the feminization of the X during the first decades of sex chromosome research; and track the introduction of the “female chromos...

Richardson, Sarah S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Differential responses of brain, gonad and muscle steroid levels to changes in social status and sex in a sequential and bidirectional hermaphroditic fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E(2)), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E(2) in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E(2) was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E(2) levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change. PMID:23251444

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L; Grober, Matthew S

2012-01-01

62

Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E2 in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E2 was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E2 levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change.

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

2012-01-01

63

Effects of sex steroids and tamoxifen on VEGF in the breast  

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Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breas...

Garvin, Stina

2006-01-01

64

The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

2014-09-01

65

Sex-/ovarian steroid-dependent release of endomorphin 2 from spinal cord.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists have been shown to be more potent analgesics in male than female rodents. Regulation of spinal MOR-coupled antinociception by 17beta-estradiol (estrogen, E2) and progesterone (P) is also sexually dimorphic; pregnancy levels of E2/P activate MOR-coupled analgesic pathways in male but not female rats. We hypothesized that the sexual dimorphic characteristics of MOR-coupled antinociception reflects sexual dimorphism in the regulation of the release from spinal cord of the endogenous MOR agonist, endomorphin 2 (EM2). Parameters of spinal EM2 release manifesting sexual dimorphism include its 1) magnitude: in vitro basal and K+-evoked release of EM2 from spinal tissue of male rats is approximately 50% greater than that observed from spinal cord of females; 2) modulation by ovarian sex steroids: E2/P treatment significantly enhanced K+-evoked EM2 release from spinal tissue of males, but not females; and 3) enhancement by opioid receptor blockade: naloxone enhanced stimulated EM2 release from spinal tissue of both males and females, but it augmented basal release from spinal tissue of only males. Enhancement of EM2 release by naloxone reflects negative coupling of MOR to EM2 release and hence its modulation by negative feedback since only activation of MOR, not kappa-or delta-opioid receptors, was able to inhibit evoked EM2 release. These data reveal that the EM2-MOR spinal analgesic system is more robust and "higher gain" in male versus female rodents. These findings could provide a mechanistic rubric for understanding the male female dichotomy in prevalence and intensity of chronic pain syndromes. PMID:17308039

Gupta, Daya S; von Gizycki, Hans; Gintzler, Alan R

2007-05-01

66

[Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiencies and female infertility: Pathophysiology and management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common adrenal genetic disease and is also named congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Depending on the severity of CYP21A2 gene mutations, there are severe or "classical" forms and moderate or "nonclassical" forms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The enzyme deficiency causes a disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis, which induces hyperandrogenism and elevated plasma levels of progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, the two substrates of 21-hydroxylase. These endocrine abnormalities will disrupt gonadal axis, endometrial growth and maturation and finally secretion of cervical mucus. All these phenomena contribute to a female hypofertility. Infertility is more severe in classical forms. When to become pregnant, treatment with hydrocortisone or dexamethasone can limit the production of adrenal androgens and progesterone and improves spontaneous pregnancy rates while minimizing the risk of miscarriage, which is usually relatively high in this disease. When planning pregnancy in patients with a 21-hydroxylase deficiency, genotyping the partner is required to screen for heterozygozity (1/50) and to assess the risk of transmission of a classical form in the progeny. PMID:24852906

Robin, G; Decanter, C; Baffet, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Dewailly, D

2014-06-01

67

Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).  

Science.gov (United States)

From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders. PMID:24406512

Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

2014-03-01

68

Sex steroid-binding protein interacts with a specific receptor on human premenopausal endometrium membrane: modulating effect of estradiol.  

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Sex steroid-binding protein receptor was detected on membranes prepared from human premenopausal endometrium. The binding of sex steroid-binding protein to membranes was specific, saturable, and high affinity. Scatchard analysis showed the presence of two binding sites at different affinities. The addition of estradiol (10(-8) M) did not produce any inhibition of binding; indeed, it resulted in a modification of binding characteristics. The demonstration of sex steroid-binding protein recepto...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1991-01-01

69

Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)  

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Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 ...

2012-01-01

70

Prolactin and sex steroids levels in congenital lifetime isolated GH deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin share similarities in structure and function. We have previously shown that women with congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) caused by a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene (GHRHR) (MUT/MUT) have a short reproductive life, with anticipated climacteric. At climacteric, they have lower prolactin levels than normal controls (N/N). Because they are able to breast feed, we hypothesized that this prolactin reduction is limited to climacteric, as result of lower estradiol exposure of the lactotrophs. The purposes of this work were to assess prolactin levels in broader age adults homozygous and heterozygous (MUT/N) for the mutation and in normal controls (N/N), and to correlate them to sex steroids levels. We enrolled 24 GH-naïve MUT/MUT (12 female), 25 MUT/N (14 female), and 25 N/N (11 female) subjects, aged 25-65 years. Anthropometric data and serum prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Free testosterone was calculated. Prolactin levels were similar in the three groups. In males, testosterone and SHBG levels were higher in MUT/MUT in comparison to N/N. There was no difference in free testosterone among groups. In all 74 individuals, prolactin correlated inversely with age (p Prolactin levels in subjects with IGHD due to a homozygous GHRHR mutation are similar to heterozygous and normal homozygous, but total testosterone and SHBG are higher in male MUT/MUT, with no difference in free testosterone. The reduced prolactin level is limited to climacteric period, possibly due to reduced estrogen exposure. PMID:23397510

Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Melo, Luiza D; Rocha, Ívina E S; Oliveira, Carla R P; Pereira, Rossana M C; Souza, Anita H O; Valença, Eugênia H O; Melo, Enaldo V; Campos, Viviane C; Costa, Flavia O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

2013-08-01

71

Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

2001-01-01

72

The receptor for human sex steroid binding protein (SBP) is expressed on membranes of neoplastic endometrium.  

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Sex steroid binding protein (SBP) receptor was detected on cell membranes obtained from human endometrium adenocarcinoma. The binding of SBP was proved to be highly specific, saturable, and at high affinity. It was, additionally, shown to occur at two sites at different affinities, as previously described for other human tissues. SBP was, therefore, demonstrated to recognized a specific receptor on endometrium adenocarcinoma membranes. The effect of steroid hormones on SBP-receptor interactio...

Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela; Frairia, Roberto

1992-01-01

73

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

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The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognize...

Yoshimoto, Jun; Matsumura, Yosuke; Tanahashi, Toyoko; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Tokiwa, Takayoshi; Sato, Jiro

1982-01-01

74

Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

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Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts...

2006-01-01

75

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

1993-09-01

76

Exposure of larvae to daily thermocycles affects gonad development, sex ratio, and sexual steroids in Solea senegalensis, kaup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of water temperature during the development of fish larvae on sex differentiation is well known, but not so well known is the impact of the daily thermocycles. Our aim was to investigate the effect of early exposure of Senegal sole larvae to different temperature cycles on gonad development, sex ratio, and sex steroid (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT); estradiol (E(2) ); and testosterone, (T)) content in muscle extracts of juveniles. From 1 to 97 days posthatching (DPH) fish larvae and post-larvae were subjected to three temperature regimes: Thermophase-Cryophase (TC), Cryophase-Thermophase (CT), and constant temperature. In fish exposed to TC, sex determination occurred earlier, because 90% of soles were males/females at 110 DPH, whereas 45% of fish under CT were undifferentiated at that time. Fish under TC showed the highest growth rates, followed by fish under constant temperature and by fish under CT, the differences being statistically significant between the TC and CT groups. Regarding sex ratio, juveniles exposed to TC showed a higher proportion of females than fish under CT or constant temperature. Under TC, fish showed the highest concentration of E(2) , whereas 11-KT concentration was highest in fish under CT and constant temperature. Fish under constant temperature and CT showed higher T levels than those under TC. These results provide the first insights into the effect of daily thermocycles on sex differentiation in fish, and underline the key role of natural environmental cycles on the control of sex ratios during larval development, which may be applied to the manipulation of sex ratio in aquaculture. PMID:21370485

Blanco-Vives, Borja; Vera, Luisa María; Ramos, Jesús; Bayarri, María José; Mañanós, Evaristo; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

2011-03-01

77

Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of antidepressants: influence of female sex hormones and oral contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. Moreover, the symptoms they experience also show sex differences: women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and show more severe symptoms than men. Likewise, the response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy appears to have sex differences. These differences can partially be explained by differences in pharmacokinetic properties (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) of drugs in males and females. More recent research has shown that sex hormones may influence all these previously named pharmacokinetic processes. As concentrations of sex hormones vary throughout the female lifespan, these hormonal variations can have effects on therapeutic responses to antidepressants as well as the occurrence of adverse events. The purpose of this paper is therefore to review the literature reporting on the effects of female sex hormones on the pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to discuss and evaluate the implications of changes in levels of sex hormones throughout life for the treatment of depression. PMID:24859034

Damoiseaux, Valérie A; Proost, Johannes H; Jiawan, Vincent C R; Melgert, Barbro N

2014-06-01

78

The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

2006-01-01

79

Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

2013-01-01

80

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue.

Zhuk, N.I.; Avvakumov, G.V.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-10

 
 
 
 
81

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue

1986-01-10

82

Complementary pathways in mammalian female sex determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mammals, the sex of the embryo is determined by the fate of the gonad. Recent papers, including one in BMC Developmental Biology, shed light on the molecular regulation of ovarian development and suggest that the R-spondin1/Wnt4/?-catenin pathway and the Foxl2 transcription factor act in a complementary manner to promote ovarian fate and to repress testicular development.

Nef, Serge; Vassalli, Jean-dominique

2009-01-01

83

Health behavior among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a public health perspective there has been a strong focus on HIV/AIDS and STDs when addressing the health of sex workers. However, a more holistic approach to the topic of sex work and health has been called for, both in terms of research, interventions and services. This project is a contribution to the somewhat neglected research issue of sex work and health in a Norwegian context. This study explores the health behaviour among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway. Through a quali...

Hafskjold, Benedicte Næss

2009-01-01

84

Sex steroids and the control of the Kiss1 system: developmental roles and major regulatory actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and their canonical receptor, GPR54 (also termed Kiss1R), are unanimously recognised as essential regulators of puberty onset and gonadotrophin secretion. These key reproductive functions stem from the capacity of kisspeptins to stimulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus, where discrete populations of Kiss1 neurones have been identified. In rodents, two major groups of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones exist: one present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the other located in the anteroventral periventricular area (AVPV/RP3V). In recent years, numerous signals have been identified as putative modulators of the hypothalamic Kiss1 system. Among them, the prominent role of sex steroids as being important regulators of Kiss1 neurones has been documented in different species and developmental stages, such as early brain sex differentiation, puberty, adulthood and senescence. These regulatory actions are (mainly) conducted via oestrogen receptor (ER)?, which is expressed in almost all Kiss1 neurones, and likely involve both classical and nonclassical pathways. The regulatory effects of sex steroids are nucleus-specific. Thus, sex steroids inhibit the expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin at the ARC, as a mechanism to conduct their negative-feedback actions on gonadotrophin secretion. By contrast, oestrogens enhance Kiss1 expression at the AVPV/RP3V in rodents, suggesting the involvement of this population in the positive-feedback actions of oestradiol to generate the preovulatory surge of gonadotrophins. In addition, sex steroids have been shown to act post-transcriptionally, modulating GnRH/gonadotrophin responsiveness to kisspeptin. Finally, sex steroids also regulate the expression of co-transmitters of Kiss1 neurones, such as neurokinin B, whose mRNA content in the ARC fluctuates in parallel to that of Kiss1 in response to changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids, therefore suggesting the contribution of this neuropeptide in the feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion. In sum, compelling experimental evidence obtained in different mammalian (and non-mammalian) species, including primates, demonstrates that sex steroids are essential regulators of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones, which in turn operate as conduits for their effects on GnRH neurones. The physiological relevance of such regulatory phenomena is thoroughly discussed. PMID:21951227

García-Galiano, D; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

2012-01-01

85

Determinants of Maternal Sex Steroids During the First Half of Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine the associations of maternal and child characteristics with early pregnancy maternal concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol. Methods We analyzed these hormones among 1,343 women with singleton pregnancies who donated serum samples to the Finnish Maternity Cohort from 1986 to 2006 during the first half of pregnancy (median, 11 weeks). The associations of maternal and child characteristics with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation and multivariable regression. Results Women above age 30 had lower androgen and estradiol but higher progesterone concentrations than women below that age. Multiparous women had 14% lower testosterone, 11% lower androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 9% lower progesterone, and 16% lower estradiol concentrations compared to nulliparous women (all P<.05). Smoking mothers had 11%, 18%, and 8% higher testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, respectively, but 10% lower progesterone compared to non-smoking women (all P<.05). Estradiol concentrations were 9% higher (P<0.05) among women with a female fetus compared to those with a male fetus. Conclusions Parity, smoking, and to a lesser extent maternal age and child gender are associated with sex steroid levels during the first half of a singleton pregnancy. The effects of smoking on the maternal hormonal environment and the possible long-term deleterious consequences on the fetus deserve further evaluation.

Toriola, Adetunji T; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Lehtinen, Matti; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lundin, Eva; Rodgers, Kenneth-Gary; Lakso, Hans-Ake; Chen, Tianhui; Schock, Helena; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Toniolo, Paolo; Grankvist, Kjell; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

86

Distribution of Genital Lactobacillus Strains Shared by Female Sex Partners  

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The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among lesbians is high. We assessed whether unique Lactobacillus strains were shared by female sex partners. Cultures of vaginal and rectal specimens for detection of Lactobacillus organisms were performed for women who reported having had sex with women. Lactobacilli were identified on the basis of DNA homology and were typed and fingerprinted by repetitive element sequence– based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Of 237 women, Lactobacillus crispat...

Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Antonio, May; Agnew, Kathy; Hillier, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

87

Resistance training restores muscle sex steroid hormone steroidogenesis in older men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal muscle can synthesize testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) via steroidogenic enzymes in vitro, but hormone levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression decline with aging. Resistance exercise has been shown to increase in plasma sex steroid hormone levels. However, it remains unclear whether resistance training can restore impaired steroidogenic enzyme expressions in older individuals. Six young and 13 older men were recruited, and muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at basal state. The same group of older subjects underwent resistance training involving knee extension and flexion exercises for 12 wk, and post-training biopsies were performed 4-5 d after the last exercise session. Muscular sex steroid hormone levels and sex steroidgenesis-related enzyme expressions were significantly lower in older subjects than younger ones at baseline, but 12 wk of resistance training significantly restored hormone levels (DHEA: 432±26 at baseline, 682±31 pg/?g protein, DHT: 6.2±0.9 at baseline, 9.8±1.4 pg/?g protein). Furthermore, the steroidogenesis-related enzymes such as 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17?-HSD, and 5?-reductase expressions were significantly restored by resistance training. We conclude progressive resistance training restores age-related declines in sex steroidogenic enzyme and muscle sex steroid hormone levels in older men. PMID:24443372

Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Matsutani, Kenji; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Fujita, Satoshi

2014-04-01

88

The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

JennyErkanderMullen

2014-04-01

89

The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p?=?0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p?=?0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete's steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form. PMID:24782830

Schulze, Jenny J; Mullen, Jenny E; Berglund Lindgren, Emma; Ericsson, Magnus; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2014-01-01

90

The Impact of Genetics and Hormonal Contraceptives on the Steroid Profile in Female Athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p?=?0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p?=?0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

Schulze, Jenny J.; Mullen, Jenny E.; Berglund Lindgren, Emma; Ericsson, Magnus; Ekstrom, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Linden

2014-01-01

91

Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (?g/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17?-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17?-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children. PMID:24252380

Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

2014-03-01

92

Anal sex, vaginal sex and HIV risk among female sex workers in Papua New Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female sex workers (FSW) are considered one of the key affected populations in Papua New Guinea at risk of acquiring HIV. An integrated bio-behavioral survey of sex workers in Port Moresby was conducted to determine the nature and extent of this risk. About half (51.1 %) of the 411 FSW who reported having any sexual intercourse with clients had engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients in the last 6 months. In spite of having poorer HIV knowledge (OR95 % CI = 0.14-0.34), FSW who had anal intercourse with clients were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse with a client (OR95 % CI = 1.04-2.87). Similarly, FSW who had anal intercourse with regular and casual partners were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse. Those who engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients had similar condom use for both vaginal and anal intercourse, with the majority (78.1 %) using a condom at the last occasion for both vaginal and anal intercourse. These FSW may have different risk and protective factors that affect their use of condom during sexual intercourse. Further research is needed to investigate this difference between those who practice anal intercourse and those who do not in order to provide evidence for better programming. PMID:24264727

Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kupul, Martha; Worth, Heather; Shih, Patti; Man, Wing Young Nicola

2014-03-01

93

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

Yoshimoto,Jun

1982-02-01

94

Virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor in a 40 year old South Indian female: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyper...

Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A.; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi

2009-01-01

95

Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

Webb, M. A. H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G. W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M. S.; Schreck, C. B.; Doroshov, S. I.

2001-01-01

96

Is priming with sex steroids useful for defining patients who will benefit from GH treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic criteria for diagnosing GHD include: short stature (height below the third percentile), slow growth velocity, delayed bone age and failure to produce growth hormone in response to two provocative tests. While provocation tests can diagnose complete GHD, debate still exists about of what constitutes a normal or a subnormal GH response in subjects with "idiopathic" short stature or constitutional delay of growth and puberty. It has been suggested that in children with intermediate GH responses to pharmacologic stimuli, a pre-treatment with sex steroids priming may be of value in enhancing the GH response and in helping to clarify the diagnosis, particularly in children with delayed onset of puberty. Nevertheless, the use of priming with sex steroids prior to GH stimulation test in the peripubertal period is still controversial because it is considered an "unphysiologic method" and may mask children with transient GHD. Further studies and uniform guidelines are needed before solving this intriguing puzzle. PMID:24716393

De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Yassin, Mohamed; Di Maio, Salvatore

2014-03-01

97

The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-res...

2012-01-01

98

Sex steroids, bone mass, and bone loss. A prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although bone loss around the time of menopause is driven by estrogen deficiency, the roles of estrogens and androgens in the preservation of skeletal mass at other stages of life are less well understood. To address this issue we studied 231 women between the ages of 32 and 77 with multiple measurements of sex steroids and bone mass over a period of 2-8 yr. In all women bone mass was negatively associated with concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, and positively associated with wei...

Slemenda, C.; Longcope, C.; Peacock, M.; Hui, S.; Johnston, C. C.

1996-01-01

99

Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?  

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Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were su...

Sadat-Ali Mir; Al-Elq Abdulmoshsen; Sultan Osama; Al-Turki Haifa

2008-01-01

100

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

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Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured f...

2008-01-01

102

Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling...

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Nafarie, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Assari, Shervin

2012-01-01

103

Bone turnover markers in patients with prostate carcinoma: influence of sex steroids levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are limited data about bone turnover markers (BTM) in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-treated prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and the relationship between sex steroids, bone mass, and BTM has not been explored. Our objective was to analyze the influence of sex steroids levels on BTM in patients with PCa treated with or without ADT. We performed a cross-sectional study including 83 subjects with PCa (54% with ADT). BTM, bone mineral density (BMD), and sex steroids were determined. BTM were inversely related to serum level of estrogens. Tartrate-specific acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b) showed a negative correlation with free estradiol (Free E) (r = -0.274, p = 0.014) and Bio E (r = -0.256, p = 0.022) that remained after adjustment for age: Free E (? = -0.241, p = 0.03) and Bio E (? = -0.213, p = 0.063). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations were inversely related to Free E (r = -0.281, p = 0.011, age-adjusted ? = -0.256, p = 0.024). There was a negative correlation between osteocalcin (OC) levels and Free E (r = -0.195, p = 0.082; age-adjusted ? = -0.203, p = 0.076) and Bio E (r = -0.215, p = 0.054; age-adjusted ? = -0.240, p = 0.039). BTM and androgens were inversely related to TRAP-5b: total testosterone (total T) (r = -0.238, p = 0.033), Free T (r = -0.309, p = 0.05), and Bio T (r = -0.310, p = 0.05), but these correlations disappeared after age-adjustment. We did not find any relationship between BMD at different locations and sex steroids. In conclusion, in patients with PCa, estrogen levels influence bone resorption and bone formation whereas androgens may exert actions only in bone resorption. These results suggest that estradiol is the main sex steroid that regulates bone metabolism in males with prostate carcinoma. PMID:23640678

Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Martín, Antonia; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; González-Ramírez, Rocío; Rocío, González-Ramírez; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2014-01-01

104

The diversity of sex steroid action: novel functions of hydroxysteroid (17?) dehydrogenases as revealed by genetically modified mouse models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed action of sex steroid hormones, i.e. androgens and estrogens, is involved in the pathogenesis of various severe diseases in humans. Interestingly, recent studies have provided data further supporting the hypothesis that the circulating hormone concentrations do not explain all physiological and pathological processes observed in hormone-dependent tissues, while the intratissue sex steroid concentrations are determined by the expression of steroid metabolising enzymes in the neighbouring cells (paracrine action) and/or by target cells themselves (intracrine action). This local sex steroid production is also a valuable treatment option for developing novel therapies against hormonal diseases. Hydroxysteroid (17?) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) compose a family of 14 enzymes that catalyse the conversion between the low-active 17-keto steroids and the highly active 17?-hydroxy steroids. The enzymes frequently expressed in sex steroid target tissues are, thus, potential drug targets in order to lower the local sex steroid concentrations. The present review summarises the recent data obtained for the role of HSD17B1, HSD17B2, HSD17B7 and HSD17B12 enzymes in various metabolic pathways and their physiological and pathophysiological roles as revealed by the recently generated genetically modified mouse models. Our data, together with that provided by others, show that, in addition to having a role in sex steroid metabolism, several of these HSD17B enzymes possess key roles in other metabolic processes: for example, HD17B7 is essential for cholesterol biosynthesis and HSD17B12 is involved in elongation of fatty acids. Additional studies in vitro and in vivo are to be carried out in order to fully define the metabolic role of the HSD17B enzymes and to evaluate their value as drug targets. PMID:22045753

Saloniemi, Taija; Jokela, Heli; Strauss, Leena; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Poutanen, Matti

2012-01-01

105

Identification of sex pheromone components in Trissolcus brochymenae females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long- and short-range sex pheromones appear to play a crucial role in the mate finding and courtship behaviour of most parasitic Hymenoptera. Yet these parasitoids have been rarely investigated and only a few pheromones have been identified. Recent studies have shown that sexual communication of Trissolcus brochymenae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a quasi-gregarious egg parasitoid of the harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), starts before contact between males and females when chemical compounds produced by virgin females trigger the courtship behaviour of males. In the present study, the pheromone components involved in the short-range recognition of T. brochymenae females by males were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioural methods. Female body extracts were analyzed through EAG and GC-EAD and the active compounds were identified through GC-MS. The behavioural responses of virgin males to the GC-EAD active compounds were subsequently evaluated in closed arena bioassays. Two active compounds in EAG and behavioural tests, tetradecyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-yl acetate, were identified as sex pheromone components. Both compounds triggered intense male antennation and mount when applied to solvent-washed female cadavers. Dose-response tests showed different curves for the two compounds. This is the first study on the identification of sexual pheromones in Platygastridae. PMID:23063499

Salerno, Gianandrea; Iacovone, Alessia; Carlin, Silvia; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Anfora, Gianfranco

2012-12-01

106

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, p

Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon

2013-01-01

107

Female Sex Bias in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

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The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combi...

Ben-yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-geva, Talia; Epsztejn-litman, Silvina; Levy-lahad, Ephrat

2012-01-01

108

Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of ["3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of ["3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

1987-01-01

109

Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants' sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s) during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR = ?0.653, 95%CI = ?1.192 to ?0.115), perceived HIV risk (OR = ?1.047, 95%CI = ?2.076 to ?0.019), and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR = ?1.104, 95%CI = ?1.957 to ?0.251) were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran.

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Nafarie, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Assari, Shervin

2012-01-01

110

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

1983-12-01

111

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

1983-01-01

112

Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men. A meta-analysis was performed using weighted mean differences (WMD) to compare hormones levels between black and white men. Fifteen eligible studies were identified; three did not report adjusted means. After age adjustment, free testosterone levels were significantly higher in black than in white men (WMD = 4.07 pg/mL, 95% CI 1.26, 6.88). Depending on the free testosterone concentration in white men, this WMD translates into a racial difference ranging from 2.5 to 4.9%. Total testosterone (WMD = 0.10 ng/mL, 95% CI -0.02, 0.22), estradiol (WMD = 0.67 pg/mL, 95% CI -0.04, 1.38) and SHBG (WMD = -0.45 nmol/L, 95% CI -1.75, 0.85) concentrations did not differ comparing blacks with whites. After adjustment for age, black men have a modestly but significantly 2.5 to 4.9% higher free testosterone level than white men. Based on previous studies on effects of sex steroid hormones on risk of chronic diseases or mortality, this modest difference is unlikely to explain racial differences in disease risk. PMID:24648111

Richard, A; Rohrmann, S; Zhang, L; Eichholzer, M; Basaria, S; Selvin, E; Dobs, A S; Kanarek, N; Menke, A; Nelson, W G; Platz, E A

2014-05-01

113

Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Yunnan, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional prevalence survey of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. A total of 505 FSWs participated in the survey. All eligible participants gave informed consent. Demographic, behavioral, and clinical information of the participants was gathered by direct structured interviews. Tampon swabs were collected to test for Chlamydia trachomatis, Nesseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis and serum specimens were collected to test for HIV antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and Western blot confirmation, syphilis with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and T. pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) confirmation, and for HSV-2 antibodies with the HerpeSelect 2 ELISA. The most prevalent bacterial STI was Chlamydia trachomatis (58.6%), followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (43.2%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (37.8%). Three hundred twenty-seven (65.1%) sex workers had serologic evidence of exposure to HSV-2 infection. Ten percent were positive for HIV infection, all injecting drug users (IDUs); and 9.5% had infection with syphilis. Comprehensive prevention and effective STI services for sex workers and their clients will be the key strategies to the control of STIs, including HIV. Policies and prevention strategies for STI/HIV need to focus on high-risk subpopulations, such as sex workers (particularly sex workers who inject drugs) and their clients. PMID:16375618

Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yin, Yue-Ping; Liang, Guo-Jun; Gong, Xiang-Dong; Li, Hua-Sheng; Poumerol, Gilles; Thuy, Nguyen; Shi, Mei-Qin; Yu, Yan-Hua

2005-12-01

114

Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

SuguruKawato

2011-10-01

115

Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gallagher, E. P.; Gross, T. S.; Sheehy, K. M.

2001-01-01

116

Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish  

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Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fis...

Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

2012-01-01

117

Cyclical changes of plasma sex steroids in captive breeding loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) have been laying eggs in an indoor artificial beach since 1995, at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium (PNPA). Four individuals landed and laid eggs several times during the breeding period in 1996. Blood samples from these individuals were collected monthly throughout that year in order to investigate the changes in sex steroid hormones (testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone). In addition, detailed investigations were conducted daily during the breeding period on one particular individual that landed and laid eggs five times in 1998. Each steroid hormone changed periodically based on the laying cycle, and extraordinarily high levels of estradiol were noted even during the breeding period. In reports regarding the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), extremely different results were observed. Some of the obtained data suggest that progesterone induced ovulation. Data from a completely artificial environment such as the one at the PNPA provides elucidation of the reproductive physiology in these endangered species. PMID:21370645

Kakizoe, Yuka; Fujiwara, Masato; Akune, Yuichiro; Kanou, Yoshihiko; Saito, Tomomi; Uchida, Itaru

2010-12-01

118

Organizing Effects of Sex Steroids on Brain Aromatase Activity in Quail  

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Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA) is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1) brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2) whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizi...

2011-01-01

119

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

120

Unprotected sex with their clients among low-paying female sex workers in southwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

China has been experiencing a rapid increase in the HIV epidemic for decades. Commercial sex plays a critical role in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Limited studies suggested that low-paying female sex workers (FSWs) faced a higher risk of HIV infection. Low-paying FSWs are women who usually encounter their clients on the street or small establishments in rural or less-developed areas, or who charge low fees for each sexual service. A total of 720 low-paying FSWs from 130 commercial sex venues/locations in southwest China were included in the data analysis. Multivariate regression models were employed to examine the associations of unprotected sex with a number of exploratory variables among the study sample. About 33.9 and 61.5% of low-paying FSWs reported unprotected sex with clients in the last sex act and in the last month, respectively. After controlling for confounders, women's HIV knowledge, risk perception, experience of police arrest, and venue types were significantly associated with unprotected sex among low-paying FSWs. Low-paying FSWs are at an alarmingly high risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention programs are urgently needed to address risk factors posit in both individual and contextual levels among this most-at-risk population in order to curb the HIV epidemic in China. PMID:23062062

Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Stanton, Bonita

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

Basaria Shehzad

2008-02-01

122

Plasma steroid hormones in relation to behavioral sex role reversal in the spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma samples collected from spotted sandpipers during the reproductive season were analyzed for testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. Prior to incubation, plasma testosterone and DHT levels were significantly greater in males than in females. Estradiol levels of paired females were significantly greater than those of paired males. Testosterone and DHT levels of unpaired resident and paired males were significantly greater than those of incubating and brooding males. A 25-fold decline in testosterone occurred in males from the 1- or 2-egg stage to the 3-egg stage, when incubation is initiated. In females, testosterone values were low in unpaired, brooding, and transient birds. Paired females had levels 7-fold greater than unpaired birds. In both sexes, there was a strong correlation between testosterone and DHT levels. Prolactin values were negatively correlated with testosterone and DHT in males. These results indicate that the high level of intrasexual competition for mates among female spotted sandpipers is not based upon a total reversal of the normal male/female levels of androgens and estradiol. Territoriality and intense competition for mates in females may be based upon enhanced receptivity of neural centers to moderate hormone levels. Relative changes in testosterone between unpaired and paired females indicates that this hormone may play a role in mate acquisition and territoriality of these sex role-reversed females. PMID:3828434

Fivizzani, A J; Oring, L W

1986-12-01

123

Metabolism of exogenous sex steroids and effect on brain functions with a focus on tibolone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Around the menopause, changes in ovarian secretion of steroids result in changes in brain function: hot flushes and sweating later followed by changes in mood, libido and cognition. The relationship between sex steroids and brain functions are reviewed, with focus on hormonal treatments, in particular tibolone, on the postmenopausal brain and on associations between tissue levels and brain functions. Data on steroid levels in human brain are limited. Exogenous oestrogens alone or combined with progestagens reduce hot flushes and sweating, and may favourably affect anxiety, depression and mood. Testosterone alone or combined with E(2) improves libido and mood. Tibolone reduces hot flushes and sweating, and improves mood and libido, but does not stimulate endometrium or breast, like oestrogens. Tibolone is an ideal compound for studying steroid levels and metabolism in brain in view of its structural differences from endogenous steroids and its extensive metabolism required to express its endocrine effects. Brain levels of tibolone metabolites were measured in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys receiving tibolone for 36 days. Compared to serum, higher levels of the oestrogenic 3alpha/beta-hydroxytibolone and the androgenic/progestagenic Delta(4)-tibolone, and lower levels of sulphated metabolites are found in various brain regions. The high levels of oestrogenic metabolites in the hypothalamus explain hot flush reduction. Combined with the presence of Delta(4)-tibolone, the tibolone-induced increase in free testosterone through SHBG reduction explains androgenic effects of tibolone on mood and libido. The levels of tibolone metabolites in the monkey brain support tibolone's effects on brain functions. PMID:17113982

Verheul, H A M; Kloosterboer, H J

2006-12-01

124

Serum osteoprotegerin and sex steroid levels in patients with prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between sex steroids and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prostate cancer is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate serum OPG levels in patients with prostate cancer and its relationship with sex steroids, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fractures. We performed a cross-sectional study including 91 patients with prostate cancer. We determined: bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, serum levels of sex steroids and osteoprotegerin, and prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures. Serum OPG levels were higher in patients with vertebral fractures (8.02 ± 2.0 vs 4.91 ± 0.28 pmol/L; P < .05). OPG level and the duration of hormonal therapy were related (r = 0.299, P = .004), but this association did not persist after adjustment for age. In patients without androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total testosterone (r = 0.508, P = .001) and bioavailable testosterone (r = 0.311, P = .037). In patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with levels of total estradiol (r = 0.199, P = .18), bioavailable estradiol (r = 0.37, P = .009), and free estradiol (r = 0.349, P = .016). In conclusion, in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and free estradiol. Our hypothesis is that in patients with androgen deprivation therapy, the higher relative estrogen levels could stimulate OPG production in response to the higher resorption state. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of OPG in androgen deprivation therapy-mediated bone loss. PMID:21903971

Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-Garcia, Rebeca; Avilés Perez, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez Ramírez, Amanda Rocio; Mijan, Jose Luis; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2012-01-01

125

The growth hormone response to hexarelin in children: reproducibility and effect of sex steroids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the variability of the GH response to the synthetic hexapeptide hexarelin (Hex) and the effect of sex steroids on the GH-releasing effect of Hex in a group of prepubertal short normal children. Twenty-five children were tested on two occasions 3-7 days apart with 2 micrograms/kg, i.v., Hex. The GH response to Hex was reevaluated after testosterone (T) administration in 10 boys, after ethinyl estradiol (EE) administration in 15 children (5 boys and 10 girls), and after oxandrolone (...

Ghigo, Ezio

1997-01-01

126

Fecal Steroid Profile of Female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch Maintained in Pairing-Typed Cage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estrone conjugate (E1C and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG were predominant steroid metabolites of estrogen and progesterone in feces of most primates and could be used to evaluate ovarian function. These metabolites were determined along with records of genital swelling throughout 3-4 months period from three female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch maintained in pairing-typed cage at Schmutzer Primate Center, Jakarta (Ullah and at Taman Margasatwa Taman Sari, Bandung (Donna and Citah. Following methanolic extraction of lyophilized fecal powder, samples were analyzed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for E1C and PdG. In all of the three females observed, both hormone profiles did not indicate any regular cycle of ovarian function even though genital swellings were sometimes observed. In one female (Donna the hormone patterns showed clear signs of cycle irregularities with extended luteal phase of 40 days and erratic pattern of follicular phase. Of the other two females, no ovarian cycle was found. The data indicate that the fecal steroids analysis is a practical and valuable diagnostic tool for providing reliable information on ovarian function in Javan Gibbon. Factors affected reproductive hormonal profile should be taken in consideration in trying to achieve success in captive breeding program for this species.

HERA MAHESHWARI

2010-01-01

127

Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:4566489

Kalkhoff, R K

1972-01-01

128

Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

2002-07-01

129

Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?  

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Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R.

2010-01-01

130

Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA) is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1) brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2) whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST) followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole) on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens. PMID:21559434

Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D

2011-01-01

131

Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment. PMID:22619742

Pampori, Zahoor Ahmad; Pandita, Sujata

2012-01-01

132

Accounting for and managing risk in sex work: A study of female sex workers in Hong Kong  

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This thesis considers how in the course of their work female sex workers in Hong Kong experience risk. It concerns the indoor side of the sex market, an area which has so far been largely ignored in studies on commercial sex. The focus is on women working independently from flats. Focusing on women’s own accounts of work-related risks, risky behaviour and coping strategies, this study investigates sex workers’ reflexive understandings of prostitution and their occupational risk in late mo...

2012-01-01

133

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

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Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with inc...

Goldenberg, Shira M.; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

134

[Hormonal reaction of steroid-producing glands of female Papio to long-term hypokinesia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The endocrine function of steroid-producing glands of hamadryas baboon females exposed to 28-day clinostatic hypokinesia at different stages of the menstrual cycle was investigated. The adrenocortical response to hypokinesia developed in two phases: early stimulation was followed by inhibition of the adrenocortical activity which persisted during the subsequent period of hypokinesia and two weeks after exposure. The degree and duration of the activation effect of hypokinesia were determined by the initial phase of the menstrual cycle: the adrenocortical response during the follicular phase was higher than during the luteal phase. The hormonal function of ovaries was inhibited under the action of hypokinesia. The ovarian response was dependent on the initial phase of the menstrual cycle. Exposure to hypokinesia that began in the follicular phase resulted in a drastic reduction of estradiol while that started at the luteal phase led to a significant decline of progesterone. Monotonously low secretion of ovarian steroids was combined with desynchronosis of their circadian rhythms. Disorders in the function of steroid-producing glands during hypokinesia were transient. PMID:2366502

Goncharov, N P; Shekhova, A N

1990-01-01

135

Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.  

Science.gov (United States)

For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

2014-01-01

136

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

137

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

2012-01-01

138

A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, A. D.; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, K. L.; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, N. C.; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

2012-01-01

139

Receptor for sex steroid-binding protein of endometrium membranes: solubilization, partial characterization, and role of estradiol in steroid-binding protein-soluble receptor interaction.  

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The sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) receptor was solubilized from the membranes of human premenopausal endometrium with the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS. The binding activity of the soluble receptor was studied, allowing it to interact with [125I]SBP and precipitating the complex with polyethylene glycol 8,000. The interaction of SBP with the soluble receptor was specific, saturable, and at high affinity. Indeed, the specific binding was definitely improved on the solubilized form of the re...

Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela

1992-01-01

140

Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children.

Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor in a 40 year old South Indian female: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism in the male range. Basal testosterone values were elevated. Folicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinising Hormone levels were within normal limits. Dexamethasone suppression test did not alter cortisol or testosterone levels. An ovarian mass was confirmed radiologically. Following a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy, histopathological studies confirmed a left sided steroid-cell ovarian tumor, Leydig cell type (stage T(1)N(0)M(0)), which proved to the etiology of virilization in this patient. Post-operatively her serum testosterone levels declined with near-complete reversal of symptoms over time. PMID:19829991

Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi

2009-01-01

142

Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)  

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Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without paras...

Lima, Neuza R. W.; Azevedo, Juliana S.; Da Silva, Leonardo G.; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

2007-01-01

143

Differential display analysis of gene expression in female-to-male sex-reversing gonads of the frog Rana rugosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids play pivotal roles in gonadal differentiation in many species of vertebrates. The sex can be reversed from female to male by testosterone in the Japanese wrinkled frog Rana rugosa, but it is still unclear what genes are up- or down-regulated during the XX sex-reversal in this species. To search the genes for the female-to-male sex-reversal, we employed differential display and 5'/3'-RACE. Consequently, we isolated from the gonads at day 8 after testosterone injection 24 different cDNA fragments showing a testosterone treatment-related change and then obtained three full-length cDNAs, which we termed Zfp64, Zfp112, and Rrp54. The former two cDNAs encoded different proteins with zinc-finger domains, whereas the latter cDNA encoded an unknown protein. Transcripts of the three genes were hardly detectable in the sex-reversing gonads at day 24 after the injection; at this time few growing oocytes were observed in the sex-reversing gonad. Besides, in situ hybridization analysis showed positive signals of the three genes in the cytoplasm of growing oocytes of an ovary when testosterone was injected into a tadpole. Thus, the decrease in expression of these three genes was probably due to the disappearance of growing oocytes and not to their direct involvement in the testis formation. To find the key-gene for testis formation, it will be necessary to analyze, by the differential display method, more genes showing a change in expression pattern during sex reversal. PMID:17942098

Okada, Goro; Maruo, Koichi; Funada, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Masahisa

2008-02-01

144

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E?) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis. PMID:20840852

Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

2010-12-01

145

Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work  

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This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV positive. Many factors were significantly associated with sex work for this sample population. A final multivariate logisti...

2009-01-01

146

Morphology of putative female sex pheromone glands and mating behaviour in Aphidoletes aphidimyza  

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Adult emergence period, sex ratio, female calling behaviour, and the risky mating behaviour of A. aphidimyza in spider webs are described. We provide evidence that A. aphidimyza females produce a sex pheromone and attract males, and we give a description of the location and structure of the supposed pheromone producing glands of A. aphidimyza based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This is the first demonstration of occurrence of sex pheromones for a zoophagous species of Ceci...

Lenteren, J. C.; Schettino, M.; Isidoro, N.; Romani, R.; Schelt, J.

2002-01-01

147

HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number o...

Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da Silva

2005-01-01

148

Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey  

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Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographi...

Yan Hong; Chen Weiqi; Wu Haocheng; Bi Yongyi; Zhang Miaoxuan; Li Shiyue; Braun Kathryn L

2009-01-01

149

Gonadal steroidogenesis and the possible role of steroid glucuronides as sex pheromones in two species of teleosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, female zebrafish,Brachydanio rerio, ovulate only in the presence of males. The stimulant must be pheromonal as even male holding water is capable of inducing ovulation. After ovulation the mating phase begins. During this phase the male follows the female and oviposition as well as fertilization takes place. Both the ovulation and the mating are controlled by pheromones synthesized by the gonads. Ovulation can be induced by testicular homogenates. After the lipid material has been extracted from the testicular homogenates, the remaining aqueous phase can still induce ovulation. However, when the aqueous phase is treated with the enzyme?-glucuronidase, it loses the ability to induce ovulation. This is an indication that glucuronides, probably steroid glucuronides, are the compounds responsible.During the mating phase, ovulated female zebrafish become attractive to males. It was found that, after ovulation, ovarian extracts contain the compounds responsible for attracting males. The attractant consists of a mixture of steroid glucuronides.After incubation of the gonads with(3)H-precursors seven steroid glucuronides have been identified in the testis and five in the ovary.Under fish culture conditions the African catfish,Clarias gariepinus, can produce postivitellogenic oocytes throughout the year. However, in capitivity neither males nor females spawn. In female catfish maturation and ovulation can be induced by treatment with gonadotropins. It might be possible that, analogous to the zebrafish, some reproductive processes in the catfish have to be induced by pheromones. It has been demonstrated that pheromonal compounds released by the seminal vesicles are involved in the attraction of female conspecifics. The steroid glucuronide synthesizing capability of the testes and the seminal vesicles of the male catfish are examined, as well as that of the ovary before and after ovulation of the female catfish. Both testes and seminal vesicles appear to be capable of steroid biosynthesis but only the latter synthesizes steroid glucuronides. Six of these conjugates have been isolated and identified. In the female catfish the ovaries are capable of synthesizing seven steroid glucuronides, but only after ovulation. PMID:24233171

Lambert, J G; van den Hurk, R; Schoonen, W G; Resink, J W; van Oordt, P G

1986-10-01

150

The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor.

Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payan, Jorge; Colucci, Dario; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucia; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernandez

2014-01-01

151

The influence of sex steroid hormones in the immunopathology of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator's inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernández

2014-01-01

152

Female biased sex ratios in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae)  

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Sex ratios of populations of the dioecious shrub Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) were studied. Several hypotheses concerning biased sex ratios were tested. The expected pattern of male preponderance in stressful habitats was not found. The populations located in a microclimatic gradient, such as a slope, did not display a male-biased sex ratio on the stressful middle slope. The populations located in a climatic gradient did not display a male-biased sex ratio in the more xeric habitats....

Verdu?, M.; Garci?a-fayos, P.

1998-01-01

153

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-07-01

154

Neonatal exposure to estradiol in female rats influences neuroactive steroid concentrations and behaviour in the adult rat  

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The gonadal steroids, in particular estradiol, exert an important action during perinatal period in the regulation of sexual dimorphism and neuronal plasticity, and in the growth and development of nervous system. Exposure of the developing female to estrogens during perinatal period may have long-lasting effects that are now regarded as “programming” the female neuroendocrine axis to malfunction in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a single administration...

Berretti, Roberta

2013-01-01

155

Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic  

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Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India.Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis...

2009-01-01

156

Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India. Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysi...

Shahmanesh, M.; Wayal, S.; Cowan, F.; Mabey, D.; Copas, A.; Patel, V.

2009-01-01

157

Effects of Vomeronasal Organ Removal on Olfactory Sex Discrimination and Odor Preferences of Female Ferrets  

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Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urina...

Woodley, S. K.; Cloe, A. L.; Waters, P.; Baum, M. J.

2004-01-01

158

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:21331628

Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

2011-09-01

159

Doing Marriage and Love in the Borderland of Transnational Sex Work. : Female Thai Migrants in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article analyses how the subject positions of wife, sex worker and female migrant intersect in the narratives of love of female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark. To a certain extent, the borders between migration, sex work and marriage are fluid. I argue that such narratives of love are highly relevant in studies of transnational sex work if we want to grasp the complexity of female migrantsâ?? selling sexual services. In this connection, conditions such as the Danish migration policy, according to which a non-EU migrant can only be granted a residence permit by marrying a Danish citizen, become relevant. The article analyses the many meanings ascribed to love by female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark.

Spanger, Marlene

2013-01-01

160

Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Linkage of the murine steroid sulfatase locus, Sts, to sex reversed, Sxr: a genetic and molecular analysis.  

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We present genetic and molecular data demonstrating linkage of the gene for steroid sulfatase (Sts) to the mutation sex reversed (Sxr) definitively showing the existance of a functional allele for Sts mapping to the pseudoautosomal region of the mouse Y chromosome. Thus, in mouse, functional Sts genes are present in the pseudoautosomal region of both the X and Y chromosomes. This is in contrast to man where Sts has been mapped to the short arm of the X just centromeric to the pseudoautosomal ...

1987-01-01

162

Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497646

Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

2014-03-21

163

Aberrant chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms in mammals, with special reference to species with XY females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both mouse and man have the common XX/XY sex chromosome mechanism. The X chromosome is of original size (5-6% of female haploid set) and the Y is one of the smallest chromosomes of the complement. But there are species, belonging to a variety of orders, with composite sex chromosomes and multiple sex chromosome systems: XX/XY1Y2 and X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y. The original X or the Y, respectively, have been translocated on to an autosome. The sex chromosomes of these species segregate regularly at meiosis; two kinds of sperm and one kind of egg are produced and the sex ratio is the normal 1:1. Individuals with deviating sex chromosome constitutions (XXY, XYY, XO or XXX) have been found in at least 16 mammalian species other than man. The phenotypic manifestations of these deviating constitutions are briefly discussed. In the dog, pig, goat and mouse exceptional XX males and in the horse XY females attract attention. Certain rodents have complicated mechanisms for sex determination: Ellobius lutescens and Tokudaia osimensis have XO males and females. Both sexes of Microtus oregoni are gonosomic mosaics (male OY/XY, female XX/XO). The wood lemming, Myopus schisticolor, the collared lemming, Dirostonyx torquatus, and perhaps also one or two species of the genus Akodon have XX and XY females and XY males. The XX, X*X and X*Y females of Myopus and Dicrostonyx are discussed in some detail. The wood lemming has proved to be a favourable natural model for studies in sex determination, because a large variety of sex chromosome aneuploids are born relatively frequently. The dosage model for sex determination is not supported by the wood lemming data. For male development, genes on both the X and the Y chromosomes are necessary. PMID:2907806

Fredga, K

1988-12-01

164

Female sex and estrogen receptor-beta attenuate cardiac remodeling and apoptosis in pressure overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated sex differences and the role of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) on myocardial hypertrophy in a mouse model of pressure overload. We performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery in male and female wild-type (WT) and ERbeta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) mice. All mice were characterized by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements and were killed 9 wk after surgery. Left ventricular (LV) samples were analyzed by microarray profiling, real-time RT-PCR, and histology. After 9 wk, WT males showed more hypertrophy and heart failure signs than WT females. Notably, WT females developed a concentric form of hypertrophy, while males developed eccentric hypertrophy. ERbeta deletion augmented the TAC-induced increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in both sexes. Gene expression profiling revealed that WT male hearts had a stronger induction of matrix-related genes and a stronger repression of mitochondrial genes than WT female hearts. ERbeta(-/-) mice exhibited a different transcriptional response. ERbeta(-/-)/TAC mice of both sexes exhibited induction of proapoptotic genes with a stronger expression in ERbeta(-/-) males. Cardiac fibrosis was more pronounced in male WT/TAC than in female mice. This difference was abolished in ERbeta(-/-) mice. The number of apoptotic nuclei was increased in both sexes of ERbeta(-/-)/TAC mice, most prominent in males. Female sex offers protection against ventricular chamber dilation in the TAC model. Both female sex and ERbeta attenuate the development of fibrosis and apoptosis, thus slowing the progression to heart failure. PMID:20375266

Fliegner, Daniela; Schubert, Carola; Penkalla, Adam; Witt, Henning; Kararigas, Georgios; Kararigas, George; Dworatzek, Elke; Staub, Eike; Martus, Peter; Ruiz Noppinger, Patricia; Kintscher, Ulrich; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

2010-06-01

165

The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers’ Services by Latino Day Laborers  

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This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was utilized. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day laborers reported having had sex with a CSW in the previous 12 months. A lower likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those with more than...

2009-01-01

166

Transitions Between Male and Female Heterogamety Caused by Sex-Antagonistic Selection  

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Many animal taxa show frequent and rapid transitions between male heterogamety (XY) and female heterogamety (ZW). We develop a model showing how these transitions can be driven by sex-antagonistic selection. Sex-antagonistic selection acting on loci linked to a new sex-determination mutation can cause it to invade, but when acting on loci linked to the ancestral sex-determination gene will inhibit an invasion. The strengths of the consequent indirect selection on the old and new sex-determina...

Doorn, G. Sander; Kirkpatrick, Mark

2010-01-01

167

Prospective associations between alcohol and drug consumption and risky sex among female college students  

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Females who ever had vaginal sex were interviewed annually in their first two years of college (n=386, ages 17 to 20 at study outset) and asked about risky sex behaviors and substance use. In year one, 60.2%wt had intoxicated sex, 31.4%wt had multiple sex partners, and 48.9%wt had unprotected sex (i.e., without a condom). At follow-up, high rates of persistence (86.0%, 52.7%, 78.8% respectively) and initiation (36.0%, 23.9%, 41.8%) were observed. In multiple logistic regression analyses, drug...

Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Arria, Amelia M.; O’grady, Kevin E.; Zarate, Elizabeth M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Wish, Eric D.

2009-01-01

168

Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause) is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate new and improved diagnostic and treatment strategies that could change the course of cognitive-behavioral disorders such as ADHD.

Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Berger, Itai

2014-01-01

169

Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate new and improved

RonitHaimov-Kochman

2014-04-01

170

Recent aspects of steroid biosynthesis in male sex differentiation. Clinical studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent discoveries in molecular biology have much clarified the regulation and function of steroid-converting enzymes. Most progress has been made in the area of cytochromes, which regulate the side chain cleavage of cholesterol (P-450 SCC) and the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase (or 17,20-lyase) activities (P-450 17 alpha), as well as in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between fundamental knowledge and clinical experience, which are difficult to understand: why is it for example possible that cases with 'pure' 17 alpha-hydroxylase or 17,20-desmolase deficiency exist, when there is only one cytochrome regulating both steps? After a brief review of clinical and biochemical findings in the various defects of testosterone biosynthesis, a case is discussed, which is of interest in this respect. This XY patient with female external genitalia, who has been shown to have compound heterozygous mutations, had 'pure' 17,20-desmolase deficiency up to adolescence, but additional 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency with hypertension developed thereafter. From this observation, it has to be concluded that as yet unknown, possibly age-dependent modulating factors exist, which influence the activity of the cytochrome. Also the estrogen replacement given to the patient might have played a role in this change. PMID:1307738

Zachmann, M

1992-01-01

171

Effects of diets containing genistein and diadzein in a long-term study on sex steroid dynamics of goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary genistein and diadzein on the concentrations of plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2)) and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was assessed. The study was conducted on four groups for a period of 2 years, from the age of 20 weeks to first spawning. Four doses of genistein and diadzein were applied in the feed: genistein: 0 µg/g, diadzein: 0 µg/g (control group); genistein: 24.26 µg/g, diadzein: 21.7 µg/g (diet 1); genistein: 51.55 µg/g, diadzein: 46.13 µg/g (diet 2); and genistein: 75.83 µg/g, diadzein: 67.82 µg/g (diet 3). Throughout the experiment, there were no significant dose- or time-related effects of genistein and diadzein contents on the T level in both sexes. Furthermore, at the highest genistein and diadzein contents, there was an elevating plasma concentration of E2 at all sampling points (p < 0.05) and a time-related effect occurred (p < 0.05). Although the E2 concentrations in the plasma of female, throughout the experiment, were higher than in males, at the last sampling, the plasma concentrations of E2 reduced among females and became lower than that in males. The effects of isoflavone content were found on GSI of females at the fourth and fifth sampling among the treatments. Isoflavone contents also affect GSI of males at the second, fourth and the last sampling. Our findings suggest that overall genistein and diadzein exposure in early life stages can cause alterations in the reproductive organs and influence sex steroidogenesis. PMID:22778114

Bagheri, Tahere; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Valiollah

2014-03-01

172

l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed “hormonal pheromones” because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here...

Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

2006-01-01

173

Developing a typology of female sex work, South India, with special reference to Karnataka  

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The thesis is premised on the fact that India?s National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) employs the typology of female sex work in outreach and other components of the HIV programme in order to identify high-risk female sex workers (FSWs). However, the current typology – distinguishing between FSWs based on their main place of solicitation – may not adequately reflect the variation in HIV risk.

2011-01-01

174

Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. METHODS: The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilistic or convenience). RESULTS: We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not ade...

Ana Roberta Pati Pascom; Célia Landmann Szwarcwald; Aristides Barbosa Júnior

2010-01-01

175

Contraceptive needs of female sex workers in Kenya: a cross-sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives Female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be at heightened risk for unintended pregnancy, although sexual and reproductive health interventions reaching these populations are typically focused on the increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study of FSWs in Kenya is to document patterns of contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. Methods This research surveys a large sample of female sex workers (N = 597) and also uses qualit...

Sutherland, Elizabeth G.; Alaii, Jane; Tsui, Sharon; Lu?chters, Stanley; Okal, Jerry; King Ola, Nzioke; Temmerman, Marleen; Janowitz, Barbara

2011-01-01

176

Brood insurance via protogyny: a source of female-biased sex allocation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex allocation patterns and colony productivity are examined in Exoneura nigrescens, a social allodapine bee. As for previous studies on Australian allodapine bees, numerical sex ratios were strongly female biased in the smallest broods, but neared equality in larger broods. Local fitness enhancement has been suggested previously to explain female-biased allocation in allodapine bees. Here, we propose an alternative model, the 'insurance model', which predicts protogyny and, as a consequence,...

Bull, N. J.; Schwarz, M. P.

2001-01-01

177

Observation of a ZZW female in a natural population: implications for avian sex determination.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avian sex determination is chromosomal; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. There is no conclusive evidence for either of two proposed mechanisms: a dominant genetic switch or a dosage mechanism. No dominant sex-determining gene on the female-specific W chromosome has been found. Birds lack inactivation of one of the Z chromosomes in males, but seem to compensate for a double dose of Z-linked genes by other mechanisms. Recent studies showing female-specific expression o...

Arlt, D.; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis; Westerdahl, Helena

2004-01-01

178

Female starlings adjust primary sex ratio in response to aromatic plants in the nest.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adjustment of offspring sex ratios should be favoured by natural selection when parents are capable of facultatively altering brood sex ratios and of recognizing the circumstances that predict the probable fitness benefit of producing sons and daughters. Although experimental studies have shown that female birds may adjust offspring sex ratios in response to changes in their own condition and in the external appearance of their mate, and male attributes other than his external morphology are ...

2004-01-01

179

Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Ca...

Abbs, Brandon; Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

2009-01-01

180

Correlates of Current Transactional Sex among a Sample of Female Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, MD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers’ sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, ...

Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Relevance of Stress and Female Sex Hormones for Emotion and Cognition  

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There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions ...

Ter Horst, J. P.; Kloet, E. R.; Scha?chinger, H.; Oitzl, M. S.

2012-01-01

182

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom.

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

183

Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

2014-07-01

184

Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene. Bees heterozygous at Sex Determination Locus are females, whereas bees homozygous or hemizygous are males. Little is known, however, about the regulation that links sex determination to sexual differentiation. To investigate the control of sexual development in honeybees, we analyzed the functions and the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential for entire female development and that the csd gene exclusively processes the heterozygous state. Fem activity is also required to maintain the female determined pathway throughout development, which we show by mosaic structures in fem-repressed intersexuals. We use expression of Fem protein in males to demonstrate that the female maintenance mechanism is controlled by a positive feedback splicing loop in which Fem proteins mediate their own synthesis by directing female fem mRNA splicing. The csd gene is only necessary to induce this positive feedback loop in early embryogenesis by directing splicing of fem mRNAs. Finally, fem also controls the splicing of Am-doublesex transcripts encoding conserved male- and female-specific transcription factors involved in sexual differentiation. Our findings reveal how the sex determination process is realized in honeybees differing from Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:19841734

Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten; Hause, Gerd; Otte, Marianne; Beye, Martin

2009-10-01

185

Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru  

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While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru.

Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

2014-01-01

186

HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts  

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Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

2009-01-01

187

Alcohol Use and Sex Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and HIV-Infected Male Clients of FSWs in India  

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Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated with heavy alcohol use and evaluated the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex. We surveyed 211 female and 2...

Samet, Jeffrey H.; Pace, Christine A.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardesi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

2010-01-01

188

47,XXX females, sex chromosomes, and tooth crown structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enamel thickness of the maxillary permanent central incisors and canines in seven Finnish 47,XXX females, their first-degree male and female relatives, and control males and females from the general population were determined from radiographs. The results showed that enamel in teeth of 47,XXX females was clearly thicker than that of normal controls. On the other hand, the thickness of "dentin" (distance between mesial and distal dentinoenamel junctions) in 47,XXX females' teeth was about the same as that in normal control females, but clearly reduced as compared with that in control males. It is therefore obvious that in the triple-X chromosome complement the extra X chromosome is active in amelogenesis, whereas it has practically no influence on the growth of dentin. The calculations based on present and previous results in 45,X females and 47,XYY males indicate that the X chromosome increases metric enamel growth somewhat more effectively than the Y chromosome. Possibly, halfway states exist between active and repressed enamel genes on the X chromosome. The Y chromosome seems to promote dental growth in a holistic fashion. PMID:3692479

Alvesalo, L; Tammisalo, E; Therman, E

1987-12-01

189

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

Purves-Tyson Tertia D

2012-08-01

190

The Influence of Gonadectomy on Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Melatonin in Male and Female Wistar Rats: A Possible Implication of Sex Hormones  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of sex, ovariectomy (Ovx and orchidectomy (Orx on antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of melatonin in forced swimming test, open field test and elevated plus maze test. Initially, 4 mg/kg of melatonin was daily administered, at 4:00 pm, to intact male and female rats during 8 weeks. Our results have shown that the effect of chronic injection of Mel is sex dependent in the three behaviors tests. Females rats have responded better than males in behavior test study after administration of melatonin, this difference between the sexes may be related to the action of sex hormones (androgens and estrogens on behavior in males as well as in females. Secondly, to determine the possible interaction between Melatonin and steroid hormones, Ovx/sham female received Mel at dose of 4mg/kg alone or NaCl (0.9% alone, and Orx/sham male received Mel at dose of 4 mg/kg alone or NaCl (0.9% alone daily and during 8 weeks of treatment at 4:00 pm. All animals were tested in the open-field test, elevated plus maze test for anxiety behavior study, and forced swimming test for depression behavior study. Results revealed that Mel exerts an anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in the orchidectomized males and in intact females, confirming that the suppression of androgens by orchidectomy improved anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of melatonin in males. However in females, the suppression of estrogen by ovariectomy masked the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of melatonin. Our results confirmed that the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of melatonin are linked to sex hormones.

Ouichou Ali

2012-06-01

191

Multi-person Sex among a Sample of Adolescent Female Urban Health Clinic Patients  

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Adolescent sexual activity involving three or more people is an emerging public health concern. The goal of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence, correlates, and context of multiple-person sex among a sample of adolescent females seeking health care from an urban clinic. Because sex involving multiple people may either be consensual (i.e., “three-ways” or “group sex”) or forced (i.e., “gang rape”), we use the term “multi-person sex” (MPS) to e...

Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.

2012-01-01

192

"Preparation of HY Antibody in Female Mice as a Model for Sex Preselection"  

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The aim of this sutdy is to prepare Histocompatability Y(HY) antibody in female mouse at the first phase (current study), and to separate mouse embryos with regard to their sex, to be able to obtain offsprings of disired sex, by means of HY antibody, at the second phase. Totally 421 BALB/C inbred mice were used. Antibodies were produced in females by intraperitonial injections of spleen and testis cells of neonatal male mice. The sera of females were tested by five different immunological tec...

Andonian, L.; Mb, Eslami; Aa, Mohammadi; Akbarzadeh, J.; Hr, Soleimanpour; Dd, Farhud

2001-01-01

193

Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world  

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OBJECTIVES: To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. METHODS: Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapol...

Vandepitte, J.; Lyerla, R.; Dallabetta, G.; Crabbe?, F.; Alary, M.; Buve?, A.

2006-01-01

194

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-12-01

195

Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration, which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

Duneau David

2012-12-01

196

Cognitive functioning and sex steroid hormone gene polymorphisms in women at midlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype frequencies were examined to determine whether variation in 6 estrogen-related genes was associated with differences in cognitive functioning in women at midlife. DNA from a multiracial/multiethnic sample of 875 African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women aged 45 to 56 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) was genotyped. Gene markers from the sex steroid hormone pathway were linked to measures of cognitive functioning including the Digit Span Backward Test (DSB), a measure of working memory; the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), a measure of perceptual speed; and the East Boston Memory Test (EBMT), a measure of episodic memory. Statistical models were fit using logistic regression and general linear models to estimate the strength of association of estrogen-related polymorphisms with DSB, SDMT, and EBMT scores. On the EBMT, African American women and Caucasian women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotypes had about 1.5 to 2.0 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. Caucasian women with ESR1 rs2234693 CC genotypes had 1.3 to 1.5 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-delayed recall test. Chinese women with 17HSD rs615942 GG genotypes, 17HSD rs592389 TT genotypes, and 17HSD rs2830 GG genotypes had about 1.7 times greater odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test. African American women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 0.25 to 0.40 lower odds of remembering story elements on the EBMT-immediate recall test, whereas Chinese women with CYP 19 rs936306 CC genotypes had about 2.3 times greater odds of remembering story elements on both the EBMT-immediate and -delayed recall tests. On the DSB, African American women with CYP 19 rs749292 GG genotype had a higher mean score. On the SDMT, Japanese women with ESR1 rs728524 GG genotypes had a higher mean score. On the 3 tests of cognitive functioning, there was 1 significant finding for CYP1A1 and none for the CYP1B1 or ESR2 SNPs. We conclude that selected genes involved in estrogen synthesis and metabolism may be associated with performance differences on cognitive function tests. Also, the relevant estrogen-related polymorphisms may vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:16949394

Kravitz, Howard M; Meyer, Peter M; Seeman, Teresa E; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, MaryFran R

2006-09-01

197

Female Reproductive System and Bone  

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The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in ...

Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

2010-01-01

198

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES*  

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Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elec...

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

199

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M

2012-05-01

200

Ovarian steroid hormones: what's hot in the stem cell pool?  

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The vital role of ovarian hormones in the development of the normal breast foreshadowed their importance in mammary stem cell regulation. Two recent papers reveal that 17?-estradiol and progesterone control the size and repopulating ability of the mammary stem cell compartment. This likely occurs via paracrine signaling from steroid receptor-positive luminal cells to steroid receptor-negative stem cells. These findings illuminate roles for the female sex steroids in mobilizing the stem cell ...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions. To date, only very few studies conducted have fulfilled these criteria. Herein, we introduce tropical infectious diseases, including amebiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, in which hormones are suspected to play a role in disease processes. We summarize the most recent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and from hormone replacement studies in animal models, as well as data regarding the influence of hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the diseases. PMID:24966190

Bernin, Hannah; Lotter, Hanna

2014-07-15

202

Biochemical and physiological characteristics of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).  

Science.gov (United States)

This works studies the biochemical (protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity) and physiological characteristics (sperm motility characteristics) of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (n=42) obtained with the application of 11?-hydroksyandrostendione for sex reversal. All data were arbitrarily divided into three classes depending on the percentage of sperm motility: I XXXX 25-50% and III XX>50%. The average percentage of sperm motility was 18±7% n=12 (group I XX); 42±6% n=15 (group II XX) and 65±12% n=15 for group III XX, respectively) to link the values of semen parameters to the maturation stage of semen. Semen from 12 normal males of the same age was used as a reference group. Sperm concentration as well as protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma of sex-reversed females were higher compared with the values obtained for normal male rainbow trout. The values of these parameters declined with the increasing percentage of sperm motility toward values established for normal males. The fertilization success of semen (3×10(6) spermatozoa/egg) of sex-reversed females was very high (above 90%) for both the percentage of eyed embryos and hatched larvae and was related to sperm motility classes. Correlations between the quality parameters of sex-reversed females semen corresponded to those established previously for the semen of normal male rainbow trout. Antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, protein concentration, and osmolality were found to be characteristic of seminal plasma of sex-reversed females. The maturity of sex-reversed female spermatozoa seems to be associated with the decline in the values of those parameters toward the values characteristic for seminal plasma of normal males. PMID:21924466

Nynca, Joanna; Ku?mi?ski, Henryk; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Hliwa, Piotr; Dobosz, Stefan; Liszewska, Ewa; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

2012-01-01

203

Sex Hormone Levels During and Between Attacks At Female Migraine Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study is to investigate the relation between the serum levels of sex hormones and migraine headache in female migraine patients. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine were measured during the headache attack and in the interval period in female migraine patients with or without aura.Materials and Methods: 46 female migraine patients who had no systemic disease were enrolled in this study. The patients ranging in age from 15 to 45 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients during the headache attack and in the interval period. We measured the serum level of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine.Results: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the interval period level (absolute value; t>1.96. There were no differences in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period (absolute value; t<1.96.Conclusion: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the serum level of interval period. However no differences were found in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period. It was described that significant variations occur in the serum levels of sex hormones during headache attack or in the interval period in female migraine patients. The examination of serum sex hormones levels can be useful to determine the etiopathogenesis and treatment in female migraine patients.

Mithat DEMIRKAYA

2008-06-01

204

Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also alter their behavior and microhabitat use under a male-biased sex ratio. Consistent with surveys showing reduced detection probabilities for females, our research suggests that females avoid male encounters using edge and substrate habitat. Our work illustrates the integrated suite of impacts that sexual conflict can have on the structure and ecology of a population.

Grayson Kristine L

2012-09-01

205

Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)

1979-01-01

206

Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

2013-04-01

207

Ant workers selfishly bias sex ratios by manipulating female development.  

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Kin selection theory predicts that social insects should perform selfish manipulations as a function of colony genetic structure. We describe a novel mechanism by which this occurs. First, we use microsatellite analyses to show that, in a population of the ant Leptothorax acervorum, workers' relatedness asymmetry (ratio of relatedness to females and relatedness to males) is significantly higher in monogynous (single-queen) colonies than in polygynous (multiple-queen) colonies. Workers rear ma...

2002-01-01

208

Sex-role stereotyping by high school females in science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the participation by females in upper-level occupations and positions has expanded considerably in recent years, science is still considered a masculine career field. The results of this study show that only the physical sciences in particular (not science in general) are clearly viewed as masculine academic areas. Furthermore, the results suggest that the perception by girls of the physical sciences as masculine is much more likely to occur in coed classes than in all-female classes. The results can best be explained by two factors: (1) the attitudes conveyed by teachers and by society may predispose students toward a greater acceptance of women in biology than in the physical sciences; and (2) when girls perceive themselves as a deviant minority in physical science classes, their performance and preference for the physical sciences is reduced, perhaps because of competition and comparison with males. In all-female classes, however, girls are not a deviant minority, and therefore they are able to perform and develop preferences without inhibition.

Vockell, Edward L.; Lobonc, Susan

209

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam. PMID:19683404

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Helio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2010-04-01

210

Leptin-mediated modulation of steroidogenic gene expression in hypoxic zebrafish embryos: implications for the disruption of sex steroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia can impair reproduction of fishes through the disruption of sex steroids. Here, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, we investigated (i) whether hypoxia can directly affect steroidogenesis independent of pituitary regulation via modulation of steroidogenic gene expression, and (ii) the role of leptin in hypoxia-induced disruption of steroidogenesis. Exposure of fertilized zebrafish embryos to hypoxia (1.0 mg O(2) L(-1)) from 0-72 h postfertilization (hpf), a developmental window when steroidogenesis is unregulated by pituitary influence, resulted in the up-regulation of cyp11a, cyp17, and 3?-hsd and the down-regulation of cyp19a. Similar gene expression patterns were observed for embryos exposed to 10 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF-1), suggesting a regulatory role of HIF-1 in steroidogenesis. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations in hypoxic embryos were greater and lesser, respectively, relative to the normoxic control, thus leading to an increased T/E2 ratio. Expression of the leptin-a gene (zlep-a) was up-regulated upon both hypoxia and CoCl(2) treatments. Functional assays suggested that under hypoxia, elevated zlep-a expression might activate cyp11a and 3?-hsd and inhibit cyp19a. Overall, this study indicates that hypoxia, possibly via HIF-1-induced leptin expression, modulates sex steroid synthesis by acting directly on steroidogenic gene expression. PMID:22816610

Yu, Richard Man Kit; Chu, Daniel Ling Ho; Tan, Tian-feng; Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Chan, Alice Ka Yee; Giesy, John P; Cheng, Shuk Han; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong

2012-08-21

211

Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

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Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women?...

Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

2007-01-01

212

HIV risk behaviours differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele  

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Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc...

2012-01-01

213

Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature  

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Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic ...

Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

214

Perceptions of and Experience With System Responses to Female Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

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Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose...

2010-01-01

215

Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker  

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Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS to sample FSWs, to determine if RDS can reach otherwise inaccessible FS...

Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Sabin, Keith; Hien, Mai Thu; Huong, Pham Thi

2006-01-01

216

Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684

Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N

2008-12-01

217

THE COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES  

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Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

2010-04-01

218

Personality characteristics of male clients of female commercial sex workers in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The personality characteristics of male clients of female sex workers and their motivations for seeking the services of sex workers were examined. It was hypothesized that clients of sex workers would differ from nonclients in that they would adopt less feminine sex roles, exhibit lower social-sexual effectiveness, and show higher levels of sensation-seeking behavior. Sixty-six clients of sex workers and 60 nonclients volunteered to complete a short questionnaire to assess demographic characteristics, sex role, social-sexual effectiveness, and sensation-seeking behavior. Clients and nonclients did not differ on demographic variables such as age, education, marital status, or occupation. However, clients were significantly less feminine in sex-role orientation, scored lower in social-sexual effectiveness, and scored higher on sensation seeking. Closer analysis of the client group revealed the existence of two distinct subgroups. The first was characterized by low social-sexual effectiveness and appeared motivated to visit sex workers because of an interpersonal need for intimacy. The second was characterized by high sensation seeking and appeared motivated to visit sex workers because of a need for novelty and variety in sexual encounters. PMID:10842724

Xantidis, L; McCabe, M P

2000-04-01

219

Sex reversal in female Betta splendens as a function of testosterone manipulation and social influence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Experiment 1, female Betta given daily injections of testosterone (T) for 9 weeks acquired anatomical features characteristic of males as indicated by changes in fin length, body coloration, and gonadal morphology. These findings suggested that a potential for sex reversal exists in females of this species. In Experiment 2 we measured changes in aggressive behavior during testosterone-induced anatomical changes. Aggression decreased toward females and increased toward males as treatment with T progressed. The final displays of aggressive behavior and anatomical characteristics of fish injected with T resembled those of typical males. In Experiment 3, female Betta primed with T injections for 3 or 6 weeks and permitted to interact socially with females continued to display characteristics of sex reversal after T supplementation ceased. Sex reversal in isolated fish injected with T for 3 or 6 weeks was not sustained, and fish receiving only the control vehicle showed negligible change in both the isolated and community conditions. We discuss the results in terms of similarities with the sex change process found in isolated communities of coral reef fish. PMID:3180734

Badura, L L; Friedman, H

1988-09-01

220

Fecal steroid analysis of female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) reproductive condition and the impact of endocrine status on daily time budgets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gestation and lactation can impose substantial energetic costs on female mammals. We developed a non-invasive means to determine reproductive condition in female giraffe using fecal steroid analysis. Giraffe may be especially challenged during their reproductive cycle because of two characteristics: they are impregnated while lactating and they do not breed seasonally. We studied the social behavior and endocrinology of seven female giraffe in a large naturalistic outdoor enclosure in order to chart connections between maternal physiology and behavior across the reproductive cycle. We found that giraffe gestation averages 448 days among females producing a calf that survived, with fecal pregnane concentrations reaching a zenith during the last trimester of pregnancy. Resumption of ovarian cyclicity following parturition was accelerated after neonatal calf mortality, but ovarian cycles resumed as early as 39 days postparturition while nursing. Although time spent feeding was unaffected by reproductive state, pregnant females significantly reduced time allocated to social behavior and had a tendency to locomote less than when cycling or acyclic. We suggest that modifications in foraging strategies as a function of reproductive state among wild giraffe derive from antipredator activity rather than from metabolic demands. Female giraffe probably cope with simultaneous lactation and gestation by producing high quality milk for neonatal calves commensurate with slow fetal growth and accelerating fetal growth simultaneous with weaning of nursing calves. PMID:15804514

del Castillo, Susan M; Bashaw, Meredith J; Patton, Marilyn L; Rieches, Randy R; Bercovitch, Fred B

2005-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sex determination in amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W chromosome, intervenes directly or indirectly, in the transcriptional regulation of the CYP19 gene for feminization in amphibians. A factor up-regulating CYP17 expression remains to be identified. PMID:18996493

Nakamura, Masahisa

2009-05-01

222

Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons  

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In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate groups where competition for monopolizable resources is high, grooming among females is based, at least partly, on the interchange of grooming for rank-related benefits, and that rank thus influences t...

Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

2001-01-01

223

Social Influence and Individual Risk Factors of HIV Unsafe Sex among Female Entertainment Workers in China  

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Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-e...

Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

2010-01-01

224

Brain factor control of sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth Heliothis zea is controlled by a hormonal substance produced in the female's brain. It is present in the brain in scotophase as well as photophase, but it is released into the hemolymph to stimulate pheromone production only in the scotophase. The stimulatory activity was also detected in the brains of male corn earworm moths and of other moths. PMID:17750856

Raina, A K; Klun, J A

1984-08-01

225

Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT and fetal estradiol (fE levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35 following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT, a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

Auyeung Bonnie

2012-12-01

226

Discordant Sexual Identity in Some Genetic Males with Cloacal Exstrophy Assigned to Female Sex at Birth  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Cloacal exstrophy is a rare, complex defect of the entire pelvis and its contents that occurs during embryogenesis and is associated with severe phallic inadequacy or phallic absence in genetic males. For about 25 years, neonatal assignment to female sex has been advocated for affected males to overcome the issue of phallic inadequacy, but data on outcome remain sparse. METHODS We assessed all 16 genetic males in our cloacal-exstrophy clinic at the ages of 5 to 16 years. Fourteen underwent neonatal assignment to female sex socially, legally, and surgically; the parents of the remaining two refused to do so. Detailed questionnaires extensively evaluated the development of sexual role and identity, as defined by the subjects' persistent declarations of their sex. RESULTS Eight of the 14 subjects assigned to female sex declared themselves male during the course of this study, whereas the 2 raised as males remained male. Subjects could be grouped according to their stated sexual identity. Five subjects were living as females; three were living with unclear sexual identity, although two of the three had declared themselves male; and eight were living as males, six of whom had reassigned themselves to male sex. All 16 subjects had moderate-to-marked interests and attitudes that were considered typical of males. Follow-up ranged from 34 to 98 months. CONCLUSIONS Routine neonatal assignment of genetic males to female sex because of severe phallic inadequacy can result in unpredictable sexual identification. Clinical interventions in such children should be reexamined in the light of these findings.

Gearhart, John P.

2006-01-01

227

Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

228

Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions. PMID:20524949

Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

2010-07-01

229

Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881

Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

2013-01-01

230

MOLECULAR TOOL FOR SEX IDENTIFICATION (FEMALE IN MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB WITH REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL VALUES  

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Full Text Available Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of polymorphic DNA was used to identify female plants before pre-flowering stage. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-15 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. This sex specific band OPA-15900 was identified only in female lines but not in male lines. This marker may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for female identification in Momordica dioica at pre-flowering stages so that it can be cultivated and utilized for its medicinal purpose.

Baratakke R.C.

2013-08-01

231

Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 ?m) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle-treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 ?g) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, almost one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

Borgquist, A; Rivas, V M; Kachani, M; Sinchak, K; Wagner, E J

2014-05-01

232

Stabilization of beta-catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal.  

Science.gov (United States)

During mammalian sex determination, expression of the Y-linked gene Sry shifts the bipotential gonad toward a testicular fate by upregulating a feed-forward loop between FGF9 and SOX9 to establish SOX9 expression in somatic cells. We previously proposed that these signals are mutually antagonistic with counteracting signals in XX gonads and that a shift in the balance of these factors leads to either male or female development. Evidence in mice and humans suggests that the male pathway is opposed by the expression of two signals, WNT4 and R-SPONDIN-1 (RSPO1), that promote the ovarian fate and block testis development. Both of these ligands can activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Duplication of the distal portion of chromosome 1p, which includes both WNT4 and RSPO1, overrides the male program and causes male-to-female sex reversal in XY patients. To determine whether activation of beta-catenin is sufficient to block the testis pathway, we have ectopically expressed a stabilized form of beta-catenin in the somatic cells of XY gonads. Our results show that activation of beta-catenin in otherwise normal XY mice effectively disrupts the male program and results in male-to-female sex-reversal. The identification of beta-catenin as a key pro-ovarian and anti-testis signaling molecule will further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sex determination and the molecular mechanisms that lead to sex-reversal. PMID:18617533

Maatouk, Danielle M; DiNapoli, Leo; Alvers, Ashley; Parker, Keith L; Taketo, Makoto M; Capel, Blanche

2008-10-01

233

Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females  

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Full Text Available Sexual subjectivity (SS includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, self-efficacy and self-reflection, and those in longerromantic relationships (> 1.5 years had higher sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy, but lower self-reflection.Females with a history of same-sex sexual experience were higher in sexual entitlement, self-efficacy andself-reflection. In multiple regression, females with a steady partner and who reported more positive romanticquality had greater sexual body-esteem. Females in longer relationships were higher in sexual self-efficacy butlower in self-reflection. Same-sex sexual experience was associated with greater entitlement to self-pleasure. Forsexual self-efficacy and self-reflection, having a steady partner and a history of same-sex sexual experience wereuniquely associated. The developmental, theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

Marie-Aude Boislard P.

2011-12-01

234

Discordant Sexual Identity in Some Genetic Males with Cloacal Exstrophy Assigned to Female Sex at Birth  

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BACKGROUND Cloacal exstrophy is a rare, complex defect of the entire pelvis and its contents that occurs during embryogenesis and is associated with severe phallic inadequacy or phallic absence in genetic males. For about 25 years, neonatal assignment to female sex has been advocated for affected males to overcome the issue of phallic inadequacy, but data on outcome remain sparse.

Reiner, William G.; Gearhart, John P.

2004-01-01

235

A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p?=?1.8×10?106), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p?=?1.4×10?11), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p?=?2.2×10?16), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p?=?3.4×10?09), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p?=?6.1×10?35), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p?=?1.9×10?08), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p?=?8.3×10?12), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p?=?3.5×10?14), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p?=?4.1×10?14), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p?=?1.3×10?07), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p?=?2.7×10?08), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p?=?5.5×10?06). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p?=?2.5×10?08, women p?=?0.66, heterogeneity p?=?0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ?15.6% and ?8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance.

Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G.; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Osten; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Mellstrom, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P.; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stockl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gils, Carla H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Kahonen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H.; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M.; Perry, John R. B.

2012-01-01

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A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ~15.6% and ~8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance. PMID:22829776

Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B

2012-01-01

237

An Immunohistochemical Study on the Expression of Sex Steroid Receptors in Canine Mammary Tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones are found to play a major role in the genesis and progression of mammary tumors. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically detect the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), estrogen receptor beta (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PR) and also to study the association between these markers in 29 cases of benign (11) and malignant (18) canine mammary tumors. ER? immunostaining was noticed in only one case of carcinosarcoma specifically in the nuclei of epithelia...

Leena Rajathy Port Louis; Khub Chandra Varshney; Madhavan Gopalakrishnan Nair

2012-01-01

238

Prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the prevalence of pre-cancerous uterine cervix lesions as detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from female sex workers in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective analysis of laboratory records. SETTING. Private anatomical pathology laboratory, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Female sex workers undergoing Pap smear examinations at two non-governmental organisations between 2006 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Detection of pre-cancerous uterine cervical conditions and their management. RESULTS. A total of 2697 satisfactory Pap smears from female sex workers were performed during the study period from 2006 to 2012. In these subjects, the point prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance was 10.12% (compared with 3.92% for the general population during the same period), whereas that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with or without high-grade intraepithelial lesions was 2.22% (compared with 0.54% in the general population). For both categories of lesions, the higher prevalence among female sex workers than in the general population was statistically significant. Most patients who had abnormal Pap smears received proper referrals and follow-up management according to recommended guidelines. CONCLUSIONS. Female sex workers in Hong Kong as a group had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears than the general population. Non-governmental organisations providing free-of-charge screening services to these women helped early detection and proper follow-up for those who had abnormal Pap smears, whilst also increasing their awareness of women's health issues. PMID:23650200

Leung, K M; Yeoh, Gary P S; Cheung, H N; Fong, François Y; Chan, K W

2013-06-01

239

Female Sex Is Associated with Worse Prognosis in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Sex plays an important role in the clinical expression and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to observe the effects of sex on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and Results A total of 621 unrelated patients with HCM without heart failure (460 males) were enrolled from 1999 to 2011. Compared to male patients, at baseline female patients were older at diagnosis (49.6±17.2 years vs. 46.7±14.4 years, P?=?0.033), and had greater frequency of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (72/161, 44.7% vs. 149/460, 32.4%, P?=?0.005). During the average four year follow-up period (range 2–7 years), survival analysis showed that the incidences of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular death and progression to chronic heart failure were greater in women than in men (P?=?0.031, 0.040 and 0.012, respectively). After adjustment for multiple factors that may confound survival and cardiac function, female sex remained an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and chronic heart failure [hazard ratio (HR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–3.95, P?=?0.010; HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17–4.09, P?=?0.014; HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.69, P?=?0.014, respectively] in HCM patients. Subgroup analysis revealed that female sex as a risk factor was identified only in patients younger than 50 years old (P?=?0.011, 0.011 and 0.009, respectively), but not for those 50 years or older. Conclusion Our results suggest that female sex is associated with worse survival and heart failure in HCM patients. Further studies are required to determine whether female hormones modify the clinical expression and prognosis of HCM.

Wang, Yilu; Wang, Jizheng; Zou, Yubao; Bao, Jingru; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Ling; Tian, Tao; Shen, Hu; Zhou, Xianliang; Ahmad, Ferhaan

2014-01-01

240

Is female sex an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether female sex is a factor independently related to in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Of 600 consecutive patients (435 males and 165 females with acute myocardial infarction, we studied 13 demographic and clinical variables obtained at the time of hospital admission through uni- and multivariate analysis, and analyzed their relation to in-hospital death. RESULTS: Females were older (p70 years (p<0.001, the presence of previous coronary artery disease (p=0.0004, previous myocardial infarction (p<0.001, infarction in the anterior wall (p=0.007, presence of left ventricular dysfunction (p<0.001, and the absence of thrombolytic therapy (p=0.04. Through the multivariate analysis of logistic regression, the following variables were associated with in-hospital mortality: female sex (p=0.001, age (p=0.008, the presence of previous myocardial infarction (p=0.02, and left ventricular dysfunction (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for all risk variables, female sex proved to be a variable independently related to in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction.

Pimenta Lúcia

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual differentiation in fish. However, in controlled environmental chemical exposures to date, only partial alterations of fish sexual phenotype have been observed. Here we report complete, permanent, and ...

Edmunds, J. S.; Mccarthy, R. A.; Ramsdell, J. S.

2000-01-01

242

HIV risk behaviours differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele  

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Full Text Available Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc. intead of stable (bar, brothel, and hotel. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results. Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (Conclusions. Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes.

Kimberly C. Brouwer

2012-12-01

243

Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

1982-01-01

244

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane

1988-01-01

245

Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) internal and 46.3% (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41% lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed. PMID:23238581

Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew F; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

2014-02-01

246

Obesity and Sex Steroid Changes Across Puberty: Evidence for Marked Hyperandrogenemia in Pre- and Early Pubertal Obese Girls*  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Peripubertal obesity is associated with abnormal sex steroid concentrations, but the timing of onset and degree of these abnormalities remain unclear. Objective To assess the degree of hyperandrogenemia across puberty in obese girls, and to assess overnight sex steroid changes in Tanner 1–3 girls. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting General Clinical Research Centers. Subjects Thirty normal weight (BMI-for-age < 85%) and 74 obese (BMI-for-age ? 95%) peripubertal girls. Intervention Blood samples (circa 0500–0700 h) while fasting. Samples from the preceding evening (circa 2300 h) were obtained in 23 Tanner 1–3 girls. Main outcome measures Hormone concentrations stratified by Tanner stage. Results Compared to normal weight girls, mean free testosterone (T) was elevated 2- to 9-fold across puberty in obese girls, while fasting insulin was 3-fold elevated in obese Tanner 1–3 girls (P < 0.05). Mean LH was lower in obese Tanner 1 and 2 girls (P < 0.05), but not in more mature girls. In a subgroup of normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 17), mean progesterone (P) and T increased overnight 2.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively (P ? 0.001). In obese Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 6), evening P and T were elevated, and both tended to increase overnight (mean 1.4- and 1.6-fold, respectively [P = 0.06]). Conclusions Peripubertal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia throughout puberty, being especially marked shortly before and during early puberty. Progesterone and testosterone concentrations in normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls increase overnight, with similar but less evident changes in obese girls.

McCartney, Christopher R.; Blank, Susan K.; Prendergast, Kathleen A.; Chhabra, Sandhya; Eagleson, Christine A.; Helm, Kristin D.; Yoo, Richard; Chang, R. Jeffrey; Foster, Carol M.; Caprio, Sonia; Marshall, John C.

2008-01-01

247

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions.

Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

2012-01-01

248

Observation of a ZZW female in a natural population: implications for avian sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian sex determination is chromosomal; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. There is no conclusive evidence for either of two proposed mechanisms: a dominant genetic switch or a dosage mechanism. No dominant sex-determining gene on the female-specific W chromosome has been found. Birds lack inactivation of one of the Z chromosomes in males, but seem to compensate for a double dose of Z-linked genes by other mechanisms. Recent studies showing female-specific expression of two genes may support an active role of the W chromosome. To resolve the question of avian sex determination the investigation of birds with a 2A: ZZW or 2A: ZO genotype would be decisive. Here, we report the case of an apparent 2A: ZZW great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) female breeding in a natural population, which was detected using Z-linked microsatellites. Our data strongly suggest a role of W-linked genes in avian sex determination. PMID:15252998

Arit, D; Bensch, S; Hansson, B; Hasselquist, D; Westerdahl, H

2004-05-01

249

HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol

2005-12-01

250

HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infe [...] ction. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008), the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053) and by their clients (p = 0.005), and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015). The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

Fabiana Schuelter, Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da, Silva.

251

Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Practices among Female Sex Workers in Karnataka, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were recruited using the two-stage probability sampling design. FSWs' sexual practice was considered risky if they reported inconsistent condom use with any sexual partner and reported experience of one of the following vulnerabilities to HIV risk: anal sex, alcohol consumption prior to sex and concurrent sexual relationships. Results About 51% of FSWs had engaged in risky sexual practice. The odds of engaging in risky sex were higher among FSWs who were older (35+ years) than younger (18–25 years) (58% vs. 45%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.4), who were currently married than never married (61% vs. 51%, AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5–9.3), who were in sex work for 10+ years than those who were in sex work for less than five years (66% vs. 39%, AOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6–4.2), and who had sex with 3+ clients/day than those who had sex with fewer clients (67% vs. 38%, AOR: 3.7, 95% CI:2.5–5.5). Conclusion FSWs who are older, currently married, practicing sex work for longer duration and with higher clientele were more likely to engage in risky sexual practices. HIV prevention programs should develop strategies to reach these most-at risk group of FSWs to optimize the effectiveness of such programs.

Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M.; Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel

2013-01-01

252

Alpha-acaridial a female sex pheromone from an alarm pheromone emilting mite Rhizoglyphus robini.  

Science.gov (United States)

The female sex pheromone of Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède (Astigmata: Acaridae) was identified as alpha-acaridial [2(E)-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-butenedial], which stimulated males sexually and enhanced the frequency of male mounting behavior. Although a hexane extract of females manifested alarm pheromone activity against tested males due to the presence of the alarm pheromone neryl formate, silica gel column fractions containing alpha-acaridial evoked increased mounting behavior by males at a dose of 0.1 female equivalent. Synthetic alpha-acaridial at a dose of 10 ng showed a peak of activity as a sex pheromone, with a convex dose-response relationship. Its content was determined to be 388 +/- 244 ng per female and 163 +/- 97 ng per male by GC. This is the first time that two pheromones (the alarm pheromone neryl formate, and the sex pheromone alpha-acaridial) have been demonstrated to be components of the same opisthonotal gland secretion in astigmatid mites. A mechanism for the appropriate expression of the two pheromones by the mites under different conditions is proposed. PMID:12921445

Mizoguchi, Atsuko; Mori, Naoki; Nishida, Ritsuo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

2003-07-01

253

Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris

2013-12-01

254

'To put men in a bottle' : Eroticism, Kinship, Female Power and Transactional Sex in Maputo, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores the role of eroticism, kinship and gender in transactional sexual relationships between young women called curtidoras and older white men in Maputo. I draw on postcolonial feminism to argue that curtidorasâ?? erotic powers are a central part of sexual-economic exchanges with men and that senior female kin are deeply involved in processes of seduction and extraction of money. Relationships between curtidoras, female kin and male partners are conceptualized as â??gendered triads of reciprocity" in order to unsettle Western stereotypes of female victims and patriarchal structures in Africa. Transactional sex often makes the partners mutually dependent and emotionally vulnerable and although moralities of exchange collide, young women tend to redistribute accumulated money from men among female seniors and kin.

Groes-Green, Christian

2013-01-01

255

Direct effect of sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) of plasma on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone in the rhesus macaque.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report direct evidence for the effect of the sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone (MCRT). Pure rhesus SBP or human SBP was infused intravenously into three different cycling female rhesus monkeys. MCRT was measured before and after SBP had reached 150-300% of basal levels. A decrease in MCRT was observed in all cases. The effect of SBP on MCRT was tested further in four additional cycling females by infusing immunoaffinity-purified monospecific human SBP antibodies known to cross-react with rhesus SBP. SBP dropped to 54, 40, 4 and 2% of basal levels with a concomitant increase of 118, 190, 320 and 640% of basal MCRT. In one of these animals, pure rabbit SBP was administered after the anti-human SBP infusion resulting in a decrease in MCRT. The magnitude of the SBP effect on MCRT is related to the distribution of testosterone (T) bound to SBP and albumin in the plasma. Calculations show that as long as the percent of T bound to SBP is equal or higher than the percent of T bound to albumin, the influence on MCRT is small. However, if SBP is reduced to the extent that T is bound mostly to albumin, the redistribution of T is associated with a dramatic increase in MCRT. We conclude that under normal conditions each animal has an optimum concentration of plasma SBP which binds a maximum amount of T. If SBP increases above this level, little effect on MCRT will result. However, a drop below the optimum level, as is the case in certain physiological or clinical conditions, will produce a large increase in the clearance of T. PMID:3927063

Pétra, P H; Stanczyk, F Z; Namkung, P C; Fritz, M A; Novy, M J

1985-06-01

256

Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Hoplia equina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hoplia equina LeConte (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is a beetle pest of cranberry beds in Massachusetts. Larvae feed on the roots of the cranberry plant, reducing yield as well as vine density. The female sex pheromone was identified as 2-tetradecanone. There were eight compounds found in the airborne volatiles collected from females that elicited antennal responses from males. Of the eight compounds tested (nonanal, decanal, dodecanal, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, 2-pentadecanone, and 2-hexadecanone), 2-tetradecanone was the only one that attracted male beetles in the field. Combining any of the other seven antennally active compounds with 2-tetradecanone did not increase male capture. PMID:12921441

Zhang, Aijun; Robbins, Paul S; Averill, Anne L; Weber, Donald C; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Villani, Michael G

2003-07-01

257

Single-sex versus coeducational environment and achievement in adolescent females.  

Science.gov (United States)

For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment. PMID:1414569

Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L

1992-01-01

258

Intracrinology of sex steroids in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of human breast: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and non-neoplastic breast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids, including those through intratumoral production in an intracrine manner, play important roles in the development of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of human breast, but biological and/or clinical significance of intratumoral production and metabolism of sex steroids, have remained largely unknown in the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), an important precursor lesion of IDC. We recently examined tissue concentration of estradiol and 5-dihydrotestosterone using liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in non-neoplastic breast, DCIS, and IDC tissues. Results of our study suggest that intratumoral concentrations of both estradiol and 5-dihydrotestosterone are increased in DCIS, which is considered due to intratumoral production of these sex steroids. Therefore, both estradiol and 5-dehydrotestosterone are considered to play important roles in the development of DCIS as well as IDC through an intracrine manner. Intratumoral metabolism and synthesis of estrogens and androgens as a result of the interactions of various enzymes are therefore also considered to play important roles in hormone dependent DCIS. Aromatase, which is one of the estrogen synthesis enzymes, plays an important role in intratumoral production of estrogen but other enzymes also play pivotal roles in intratumoral estrogen and androgen productions in human breast carcinoma. Therefore, in this review, we also focused on the importance of key intracrine enzymes such as 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, steroid sulfatase,estrogen sulfotransferase, 5alpha-reductases in both IDC and DCIS. PMID:19444935

Miki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu

2009-03-01

259

Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) hormone that controls sex pheromone production in female moths was identified from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complexes of the adult corn earworm, Heliothis zea. PBAN has 33 amino acid residues and a molecular weight of 3900. Its amino acid sequence has no significant homology with any of the fully characterized peptide hormones. The synthetic peptide, at a dose of between 2 and 4 picomoles, induced production of a normal quantity of sex pheromone in ligated H. zea females. The peptide also induced pheromone production in six other species of moths, thus indicating that this or similar peptides may be responsible for the regulation of pheromone production in moths. PMID:17802237

Raina, A K; Jaffe, H; Kempe, T G; Keim, P; Blacher, R W; Fales, H M; Riley, C T; Klun, J A; Ridgway, R L; Hayes, D K

1989-05-19

260

HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%, syphilis 17% (using the treponemal pallidum...

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Resilience and syndemic risk factors among African-American female sex workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on street-based female sex workers documents a multitude of problems faced by these women, such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, victimization, and homelessness. The presence of problems such as these is understood as a syndemic, or co-occurrence of two or more risk factors that act synergistically to create an excess burden of disease. However, the syndemic framework has not previously incorporated the examination of resilience to understand what protective factors enable female sex workers to cope with syndemic risk. Using 562 baseline interviews from street-based African-American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial, this study is the first to investigate expressions of resilience among this vulnerable population. Specifically, these analyses examine high levels of resilience, as measured by personal mastery, in order to understand the contributions of syndemic risk factors and protective factors on the expression of resilience. In bivariate logistic regression models, women with high resilience reported significantly higher odds of high school education, greater access to transportation, and more social support, in addition to lower odds of foster care history, homelessness, substance dependence, severe mental distress, victimization, and HIV risk. In the multivariate model, higher odds of high school education and increased social support, in addition to lower odds of mental distress and HIV risk remained associated with high resilience. The findings suggest specific targets for intervention to assist female sex workers in coping with syndemic risk factors and achieving better health outcomes. These include the prioritizing of education and training opportunities and the enhancement of social support. PMID:23905671

Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

2014-08-01

262

Psychometric Utility of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire with Female Street-Based Sex Workers  

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The present study examines the psychometric properties of a verbal, face-to-face administration of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) with female street-based sex workers (N = 171). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated a poor fit between our data and the instrument’s established 5-factor structure. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded four stable and usable factors corresponding to the Emotional Abuse, Emotional Neglect, Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse subscales of the C...

2004-01-01

263

Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers  

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OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% C...

1998-01-01

264

HIV related knowledge and prevention among Thai female commercial sex workers in Japan  

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A survey of 87 Thai female commercial sex workers (TCSW) was conducted in Tokyo and surrounding areas to investigate their: 1) living conditions, 2) knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sources of information, and 3) working conditions and dealings with clients. Data were mainly collected by “snowballing” with semi-structured interviews. The results showed a majority of participants knew HIV could be contracted through sexual intercourse and that condom use could protect against HIV infection. Ho...

1999-01-01

265

Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam  

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Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW) in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common ty...

Hernandez Brenda Y; Vu Nguyen Thuong

2008-01-01

266

Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India  

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Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with th...

Euser, Sjoerd M.; Dennis Souverein; Pushpalatha Rama Narayana Gowda; Chandra Shekhar Gowda; Diana Grootendorst; Rajendra Ramaiah; Snehal Barot; Sunil Kumar; Oise Jenniskens, Fran X. E.; Shiv Kumar; Jeroen Den Boer

2012-01-01

267

Syndromic versus laboratory-based diagnosis of cervical infections among female sex workers in Benin  

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BACKGROUND: The syndromic diagnostic approach is the most realistic and cost-effective strategy for controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the developing world. Its potential advantages should be evaluated. GOAL: The goal of the current study was to examine whether the syndromic approach might diagnose more cases of cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis than laboratory tests. STUDY DESIGN: The participants were 481 female sex workers in Benin, screene...

Mukenge-tshibaka, L.; Alary, M.; Lowndes, C. M.; Dyck, E.; Gue?dou, A.; Geraldo, N.; Anagonou, S.; Lafia, E.; Joly, J. R.

2002-01-01

268

Barriers to Free Antiretroviral Treatment Access for Female Sex Workers in Chennai, India  

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India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify c...

2009-01-01

269

A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.  

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An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions...

1999-01-01

270

High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina  

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Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs) was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 we...

Pando María A; Eyzaguirre Lindsay M; Carrion Gladys; Montano Silvia M; Sanchez José L; Carr Jean K; Avila María M

2007-01-01

271

Prevalence of HIV Infection and Predictors for Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

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The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Weste...

Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T.; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

272

Prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda  

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Background. The importance of Mycoplasma genitalium in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-burdened sub-Saharan Africa is relatively unknown. We assessed the prevalence and explored determinants of this emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) in high-risk women in Uganda.Methods. Endocervical swabs from 1025 female sex workers in Kampala were tested for Mycoplasma genitalium using a commercial Real-TM polymerase chain reaction assay. Factors associated with prevalent Mycoplasma genitaliu...

Vandepitte, J.; Muller, E.; Bukenya, J.; Nakubulwa, S.; Kyakuwa, N.; Buve?, A.; Weiss, H.; Hayes, R.; Grosskurth, H.

2011-01-01

273

Markers of sexually transmitted diseases in seminal fluid of male clients of female sex workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To screen for certain STD markers in a group of male clients of female sex workers. METHOD: Condoms with seminal fluid were collected at 10 "massage parlours" in Copenhagen. The seminal fluid samples were examined for HIV antibodies, markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. RESULTS: All samples (n = 332) were negative for HIV antibodies. Out of 327 samples examined for HBV markers 32 (9.8%) were positive for HBV core antibodies, one of ...

Worm, A. M.; Lauritzen, E.; Jensen, I. P.; Jensen, J. S.; Christiansen, C. B.

1997-01-01

274

High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Is Associated with HIV Acquisition among South African Female Sex Workers  

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Background. Mounting evidence suggests an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV acquisition. This study aimed to explore this association among South African female sex workers (FSWs). Methods. We used data from 88 HIV-negative FSWs who participated in a vaginal gel (COL-1492) trial. Cervicovaginal rinse samples, obtained before HIV-seroconversion, were genotyped into high-risk (HR-) and low-risk (LR-) HPV. HIV-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) w...

Auvert, Bertran; Marais, Dianne; Lissouba, Pascale; Zarca, Kevin; Ramjee, Gita; Williamson, Anna-lise

2011-01-01

275

FOXL2 is a female sex-determining gene in the goat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin of sex reversal in XX goats homozygous for the polled intersex syndrome (PIS) mutation was unclear because of the complexity of the mutation that affects the transcription of both FOXL2 and several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Accumulating evidence suggested that FOXL2 could be the sole gene of the PIS locus responsible for XX sex reversal, the lncRNAs being involved in transcriptional regulation of FOXL2. In this study, using zinc-finger nuclease-directed mutagenesis, we generated several fetuses, of which one XX individual bears biallelic mutations of FOXL2. Our analysis demonstrates that FOXL2 loss of function dissociated from loss of lncRNA expression is sufficient to cause an XX female-to-male sex reversal in the goat model and, as in the mouse model, an agenesis of eyelids. Both developmental defects were reproduced in two newborn animals cloned from the XX FOXL2(-/-) fibroblasts. These results therefore identify FOXL2 as a bona fide female sex-determining gene in the goat. They also highlight a stage-dependent role of FOXL2 in the ovary, different between goats and mice, being important for fetal development in the former but for postnatal maintenance in the latter. PMID:24485832

Boulanger, Laurent; Pannetier, Maëlle; Gall, Laurence; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Elzaiat, Maëva; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Daniel, Nathalie; Richard, Christophe; Cotinot, Corinne; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Pailhoux, Eric

2014-02-17

276

The relation of smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum adrenal steroids, sex hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships of cigarette smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, cortisol, 3-alpha-androstanediol, 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide, testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were examined cross-sectionally in 1241 randomly sampled middle-aged U.S. men. Compared with nonsmokers and independent of relative weight (body mass index) and age, cigarette smokers had increased serum levels of DHEA (18% higher, P = 0.0002), DHEAS (13% higher, P = 0.0007), cortisol (5% higher, P = 0.01), androstenedione (33% higher, P = 0.0001), testosterone (9% higher, P = 0.009), DHT (14% higher, P = 0.004), and SHBG (8% higher, P = 0.004). Androstenedione, total plasma testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, DHT, and SHBG decreased with increasing relative weight. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG and negatively associated with albumin-bound testosterone, DHEA, and DHEAS. An association was found between alcohol intake and DHEA (r = 0.15; P = 0.0001), cortisol (r = 0.10; P = 0.0007), and 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (r = 0.08; P = 0.0004). Cortisol was the only hormone that was associated with carbohydrate intake (r = -0.09; P = 0.002). The only hormones associated with dietary lipids were DHT (for vegetable fat, r = 0.07; P = 0.02), cortisol (for total fat, r = 0.08; P = 0.007), and SHBG (for animal fat, r = -0.06; P = 0.05). In addition, SHBG was positively associated with dietary (r = 0.07; P = 0.008) and crude (r = 0.08; P = 0.007) fiber. These data suggest that serum adrenal steroid and sex hormone concentrations in middle-aged men are more influenced by cigarette smoking, age, and obesity than by dietary intake; however, serum adrenal steroids were influenced by alcohol intake. PMID:7962322

Field, A E; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Longcope, C; McKinlay, J B

1994-11-01

277

"One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

Griffiths Sian

2008-12-01

278

The Extent and Nature of Fluidity in Typologies of Female Sex Work in Southern India: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs  

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These authors examine the nature and extent of fluidity in defining the typology of female sex work based on the place of solicitation or place of sex or both places together, and whether sex workers belonging to a particular typology are at increased risk of HIV in southern India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted during 2007–2008 among mobile female sex workers (N = 5301) in four Indian states. Findings from this study address an important policy issue: Should program...

Jain, Anrudh K.; Saggurti, Niranjan

2012-01-01

279

Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review  

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Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

RIBEIRO-PAES J. T.

1997-01-01

280

HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.

Carter Keith H.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE BY CHLORDIMEFORM IN OVARIECTOMIZED, STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the mammalian female for the process of ovulation. ccordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge could function as a reproductive toxicant. ince ovariectomized (OVX) rats...

282

Production of all female progeny: evidence for the presence of the male sex determination factor on the Y chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, follows an XX (female) and XY (male) sex determination system. Maternal supply of the protein Transformer (Tra) is required for XX insects to follow the female pathway. The nature and source of the signal that regulates male sex determination in XY beetles are not known. Parental RNAi-aided knockdown in expression of tra masculinizes genetic females (XX) that are fertile. The virgin females mated with these masculinized genetic females produced all female progeny. We present the genetic evidence to show that the factor responsible for male sex determination is present on the Y chromosome. These data also suggest that the Y chromosome in T. castaneum is not required for male fertility. PMID:24577442

Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

2014-05-15

283

Sex steroids do not affect shigatoxin cytotoxicity on human renal tubular or glomerular cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, ?-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.

Kohan Donald E

2002-08-01

284

Female sex pheromone of the pickleworm,Diaphania nitidalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

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Heptane extracts of the ovipositors from pickleworm adults (Diaphania nitidalis) were found to contain (E)-11-hexadecenal along with proportionally smaller amounts of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (E)- and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, hexadecanol, hexadecanal, and a trace amount of (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal. Assays conducted in a flight tunnel and in the field showed that a synthetic mixture of the five unsaturated compounds elicited behavioral responses from pickleworm males that were indistinguishable from those elicited by extracts of the female or by mate-calling females. When any component was deleted from the set of five unsaturated compounds, the intensity and extent of male responses to the resulting mixtures were significantly attenuated. The female sex pheromone of the pickleworm resembles the pheromone of a congeneric species,D. hyalinata, but bioassays indicated that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal, produced byD. hyalinata but not by the pickleworm, plays a role in pheromonal specificity. PMID:24306413

Klun, J A; Leonhardt, B A; Schwarz, M; Day, A; Raina, A K

1986-01-01

285

Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field  

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Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

2011-12-01

286

Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities  

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Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed intere...

Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

287

Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels

1986-03-01

288

Dmrt1 mutation causes a male-to-female sex reversal after the sex determination by Dmy in the medaka.  

Science.gov (United States)

DMRT1, which is found in many vertebrates, exhibits testis-specific expression during the sexual differentiation period, suggesting a conserved function of DMRT1 in the testicular development of vertebrate gonads. However, functional analyses have been reported only in mammals. The current study focused on the Dmrt1 function in the teleost medaka, Oryzias latipes, which has an XX-XY sex determination system. Although medaka sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-specific gene Dmy, we demonstrated that in one Dmrt1 mutant line, which was found by screening a gene-driven mutagenesis library, XY mutants developed into normal females and laid eggs. Histological analyses of this mutant revealed that the XY mutant gonads first developed into the normal testis type. However, the gonads transdifferentiated into the ovary type. The mutant phenotype could be rescued by transgenesis of the Dmrt1 genomic region. These results show that Dmrt1 is essential to maintain testis differentiation after Dmy-triggered male differentiation pathway. PMID:22187367

Masuyama, Haruo; Yamada, Masato; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara-Ishikawa, Tomoko; Todo, Takeshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Matsuda, Masaru

2012-01-01

289

Regulation of VEGF in the reproductive tract by sex-steroid hormones  

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis. In adults, angiogenesis is an infrequent event in the normal tissue except in the female reproductive tract where angiogenesis occurs frequently during the cyclical repair and regeneration of the endometrium as well as in the ovary. Little is known about angiogenesis in the male reproductive tract. The role of VEGF in controlling reproductive tract physiology and the role of hormones ...

Hyder, S. M.; Stancel, G. M.

2000-01-01

290

Vulnerabilities, health needs and predictors of high-risk sexual behaviour among female adolescent sex workers in Kunming, China  

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Objectives : This study assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) from Kunming, China. Additionally, health services needs and use were assessed.

Zhang, Xudong; Temmerman, Marleen; Li, Yan; Luo, Wei; Lu?chters, Stanley

2013-01-01

291

Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters might be important in predisposing women to condom breakage.

Bradley Janet

2011-12-01

292

Sex steroids effects on the molting process of the helminth human parasite Trichinella spiralis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development. PMID:22162638

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Ramirez-Nieto, Ricardo; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Nava-Castro, Karen; Pavón, Lenin; Sánchez-Acosta, Ana Gabriela; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-01-01

293

Interpretation of opposite-sex friendship based on social ecology model in Iranian females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: One of the main cultural issues in universities is relationships between male and female students. Due to the adverse consequences of this issue, explaining of the beyond the causes of friendship with opposite-sex, is one of the first steps in planning for youth issues. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Nineteen female university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions through four sessions were used to gather required data. Two themes were extracted. One was the behaviors leading friendship which consisted of 5 subsets including self and extra-self, meso, exo-, and macro-systems. The other theme was the actions against with consequences of sex which are made of 2 subsets of the quality and the consequences of sex. Results: Various factors such as person attitude, felling lonely, and community atmosphere, including the university environment, family, friends, religious beliefs and media that promote the Western culture can be effective in friendship before marriage. Conclusion: Since the society of our country is considered a young populated one and the culture of the West through the media currently influences on our culture, reproductive health programs should be developed in a high priority focusing on youth fitted with their current needs according to Islamic-Iranian culture. PMID:24644485

Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Chaman, Reza

2012-01-01

294

The vomeronasal organ is required for the expression of lordosis behaviour, but not sex discrimination in female mice  

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The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mediating neuroendocrine responses in female mice is well known; however, whether the VNO is equally important for sex discrimination is more controversial as evidence exists for a role of the main olfactory system in mate recognition. Therefore, we studied the effect of VNO removal (VNOx) on the ability of female mice to discriminate between volatile and non-volatile odours of conspecifics of the two sexes and in different endocrine states using Y-m...

Keller, Matthieu; Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

2006-01-01

295

Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)  

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OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before Decembe...

Vioque, J.; Hernandez-aguado, I.; Fernandez, G.; Garcia, D.; Alvarez-dardet, C.

1998-01-01

296

Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy  

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Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with both electrochemical detection (ECD and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2, estrone (E1, testosterone (T, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP and progesterone (P in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51. Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

Hayata,Koshi

1985-06-01

297

Effects of Developmental Exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (PBDE-99) on Sex Steroids, Sexual Development, and Sexually Dimorphic Behavior in Rats  

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Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces s...

Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-ha?rer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E.

2006-01-01

298

Breast cancer and sex steroids: critical review of epidemiological, experimental and clinical investigations on etiopathogenesis, chemoprevention and endocrine treatment of breast cancer  

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There is strong epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence that the etiology of breast cancer is closely related to long-term exposure of breast epithelium to sex steroid hormones. Estrogens can enhance the development of breast cancer by stimulating cell proliferation rate and thereby increasing the number of errors occurring during DNA replication, as well as by causing DNA damage via their genotoxic metabolites produced during oxidation reactions. Anti-estrogenic drugs, including ...

Sismondi, Piero; Biglia, Nicoletta

2005-01-01

299

An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

Nikolaou Marinos

2014-01-01

300

Determinants of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers among men attending the STD clinic in Singapore  

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Background/objectives: Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers.

Wee, S.; Barrett, M.; Lian, W.; Jayabaskar, T.; Chan, K.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Bone turnover in non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis.  

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OBJECTIVE--To examine whether changes in cancellous bone turnover and resorption cavity depth contribute to bone loss in patients with non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 37 patients with non-steroid treated rheumatoid arthritis, 13 male and 24 female, aged 37-71 years. Bone turnover and resorption cavity characteristics were quantitatively assessed using semiautomated computerised techniques. RESULTS--When compared with age- and sex-matc...

1994-01-01

302

Flow cytometric sexing of spider sperm reveals an equal sperm production ratio in a female-biased species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia results in a female bias. However, pedigree analysis reveals that other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female-determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species. PMID:24850893

Vanthournout, B; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H; Bilde, T; Lambrecht, B; Hendrickx, F

2014-05-01

303

Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.

Pando, Maria A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, Maria M.

2013-01-01

304

"Preparation of HY Antibody in Female Mice as a Model for Sex Preselection"  

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Full Text Available The aim of this sutdy is to prepare Histocompatability Y(HY antibody in female mouse at the first phase (current study, and to separate mouse embryos with regard to their sex, to be able to obtain offsprings of disired sex, by means of HY antibody, at the second phase. Totally 421 BALB/C inbred mice were used. Antibodies were produced in females by intraperitonial injections of spleen and testis cells of neonatal male mice. The sera of females were tested by five different immunological techniques, as follows: Double gel diffusion, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis, Plain electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence and Cytotoxicity test. The first two techniques showed no positive results, but the remaining three methods proved the existence of HY antibody in sera. In electrophoresis, an increase in gamma-globulin and total globulins index, over albumin, was detected in injected mice sera. In immunofluorescence assay HY antigen was revealed on the surface of the mouse testis and spleen cells. Cytotoxicity test has been the most suitable method for detecting HY antibody. Also, the possibility to differentiate X-bearing and Y-bearing embryos could be used in prevention of X-linked diseases as well as in population control.

"L Andonian

2001-07-01

305

Barriers to Utilisation of Sexual Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Nepal  

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Full Text Available  Sexual health services are relatively rare in Nepal.  Female sex workers (FSWs do not use health services as much as would be desirable. A study was conducted to identify barriers to access of sexual health services by FSWs in Nepal. A mixed-method approach consisting of a 425 questionnaire-based survey and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007.One fifth of the FSWs had never visited health facilities. FSWs turned to private clinics followed by clinics belonging to non-governmental organisations and pharmacies for treatment. A combination of personal and service-related factors acted as critical barriers in accessing health services. Lack of confidentiality, discrimination and negative attitudes held by health care providers, poor communication between service providers and fear of exposure to the public as a sex worker were the major barriers to seeking sexual health services. These barriers should be taken into account while planning for  sexual health services.

Edwin van Teijlingen

2009-03-01

306

A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The silkworm Bombyx mori uses a WZ sex determination system that is analogous to the one found in birds and some reptiles. In this system, males have two Z sex chromosomes, whereas females have Z and W sex chromosomes. The silkworm W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination, suggesting the existence of a dominant feminizing gene in this chromosome. However, the W chromosome is almost fully occupied by transposable element sequences, and no functional protein-coding gene has been identified so far. Female-enriched PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are the only known transcripts that are produced from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome, but the function(s) of these piRNAs are unknown. Here we show that a W-chromosome-derived, female-specific piRNA is the feminizing factor of B. mori. This piRNA is produced from a piRNA precursor which we named Fem. Fem sequences were arranged in tandem in the sex-determining region of the W chromosome. Inhibition of Fem-derived piRNA-mediated signalling in female embryos led to the production of the male-specific splice variants of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a gene which acts at the downstream end of the sex differentiation cascade. A target gene of Fem-derived piRNA was identified on the Z chromosome of B. mori. This gene, which we named Masc, encoded a CCCH-type zinc finger protein. We show that the silencing of Masc messenger RNA by Fem piRNA is required for the production of female-specific isoforms of Bmdsx in female embryos, and that Masc protein controls both dosage compensation and masculinization in male embryos. Our study characterizes a single small RNA that is responsible for primary sex determination in the WZ sex determination system. PMID:24828047

Kiuchi, Takashi; Koga, Hikaru; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Shoji, Keisuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Arai, Yuji; Ishihara, Genki; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu

2014-05-29

307

Stabilization of ?-catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal  

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During mammalian sex determination, expression of the Y-linked gene Sry shifts the bipotential gonad toward a testicular fate by upregulating a feed-forward loop between FGF9 and SOX9 to establish SOX9 expression in somatic cells. We previously proposed that these signals are mutually antagonistic with counteracting signals in XX gonads and that a shift in the balance of these factors leads to either male or female development. Evidence in mice and humans suggests that the male pathway is opp...

Maatouk, Danielle M.; Dinapoli, Leo; Alvers, Ashley; Parker, Keith L.; Taketo, Makoto M.; Capel, Blanche

2008-01-01

308

Synthesis of the female sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri.  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) is a common pest in the Southern U. S. and the Mediterranean. Two alternative syntheses of the female sex pheromone, (1R)-(+)-cis-2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropenyl-cyclobutane methanol acetate, have been developed. Key transformations include an allylic oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to (+)-R-verbenone, oxidative decarboxylation using RuCl(3)-NaIO(4), and methylenation with Zn/CH(2)Br(2)/TiCl(4). PMID:15137832

Passaro, Linda C; Webster, Francis X

2004-05-19

309

Aggregation pheromone activity of the female sex pheromone, beta-acaridial, in Caloglyphus polyphyllae (Acari: Acaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Caloglyphus (= Sancasania) polyphyllae discharges from a pair of opisthonotal glands a characteristic set of volatiles, i.e. three monoterpenes and seven hydrocarbons. Among them, beta-acaridial, which is known as the female sex pheromone of the species and has antifungal activity, was newly identified as the aggregation pheromone for unfeeding and unmating mites. Feeding mites, however, exhibited sexually aroused behavior instead of the tendency to cluster when exposed to beta-acaridial. This is the first example of the compound demonstrating two pheromone functions depending upon the circumstances faced by the mites. PMID:11577709

Shimizu, N; Mori, N; Kuwahara, Y

2001-08-01

310

Molecular biology of the honey bee : Complementary sex determination and female caste development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlying complementary sex determination remain an unresolved pussle and the link between dietary differences and female phenopypic plasticity has yet to be indentified. In the present PhD projekt different aspects of both types of development was explored using a combination of high throughourt sequencing and functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development

Munk, Kathe

2014-01-01

311

Anal Sex, Vaginal Practices, and HIV Incidence in Female Sex Workers in Urban Kenya: Implications for the Development of Intravaginal HIV Prevention Methods  

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Multiple intravaginal HIV prevention methods, including microbicide gels, barriers, and intravaginal rings, are in clinical development in Africa. Development of intravaginal HIV prevention products requires an understanding of sexual behavior, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and vaginitis prevalences, and sexual and vaginal practices in potential target populations. We assessed these factors in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Women who reported exchanging sex for money/gif...

Priddy, Frances H.; Wakasiaka, Sabina; Hoang, Tina D.; Smith, Donna J.; Farah, Bashir; Del Rio, Carlos; Ndinya-achola, Jeckoniah

2011-01-01

312

HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

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Abstract Background The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and drug users (DU) remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among MSM, FSW and DU, calculating a combined pooled prevalence and summarizing factors associated the poo...

Malta Monica; Mf, Magnanini Monica; Mello Maeve B; Pascom Ana Roberta P; Linhares Yohana; Bastos Francisco I

2010-01-01

313

The Relationship Between HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk and Alcohol Use During Commercial Sex Episodes: Results From the Study of Female Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines  

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The HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) risk associated with alcohol use between female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) and their customers has been understudied. We examined this relationship for 1,114 FCSWs aged 15–54 with data collected during the baseline study period (1994 to 1998) in four southern provinces of the Philippines. Two alcohol-related risk situations during commercial sex episodes were examined: prior alcohol use by an FCSW and perceived intoxication in a customer. The...

2006-01-01

314

Offspring sex-ratio and reproductive performance in heterogametic females of the South American field mouse Akodon azarae. Reproduction in heterogametic Akodon azarae females.  

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We have compared the breeding performance of homogametic (XX) and heterogametic (XY*) females of the South American sigmodontine rodent Akodon azarae under laboratory conditions. XY* females showed an enhanced reproductive performance when compared with normal, XX, females. The XY* females had a longer reproductive lifespan. They started to reproduce early, had more frequent litters, and stopped reproduction later than XX females. Their progeny showed a biased 1:2 male:female sex ratio which may be explained by the early loss of YY* zygotes after fertilization. However, litter size at birth was similar both in XY* and XX females, and no difference in ovulation rate was detected between them. This indicates that an "automatic" rather than an "evolved" reproductive compensation mechanism may be acting in heterogametic females. A separate study has shown that self-synapsis of both the X and Y* chromosomes takes place during meiosis, allowing the oocytes to escape from functional deterioration. It is suggested that self-synapsis and "automatic" reproductive compensation account for the preservation of fertility in heterogametic females in spite of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the early embryo loss they experience. However, these mechanisms do not account for the enhancement of reproductive lifespan. The possibility that an intrauterine position phenomenon is acting in A. azarae is discussed. PMID:8690614

Espinosa, M B; Vitullo, A D

1996-01-01

315

Genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski reveals its female sex.  

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We report the results of genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584), a great Polish renaissance poet. The skull was retrieved in 1791 by historian Tadeusz Czacki from the Kochanowski family tomb and became the property of the Czartoryskis Museum in Krakow. An anthropological study in 1926 questioned its male origin, which raised doubts about its authenticity. Our report presents genetic evidence that resolves this dispute. From the sole tooth we obtained a sufficient amount of DNA to perform the analysis of nuclear markers. The analysis of the sex-informative part of intron 1 in amelogenin, genotyped using AmpFiSTR® NGM PCR Amplification Kit and Powerplex® ESI17 Kit human identification systems, revealed the female origin of the tooth. The female origin was further confirmed by the analysis of a portion of amelogenin intron 2, a microsatellite marker located on the X chromosome, as well as by a lack of signal from Y chromosomal microsatellite markers and the sex-determining region Y marker. Data obtained for two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in mitochondrial DNA showed that mtDNA haplotype was relatively frequent among contemporary Europeans. The analysis of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for prediction of the iris color indicated an 87% probability that the woman had hazel or brown eye color. PMID:21674838

Kupiec, Tomasz; Branicki, Wojciech

2011-06-01

316

Study of dentate gyrus granule cells of female rats neonatally treated with sex hormones  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of rats, and to explore the possibility that this process is regulated by the activation of sex hormones. The proliferation of hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells was investigated using 80 nC; 3H thymidine incorporation in the first group andin the second grouph 80 ?Ci3H - thymidine and 1mg estrogene dipropionae. We proved the existence of a stronger proliferation of granule cells in SGZ GD in female rats. The third group of newborn female Wistar rats was treated at 4 and 8 a days of ageold with a single dose of 2 mg of testosterone propionate. We proved the existence of minor damages of granule cells in SGZ GD. In the fourth group treated at 15 days of age, a single dose of 4 mg testosterone propionate and sacrificed when 60 days old, we proved the existence of minor damages of granular cells in SGZ GD. Our results suggest a differential effect of sex hormones on dentate gyrus granule cells proliferation through early life in rats.

Dreki? Dmitar M.

2005-01-01

317

Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1  

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Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females ...

2012-01-01

318

Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers  

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Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.

2014-01-01

319

Prevalence of HIV infection and predictors for syphilis infection among female sex workers in southern China.  

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The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Western blot confirmation) infections. Of the 362 eligible participants, 81.7% were non-local residents (60.5% from other parts of Guangxi and 21.2% were non-Guangxi residents); 58.0% belonged to non-Han minority ethnic groups; 37.5% reported inconsistent condom use with their clients and 71.2% reported inconsistent condom use with their regular sex partners during the past month. Nearly 10% reported having had sex with drug users. The prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis infections were 2.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Almost half (46.6%) of participants reported having had STD symptoms. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the past month (AOR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.8-13.8), less education (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-7.4), and HIV infection (AOR = 8.1; 95% CI = 1.1-68.5) were independently associated with syphilis infection. PMID:19323011

Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; Vermund, Sten H

2009-03-01

320

Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19% reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p? Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Ramesh Sowmya

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Both male and female novel traits promote the correlated evolution of genitalia between the sexes in an arthropod.  

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The correlated evolution of genitalia between sexes has been demonstrated in many taxa. However, it remains unclear whether female rather than male genitalia can play a key role in the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia. We conducted an extensive cross-population analysis of the divergence patterns of genital structures, weights of whole genital organs, and the bodies of both sexes, and male genital length in a group of xystodesmid millipedes showing diverse genital morphologies. We demonstrate that the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia toward exaggerated states has occurred in the millipedes, which have evolved novel traits in both males (forceps-like gonopods) and females (retractable bellows). Enlargement and elongation of forceps-like gonopods may be advantageous in sperm competition, whereas enlargement and elongation of the bellows may facilitate acceptance/rejection of insemination for ensuring the female's fitness. These male and female genital parts have affected the correlated evolution in the opposite sex, resulting in diversification and exaggeration of genital morphology. Our study suggests that evolutionary novel traits in not only males but also in females could play an important role in the correlated evolution of genitalia between the sexes. PMID:24116383

Tanabe, Tsutomu; Sota, Teiji

2014-02-01

322

Pituitary-gonadal Relationship in the Catfish Clarias batrachus (L): A Study Correlating Gonadotrophin-II and Sex Steroid Dynamics.  

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A heterologous radioimmunoassay was developed for measuring gonadotrophin-II (GTH-II) in the catfish Clarias batrachus. Serum and/or pituitary levels of GTH-II showed significant annual/seasonal variations in male and female catfish, which could be correlated with both gonadosomatic index and/or serum testosterone level. GTH-II was not detected in resting phase, increased during gonadal recrudescence to peak values in late prespawning /spawning phases, and declined to low values in postspawning phase. During gonadal recrudescence, the pituitary and serum levels of GTH-II maintained positive or inverse relationships implying differential rates of hormone release and synthesis/storage. Gonadectomy resulted in increased release of GTH-II; the release pattern varied in females and hemi-castrated or completely castrated males. In females, the GTH-II increase followed a distinct biphasic pattern with the peak rise at week 4 of ovariectomy. In males, castration resulted in significant rise of serum GTH-II levels at all duration except week 5, but the magnitude of the rise was higher in completely castrated fish (weeks 1, 2 and 3). Testosterone replacement in 3-week hemi-castrated fish restored the GTH-II level to that of the sham control vehicle group. In intact fish, administration of testosterone elicited an increase in serum GTH-II levels in the low dose (0.25 and 0.5 mug / g BW) groups and no change in the high dose (1.0 mug / g BW) group. Methallibure treatment inhibited GTH-II levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction was greater in males. Withdrawal of the drug treatment restored the GTH-II and testosterone levels after 15 days in the low dose group (2 mug / g BW). The results indicate that there exists a dynamic positive or negative feedback relationship between gonadal steroids and GTH-II, which is essential to control the release and availability of circulating GTH-II. PMID:18494596

Joy, K P; Singh, M S; Senthilkumaran, B; Goos, H J

2000-04-01

323

Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. Results All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority.

Degenhardt Louisa

2006-05-01

324

Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

Phrasisombath Ketkesone

2012-11-01

325

Hypospadias in a male (78,XY; SRY-positive) dog and sex reversal female (78,XX; SRY-negative) dogs: clinical, histological and genetic studies.  

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Hypospadias is rarely reported in dogs. In this study we pre-sent 2 novel cases of this disorder of sexual development and, in addition, a case of hereditary sex reversal in a female with an enlarged clitoris. The first case was a male Moscow watchdog with a normal karyotype (78,XY) and the presence of the SRY gene. In this dog, perineal hypospadias, bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and testes were observed. The second case, representing the Cocker spaniel breed, had a small penis with a hypospadic orifice of the urethra, bilateral cryptorchidism, testis and a rudimentary gonad inside an ovarian bursa, a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene. This animal was classified as a compound sex reversal (78,XX, SRY-negative) with the hypospadias syndrome. The third case was a Cocker spaniel female with an enlarged clitoris and internally located ovotestes. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a normal female karyotype (78,XX) and a lack of the SRY gene, while histology of the gonads showed an ovotesticular structure. This case was classified as a typical hereditary sex reversal syndrome (78,XX, SRY-negative). Molecular studies were focused on coding sequences of the SRY gene (case 1) and 2 candidates for monogenic hypospadias, namely MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) and SRD5A2 (steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2). Sequencing of the entire SRY gene, including 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, did not reveal any mutation. The entire coding sequence of MAMLD1 and SRD5A2 was analyzed in all the intersexes, as well as in 4 phenotypically normal control dogs (3 females and 1 male). In MAMLD1 2 SNPs, including 1 missense substitution in exon 1 (c.128A>G, Asp43Ser), were identified, whereas in SRD5A2 7 polymorphisms, including 1 missense SNP (c.358G>A, Ala120Thr), were found. None of the identified polymorphisms cosegregated with the intersexual phenotype, thus, we cannot confirm that hypospadias may be associated with polymorphism in the coding sequence of the studied genes. PMID:21893969

Switonski, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Bartz, M; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Szczerbal, I; Colaço, B; Pires, M A; Ochota, M; Nizanski, W

2012-01-01

326

Female sex pheromone of a carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).  

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This study describes the identification of a sex pheromone component of a cossid moth, Cossus insularis. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) collections of volatiles released by live female moths showed that two compounds elicited EAG responses from the antennae of male moths. These compounds were identified as (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate (E3-14:Ac) and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate (Z3-14:Ac) by mass spectral analysis and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. The ratio of E3-14:Ac and Z3-14:Ac was 95:5 in the effluvia of a female. In field bioassays, sticky traps baited with blends of E3-14:Ac and Z3-14:Ac showed that E3-14:Ac is an essential component of the pheromone. However, the role of Z3-14:Ac is unclear, because E3-14:Ac as a single component was as attractive to male moths as blends of E3-14:Ac and Z3-14:Ac, including the 95:5 blend released by live female moths. PMID:16683203

Chen, Xiong; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Nakashima, Tadakazu; Tokoro, Masahiko; Mochizuki, Fumiaki; Fukumoto, Takehiko

2006-03-01

327

Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness.  

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Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve. PMID:24316208

Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

2013-12-16

328

Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border  

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This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect, and emotional and material support. These relationships ranged in emotional intensity, which shaped partners’ decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples’ relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers’ intimate relationships.

Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

329

Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.

Deering Kathleen N

2011-12-01

330

The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma  

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The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement). The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml....

Saleh Kamal

2009-01-01

331

History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities  

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This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarc...

2009-01-01

332

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ?18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juare...

2010-01-01

333

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

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Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data ...

2011-01-01

334

Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

2011-12-01

335

Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar.  

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Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

2014-01-01

336

THE CHOICE OF TOPICS IN MALE, FEMALE AND MIXED-SEX GROUPS OF STUDENTS OF PETRA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY IN THEIR CHATTING  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed some conversations in the male, female and male-female groups of some university students. Using McCarthy's classification of topics, the results show that 'Persons' is the typical topic in the female group, while 'Objects/ belongings' is the most favorite topic in the male group. In the mixed-sex group, it is interesting to see how both sexes negotiated the topics by proposing the typical topics of the other sex group.

Shierly Agustin

2003-01-01

337

Loss of Wnt4 and Foxl2 leads to female-to-male sex reversal extending to germ cells.  

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The discovery that the SRY gene induces male sex in humans and other mammals led to speculation about a possible equivalent for female sex. However, only partial effects have been reported for candidate genes experimentally tested so far. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of two ovarian somatic factors, Wnt4 and Foxl2, produces testis differentiation in XX mice, resulting in the formation of testis tubules and spermatogonia. These genes are thus required to initiate or maintain all major aspects of female sex determination in mammals. The two genes are independently expressed and show complementary roles in ovary morphogenesis. In addition, forced expression of Foxl2 impairs testis tubule differentiation in XY transgenic mice, and germ cell-depleted XX mice lacking Foxl2 and harboring a Kit mutation undergo partial female-to-male sex reversal. The results are all consistent with an anti-testis role for Foxl2. The data suggest that the relative autonomy of the action of Foxl2, Wnt4 and additional ovarian factor(s) in the mouse should facilitate the dissection of their respective contributions to female sex determination. PMID:17728319

Ottolenghi, Chris; Pelosi, Emanuele; Tran, Joseph; Colombino, Maria; Douglass, Eric; Nedorezov, Timur; Cao, Antonio; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David

2007-12-01

338

Interactions of 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]-fluoroestradiol (FES) with sex steroid binding protein (SBP)  

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Fluorine-18 16{alpha}-Fluoroestradiol ([{sup 18}F]- FES) is a positron-emitting tracer for the estrogen receptor that is used for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of tumor tissues rich in the estrogen receptor. The role of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP or SHBG) in the transport of the [{sup 18}F]-FES to the estrogen-receptor-rich tissue in breast cancer patients in vivo was investigated. To determine the extent to which [{sup 18}F]-FES is bound to SBP in the blood, we performed a series of studies using blood samples obtained from patients undergoing [{sup 18}F]-FES PET scans. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES to the SBP was measured using a simple protein precipitation assay. The binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES metabolites to SBP was also measured. These measurements showed that the tracer was distributed between albumin and SBP, and the binding capacity of SBP was sufficient to ensure that the protein was not saturated when the tracer was fully mixed with the plasma; however, local saturation of SBP may occur when [{sup 18}F]-FES is administered intravenously. Typically about 45% of [{sup 18}F]-FES in circulating plasma was bound to SBP, but this fraction was dependent on the concentration of SBP in plasma. The transfer of the tracer between the two proteins was rapid, complete in less than 20 s at 0 deg. C, suggesting that the equilibrium was maintained under most circumstances and that local saturation resolved quickly when blood from the injection site entered the central circulation. These data suggest that SBP binding of [{sup 18}F]-FES is significant and will affect the input function of the tracer for any model that is used for the quantitative evaluation of [{sup 18}F]-FES uptake in PET studies. Estimates of equilibrium binding in blood samples are sufficient to characterize [{sup 18}F]-FES binding to SBP in the circulation.

Tewson, T.J. E-mail: ttewson@u.washington.edu; Mankoff, D.A.; Peterson, L.M.; Woo, I.; Petra, P

1999-11-01

339

HIV seroprevalence and high-risk sexual behavior among female sex workers in Central Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention. PMID:24617659

Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C

2014-09-01

340

Racial differences in the influence of female adolescents' body size on dating and sex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the effect of body size on dating and sexual experiences of white (non-Hispanic) and African American (non-Hispanic) female adolescents. Using data from Add-Health, we estimate the effects of obesity and BMI z-score on the probability of having been involved in a romantic relationship, having ever been touched in the genital area in a sexual way, and having ever engaged in sexual intercourse. We find that obese white teenage girls are less likely to have been in a romantic relationship compared to their non-obese counterparts. In addition, obese white girls are less likely to ever have had sex (intercourse) or to ever have been intimate. There are no systematic differences in relationship experiences and sexual behaviors between obese and non-obese black girls. Overall, the estimated relationships are very robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to the inclusion of proxies for low self-esteem, attitudes toward sex and interviewer assessment of appearance and personality. Instrumental variables estimates and estimates from models with lagged weight status confirm the overall patterns. PMID:24361085

Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Safety of multiple daily applications of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, among female sex workers  

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RATIONALE: COL-1492 is a nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing vaginal gel and may be a potential microbicide. As part of an effectiveness trial, an initial toxicity study was conducted. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the reported study was the assessment of the toxicity of a 52.5 mg N-9 gel, COL-1492, when used a number of times each day by female sex workers. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled triple-blinded trial among female sex workers. The participants were asked to use the pr...

2000-01-01

342

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

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Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and con...

2011-01-01

343

Sex differences in time trends of colorectal cancer in England and Wales: the possible effect of female hormonal factors.  

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Differences between the sexes in time trends of colorectal cancer incidence 1962-87 and mortality 1960-91 in England and Wales are examined in relation to changes in female hormonal factors. There was a trend in the sex ratio of this tumour, particularly marked for the descending colon, whereby the female excess in risk at young ages has almost disappeared but the male excess at older ages has increased. This trend started for cohorts born since the 1920s and coincided with the increase in th...

Dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A. J.

1996-01-01

344

Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to have earlier sexual initiation, younger age of involvement in the sex trade and were more vulnerable to sex under the influence of alcohol. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of problem drinking with both unprotected sex and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use in commercial sex shall be considered as an occupational hazard that requires immediate intervention. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the association between alcohol use and sexual risks among this most-at-risk population.

Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

2012-01-01

345

Cytotoxicity, cellular localisation and biomolecular interaction of non-covalent metallo-intercalators with appended sex hormone steroid vectors.  

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A range of terpyridine platinum(II) metallo-intercalators with bioactive steroids attached has been created with the aim of localizing cytotoxic drugs. Complexes where the steroid does not interfere with access to the terpyridine are shown to retain potent cytotoxicity and show certain selectivity towards their natural receptors. Because the intercalation of the terpyridine moiety between the bases of the DNA is the origin of the biological activity, a dramatic decrease of the activity is obs...

2009-01-01

346

Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

2002-11-11

347

Sex-specific defence behaviour against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest protection against intruders is an indispensable component of avian parental care. In species with biparental care, both mates should evolve nest defence behaviour to increase their reproductive success. In most host-parasite systems, host females are predicted to have more important roles in nest defence against brood parasites, because they typically are primarily responsible for clutch incubation. Male antiparasitic behaviour, on the other hand, is often underestimated or even not considered at all. Here we investigated sex-specific roles in four aspects of great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) nest defence against a brood parasite-the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), namely (1) mobbing, (2) nest attendance/guarding, (3) nest checking and (4) egg ejection. Using dummy experiments, simulating brood parasitism and by video-monitoring of host nests we found that males took the key roles in cuckoo mobbing and nest guarding, while females were responsible for nest checking and egg ejection behaviours. Such partitioning of parental roles may provide a comprehensive clutch protection against brood parasitism. PMID:19154783

Pozgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

2009-05-01

348

Identification of female sex pheromone of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The female sex pheromone of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium, was analyzed by GC-EAD and GC-MS. Ten EAD active compounds-n-hexyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-hexanoate, n-hexyl (E)-2-hexenoate, n-octyl n-butyrate, n-octyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-octenyl n-hexanoate, n-pentyl n-hexanoate, n-hexyl n-butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-butyrate, and n-hexyl (E)-2-butenoate-were detected in the ratio of 1,000:414-491:trace-5:5-11:55-71:50-63:trace-3:225:90:32 from female body extracts, and in the ratio of 1,000:271-342:10-43:1-3:58-78:14-19:trace:178:36:26 from male body extracts. Field trapping tests with these synthetic compounds indicated that n-hexyl n-hexanoate, (E)-2-hexenyl n-hexanoate, and n-octyl n-butyrate are pheromone components, and mixtures in ratios of 1,000:400-500:10-100 were more attractive to males. Doses ranging from 4.29 microg to 14.3 microg of the three-component mixture in the ratio of 1,000:400:30 loaded into glass capillary tubes were most attractive to males. PMID:11789951

Kakizak, M; Sugie, H

2001-12-01

349

Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

Hernandez Brenda Y

2008-04-01

350

Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour  

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Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted t...

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

2011-01-01

351

Sex-induced cystitis: An epidemiological study in female populations of three district of rural Thebes, Greece  

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The aim of our study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of recurrent lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs) due to sexual intercourse (sex-induced cystitis - SIC) in female population of three districts of the rural Thebes targeted to investigate the influence of age and culture on its epidemiology. We examined 432 women between 15 and 65 years of age in female populations of three district of the rural areas of Thebes between May 2006 and January 2007 with symptoms of recurrent...

Georgakopoulos G; Stamatiou K; Ilias G; Karanasiou V; Christakis M; Matsagoura M; Papadimitriou V; Heretis J; Daskalopoulos G

2007-01-01

352

Sex-specific gray matter volume differences in females with developmental dyslexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques, would generate the same findings. In a replication study of men, we obtained the same findings of less GMV in dyslexics in left middle/inferior temporal gyri and right postcentral/supramarginal gyri as reported in the literature. However, comparisons in women with and without dyslexia did not yield left hemisphere differences, and instead, we found less GMV in right precuneus and paracentral lobule/medial frontal gyrus. In boys, we found less GMV in left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal/angular gyri), again consistent with previous work, while in girls differences were within right central sulcus, spanning adjacent gyri, and left primary visual cortex. Our investigation into anatomical variants in dyslexia replicates existing studies in males, but at the same time shows that dyslexia in females is not characterized by involvement of left hemisphere language regions but rather early sensory and motor cortices (i.e., motor and premotor cortex, primary visual cortex). Our findings suggest that models on the brain basis of dyslexia, primarily developed through the study of males, may not be appropriate for females and suggest a need for more sex-specific investigations into dyslexia. PMID:23625146

Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Eden, Guinevere F

2014-05-01

353

Role of endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones in arthritis and osteoporosis development in B10.Q-ncf1*/* mice with collagen-induced chronic arthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA is an often-used murine model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Earlier studies have shown potent anti-arthritic effects with the female sex hormone estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM raloxifene in CIA in DBA/1-mice. B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice are B10.Q mice with a mutated Ncf1 gene. In B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice, CIA develops as a chronic relapsing disease, which more accurately mimics human RA. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids and raloxifene in the course of this model of chronic arthritis. We also examined whether treatment would prevent the development of inflammation-triggered generalized osteoporosis. Methods Female B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized, and CIA was induced. 22 days later, when 30% of the mice had developed arthritis, treatment with raloxifene, estradiol or vehicle was started, and the clinical disease was evaluated continuously. Treatment was continued until day 56 after immunization. At termination of the experiment (day 73, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed, paws were collected for histological examination, and sera were analyzed for markers of cartilage turnover and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Raloxifene and estradiol treatment, as well as endogenous estrogen, decreased the frequency of arthritis, prevented joint destruction and countered generalized osteoporosis. These effects were associated with lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Conclusions This is the first study to show that raloxifene and estradiol can ameliorate established erosive arthritis and inflammation-triggered osteoporosis in this chronic arthritis model. We propose that treatment with raloxifene could be a beneficial addition to the treatment of postmenopausal RA.

Gjertsson Inger

2010-12-01

354

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4(th) and 5(th) decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-03-01

355

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading.

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-01-01

356

Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

1993-01-01

357

Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.

Dahal Rashmi

2011-09-01

358

The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress  

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Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

A Gronowska

2010-03-01

359

Behavior, knowledge, attitude, and other characteristics of men who had sex with female commercial sex workers in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, behavior, and attitude of men who had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kenya. About 15% of the men had sex with CSWs. Men who had two or more partners, were away from home five or more times in the past year, and used condoms consistently with their last three partners were likely to have had sex with CSWs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, p = .000; OR = 1.43, p = .044; OR = 2.50, p = .000, respectively). Men with better knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were likely to have had sex with CSWs (OR = 1.62, p = .004). As expected, having had sex with CSWs was associated with higher risk of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 3.62, p = .000). This unexpected association between knowledge and behavior could be bidirectional or reverse causality. Nonetheless, knowledge in prevention has not been translated to practice and change in behavior. These processes require continuous efforts, including assertive campaigns on sexual practices and behaviors. PMID:19477766

Hong, Rathavuth

2008-03-01

360

Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones. PMID:23816482

Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

Sjoerd M. Euser

2012-11-01

362

Prevalence and Timing of Oral Sex with Opposite-sex Partners Among Females and Males Aged 15-24 Years: United States 2007-2010. National Health Statistics Reports Number 56.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents data on the prevalence of oral sex with opposite-sex partners and the timing of first oral sex relative to first vaginal intercourse among females and males aged 15-24 based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 200...

A. Chandra C. E. Copen G. Martinez

2012-01-01

363

Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2013-01-01

364

The metabolism of ecdysone and its putative role as the female sex - pheromone in the green shore crab carcinus maenas L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both male and female crabs excrete large amounts of ecdysteroids and related metabolites during all major stages of the molting cycle. A sex-specific pattern in the metabolic pathways could not be established. These findings contradict the hypothesis that ecdysone functions as the female sex pheromone.

Buchholz, F.

1981-01-01

365

Role of STAT5a in Regulation of Sex-specific Gene Expression in Female but not Male Mouse Liver Revealed by Microarray Analysis*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual dimorphism in mammalian liver impacts genes affecting hepatic physiology, including inflammatory responses, diseased states and the metabolism of steroids and foreign compounds. Liver sex-specificity is dictated by sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with the transcription factor STAT5b required for intracellular signaling initiated by the pulsatile, male plasma GH profile. STAT5a, a highly homologous but minor liver STAT5 form, also responds to sexually dimorph...

Clodfelter, Karl H.; Miles, Gregory D.; Wauthier, Valerie; Holloway, Minita G.; Zhang, Xiaohua; Hodor, Paul; Ray, William J.; Waxman, David J.

2007-01-01

366

Natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in a Cohort of Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There have been few studies of the natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium in women. We investigated patterns of clearance and recurrence of untreated M. genitalium infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda. Methods Women diagnosed as having M. genitalium infection at enrollment were retested for the infection at 3-month intervals. Clearance of infection was defined as testing negative after having a previous positive result: persistence was defined as testing positive after a preceding positive test result, and recurrence as testing positive after a preceding negative test result. Adjusted hazard ratios for M. genitalium clearance were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Among 119 participants infected with M. genitalium at enrollment (prevalence, 14%), 55% had spontaneously cleared the infection within 3 months; 83%, within 6; and 93%, within 12 months. The overall clearance rate was 25.7/100 person-years (pyr; 95% confidence interval, 21.4–31.0). HIV-positive women cleared M. genitalium infection more slowly than did HIV-negative women (20.6/100 pyr vs. 31.3/100 pyr, P = 0.03). The clearance rate was slower among HIV-positive women with CD4 counts less than 350/mL3 than among those with higher CD4 counts (9.88/100 pyr vs. 29.5/100 pyr, P < 0.001). After clearing the infection, M. genitalium infection recurred in 39% women. Conclusions M. genitalium is likely to persist and recur in the female genital tract. Because of the urogenital tract morbidity caused by the infection and the observed association with HIV acquisition, further research is needed to define screening modalities, especially in populations at high risk for HIV, and to optimize effective and affordable treatment options.

Vandepitte, Judith; Weiss, Helen A.; Kyakuwa, Nassim; Nakubulwa, Susan; Muller, Etienne; Buve, Anne; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

2014-01-01

367

Psychological Androgyny, Sex-Typing, and Sex-Role Ideology as Predictors of Male-Female Interpersonal Attraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on college students' ideal dating partners found that: (1) excluding masculine typed females, masculine, feminine, or androgynous subjects desired trait complementarity; and (2) traditional males preferred feminine types, egalitarian males preferred androgynous or feminine types equally, and traditional and egalitarian females preferred…

Orlofsky, Jacob L.

1982-01-01

368

Types of Female Partners Reported by Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Associations with Intercourse Frequency, Unprotected Sex and HIV and STI Prevalence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used baseline data from a study of Black MSM/MSMW in 6 US cities to examine the association of female partnership types with disease prevalence and sexual behaviors among the 555 MSMW participants. MSMW reported more than three times as many total and unprotected sex acts with each primary as they did with each non-primary female partner. We compared MSMW whose recent female partners were: (1) all primary ("PF only", n = 156), (2) both primary and non-primary ("PF & NPF", n = 186), and (3) all non-primary ("NPF only", n = 213). HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly across groups but sexual behaviors did. The PF only group had the fewest male partners and was the most likely to have only primary male partners; the PF & NPF group was the most likely to have transgender partners. PF & NPF men reported the most sex acts (total and unprotected) with females; NPF only men reported the fewest. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are discussed. PMID:24523006

Harawa, N; Wilton, L; Wang, L; Mao, C; Kuo, I; Penniman, T; Shoptaw, S; Griffith, S; Williams, J K; Cummings, V; Mayer, K; Koblin, B

2014-08-01

369

Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients.

2013-01-01

370

Sex chromosome complement affects social interactions in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences in behavior can be attributed to differences in steroid hormones. Sex chromosome complement can also influence behavior, independent of gonadal differentiation. The mice used for this work combined a spontaneous mutation of the Sry gene with a transgene for Sry that is incorporated into an autosome thus disassociating gonad differentiation from sex chromosome complement. The resulting genotypes are XX and XY? females (ovary-bearing) along with XXSry and XY?Sry males (teste...

Mcphie-lalmansingh, Anika A.; Tejada, Lucia D.; Weaver, Jessica L.; Rissman, Emilie F.

2008-01-01

371

Perception of sex appeal in print advertising by young female Anglo-Saxon and second generation Asian-Islamic British  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research, is to provide empirical data to either support or challenge the view that subculture has an impact on how sex appeal in advertising is perceived. It looks at young females of two specific British subcultural groups, Anglo-Saxon and Asian-Islamic British. It reveals that there are differences in the perception of sex appeal, since the Asian-Islamic British have a rather more negative attitude towards this particular appeal, while the Anglo-Saxon have a much more posit...

Veloutsou, C.; Ahmed, S. R.

2005-01-01

372

Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping. PMID:19598235

Chakrabarti, B; Dudbridge, F; Kent, L; Wheelwright, S; Hill-Cawthorne, G; Allison, C; Banerjee-Basu, S; Baron-Cohen, S

2009-06-01

373

Gender performance as spatial acts : (Fe)male Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Synthesising Butler's theory with space, the objective of this paper is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as these are reproduced in the sex industry in two different settings. I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work. Likewise, the paper analyses the ways in which sex work plays a significant part in how the Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. The analysis of the Thai migrant sex workers becoming intelligible or non-intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. In this paper I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.

Spanger, Marlene

2013-01-01

374

Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-05-01