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Sample records for female sex steroid

  1. Regulation of Physiological and Metabolic Function of Muscle by Female Sex Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Spangenburg, Espen E.; Geiger, Paige C.; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of female sex steroids to regulate tissue function has long been appreciated, however their role in the regulation of striated muscle function has received considerably less attention. The purpose of this symposium review is to document recent evidence indicating the role female sex steroids have in defining the functional characteristics of striated muscle. The presentations provide substantial evidence indicating that estrogens are critical to the physiological and metabolic reg...

  2. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  3. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation. PMID:18056697

  4. Anatomical distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of female medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Buntaro; Kanda, Shinji; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2013-06-01

    Estrogen and androgen play crucial roles in coordinating reproductive functions through estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors (ARs), respectively. These receptors are considered important for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite their biological importance, the distribution of sex steroid receptors has not been fully analyzed anatomically in the teleost brain. The teleosts have many characteristic features, which allow unique approaches toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of reproductive functions. Medaka serves as a good model system for studying the mechanisms by which steroid receptor-mediated systems are regulated, because (1) their breeding conditions can be easily manipulated; (2) we can take advantage of the genome database; and 3) molecular genetic tools, such as transgenic techniques, are applicable. We analyzed the distribution of ER?, ER?1, ER?2, AR?, and AR? mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brain of female medaka. We found that all subtypes of ERs and ARs were expressed in the following nuclei: the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), supracommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs), postcommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vp), preoptic area (POA), and nucleus ventralis tuberis (NVT). These regions are known to be involved in the regulation of sexual behavior (Vd, Vs, Vp, POA) or the HPG axis (NVT). These ER- and/or AR-expressing neurons may regulate sexual behavior or the HPG axis according to their axonal projections. Future analysis should be targeted to the neurons described in the present study to extend our understanding of the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction. PMID:23124931

  5. Sex steroids and their receptors in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Mara B; Scott, Alexander P; Li, Weiming

    2008-01-01

    The use of steroids and their receptors as ligand-gated transcription factors is thought to be an important step in vertebrate evolution. The lamprey is the earliest-evolving vertebrate to date in which sex steroids and their receptors have been demonstrated to have hormonal roles similar to those found in jawed vertebrates. Sex steroids and their receptors have been examined in several lamprey species, and the majority of studies have focused on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. While classical steroids appear to be present in lampreys, their function, concentrations, and synthesis have not been determined conclusively. The only classical steroid that is thought to act as a hormone in both males and females is estradiol. Recent research has established that lampreys produce and circulate 15alpha-hydroxylated steroids, and that these steroids respond to upstream stimulation within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In particular, 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is highly sensitive and responds in great magnitude to stimulation, and is likely a hormone. Lampreys also appear to use androstenedione, a precursor to vertebrate androgens, as their main androgen, and a receptor for androstenedione has recently been described. Non-classical steroids are prevalent in many aquatic vertebrates, and the non-classical steroids found in the sea lamprey may represent an evolutionary artifact, or alternatively may be a way to avoid endocrine disruption when ingesting the body fluids of host fish. The lamprey will continue to be an interesting model for examining the evolution of steroid hormones, steroid receptors, and steroid function. PMID:17931674

  6. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Tadeu, Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa, Gurgel; Marcelo, Alvarenga.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

  7. Sex, Sex steroids and Brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Herson, Paco S.; Koerner, Ines P.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2009-01-01

    Biologic sex and sex steroids are important factors in clinical and experimental stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Laboratory data strongly show that progesterone treatment after TBI reduces edema, improves outcomes and restores blood brain barrier function. Clinical studies to date agree with these data, and there are ongoing human trials for progesterone treatment after TBI. Estrogen has accumulated an impressive reputation as a neuroprotectant when evaluated at physiologically relev...

  8. Sex steroid levels across the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius, from different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Zeller, M; Crews, D

    2000-05-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in many reptiles, including the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). In this study, we examined the hormonal and behavioral changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos from four (i.e., 26, 30, 32.5, and 34 degrees C) incubation temperatures. Controlling for reproductive status, plasma levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P) varied with incubation temperature but estradiol 17-beta (E2) levels did not. Controlling for the effects of incubation temperature, DHT and T levels were low when females were previtellogenic, increased slightly during early vitellogenesis, increased dramatically during late vitellogenesis (i.e., prior to ovulation), and then decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. In contrast, E2 levels increased gradually from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, peaked during late vitellogenesis, and decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. Levels of P increased from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, remained elevated during late vitellogenesis, and then decreased after ovulation. Moreover, we determined that females were not sexually receptive when previtellogenic, were somewhat receptive during early vitellogenesis (approximately 20% receptive), were most receptive during late vitellogenesis (approximately 80% receptive), and were again unreceptive after ovulation. Incubation temperature did not influence receptivity. Overall, these data show that hormone levels and behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle. Although incubation temperature has persistent effects on endocrine physiology in adult female leopard geckos, these effects are modest compared to hormonal changes across the reproductive cycle. PMID:10890571

  9. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK))

  10. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations. PMID:21234121

  11. Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J. O.; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

  12. Possible organizational effect of sex steroids on the stabilization of manual preference in female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Bernadette Serra; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro

    2011-10-01

    Handedness has been widely studied in nonhuman primates. However, few studies investigate this behavior throughout ontogenetic development. To determine the influence of developmental stage in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) females, we used six animals, which were observed in food-reaching tests involving hand-use preference from the infantile to the adult phase. During this period, fecal samples were collected for sexual hormone analysis (estrogen and progesterone). The results point to correlations between age and stabilization of manual preference across the developmental phases. A relationship between progesterone and the intensity of hand use asymmetry was observed during the pubertal period, when the data was grouped into three phases: prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal. These data show increasing strength of hand preference during ontogenetic development and that sexual hormones may be involved in females. PMID:21553197

  13. Influence of sex steroid hormones on cerebrovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Diana N; Duckles, Sue P; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2006-10-01

    The cerebral vasculature is a target tissue for sex steroid hormones. Estrogens, androgens, and progestins all influence the function and pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation. Estrogen decreases cerebral vascular tone and increases cerebral blood flow by enhancing endothelial-derived nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. Testosterone has opposite effects, increasing cerebral artery tone. Cerebrovascular inflammation is suppressed by estrogen but increased by testosterone and progesterone. Evidence suggests that sex steroids also modulate blood-brain barrier permeability. Estrogen has important protective effects on cerebral endothelial cells by increasing mitochondrial efficiency, decreasing free radical production, promoting cell survival, and stimulating angiogenesis. Although much has been learned regarding hormonal effects on brain blood vessels, most studies involve young, healthy animals. It is becoming apparent that hormonal effects may be modified by aging or disease states such as diabetes. Furthermore, effects of testosterone are complicated because this steroid is also converted to estrogen, systemically and possibly within the vessels themselves. Elucidating the impact of sex steroids on the cerebral vasculature is important for understanding male-female differences in stroke and conditions such as menstrual migraine and preeclampsia-related cerebral edema in pregnancy. Cerebrovascular effects of sex steroids also need to be considered in untangling current controversies regarding consequences of hormone replacement therapies and steroid abuse. PMID:16794020

  14. Hepatic tumors induced by sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, E T; Christopherson, W

    1984-05-01

    Our study of more than 250 women with hepatic tumors, accessioned in our tumor registry at the University of Louisville, disclosed three types of tumor: FNH , HCA, and HCC. The ingestion of sundry kinds of sex steroids by the majority of these women, chiefly for purposes of preventing conception, warrants the suspicion that such hormones induced these different types of hepatic tumors. Publications by others reporting similar hepatic tumors in men using male sex steroids lends support to this hypothesis. Rupture of the hepatic tumor and consequent hemorrhage, producing hemoperitoneum, is a major risk factor. Other presenting symptoms are pain and palpable mass. Symptomatic women using OCs should be subjected to a CT or technetium hepatic scan as an initial screening assessment. Because of the imminent possibility of rupture, large turgid vascular tumors should be resected without biopsy. Biopsy-proved HCC should also be removed surgically. All other tumors, including small multiple tumors, will usually regress when exogenous sex steroids are withdrawn and pregnancy avoided. Other significant hepatic changes observed in this study are peliosis hepatis, periportal sinusoidal dilation, and vascular lesions. The branches of the hepatic artery and the tributaries of the portal vein show combinations of intimal and smooth muscle proliferation, vascular thickening, occlusive intimal thickening, and, at times, obstructing thrombosis. Similar smooth muscle proliferation in the afferent vessels of the livers of animals treated with sex steroids suggests that there is a cause and effect relationship in women using OCs. PMID:6087460

  15. Activation of PPAR? by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Mahmoud; Coleman, Elaine; Dennis, John; Akingbemi, Benson; Schwartz, Dean; Braden, Tim; Judd, Robert; Plaisance, Eric; Stewart, Laura Ken; Morrison, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the lon...

  16. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis

    OpenAIRE

    Rougeot, Carole; Krim, A.; Mandiki, S. N.; Kestemont, P.; Me?lard, Charles

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatchi...

  17. Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)

    2007-03-01

    This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

  18. Developmental synergism of steroidal estrogens in sex determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, J. M.; Willingham, E.; Osborn, C. T.; Rhen, T.; Crews, D.

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal sex in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development. Evidence suggests that temperature determines sex by influencing steroid hormone metabolism and/or sensitivity: steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors or exogenous sex steroid hormones and their man-made analogs override (or enhance) temperature effects on sex determination. Specifically, nonaromatizable androgens and aromatase inhibitors induce testis differentiation ...

  19. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  20. The essence of female-male physiological dimorphism: differential Ca2+-homeostasis enabled by the interplay between farnesol-like endogenous sesquiterpenoids and sex-steroids? The Calcigender paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold

    2015-01-15

    Ca(2+) is the most omnipresent pollutant on earth, in higher concentrations a real threat to all living cells. When [Ca(2+)]i rises above 100 nM (=resting level), excess Ca(2+) needs to be confined in the SER and mitochondria, or extruded by the different Ca(2+)-ATPases. The evolutionary origin of eggs and sperm cells has a crucial, yet often overlooked link with Ca(2+)-homeostasis. Because there is no goal whatsoever in evolution, gametes did neither originate "with the purpose" of generating a progeny nor of increasing fitness by introducing meiosis. The explanation may simply be that females "invented the trick" to extrude eggs from their body as an escape strategy for getting rid of toxic excess Ca(2+) resulting from a sex-hormone driven increased influx into particular cells and tissues. The production of Ca(2+)-rich milk, seminal fluid in males and all secreted proteins by eukaryotic cells may be similarly explained. This view necessitates an upgrade of the role of the RER-Golgi system in extruding Ca(2+). In the context of insect metamorphosis, it has recently been (re)discovered that (some isoforms of) Ca(2+)-ATPases act as membrane receptors for some types of lipophilic ligands, in particular for endogenous farnesol-like sesquiterpenoids (FLS) and, perhaps, for some steroid hormones as well. A novel paradigm, tentatively named "Calcigender" emerges. Its essence is: gender-specific physiotypes ensue from differential Ca(2+)-homeostasis enabled by genetic differences, farnesol/FLS and sex hormones. Apparently the body of reproducing females gets temporarily more poisoned by Ca(2+) than the male one, a selective benefit rather than a disadvantage. PMID:25540913

  1. Steroid Signaling within Drosophila Ovarian Epithelial Cells Sex-Specifically Modulates Early Germ Cell Development and Meiotic Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Lucy X.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila adult females but not males contain high levels of the steroid hormone ecdysone, however, the roles played by steroid signaling during Drosophila gametogenesis remain poorly understood. Drosophila germ cells in both sexes initially follow a similar pathway. After germline stem cells are established, their daughters form interconnected cysts surrounded by somatic escort (female) or cyst (male) cells and enter meiosis. Subsequently, female cysts acquire a new covering of somatic cell...

  2. Female sex hormones and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E A

    2005-07-01

    During the reproductive years migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Although it is often assumed that this female preponderance is associated with the additional trigger of fluctuating sex hormones of the menstrual cycle, few studies have been undertaken to confirm or refute this. There is increasing evidence confirming an association between estrogen 'withdrawal' and attacks of migraine without aura, as well as evidence for an association between high estrogen states and attacks of migraine with aura. PMID:16141956

  3. Sex steroid receptor evolution and signalling in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Heinz-R; Kloas, Werner; Schirling, Martin; Lutz, Ilka; Reye, Anna L; Langen, Jan-S; Triebskorn, Rita; Nagel, Roland; Schönfelder, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    In vertebrate reproductive endocrinology sex steroids play a pivotal role via binding to receptors. However, information on the origin and relevance of sex steroids in invertebrates is limited. This review highlights current literature on steroid receptors in aquatic invertebrates and reports on some new findings. It has been shown that invertebrates of the deuterostome clade, such as Acrania and Echinodermata, respond to estrogens and androgens and, at least in Branchiostoma, an estrogen receptor has been cloned. Within the protostomes, most findings are related to aquatic molluscs. Sex steroid receptor-like proteins are abundant in gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods and also sex hormone signalling shows partial similarity to the deuterostomes. In ecdysozoans, however, the impact of sex steroids is still a matter of debate even though there is evidence on the presence of estrogen receptor-like proteins in Crustacea and on physiological effects of estrogens in both Nematoda and Crustacea. Recent findings suggest the presence of an estrogen receptor alpha-like protein of unclear physiological role in Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea). Binding studies revealed the crustacean Hyalella azteca to possess specific binding sites only for androgens but not for estrogens suggesting a possible limitation to functional androgen receptors in this species. Further studies have to be conducted to shed more light into the discussion about the controversy about sex steroid receptors in invertebrates. PMID:17219085

  4. Accuracy of methods of sex steroid determination

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, T.; Scott, A. P.; Waring, C.; Margiotta-casaluci, L.; Pottinger, T. G.; Morris, S.; Sumpter, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive hormones (estrogenic and androgenic steroids) enter natural water bodies from various sources, e.g. human sewage, farmed livestock and vertebrate wildlife. A previous Defra research study (SF0241 Impacts of intensive in-river aquaculture on wild salmonids) reported very high concentrations of such steroids in two UK rivers (the River Test and R. Avon in Hampshire/Wiltshire) in the vicinity of trout farms. The mean reported concentrations of the natural steroids 11-ketotestosteron...

  5. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernald Russell D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ER?, ER?a, ER?b; androgen receptors: AR?, AR?; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single vertebrate. Our data suggest that changes in steroid receptor mRNA expression in the inner ear could be a regulatory mechanism for physiological state-dependent auditory plasticity across vertebrates.

  6. Sex steroids and food intake in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Esther; Sa?nchez, Elisa; Muriach, Borja; Cerda?-reverter, Jose? Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the sensitivity to gonadal steroids of the systems regulating food intake in sea bass. Animals were treated with silastic implants containing 17-?-estradiol or testosterone. Self-feeding was recorded for 31 days using computerized demand feeders and unfed-pellet recovery systems. Both steroids strongly decreased selffeeding levels, feed efficiency and specific growth rates. The linear growth of fish treated with testosterone was higher than in 17-?-estradiol...

  7. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  8. Multiple Sclerosis in relation to sex steroid exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, Per

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially severe chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is usually diagnosed between 20 and 40 years of age. The incidence of MS is two to three times higher among women and the type and course of the disease often differ between the sexes. Sex steroids, especially estrogens, have been shown to influence the immunopathology involved in MS and the mouse model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), as well as radiological and ...

  9. Acute Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones on Susceptibility to Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pei-chi; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hor...

  10. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: archaeological evidence of possible microevolution of human sex steroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, F J; Böni, T; Henneberg, M

    2004-01-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna is a restricted bilateral thickening of the frontal endocranial surface, which is frequently found in postmenopausal females today. Surprisingly, this condition had a higher male prevalence in its rare archaeological records. This is again highlighted by the oldest known male European hyperostosis frontalis interna case in an adult Celtic from 100 BC presented here. This unique specimen supports earlier suggestions of the possible microevolution of human endocrine regulation, e.g. by sex steroids, and its pathoanatomical impact. PMID:15553271

  11. Social environment and steroid hormones affect species and sex differences in immune function among voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S L; Hairston, J E; Devries, A C; Nelson, R J

    1997-08-01

    Testosterone has bipotential effects on male fitness; that is, it both suppresses immune function and maintains characteristics important for reproductive success. Presumably, these effects of testosterone may be more pronounced among polygynous species because testosterone concentrations are generally higher among polygynous than monogamous males. The present study examined sex and species differences in cell-mediated immunity among four arvicoline rodents. The role of mating system and sex steroids in sex differences in immune function was examined in individually housed polygynous meadow (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and montane (M. montanus) voles and monogamous prairie (M. ochrogaster) and pine (M. pinetorum) voles in Experiment 1. No sex differences in splenocyte proliferation were observed among the four species and circulating testosterone concentrations did not correlate with immune function of individuals within each species. The contribution of social isolation to these results was examined in Experiment 2, in which meadow and prairie voles were housed individually, or with same- or opposite-sex conspecifics in either pairs or groups of four per cage for 28 days. Overall, prairie voles exhibited more robust immune responses than meadow voles when housed in pairs or in same-sex groups. Sex differences in immune function were also apparent; male meadow voles had higher immune responses than female conspecifics when housed in pairs, whereas female prairie voles had higher responses than male conspecifics when housed in same-sex pairs. Circulating sex steroid hormones and corticosterone appear to mediate some, but not all, of the changes in immune function evoked by differential housing conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that social factors have significant effects on immunity and should be considered in studies of sex differences in immunity at both proximate and ultimate levels. PMID:9344689

  12. Regulation of brain microglia by female gonadal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Pardes; Beyer, Cordian

    2015-02-01

    Microglial cells are the primary mediators of the CNS immune defense system and crucial for shaping inflammatory responses. They represent a highly dynamic cell population which is constantly moving and surveying their environment. Acute brain damage causes a local attraction and activation of this immune cell type which involves neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia interactions. The prevailing view attributes microglia a "negative" role such as defense and debris elimination. More topical studies also suggest a protective and "positive" regulatory function. Estrogens and progestins exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the CNS in acute and chronic brain diseases. Recent work revealed that microglial cells express subsets of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in a highly dynamic way. In this review article, we would like to stress the importance of microglia for the spreading of neural damage during hypoxia, their susceptibility to functional modulation by sex steroids, the potency of sex hormones to switch microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to neuroprotective M2 phenotype, and the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory properties including the inflammasome. We will further discuss the possibility that the neuroprotective action of sex steroids in the brain involves an early and direct modulation of local microglia cell function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24607811

  13. Sex steroid hormones modulate the activation of murine peritoneal macrophages: receptor mediated modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita; Rai, U

    1998-02-01

    The comparative dose and time-dependent effects of male and female sex steroid hormones on nitrite release by murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi) stimulated by LPS were studied. M phi from gonadectomized mice released larger amounts of nitrite on LPS stimulation than controls; although nitrite release was significantly greater in castrated males than in ovariectomized females, suggesting that sex hormone deprivation results in an increase in nitrite release. This was further confirmed by in vitro treatment of M phi with estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) at different doses and duration prior to, and during, stimulation of nitrite production by LPS. E2 (except at 10(-2) ng/ml), T and P significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the nitrite release in a dose-dependent manner. Nitrite release from M phi increased with decreasing exposure time to E2, T and P. Preincubation of M phi with sex hormones prior to LPS treatment also reduced nitrite production. Sex steroid receptor antagonists tamoxifen citrate, cyproterone acetate/flutamide and RU486 markedly reduced the inhibitory effect of E2, T and P, respectively, suggesting that sex hormones modulate M phi nitrite release via a receptor-mediated system. PMID:9669089

  14. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    OpenAIRE

    Pilz, Kevin M.; Adkins-regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodol...

  15. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)of estrogens in males.(author)

  16. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-04-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (?E2), 17?-estradiol (?E2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears. PMID:25725300

  17. Digit Ratio (2D:4D: A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnManning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D, which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that there is little in the way of associations. Here we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones one must consider both foetal organising and adult activating effects of testosterone and oestrogen. In particular, we hypothesise that 2D:4D correlates with early organising effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this can be especially observed through an elevated propensity in adults to produce testosterone in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

  18. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian; Crewther, Blair; Fink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. This ratio is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (T) and estrogen (E) in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence for this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that this association is statistically non-significant. Here, we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones, one must consider both fetal organizing and adult activating effects of T and E. In particular, we hypothesize that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this is particularly evident in "challenging" conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression. PMID:24523714

  19. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development. PMID:15935155

  20. The influence of gender and sex steroids on craniofacial nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E

    2007-02-01

    Several pain conditions localized to the craniofacial region show a remarkable sex-related difference in their prevalence. These conditions include temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome as well as tension-type, migraine, and cluster headaches. The mechanisms that underlie sex-related differences in the prevalence of these craniofacial pain conditions remain obscure and likely involve both physiological and psychosocial factors. In terms of physiological factors relevant to the development of headache, direct evidence of sex-related differences in the properties of dural afferent fibers or durally activated second-order trigeminal sensory neurons has yet to be provided. There is, however, evidence for sex-related differences in the response properties of afferent fibers and second-order trigeminal sensory neurons that convey nociceptive input from other craniofacial tissues associated with sex-related differences in chronic pain conditions, such as those that innervate the masseter muscle and temporomandibular joint. Further, modulation of craniofacial nociceptive input by opioidergic receptor mechanisms appears to be dependent on biological sex. Research into mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in trigeminal nociceptive processing has primarily focused on effect of the female sex hormone estrogen, which appears to alter the excitability of trigeminal afferent fibers and sensory neurons to noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues. This article discusses current knowledge of potential physiological mechanisms that could contribute to sex-related differences in certain craniofacial pain conditions. PMID:17300382

  1. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  2. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17?-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production. PMID:24405322

  3. Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus after sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-10-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons. PMID:25051440

  4. Potential role of female sex hormones in the pathophysiology of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Mehrotra, Suneet; Villalón, Carlos M; Perusquía, Mercedes; Saxena, Pramod R; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette

    2007-02-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that female sex steroids may contribute to the high prevalence of migraine in women, as well as changes in the frequency or severity of migraine attacks that are in tandem with various reproductive milestones in women's life. While female sex steroids do not seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine per se, they may modulate several mediators and/or receptor systems via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms; these actions may be perpetuated at the central nervous system, as well as at the peripheral (neuro)vascular level. For example, female sex steroids have been shown to enhance: (i) neuronal excitability by elevating Ca(2+) and decreasing Mg(2+) concentrations, an action that may occur with other mechanisms triggering migraine; (ii) the synthesis and release of nitric oxide (NO) and neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide CGRP, a mechanism that reinforces vasodilatation and activates trigeminal sensory afferents with a subsequent stimulation of pain centres; and (iii) the function of receptors mediating vasodilatation, while the responses of receptors inducing vasoconstriction are attenuated. The serotonergic, adrenergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems are also modulated by sex steroids, albeit to a varying degree and with potentially contrasting effects on migraine outcome. Taken together, female sex steroids seem to be involved in an array of components implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Future studies will further delineate the extent and the clinical relevance of each of these mechanisms, and will thus expand the knowledge on the femininity of migraine. PMID:17069890

  5. Sex-related differences in metabolism of 14C-acetate in response to steroid hormones by isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No differences were found in the basal rate of lipid synthesis from 14C-acetate in hepatocytes isolated from mature male and virgin female rats. Lipid biosynthesis was stimulated 22-43% in the female 60 min after the addition of gonadal steroids. This rapid response suggests that subtle differences exist in the enzyme profile controlling the pathways of lipid metabolism in male and female rats. This difference may have been determined genetically or acquired after a period of sex-dependent hormonal stimulation beginning with puberty. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

    2008-02-14

    Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

  7. Specific estrogen-binding protein of rat liver and sex steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model experiments were conducted to study the effect of a highly purified preparation of specific estrogen-binding protein (SEBP) on the intensity of estradiol and testosterone metabolism under the influence of enzymes in liver homogenate from female rats, not containing SEBP. The liver of mature female rats was homogenized in two volumes of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 600 mg% of glucose. The tritium-steroid was preincubated for 15 min at 0-4 C with 0-4 microg of the preparation of SEBP (200 microl). A standard preparation of partially purified SEBP was obtained from liver cystosol of mature male rats; affinity chromatography on estradiolagarose was used. It is shown that SEBP can really take part in regulation of the dynamics of sex steroids in the liver. E1 did not affect the metabolic rate of H 3-E2 by liver homogenate from females, but caused marked acceleration of H 3-E2 metabolism by male liver homogenate

  8. Sex steroid modulation of AT2 receptors in human myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancina, R; Susini, T; Renzetti, A; Forti, G; Razzoli, E; Serio, M; Maggi, M

    1996-05-01

    In contrast to the abundant expression of the AT2 subtype of angiotensin II (AII) receptors during fetal development, AT2 receptor in adult life is expressed in few tissues. We now report studies on the presence and hormonal regulation of AT2 receptor in human pregnant and nonpregnant myometrium obtained from a large study population (n = 50). AT2 receptor subtypes have been characterized using self- and cross-competition curves among [125I]CGP42112A (a selective AT2 ligand), [125I](Sar1,Ile8)AII (a unselective antagonist), the corresponding unlabeled ligands, and several peptidic and nonpeptidic analogs with different affinities for the AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes. We found that the human nonpregnant uterus expresses almost exclusively the AT2 subtype, and that [125I]CGP42112A is a selective probe to study human AT2 receptor. By using [125I]CGP42112A, we demonstrated that the density of AT2 receptor in human myometrium is dramatically affected by the hormonal milieu. Indeed, in the estrogen-dominant uterus of normal cycling women in the proliferative phase and that of perimenopausal women with anovulatory cycles, the density of binding sites was very high [1565 +/- 246 fmol/mg protein (n = 11) and 2176 +/- 429 (n = 7), respectively]. The concomitant presence of progestogens blunted the estrogen effect [term pregnancy, 61 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein (n = 5); secretive phase of the cycle, 453 +/- 154 (n = 10); combined oral contraceptive, 243 +/- 74 fmol/mg protein (n = 6)]. Very low concentrations of binding sites are also present in the sex steroid-deprived uterus of postmenopausal women (100 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein; n = 8) and the uterus of fertile women chronically treated with GnRH agonists (199 +/- 100 fmol/mg protein; n = 3). Hence, these data confirm the presence of AT2 receptors in human uterus and indicate their regulation by sex steroids. PMID:8626829

  9. Urinary Sex Steroid Excretion Levels During a Soy Intervention Among Young Girls: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Novotny, Rachel; Nordt, Frank J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2005-01-01

    Soy intake early in life may protect against breast cancer later in life, possibly by altering sex hormone metabolism. We evaluated the feasibility of assessing urinary sex steroid excretion among 20 young girls aged 8–14 yr in an 8-wk trial. The girls consumed one daily soy serving, collected weekly overnight urine samples, and reported Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development. Sex steroid excretion was measured in duplicate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and adjusted f...

  10. Oestradiol and prostaglandin F2? regulate sexual displays in females of a sex-role reversed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Costa, Silvia Santos; Teles, Magda C; Silva, Helena; Inglês, Mafalda; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms regulating sexual behaviours in female vertebrates are still poorly understood, mainly because in most species sexual displays in females are more subtle and less frequent than displays in males. In a sex-role reversed population of a teleost fish, the peacock blenny Salaria pavo, an external fertilizer, females are the courting sex and their sexual displays are conspicuous and unambiguous. We took advantage of this to investigate the role of ovarian-synthesized hormones in the induction of sexual displays in females. In particular, the effects of the sex steroids oestradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and of the prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) were tested. Females were ovariectomized and their sexual behaviour tested 7 days (sex steroids and PGF2?) and 14 days (sex steroids) after ovariectomy by presenting females to an established nesting male. Ovariectomy reduced the expression of sexual behaviours, although a significant proportion of females still courted the male 14 days after the ovary removal. Administration of PGF2? to ovariectomized females recovered the frequency of approaches to the male's nest and of courtship displays towards the nesting male. However, E2 also had a positive effect on sexual behaviour, particularly on the frequency of approaches to the male's nest. T administration failed to recover sexual behaviours in ovariectomized females. These results suggest that the increase in E2 levels postulated to occur during the breeding season facilitates female mate-searching and assessment behaviours, whereas PGF2? acts as a short-latency endogenous signal informing the brain that oocytes are mature and ready to be spawned. In the light of these results, the classical view for female fishes, that sex steroids maintain sexual behaviour in internal fertilizers and that prostaglandins activate spawning behaviours in external fertilizers, needs to be reviewed. PMID:24452030

  11. Impact of sex and gonadal steroids on neonatal brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wang, Jiaping; Zhu, Hongtu; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Konneker, Thomas; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous reports of sexual dimorphism in brain structure in children and adults, but data on sex differences in infancy are extremely limited. Our primary goal was to identify sex differences in neonatal brain structure. Our secondary goal was to explore whether brain structure was related to androgen exposure or sensitivity. Two hundred and ninety-three neonates (149 males) received high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Sensitivity to androgen was measured using the number of cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) triplets in the androgen receptor gene and the ratio of the second to fourth digit, provided a proxy measure of prenatal androgen exposure. There was a significant sex difference in intracranial volume of 5.87%, which was not related to CAG triplets or digit ratios. Tensor-based morphometry identified extensive areas of local sexual dimorphism. Males had larger volumes in medial temporal cortex and rolandic operculum, and females had larger volumes in dorsolateral prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices. Androgen exposure and sensitivity had minor sex-specific effects on local gray matter volume, but did not appear to be the primary determinant of sexual dimorphism at this age. Comparing our study with the existing literature suggests that sex differences in cortical structure vary in a complex and highly dynamic way across the human lifespan. PMID:23689636

  12. Sex genotype and sex phenotype contribute to growth differences between male and female channel catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kb; Goudie, Ca; Simco, Ba

    2007-01-01

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus have an XX female-XY male genotypic system of sex determination, and male channel catfish grow faster than females. Through selective breeding and appropriately timed hormone administration, we have produced phenotypic male channel catfish with a YY sex genotype and female channel catfish with an XY or YY sex genotype. In this study, we evaluated the relative role of sex genotype and sex phenotype in regulating sexually dimorphic growth in this important aq...

  13. Secondary osteoporosis due to sickle cell anemia: Do sex steroids play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat-Ali Mir

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : The exact cause of osteoporosis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is not known, and various hypotheses have been put forward. Aim: To assess the effect of sex steroids on bone mass in SCD patients. Settings and Design: In King Fahd Hospital of the university, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Materials and Methods : All patients known to suffer from SCD attending the hospital between August 2006 and August 2007 were subjects of the study. Blood was extracted for serum level of androgens, gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD of hip and spine was done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. All tests were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0, Chicago, Illinois, with P value of < 0.05 being statistically significant with confidence interval (CI of 95%. Results : One hundred three consecutive patients with an average age of 27.83 years were studied. Forty-five were males; and 58, females. Low bone mass (osteoporotic/osteopenic was found in 62.2% of the patients in the male group and 67.06% in the female group. In males, testosterone level was not significant between different groups, but total estradiol levels were significantly lower in the osteopenic and osteoporotic patients (P < 0.003 and < 0.01 respectively. In female patients, estradiol and testosterone levels were lower in osteoporotic patients in comparison to non-osteoporotic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.001. Conclusions : Our study indicates that sex steroids play a major role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with SCD

  14. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kwolek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.

  15. Sex steroid biosynthesis enzymes in ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M J; Morris, R; Sasano, H

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies on neoplastic and hyperplastic ovarian lesions using paraffin-embedded material have demonstrated immunolocalization of sex steroid biosynthetic enzymes (SSBEs): P-450 side chain cleavage (P-450 SCC), which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone; 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD), which converts pregnenolone to progesterone; P-450 17 alpha-hydroxylase and lyase (P-450 17A), which convert progesterone to 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione; and P-450 aromatase (P-450 AR), which converts 4-androstene-3,17-dione to estradiol. To investigate the utility of immunohistochemical staining for SSBEs, we studied a series of 45 sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary. P-450 SCC was present in 9 of 11 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 3 of 12 granulosa cell tumors, 2 of 7 thecomas, and 1 of 1 stromal luteomas; 3 beta-HSD was present in 5 of 11 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 2 of 12 granulosa cell tumors, 2 of 7 thecomas, and 1 of 1 stromal luteoma; P-450 17A was present in 5 of 11 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 2 of 12 granulosa cell tumors, 2 of 6 thecomas, and 1 of 1 stromal luteomas; P-450 AR was present in 6 of 11 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 2 of 12 granulosa cell tumors, none of 7 thecomas, and 1 of 1 stromal luteoma. SSBEs were not present in 12 fibromas, one sclerosing stromal tumor, and one myxoma. Five of 45 patients with sex cord-stromal tumors showed androgenic effects; 4 of 11 patients with Sertoli-stromal cell tumors and the patient with a stromal luteoma. These five sex cord-stromal tumors contained P-450 SCC, and three of four of the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors contained 3 beta-HSD, P-450 17A, and P-450 AR. Concurrent endometrial histology was available in 25 of 45 sex cord-stromal tumor patients. None of the five sex cord-stromal tumors arising in patients with endometria that showed hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma showed immunoreactivity for SSBEs. Eight patients' endometria were unremarkable, but their sex cord-stromal tumor contained SSBEs. SSBEs were present in areas showing Leydig cell, Sertoli cell, or steroid cell differentiation or luteinized areas; however, the results did not significantly add to the histologic classification of sex-cord stromal tumors. Androgenic hormonal effects could always be explained by synthesis of hormones by SSBEs present in the patient's sex cord-stromal tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8005731

  16. Manipulative mothers : maternal steroid hormones and avian offspring sex ratio : studies in the homing pigeon

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Charlotte, Goerlich

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the potential involvement of maternal steroid hormones in the manipulation of avian primary sex ratio (the proportion of sons) and the identification of underlying mechanics, using the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica) as model species.

  17. Sex-related differences in steroid concentrations in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrza?ska, Sandra; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Anna; Konieczna, Lucyna; B?czek, Tomasz; Wo?owicz, Maciej

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on sex-related differences in free steroid hormone concentrations including the concentrations of three naturally occurring estrogens (17?-estradiol E2, estrone E1, and estriol E3) and one androgen (testosterone T) in the tissues (gills and gonads) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis trossulus sampled from the Gulf of Gda?sk (Baltic Sea, Poland). The dissimilarity in steroid concentrations between tissues was particularly evident in the T concentration with a level in gills almost three times higher compared to gonads (on average, 15.38ng/g w.w. and 5.31ng/g w.w., respectively, p=0.00008), suggesting its exogenous origin. In general, a tendency towards a skewed steroid profile related to sex, with E2 more abundant for males and T for females, was observed. Female gonads were characterized by a higher level of T than testis (4.61ng/g w.w. for females and 0.70ng/g w.w. for males, p=0.0121). At the same time, the level of E2 found in the testis was higher than in the ovary (4.81ng/g w.w. and 3.86ng/g w.w., respectively); however, the difference was not statistically significant. As for gills, similar trend with T and E2 being more abundant in males was observed. At the same time, no disturbances in the sex ratio and gametogenesis process were observed which suggests i) efficient deactivation of free forms of steroids, and/or ii) their little or no physiological role. PMID:25536333

  18. The effect of simvastatin treatment on plasma steroid levels in females with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, R; Okopien, B

    2013-11-01

    Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders and its presence often results in androgen excess. 4 females with coexisting symptomatic NC-CAH and isolated hypercholesterolemia and 11 sex- and weight-matched control subjects with elevated cholesterol but normal steroid levels, participating in our study, were treated with simvastatin (20 mg daily). Throughout the whole period of simvastatin treatment, plasma levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, androstendione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in patients with NC-CAH remained lower compared with baseline, but increased in 2 patients after withdrawal of this drug. No changes in plasma steroids were observed in simvastatin-treated control subjects. Our findings suggest that simvastatin treatment may bring some benefits to symptomatic female patients with NC-CAH. PMID:24057511

  19. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  20. [Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiencies and female infertility: pathophysiology and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, G; Decanter, C; Baffet, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Dewailly, D

    2014-06-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common adrenal genetic disease and is also named congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Depending on the severity of CYP21A2 gene mutations, there are severe or "classical" forms and moderate or "nonclassical" forms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The enzyme deficiency causes a disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis, which induces hyperandrogenism and elevated plasma levels of progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, the two substrates of 21-hydroxylase. These endocrine abnormalities will disrupt gonadal axis, endometrial growth and maturation and finally secretion of cervical mucus. All these phenomena contribute to a female hypofertility. Infertility is more severe in classical forms. When to become pregnant, treatment with hydrocortisone or dexamethasone can limit the production of adrenal androgens and progesterone and improves spontaneous pregnancy rates while minimizing the risk of miscarriage, which is usually relatively high in this disease. When planning pregnancy in patients with a 21-hydroxylase deficiency, genotyping the partner is required to screen for heterozygozity (1/50) and to assess the risk of transmission of a classical form in the progeny. PMID:24852906

  1. Seed sexing revealed female bias in two Rumex species

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara Kwolek; Joachimiak, Andrzej J.

    2011-01-01

    Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system), this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent wit...

  2. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  3. Morphological and functional features of the sex steroid-responsive posterodorsal medial amygdala of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, A A; Haas, D; de Oliveira, A P; de Castilhos, J; Frey, R; Stein, D; Lazzari, V M; Back, F; Pires, G N; Pavesi, E; Winkelmann-Duarte, E C; Giovenardi, M

    2012-10-01

    The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) expresses receptors for gonadal hormones and integrates sex steroid-sensitive subcortical networks. Male-female differences are found in the morphology, connectivity, and local neuropil structure of MePD. For example, dendritic spine density is sexually-dimorphic and changes with the estrous cycle and following gonadal hormones manipulations. Due to its connectivity, the MePD may affect emotionally-loaded social behaviors, according to a former Newman's seminal proposition. Unilateral fiber-sparing ibotenic acid damage of the MePD does not impair male sexual behavior. However, microinjecting glutamate and histamine into the right MePD facilitates ejaculation. Further, MePD-lesioned rats are not different from normal rats in anxiety-like behavior as evaluated by the elevated plus maze test or innate fear test induced by a live cat. In another study, an adapted model for inducing aggressive behavior in rats by a brief period of restraint prior to the resident-intruder paradigm was used to study Fos-immunoreactivity in the MePD. Following stressful stimulation (restraint) or the restraint and fight condition, but not after aggression alone, Fos-immunoreactivity was detected in the MePD. Microinjecting the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin into the right MePD notably reduces fighting behavior without affecting locomotion. Overall, these data indicate that sex steroids and local neurochemical stimulatory/inhibitory transmitters modulate the MePD and reinforce the idea that this area is a node for modulating social behavior neural networks. PMID:22827219

  4. Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad Pampori; Sujata Pandita

    2012-01-01

    Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 ...

  5. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “ne...

  6. The Effects of [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]-LHRHa and LHRHa + Pimozide on Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Adult Female Seabream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Sehriban Cek; Ali Gokce, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined changes in the concentrations of plasma testosterone (T), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17ß (E2) to determine changes in serum hormone profiles during the functional female phases in Sparus aurata. The fish were treated with [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]- luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) alone, LHRHa plus pimozide (PIM) and Physiological Saline (PS) alone to stimulate gonadal development and sexual maturation. All fish were sampled and plasma levels of ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

  8. Sex steroids and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jens O L; Vestergaard, Esben

    2005-01-01

    In healthy adults insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient (GHD) women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. These data suggest a resistance to GH in women, which in healthy subjects is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy postmenopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GHD lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to achieve IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at other levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.

  9. Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Anna K; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2013-08-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation. PMID:23651580

  10. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome have weaker bones: effect of treatment with GH and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Grugni, Graziano; Gatti, Davide; Spinozzi, Emiliano; Sartorio, Alessandro; Adami, Silvano; Fanolla, Antonio; Radetti, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has been considered to have a protective effect against the risk of fractures in adults. However, a high frequency of fracture is described in obese adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. To evaluate bone geometry, density and strength in a group of adult obese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and to examine the modulating effect on bone of treatment with growth hormone (GH) and sex steroids. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 41 (17 males, 24 females) obese subjects with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 29.4 ± 8.6 years. Forty-six healthy subjects (22 males and 24 females) served as controls. Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the 2nd metacarpal bone to assess bone geometry, i.e. cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical area (CA), medullary area (MA), metacarpal index (MI) and bone strength evaluated as bending breaking resistance index (BBRI). DEXA was also used to evaluate body composition and bone mineral density (total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck). PWS subjects, after adjusting for height and bone size, had a reduced CSA, CA and BBRI, while bone density was not different. GH treatment had a positive effect and sex steroids a negative effect on bone size and strength. PWS subjects showed a reduced bone size at the metacarpus leading to a reduced strength, while bone density was appropriate for size. GH treatment improves bone geometry but not bone density. Bone strength was significantly reduced in PWS patients who did not receive GH and had been treated with sex steroids. PMID:25577526

  11. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

  12. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  13. Group Work Practice with Transgendered Male to Female Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Examines group work with transgendered male-to-female adolescents who engage in sex work. Provides an overview of the role that sex work plays in the lives of some transgendered youth, using case examples, and offers guidance for those utilizing group work approaches with transgendered adolescents. Discusses homelessness and institutionalization,…

  14. The Impact of Female Sex Hormones on Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Buser, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first under a piece rate and then under a competitive tournament scheme. Subjects can then choose which compensation scheme to apply in a third round. We find that sex hormones have a strong effect on w...

  15. Associations between polymorphisms in sex steroid related genes and autistic-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Anna; Jonsson, Lina; Johansson, Daniel; Melke, Jonas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Westberg, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Sex differences in psychiatric disorders are common, which is particularly striking in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that are four times more prevalent in boys. High levels of testosterone during early development have been hypothesized to be a risk factor for ASDs, supported by several studies showing fetal testosterone levels, as well as indirect measures of prenatal androgenization, to be associated with ASDs and autistic-like traits (ALTs). Further, the importance of sex steroid related genes in ASDs is supported by studies reporting associations between polymorphisms in genes involved in sex steroid synthesis/metabolism and ASDs and ALTs. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes related to sex steroids and autistic features. Individuals included in the study belong to a subset (n=1771) from The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS), which are all assessed for ALTs. For two SNPs, rs2747648 located in the 3'-UTR of ESR1 encoding the estrogen receptor alpha and rs523349 (Leu89Val) located in SRD5A2 encoding 5-alpha-reductase, type 2, highly significant associations with ALTs were found in boys and girls, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that SNPs in sex steroid related genes, known to affect gene expression (rs2747648 in ESR1) and enzymatic activity (Leu89Val in SRD5A2), seem to be associated with ALTs in a general population. In conclusion, the current findings provide further support for a role of sex steroids in the pathophysiology of ASDs. PMID:23867117

  16. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender. PMID:25153712

  17. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson Sam; Gutierrez Juan; Anil, Kumar G.; Dandona Lalit; Dandona Rakhi; Samuels Fiona; Bertozzi Stefano M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra ...

  18. Sex-specific effect of the anabolic steroid, 17?-methyltestosterone, on inhibitory avoidance learning in periadolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Pratts, Keyla; Rosa-González, Dariana; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L; Cintrón-López, Dahima; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has gained popularity among adolescents in the last decade. However, although it is known that exposure to AAS impairs cognition in adult animal models, the cognitive effects during adolescence remain undetermined. An inhibitory avoidance task (IAT) was used to assess the effect of AAS (17?-methyltestosterone; 17?-meT--7.5 mg/kg) in male and female periadolescent rats. A single injection of 17?-meT immediately before the footshock produced significant impairment of inhibitory avoidance learning in males but not females. Generalized anxiety, locomotion, and risk assessment behaviors (RAB) were not affected. Our results show that exposure to a single pharmacological dose of 17?-meT during periadolescence exerts sex-specific cognitive effects without affecting anxiety. Thus, disruption of the hormonal milieu during this early developmental period might have negative impact on learning and memory. PMID:23792034

  19. HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K

    2012-01-01

    Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the inclusiveness of the HIV response. PMID:23237073

  20. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JennyErkanderMullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  1. Induction of female-to-male sex change in the honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra) by 11-ketotestosterone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    The honeycomb grouper, Epinephelus merra, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Sex steroid hormones play key roles in sex change of this species. A significant drop in endogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) levels alone triggers female-to-male sex change, and the subsequent elevation of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels correlates with the progression of spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of an androgen in sex change, we attempted to induce female-to-male sex change by exogenous 11KT treatments. The 75-day 11KT treatment caused 100% masculinization of pre-spawning females. Ovaries of the control (vehicle-treated) fish had oocytes at various stages of oogenesis, while the gonads of the 11KT-treated fish had transformed into testes; these contained spermatogenic germ cells at various stages, including an accumulation of spermatozoa in the sperm duct. In the sex-changed fish, plasma levels of E2 were significantly low, while both testosterone (T) and 11KT were significantly increased. Our results suggest that 11KT plays an important role in sex change in the honeycomb grouper. Whether the mechanism of 11KT-induced female-to-male sex change acts through direct stimulation of spermatogenesis in the ovary or via the inhibition of estrogen synthesis remains to be clarified. PMID:16547407

  2. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Female Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2014-09-10

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  4. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size). PMID:17040379

  5. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor. PMID:25658663

  6. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited previous studies have evaluated circulating androgens and the risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one of the previous studies. Furthermore, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histological subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations and the histological subtypes of EOC. We identified 1052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Associations between hormones and EOC differed with respect to tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors; however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with approximately 40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% increased risk of mucinous tumors. The risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher E2 concentrations (OR: 1.89 (1.20-2.98)). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

  7. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos. A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml. Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

  8. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neuza R. W., Lima; Juliana de S., Azevedo; Leonardo G. da, Silva; Marilvia, Dansa-Petretski.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações d [...] e esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%). A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0%) que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos). A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas). Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml). Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro. Abstract in english Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and repr [...] oductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males). The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites). These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml). All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.

  9. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  10. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations

    OpenAIRE

    JohnManning; LiamKilduff; CristianCook; BlairCrewther; BernhardFink

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), which denotes the relative length of the 2nd and 4th digits, is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between foetal testosterone and oestrogen in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence from this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroi...

  11. [Testosterone, albumin and sex steroid-binding globulin in the blood serum of patients with laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlinski?, N E; Bassalyk, L S; Alferov, V S; Ogol'tsova, E S; Savinskaia, A P

    1985-01-01

    Since endocrine factors play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of precancerous and tumor diseases of the pharynx, the study was concerned with assays of total testosterone, albumin, sex steroid-binding globulin and free and protein-bound androgens in the blood serum of patients with malignant and benign tumors of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer patients revealed raised levels of total, free and albumin-bound testosterone matched by a lower concentration of sex steroid-binding globulin. Maximum differences between the study groups were established in the relationship between the fraction of testosterone associated with sex steroid-binding globulin and that of free androgen. An important role of androgens in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer was inferred. Further studies of androgen secretion and transport by blood proteins in laryngeal cancer patients are essential for the investigations of pathways of sex steroid hormones action. PMID:4041091

  12. Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: Involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeung Eui-Bae

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen (E2 and progesterone (P4, in female reproductive systems including the uterus and placenta. Thus, in this review, we summarize recent research literature in regards to the expression and regulation of CaBP-9k in mammals and introduce the research data of recent studies by us and others.

  13. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: are we monitoring the appropriate sex-steroid hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvieto, Raoul; Hod, Eduard; Volodarsky, Michael; Homburg, Roy; Rabinson, Jacob; Meltcer, Simion

    2008-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated the behavior of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), sex-steroid hormones, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 27 patients during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF). While routine measurement of COH via serum 17-OHP may replace estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone levels, additional studies are needed to elucidate the ceiling level of serum 17-OHP beyond which intervention is required to prevent severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:17658530

  14. African-American adolescent females' predictors of having sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Barbara L; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Freels, Sally

    2006-12-01

    African-American adolescent females are at high risk for HIV infection, acquired primarily as a result of heterosexual intercourse. Multiple regression analyses was used to describe the correlates of the outcome variable, ever having had sex, for low-income African-American adolescent females in a cross-sectional study of 322 (N = 322) mother/daughter pairs. The results revealed that while the daughters' age was positively associated with the outcome variable, the daughters' perceptions of strictness of curfew and maternal monitoring, and the daughters'self-efficacy to refuse sex and their intention to refuse sex were negatively associated with the outcome variable. Mothers tended to report significantly more maternal monitoring and stricter curfews than what their daughters perceived them to be. The daughters'intention to refuse sex mediated the effects of age and self-efficacy to refuse sex on the outcome variable. These results suggest that health-care providers should promote clearer communication between mothers and daughters in order to reduce divergent perceptions and to help mothers facilitate their daughters' self-efficacy and their intention to refuse sex. PMID:17410757

  15. All sex steroids are made intracellularly in peripheral tissues by the mechanisms of intracrinology after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand

    2015-01-01

    Following the arrest of estradiol secretion by the ovaries at menopause, all estrogens and all androgens in postmenopausal women are made locally in peripheral target tissues according to the physiological mechanisms of intracrinology. The locally made sex steroids exert their action and are inactivated intracellularly without biologically significant release of the active sex steroids in the circulation. The level of expression of the steroid-forming and steroid-inactivating enzymes is specific to each cell type in each tissue, thus permitting to each cell/tissue to synthesize a small amount of androgens and/or estrogens in order to meet the local physiological needs without affecting the other tissues of the organism. Achieved after 500 million years of evolution, combination of the arrest of ovarian estrogen secretion, the availability of high circulating levels of DHEA and the expression of the peripheral sex steroid-forming enzymes have permitted the appearance of menopause with a continuing access to intratissular sex steroids for the individual cells/tissues without systemic exposure to circulating estradiol. In fact, one essential condition of menopause is to maintain serum estradiol at biologically inactive (substhreshold) concentrations, thus avoiding stimulation of the endometrium and risk of endometrial cancer. Measurement of the low levels of serum estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal women absolutely requires the use of MS/MS-based technology in order to obtain reliable accurate, specific and precise assays. While the activity of the series of steroidogenic enzymes can vary, the serum levels of DHEA show large individual variations going from barely detectable to practically normal "premenopausal" values, thus explaining the absence of menopausal symptoms in about 25% of women. It should be added that the intracrine system has no feedback elements to adjust the serum levels of DHEA, thus meaning that women with low DHEA activity will not be improved without external supplementation. Exogenous DHEA, however, follows the same intracrine rules as described for endogenous DHEA, thus maintaining serum estrogen levels at substhreshold or biologically inactive concentrations. Such blood concentrations are not different from those observed in normal postmenopausal women having high serum DHEA concentrations. Androgens, on the other hand, are practically all made intracellularly from DHEA by the mechanisms of intracrinology and are always maintained at very low levels in the blood in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Proof of the importance of intracrinology is also provided, among others, by the well-recognized benefits of aromatase inhibitors and antiestrogens used successfully for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women where all estrogens are made locally. Each medical indication for the use of DHEA, however, requires clinical trials performed according to the FDA guidelines and the best rules of clinical medicine. PMID:24923731

  16. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik; MØller, Holger Jon

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, P

  17. Bone turnover markers in patients with prostate carcinoma: influence of sex steroids levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Martín, Antonia; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; González-Ramírez, Rocío; Rocío, González-Ramírez; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data about bone turnover markers (BTM) in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-treated prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and the relationship between sex steroids, bone mass, and BTM has not been explored. Our objective was to analyze the influence of sex steroids levels on BTM in patients with PCa treated with or without ADT. We performed a cross-sectional study including 83 subjects with PCa (54% with ADT). BTM, bone mineral density (BMD), and sex steroids were determined. BTM were inversely related to serum level of estrogens. Tartrate-specific acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b) showed a negative correlation with free estradiol (Free E) (r = -0.274, p = 0.014) and Bio E (r = -0.256, p = 0.022) that remained after adjustment for age: Free E (? = -0.241, p = 0.03) and Bio E (? = -0.213, p = 0.063). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations were inversely related to Free E (r = -0.281, p = 0.011, age-adjusted ? = -0.256, p = 0.024). There was a negative correlation between osteocalcin (OC) levels and Free E (r = -0.195, p = 0.082; age-adjusted ? = -0.203, p = 0.076) and Bio E (r = -0.215, p = 0.054; age-adjusted ? = -0.240, p = 0.039). BTM and androgens were inversely related to TRAP-5b: total testosterone (total T) (r = -0.238, p = 0.033), Free T (r = -0.309, p = 0.05), and Bio T (r = -0.310, p = 0.05), but these correlations disappeared after age-adjustment. We did not find any relationship between BMD at different locations and sex steroids. In conclusion, in patients with PCa, estrogen levels influence bone resorption and bone formation whereas androgens may exert actions only in bone resorption. These results suggest that estradiol is the main sex steroid that regulates bone metabolism in males with prostate carcinoma. PMID:23640678

  18. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Scambler; James Blanchard; Stephen Moses; Raghavendra, T.; Krishnamurthy Jayanna; Hiremath, Jyoti M.; Halli, Shiva S.; Raluca Buzdugan; Frances Cowan

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-res...

  19. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

  20. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  1. Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of proculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection

  2. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-04-01

    Estrogen (E2 )-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2 -based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2 , T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59-64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80-83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P statistics used took into account the lack of statistical independence of twin sisters. Furthermore, muscle cells were shown to take up and actively synthesize hormones. Present study suggests intramuscular sex steroids to associate with strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging. PMID:25645687

  3. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  4. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  5. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids are manmade substances related to testosterone (male sex hormone). Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat hormone problems ... Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Depressant Medications Prescription Drugs Prescription Pain ... Stimulant Medications (Amphetamines) Salvia Spice ...

  6. Differential male and female adrenal cortical steroid hormone and cortisol responses to interleukin-6 in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C.; Ine?s, L.; Nour, D.; Straub, Rh; Pereira Da Silva, Ja

    2002-01-01

    Evidence from experimental animal studies show that sex hormones influence the glucocorticoid response to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory stimuli. In this study we assessed gender differences in the response of ACTH and cortisol in normal young male and female humans following intravenous infusion of human IL-6 in various dosages. Males presented a significantly stronger ACTH production in response to IL-6 than females. Peak cortisol response, however, was similar in males and f...

  7. The growth hormone response to hexarelin in children: reproducibility and effect of sex steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghigo, Ezio

    1997-01-01

    We studied the variability of the GH response to the synthetic hexapeptide hexarelin (Hex) and the effect of sex steroids on the GH-releasing effect of Hex in a group of prepubertal short normal children. Twenty-five children were tested on two occasions 3-7 days apart with 2 micrograms/kg, i.v., Hex. The GH response to Hex was reevaluated after testosterone (T) administration in 10 boys, after ethinyl estradiol (EE) administration in 15 children (5 boys and 10 girls), and after oxandrolone (...

  8. Constraints faced by sex workers in use of female and male condoms for safer sex in urban Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Sunanda; Wijgert, Janneke; Mason, Peter; Ndowa, Francis; Maposhere, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether female condoms are acceptable to sex workers in Harare and whether improved access to male and female condoms increases the proportion of protected sex episodes with clients and boyfriends. Sex workers were randomly placed in groups to receive either male and female condoms (group A, n=99) or male condoms only (group B, n=50) and were followed prospectively for about 3 months each. We found a considerable burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transm...

  9. The steroid hormone ecdysone functions with intrinsic chromatin remodeling factors to control female germline stem cells in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ables, Elizabeth T.; Drummond-barbosa, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are known systemic regulators of multiple normal and cancerous tissues; however, whether or how they impact the fate and function of adult stem cells is unclear. In the Drosophila ovary, insulin signals modulate the proliferation and self-renewal of germline stem cells (GSCs), yet despite evidence that additional systemic factors control GSC activity, these have remained largely unknown. Here, we report that ecdysone, a steroid hormone structurally related to mammalian sex st...

  10. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  11. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 ?-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was coned at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  12. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  13. Human papillomavirus infections among Hungarian female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Dergez, T; D'cruz, G; Bozsa, S; Cseh, A; Szilard, I; Benczik, M; Kiss, I; Varszegi, D; Vilagi, S; Ember, I; Gocze, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in cervical, oropharyngeal and anal samples of the high-risk population of Hungarian female sex workers (FSWs). HPV testing of swab specimens from FSWs (n = 34) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was performed. Results were compared with control group (n = 52) matched for age. Questionnaires were used to obtain data regarding participants' sexual behaviour. Data were analysed using SPSS. HPV DNA was detected in at least one location in a great majority of FSWs (82.4%), compared with 46.2% of the general female population (P sex workers showed higher infection rates than those of controls (64.7% vs. 34.6% and 50.0% vs. 15.4%, respectively, P sex workers (55.9% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion of FSWs had a history of genital warts (26.5% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.05). The results suggest that condom use may not result in adequate protection from HPV infection. The high infection rates among FSWs should be viewed as a priority group for HPV and cervical cancer prevention programmes since they are sources of HPV infection for the general population. PMID:23957436

  14. Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin: steroid transport by a laminin G-like domain

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkovskaya, Irina; Avvakumov, George V.; Sklenar, Gisela; Dales, David; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Muller, Yves A.

    2000-01-01

    Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) transports sex steroids in blood and regulates their access to target tissues. In biological fluids, SHBG exists as a homodimer and each monomer comprises two laminin G-like domains (G domains). The crystal structure of the N–terminal G domain of SHBG in complex with 5?–dihydrotestosterone at 1.55 ? resolution reveals both the architecture of the steroid-binding site and the quaternary structure of the dimer. We also show that G domains have je...

  15. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  16. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Ad; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, Kl; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, Nc; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

  17. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Andrea D.; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimaki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-moret, N. Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

  18. Comparisons of Female and Male Early Adolescent Sex Role Attitude and Behavior Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christine; Keith, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    Data from early adolescents and parents revealed traditionalism of female sex role attitude development influenced by maternal employment, father's sex role attitudes in interaction with time spent with daughter, and chronological age; traditionalism of male sex role attitude development influenced by mother's sex role attitudes in interaction…

  19. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  20. Enhanced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function Mediates Immune Regeneration following Sex Steroid Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Danika M; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Hammett, Maree V; Jurblum, Marc I; Khong, Sacha M L; Goldberg, Gabrielle L; Ueno, Tomoo; Spyroglou, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Boyd, Richard L; Chidgey, Ann P

    2015-03-10

    Mechanisms underlying age-related defects within lymphoid-lineages remain poorly understood. We previously reported that sex steroid ablation (SSA) induced lymphoid rejuvenation and enhanced recovery from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT). We herein show that, mechanistically, SSA induces hematopoietic and lymphoid recovery by functionally enhancing both HSC self-renewal and propensity for lymphoid differentiation through intrinsic molecular changes. Our transcriptome analysis revealed further hematopoietic support through rejuvenation of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, with upregulation of key hematopoietic factors and master regulatory factors associated with aging such as Foxo1. These studies provide important cellular and molecular insights into understanding how SSA-induced regeneration of the hematopoietic compartment can underpin recovery of the immune system following damaging cytoablative treatments. These findings support a short-term strategy for clinical use of SSA to enhance the production of lymphoid cells and HSC engraftment, leading to improved outcomes in adult patients undergoing HSCT and immune depletion in general. PMID:25733018

  1. The effect of cryptic female choice on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites

    OpenAIRE

    Velzen, Ellen; Scha?rer, Lukas; Pen, Ido

    2009-01-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites has focused primarily on the effects of sperm competition, but the role of mate choice has so far been neglected. We present a model to study the coevolution of cryptic female choice and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites. We show that the mechanism of cryptic female choice has a strong effect on the evolutionary outcome: if individuals remove a fixed proportion of less-preferred sperm, the optimal sex allocation is more female ...

  2. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  3. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest ta suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  4. Sex-specific development of spatial orientation is independent of peripubertal gonadal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to androgens has been shown to modulate brain development, resulting in changed behavioral attitudes, sexual orientation and cognitive functions, including processing of spatial information. Whether later changes in gonadotropic hormones during puberty induce further organizational effects within the brain is still insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to assess development of spatial orientation before and after the time of normal pubertal development, in an ovine model where half of the animals did not undergo typical reproductive maturation due to the pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) signaling. The study formed part of a larger trial and utilized 46 pairs of same sex Scottish Mule Texel Cross twins (22 female and 24 male). One twin remained untreated throughout (control) while the other received a subcutaneous GnRH agonist (GnRHa: Goserelin-Acetate) implant every fourth week. GnRHa treatment began at eight and 28 weeks of age, in males and females respectively, because the timing of the pubertal transition is sexually differentiated in sheep as it is in humans. Spatial orientation was assessed at three different time points: eight weeks of age, before puberty and treatment in both sexes; 28 weeks of age, after 20 weeks GnRHa treatment in males and before puberty and GnRHa treatment in females; and at 48 weeks of age, which is after the normal time of the pubertal transition in both sexes. Spatial orientation was tested in a spatial maze with traverse time as the main outcome measure. GnRHa treatment did not affect spatial maze performance as no significant differences in traverse time between treated and untreated animals were observed at any time-point. Adolescent females (48 weeks of age) traversed the maze significantly faster than adolescent males, whereas no sex differences in traverse time were seen at earlier developmental stages (eight and 28 weeks). Development of sex differences in spatial orientation was independent of exposure to pubertal hormones since puberty-blocked and control animals both showed the same pattern of spatial maze performance. This result demonstrates the prenatal nature of spatial orientation development. Furthermore, the unexpected finding that female animals outperformed males in the spatial orientation task, underscores the importance of the testing context in spatial orientation experiments. PMID:23477973

  5. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  6. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Nanami, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideyuki; Yamakura, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes.

  7. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  8. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. c our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)

  9. Dicamba affects sex steroid hormone level and mRNA expression of related genes in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2014-01-13

    Dicamba is a benzoic acid herbicide that has been detected in surface and ground water. The herbicide has been shown to have cytogeneic and DNA damaging effects and to cause organ damage in mammals; however, little is known about the endocrine disrupting effects of dicamba in fish. In this study, histological changes, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and sex hormone levels, and mRNA expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes were determined in adult rare minnow exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of dicamba (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 ?g/L) for 40 days. The results showed inhibition of spermatogenesis in male testes and ovarian degeneration in females. Plasma 17?-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased in both genders, and plasma VTG levels were significantly increased in males (p?rare minnows (p < 0.05). The downregulation of cytochrome P450c19a (cyp19a) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star) mRNA levels, and the upregulation of cytochrome P450c17 (cyp17) mRNA levels were observed in the livers and ovaries (p?steroid hormone-related gene expression could serve as a regulatory mechanism to maintain sex hormone homeostasis. Overall, dicamba exposure could result in histological lesions, plasma VTG increases, changes in sex hormone levels, and alterations of hormone-related gene expression. Therefore, dicamba should be considered to be a potential endocrine disruptor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:24420721

  10. Sex steroid hormones exert biphasic effects on cytosolic magnesium ions in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: possible relationships to migraine frequency in premenstrual syndromes and stroke incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Zheng, T; Altura, B M; Altura, B T

    2001-01-01

    Clinically, it is known that: (1) magnesium (Mg) supplementation relieves premenstrual problems (e.g., migraine, bloating and edema) occurring in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle; and (2) migraine syndromes, particularly in women, are associated with deficits in brain and serum ionized Mg levels. We investigated whether concentrations of sex steroid hormones, found in the serum during the menstrual cycle of women, are associated with changes in the levels of cytosolic free magnesium ions ([Mg2+]i in single cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. The resting level of [Mg2+]i in these cells was 645 +/- 89 microM before exposure to sex steroid hormones. Exposure of these vascular cells to a low concentration of estrogen (10 pg/ml) failed to interfere with the levels of [Mg2+]i. However, exposure to estrogen, at concentrations ranging from 40 to 200 pg/ml, induced significant loss of [Mg2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 200 pg/ml estrogen, the level of [Mg2+]i decreased approximately 30% in comparison with controls. Progesterone produced biphasic effects on the levels of [Mg2+]i, depending on its concentration. Exposure of the cultured cells to a low concentration of progesterone (0.5 ng/ml) resulted in an increased level of [Mg2+]i (from 690 +/- 50 microM to 753 +/- 56 microM, p hormone, didn't produce any significant alteration in [Mg2+]i levels in these cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that low, physiological concentrations of female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, help cerebral vascular smooth cells sustain normal concentrations of [Mg2+]i, which are beneficial to vascular function, whereas high levels of estrogen and progesterone deplete, significantly, [Mg2+]i in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in cerebrovasospasms and reduced cerebral blood flows related to premenstrual syndromes, migraine and stroke risk. Our findings could provide new insight into the mechanism whereby migraine occurs frequently in the late luteal phase in the premenstrual syndrome. In addition, our results demonstrate that female sex steroids but not testosterone (in physiologic concentrations) can exert direct effects on [Mg2+]i in cerebral vascular cells. PMID:11226717

  11. Relationship between female sex workers and gatekeeper: the impact on female sex worker's mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Su, Shaobing; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    Global literature suggests that gatekeepers exert enormous influences on lives of female sex workers (FSWs). However, virtually no available studies have examined the FSW-gatekeeper relationship (F-G relationship) and its impact on FSW's mental health. The current study was conducted in 2008-2009 in two cities of southwest China. A total of 1022 FSW were recruited through community outreach from nine different types of commercial sex establishments. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to depict the association between F-G relationship and measures of FSW's mental health. Findings of the current study revealed that FSW with a close relationship with their gatekeepers reported a better mental health status. After adjusting for demographics and potential confounders of mental health, F-G relationship was positively associated with hopefulness (?? = .09, 95% CI = .01, .16), but negatively associated with perceived stigma (?? = -.25, 95% CI = -.44, -.07), suicidal intention or attempt (aOR = .90, 95% CI = .83, .99), and loneliness (?? = -.29, 95% CI = -.47, -.12). F-G relationship is an independent predictor of mental health of FSW over and above potential confounders including partner violence and substance use. Future health promotion programs targeting FSW need to recognize the role of gatekeepers in the life of FSW and engage them in a socially and legally acceptable way in safeguarding or improving mental health status of FSW in China. PMID:24345341

  12. The epidemiology of sex steroid hormones and their signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Elizabeth A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic literature on the association of sex steroid hormones and components of their signaling and metabolic pathways with prostate cancer and to describe data evaluating racial variation in sex steroid hormone pathways as a possible explanation for the notably higher risk of prostate cancer in African-American men compared to white or Asian men. Although sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the growth and progression of prostate cancer, associations between hormones and prostate cancer risk across the range of normal levels have been difficult to reliably demonstrate epidemiologically. Methodologic issues no doubt have made the detection of these associations difficult. Of particular importance are (1) the inadequacy of measuring circulating hormones in middle age as a surrogate for the exposure in the target cells in the prostate at the relevant time in life and (2) the current inability to integrate across components of the sex steroid hormone signaling pathway to fully capture target cell androgenic and estrogenic stimulation. Although the approach of evaluating polymorphisms in genes involved in sex steroid hormone signaling or metabolism as a way to minimize some of the issues in the direct measurement of hormones is logical, the findings among these studies are somewhat difficult to reconcile as well. The problems of the changing case mix due to screening for elevated PSA, small sample sizes increasing the likelihood of false negative and false positive results, the controls and their allele frequencies not being representative of the population at risk, and lack of knowledge of the functional consequence of a polymorphism in relation to other polymorphisms in that gene or without consideration of other genes involved in the same pathway may be contributory. The primary result of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial confirms that intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone levels in the normal range indeed do contribute to the growth of prostate adenocarcinoma. However, the secondary result of higher-grade disease in cases in the finasteride arm coupled with clinical studies showing higher grade disease in non-metastatic cases with lower serum androgens, if not a pathological artifact or detection bias in the finasteride arm, possibly suggests a complex relationship between androgens and the growth versus differentiation of a prostate tumor. Finally, racial variation in components of the sex steroid hormone pathway do appear to exist, but whether the extent of the variation is adequately great such that it accounts for some of the substantial differences in prostate cancer incidence among blacks, whites, and Asians is unclear. PMID:15663987

  13. The influence of sex steroid hormones in the immunopathology of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Hernández Pando, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator's inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

  14. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on th...

  15. Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Erin C.; Garofalo, Robert; Harris, Robert D.; Herrick, Amy; Martinez, Miguel; Martinez, Jaime; Belzer, Marvin

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15–24, in Los Angeles and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV positive. Many factors were significantly associated with sex work for this sample population. A final multivariate logisti...

  16. Sex work practices and condom use in female sex workers in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J; Tideman, R L; Gilmour, S; Marks, C; van Beek, I; Mindel, A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sex work practices and predictors of condom use among female sex workers (SWs) in Sydney. SWs from two centres completed a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic and sexual characteristics and sex work practices. One hundred and forty-eight international (born in Asia) and 141 local SWs (born in Australia, New Zealand or the UK) were recruited. Local SWs saw more clients per shift than international SWs (P = 0.002), but international SWs worked more shifts per week than local SWs (P = 0.001). International SWs used condoms less consistently at work than local SWs (P = 0.001). About 37% of international SWs never used condoms with non-paying partners, compared with 14% of local SWs (P = 0.01). Speaking Thai (odds ratio [OR] 8.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 3.19-24.87) or Chinese (OR 17.4; 95% CI 4.98-60.89) (both P Thailand (OR 10.0 95% CI 2.31-43.52; P = 0.02) were associated with inconsistent condom use. Strategies to improve condom use need to be evaluated. PMID:16643682

  17. The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

  18. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  19. Disulphates of 16-oxygenated ketonic C19 steroids as biliary metabolities of androsterone sulphate in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, M; Hakozaki, M

    1978-02-01

    The chemical synthesis of 16beta-hydroxyandrosterone was described preparatory to studies of the disulphates of the 16-oxygenated ketonic C19 steroids present in the bile of female rats dosed with [3H]androsterone sulphate. The biliary metabolites were separated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 to afford monosulphate and diconjugate fractions. After solvolysis of the diconjugate fraction, the liberated steroids were separated by partition chromatography on Celite 545 and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry. In addition to 3alpha, 17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstan-16-one isolated previously, 16beta-hydroxyandrosterone was identified as a disulphate. PMID:663964

  20. Binding of xenoestrogens to the sex steroid-binding protein in plasma from Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, K-E; Ovrevik, J; Stenersen, J

    2004-10-01

    A specific sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) is believed to be involved in regulation of circulating sex steroids, steroid delivery to target cells and intracellular signalling in sex steroid-sensitive tissues. In the present work, interactions between xenoestrogens and the plasma SBP in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) were determined using ligand-protein binding studies. The test compounds were all able to displace tritiated 17 beta-estradiol (E2) from the Arctic charr SBP (acSBP) in a competitive and dose-dependent manner. The acSBP affinities for the xenoestrogens ranged over several orders of magnitude (17 beta-estradiol>ethynylestradiol (EE2)>zearalenone (ZEA)>diethylstilbestrol (DES)>genistein (GEN)>bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octylphenol (OP)>o,p'-DDT, and dieldrin (DIN)), but were consistently lower than that of 17 beta-estradiol (about 4 x 10(2) -10(6)-fold less potent). The relative binding affinity (RBA) for selected chemicals were independent of both gender, age and maturation status, as well as variations of acSBP binding affinity. The affinity of endogenous steroids and estrogen mimics for the acSBP shows a high correlation to the affinity for the rainbow trout SBP, thus suggesting a phylogenetically conserved ligand-binding site between closely related species. Furthermore, it is argued that interaction with the acSBP- and SBP-mediated processes may introduce novel pathways for endocrine disruption, which may work in concert with the classical receptor-mediated effects. PMID:15556074

  1. XY females in Microtus cabrerae (Rodentia, Microtidae): a case of possibly Y-linked sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M; Jiménez, R; Díaz de la Guardia, R

    1988-01-01

    Microtus cabrerae is a species with blocks of heterochromatin on both sex chromosomes. Polymorphism caused by extensive deletions affecting these heterochromatic segments exists in both X and Y chromosomes. Of a total of 22 males and 22 females studied, four females exhibited sex pair dimorphism similar to that observed in males. C-banding techniques and preliminary data regarding inheritance support the hypothesis that these specimens are XY fertile females and that this sex reversion is most likely inherited through the Y chromosome of these females. PMID:3073913

  2. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).METHODS: 99 ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the EPIC study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (pre-menopausal women); and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E2 were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E2 and SHBG. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among pre-menopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs lowest tertile=5.16, 95% CI: 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E2, fE2 and DHEAS showed non significant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among post-menopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.21-9.37), whereas E2, and fT showed non significant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in post-menopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E2 may be involved in the etiology of ICC.Impact:The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

  3. The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

  4. The hepatic receptor for sex steroid-binding protein: study on a non-malignant cell line (Chang liver).

    OpenAIRE

    Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela

    1993-01-01

    The binding of human sex steroid-binding protein (SBP), labelled with 125I, was studied on whole cultured liver cells (Chang liver cells). SBP was shown to bind to a receptor site on normal hepatocytes. The binding was time- and temperature-dependent, highly specific and of high affinity. The liver receptor recognizing SBP was demonstrated to be different from the asialoglycoprotein receptor; in addition, laminin, which is structurally related to SBP, could not bind to the receptor. SBP was s...

  5. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    OpenAIRE

    Grayson Kristine L; De Lisle Stephen P; Jackson Jerrah E; Black Samuel J; Crespi Erica J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize th...

  6. Females alter their song when challenged in a sex-role reversed bird species

    OpenAIRE

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Goymann, Wolfgang; Muck, Christina; Ten Cate, Carel

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong serves to attract mates and to deter territorial rivals. Even though song is not restricted to males, this dual function has almost exclusively been demonstrated for male song. To test the generality of hypotheses on birdsong, we investigated female song in the sex-role reversed, classically polyandrous African black coucal (Centropus grillii) in the context of female–female competition. We compared spontaneously vocalizing females with females vocally responding to a playback simu...

  7. Short fused? associations between white matter connections, sex steroids, and aggression across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2015-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapid development of white matter connectivity between subcortical and cortical areas during adolescence and may potentiate aggression. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 258 participants between 8 and 25 years of age by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging to examine the microstructure of white matter connections within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network. Trait aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire and testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in saliva. Results indicated that higher levels of testosterone were associated with less white matter integrity within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network (i.e., higher mean diffusivity [MD] longitudinal [LD], and radial diffusivity [RD]). Furthermore, lower fractional anisotropy and higher MD, LD, and RD values within this network increased expressive forms of aggression and reduced inhibited forms of aggression (hostility). Our study indicates higher levels of testosterone relating to lower quality of structural cortical-subcortical connectivity, arguably resulting in a shift from inhibited towards expressive forms of aggression. Our data adds evidence to the idea that aggressive tendencies are subcortically driven, but individuals with relatively high testosterone might have lower structural connectivity within cortical control areas, resulting in a stronger tendency to act on these aggressive tendencies. PMID:25359710

  8. Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

    2014-03-21

    The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497646

  9. Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsler, Janni J.; Blas, Magaly M.; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-...

  10. Functional impact of silencing the Helicoverpa armigera sex-peptide receptor on female reproductive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, O; Azrielli, A; Applebaum, S W; Rafaeli, Ada

    2012-04-01

    Female Helicoverpa armigera sex pheromone production is under the control of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). After mating, females undergo suppression of sex pheromone production and enhanced oviposition as a result of the transfer of male-derived seminal peptides. In a previous study we identified a putative H. armigera sex-peptide receptor (HeaSP-R) and demonstrated a significant up-regulation in gene expression levels of this receptor in brains and pheromone glands of mated females, thereby implicating a regulatory role for sex peptide in the reproductive behaviour of H. armigera. In the present study, we show that virgin females injected with Drosophila melanogaster SP (DrmSP), in addition to inhibition of pheromone production, also exhibited a suppression of calling behaviour and a significant reduction in the gene expression levels of the PBAN-receptor. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of the HeaSP-R expression by 50-60% prevented DrmSP-suppression of pheromone production and calling behaviour. Moreover, mated, silenced females failed to increase their oviposition rates as is normally observed in mated females, and their behaviour did not differ from that of virgin females. However, sex pheromone production by mated, silenced females remained low, comparable to mated, normal females, thereby indicating the probable involvement of additional factors in the suppression of sex pheromone production after mating. PMID:22171674

  11. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n?=?50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  12. Chronic Exposure to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Alters Activity and Synaptic Function in Neuroendocrine Control Regions of the Female Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Davis, Matthew C.; Porter, Donna M.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of reproductive function is a hallmark of abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in female subjects. To understand the central actions of AAS, patch clamp recordings were made in estrous, diestrous and AAS-treated mice from gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and neurons in the anteroventroperiventricular nucleus (AVPV); regions known to provide GABAergic and kisspeptin inputs to the GnRH cells. Action potential (AP) freque...

  13. Effects of dopamine 2 receptor antagonist on sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performances in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Quoc; Arukwe, Augustine

    2013-04-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of domperidone (DOM), a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, on plasma steroid hormone levels and reproductive performances of a female tropical marine finfish, Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis), with potential for cultivation in Vietnam. We showed that oral treatment of DOM during early stage of the reproductive cycle had no significant effects on the maturation and reproductive performances of the female fish, while plasma steroid hormone (testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) levels were modulated based on month, DOM dose and the individual hormones measured. Overall, these findings suggest that DOM may not be needed for the induction of maturation and spawning of this species under aquaculture conditions. The data in the present study are significant in highlighting practical efforts for reducing drug use, production costs and for a sustainable aquaculture in a developing country such as Vietnam. PMID:22911104

  14. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

  15. Sex-specific effect of the anabolic steroid, 17?-methyltestosterone, on inhibitory avoidance learning in periadolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-pratts, Keyla; Rosa-gonza?lez, Dariana; Pe?rez-acevedo, Nivia L.; Cintro?n-lo?pez, Dahima; Barreto-estrada, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has gained popularity among adolescents in the last decade. However, although it is known that exposure to AAS impairs cognition in adult animal models, the cognitive effects during adolescence remain undetermined. An inhibitory avoidance task (IAT) was used to assess the effect of AAS (17?-methyltestosterone; 17?-meT-7.5 mg/kg) in male and female periadolescent rats. A single injection of 17?-meT immediately before the footshock produc...

  16. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2011-01-01

    Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

  17. Female sex pheromone of a wandering spider (Cupiennius salei): identification and sensory reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, H; Gingl, E; Ehn, R; Papke, M; Schulz, S

    2001-02-01

    Females of the wandering spider Cupiennius salei attach a sex pheromone to their dragline. Males encountering the female dragline examine the silk thread with their pedipalps and then typically initiate reciprocal vibratory courtship with the sexual partner. The female pheromone was identified as (S)-1,1'-dimethyl citrate. The male pheromone receptive sensory cells are located in tip pore sensilla and respond to touching the sensillum tip with female silk or pieces of filter paper containing the synthetic pheromone. PMID:11318380

  18. Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

    2012-01-01

    Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n?=?310), in-depth interviews (n?=?11), key informant interviews (n?=?5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical l...

  19. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

  20. The Chameleon Syndrome: A Social Psychological Dimension of the Female Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bernard C.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and social correlates of the female form of the Chameleon Syndrome--an accommodative response to an environment perceived as hostile to inappropriate sex role behavior--among a sample of 3200 American adolescents. (Author)

  1. Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom; Célia Landmann Szwarcwald; Aristides Barbosa Júnior

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. METHODS: The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilistic or convenience). RESULTS: We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not ade...

  2. Male and Female Pathways through Four-Year Colleges: Disruption and Sex Stratification in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Pathways through college vary by sex in ways that may contribute to the contemporary male-female gap in college graduation that favors women. Although past research has documented sex differences in college pathways, little research has investigated the underlying causes of this variation. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study,…

  3. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  4. Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Endang; Wolffers, Ivan; Devillé, Walter; Erlaini, Noni; Luhpuri, Dorang; Hargono, Rachmat; Maskuri, Nuning; Suesen, Nyoman; van Beelen, Nel

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a sample of 204 female sex workers. Qualitative data were collected by conducting focus group discussions and in-depth interviews among female sex workers and pimps. Around 53% of sexual intercourses were reported to be protected, and 12% of these protected intercourses were preceded by clients' argumentation against it. Only 5.8% of sex workers consistently used condoms for a 2-week period of observation, and this figure decreased to 1.4% for a 4-week period. Reasons for not using condoms from the clients' side, as mentioned by the sex workers, were perceived less pleasure due to the condom and the belief that clients that are acquainted with the sex workers do not need protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or AIDS. The main reasons of female sex workers for not using condoms were the beliefs that boyfriends, native Indonesians and healthy-looking clients cannot spread STDs. Another reason stated was that sex workers had already taken other preventive measures, like taking antibiotics. The research also showed that pimps were not very supportive of condom use programs in Indonesia. Condom unacceptability is an important reason for not using condoms for both clients and female sex workers, whereas pimps, who are in the best position to encourage condom use, unfortunately consider condom use as a threat to their business. For the successful introduction of consistent condom use, it is necessary to design interventions for both sex workers and clients and to provide appropriate educational materials and preferred brands of condoms. Also, pimps must be involved in intervention programs. PMID:12000229

  5. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 151, ?. 6 (2014), s. 755-768. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2013

  6. Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES*

    OpenAIRE

    Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their elec...

  7. Large scale genome-wide association and LDLA mapping study identifies QTLs for boar taint and related sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Marianne HS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boar taint is observed in a high proportion of uncastrated male pigs and is characterized by an unpleasant odor/flavor in cooked meat, primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole. Androstenone is a steroid produced in the testis in parallel with biosynthesis of other sex steroids like testosterone and estrogens. This represents a challenge when performing selection against androstenone in breeding programs, without simultaneously decreasing levels of other steroids. The aim of this study was to use high-density genome wide association (GWA in combination with linkage disequilibrium-linkage analysis (LDLA to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with boar taint compounds and related sex steroids in commercial Landrace (n = 1,251 and Duroc (n = 918 breeds. Results Altogether, 14 genome wide significant (GWS QTL regions for androstenone in subcutaneous fat were obtained from the LDLA study in Landrace and 14 GWS QTL regions in Duroc. LDLA analysis revealed that 7 of these QTL regions, located on SSC 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15, were obtained in both breeds. All 14 GWS androstenone QTLs in Landrace are also affecting the estrogens at chromosome wise significance (CWS or GWS levels, while in Duroc, 3 of the 14 QTLs affect androstenone without affecting any of the estrogens. For skatole, 10 and 4 QTLs were GWS in the LDLA analysis for Landrace and Duroc respectively, with 4 of these detected in both breeds. The GWS QTLs for skatole obtained by LDLA are located at SSC 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 14. Conclusion This is the first report applying the Porcine 60 K SNP array for simultaneous analysis of boar taint compounds and related sex hormones, using both GWA and LDLA approaches. Several QTLs are involved in regulation of androstenone and skatole, and most of the QTLs for androstenone are also affecting the levels of estrogens. Seven QTLs for androstenone were detected in one breed and confirmed in the other, i.e. in an independent sample, although the majority of QTLs are breed specific. Most QTLs for skatole do not negatively affect other sex hormones and should be easier to implement into the breeding scheme.

  8. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. PMID:24056158

  9. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

  10. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  11. Women's Motivations to Have Sex in Casual and Committed Relationships with Male and Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner. PMID:25567073

  12. Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)

  13. Environmental modulation of same-sex affiliative behavior in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving

    2015-03-01

    The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080

  14. Sex chromosome pairing and heterochromatin body appearance in Cydia pomonella females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are themosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis

  15. Female sexual subjectivity and verbal consent to receiving oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2015-01-01

    Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p .05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors. PMID:24794174

  16. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  17. A border context of violence: Mexican female sex workers on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2014-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies. PMID:25409891

  18. Androstenedione may organize or activate sex-reversed traits in female spotted hyenas.

    OpenAIRE

    Glickman, S. E.; Frank, L. G.; Davidson, J. M.; Smith, E. R.; Siiteri, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben) present a unique syndrome of reversal in behavioral and anatomical distinction between the sexes: females are heavier and more aggressive than males and dominant over them. The female's external genitalia include a false scrotum and a fully erectile pseudopenis through which mating and birth take place. Results of studies of circulating testosterone levels in wild spotted hyenas do not account for the "male-like" characteristics of the female. Androst...

  19. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Vojkan Vukadinovic; Borko Stojanovic; Marko Majstorovic; Aleksandar Milosevic

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and...

  20. Sex Allocation of Females and Hermaphrodites in the Gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramula, Satu; Mutikainen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    Seed production and patterns of sex allocation were studied in female and hermaphroditic plants in two gynodioecious populations of Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae). Females produced more flower buds and seeds than hermaphrodites in one of the two study populations. The other female traits measured (pistil biomass, seed number per fruit, individual seed mass) did not differ between the gender morphs. The relative seed fitness of hermaphrodites differed between the study populations, with her...

  1. Sex Hormone Levels During and Between Attacks At Female Migraine Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Demirkaya, Mithat; Cetinkaya, Y?lmaz; Turkoglu, Recai; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka; Tireli, Hulya

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of our study is to investigate the relation between the serum levels of sex hormones and migraine headache in female migraine patients. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine were measured during the headache attack and in the interval period in female migraine patients with or without aura.Materials and Methods: 46 female migraine patients who had no systemic disease were enrolled in this study. The p...

  2. Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Vandepitte, J.; Lyerla, R.; Dallabetta, G.; Crabbe?, F.; Alary, M.; Buve?, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. METHODS: Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapol...

  3. Sex Peptide Is Required for the Efficient Release of Stored Sperm in Mated Drosophila Females

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Frank W.; Ravi Ram, K.; Bloch Qazi, Margaret C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila seminal fluid protein (SFP) sex peptide (SP) elicits numerous post-mating responses, including increased egg laying and decreased sexual receptivity, in the mated female. Unlike other SFPs, which are detectable in mated females for only a few hours post mating, SP is maintained—and its effects are sustained—for several days. The persistence of SP in the mated female's reproductive tract is thought to be a consequence of its binding to, and gradual release from, sperm in sto...

  4. Brief exposure of embryos to steroids or aromatase inhibitor induces sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Ulysse, Bernard; Akian Djétouan, Dieudonné; Bere Sompagnimdi, Frédéric; Tomson, Thomas; Mélard, Charles; Rougeot, Carole

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop sex reversal procedures targeting the embryonic period as tools to study the early steps of sex differentiation in Nile tilapia with XX, XY, and YY sexual genotypes. XX eggs were exposed to masculinizing treatments with androgens (17?-methyltestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) or aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole), whereas XY and YY eggs were subjected to feminizing treatments with estrogen analog (17?-ethynylestradiol). All treatments consisted of a single or double 4-hr immersion applied between 1 and 36 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Concentrations of active substances were 1000 or 2000 ?g l(-1) in XX and XY, and 2000 or 6500 ?g l(-1) in YY. Masculinizing treatments of XX embryos achieved a maximal sex reversal rate of 10% with an exposure at 24 hpf to 1000 ?g l(-1) of 11-ketotestosterone or to 2000 ?g l(-1) of Fadrozole. Feminization of XY embryos was more efficient and induced up to 91% sex reversal with an exposure to 2000 ?g l(-1) of 17?-ethynylestradiol. Interestingly, similar treatments failed to reverse YY fish to females, suggesting either that a sex determinant linked to the Y chromosome prevents the female pathway when present in two copies, or that a gene present on the X chromosome is needed for the development of a female phenotype. PMID:25376842

  5. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

  6. Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year s...

  7. Intracellular distribution and biological effects of phytochemicals in a sex steroid- sensitive model of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility and its well-known oncological biomarker, namely Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), can be also used to monitor prostate epithelial human cells upon treatment with pharmaceutical drugs or natural bioactive compounds. The LNCaP human prostate cell line was previously set up as a model system to investigate chemicals affecting prostate epithelium functionality by means of a tiered approach integrating two different toxicological endpoints, cell viability (MTS) and PSA secretion assays. Here, the same approach has been used to characterize the biological effects of phytochemicals on prostate epithelium. The antiandrogenic ability of phytochemicals to inhibit DHT-induced PSA secretion has been investigated also characterizing their intracellular distribution, in the presence or absence of sex steroids. Intracellular distribution allows to verify whether and to which extent each phytochemical is able to enter the cell and to reach the nucleus, the latter being the target of the supposed transcriptional modulatory activity upon phytochemicals' binding to sex steroid receptors. Some phytochemicals, supposed to have a role in the functionality of the prostate epithelium, have been tested in a dose-dependent manner in both MTS and PSA secretion assays. In parallel, to establish the "effective concentration", in comparison to the "nominal one", the intracellular amount of each phytochemical has been assessed upon cell fractionation of LNCaP-treated cells and subsequent chromatographic measurements. PMID:24962071

  8. Relevance of Male-to-Female Sex Mismatch in Liver Transplantation for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr?t, Micha?; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Patkowski, Waldemar; Wronka, Karolina Maria; Gr?t, Karolina; Krasnod?bski, Maciej; Ligocka, Joanna; Zborowska, Hanna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Background Because male-to-female transplantations are related to exposure to H-Y antigen, sex matching may influence the outcomes after liver transplantation for autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relevance of male-to-female mismatch in liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Material and Methods This retrospective study was based on the data of 82 female liver transplant recipients with PBC from a single institution. The primary outcome measure was graft survival at 10 years. The negative effects of well-known risk factors for poor outcomes were evaluated separately and compared between the female-to-female and male-to-female transplantations. Results Graft survival was similar after female-to-female and male-to-female transplantations (74.7% versus 73.1% at 10 years, respectively, p=0.676). Regarding the differential impact of other risk factors, prolonged cold ischemia and increased amount of blood transfusions adversely influenced outcomes after male-to-female transplantation (p=0.039 and p=0.039, respectively) but not after female-to-female transplantation (p=0.843 and p=0.110, respectively). Sex mismatched transplantations were associated with lower 10-year graft survival in subgroups of patients with blood transfusions >4 units (61.4% versus 100.0%, p=0.063) and >8 hours of cold ischemia (54.7% versus 75.8%, p=0.418). Conclusions Although male-to-female sex mismatch does not seem to yield a direct negative impact on outcomes following liver transplantation for PBC, it can aggravate the negative effects of prolonged cold ischemia and blood transfusions. PMID:25728977

  9. Sex Hormone Levels During and Between Attacks At Female Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat DEMIRKAYA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study is to investigate the relation between the serum levels of sex hormones and migraine headache in female migraine patients. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine were measured during the headache attack and in the interval period in female migraine patients with or without aura.Materials and Methods: 46 female migraine patients who had no systemic disease were enrolled in this study. The patients ranging in age from 15 to 45 years. Blood samples were taken from the patients during the headache attack and in the interval period. We measured the serum level of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactine.Results: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the interval period level (absolute value; t>1.96. There were no differences in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period (absolute value; t<1.96.Conclusion: The serum level of estrogen during the headache attack were significantly lower than the serum level of interval period. However no differences were found in all other sex hormones levels between headache attack and interval period. It was described that significant variations occur in the serum levels of sex hormones during headache attack or in the interval period in female migraine patients. The examination of serum sex hormones levels can be useful to determine the etiopathogenesis and treatment in female migraine patients.

  10. Fertility in Tall Men and Women Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence and Genetic Determinants of Tall Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A. E. J.

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes in a large group of constitutional tall men and women the long-term effects of high-dose sex steroid treatment to reduce final height and the genetic determinants of tall stature. In part 1 we evaluated fertility and gonadal function in later life of two independent cohorts of tall women and one cohort of tall men who did or did not receive high-dose sex steroid treatment in adolescence. We found that estrogen treated women experienced more difficulties conceivi...

  11. Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovanabutra, S.; Sanders, Ej; Graham, Sm; Mwangome, M.; Peshu, N.; Mcclelland, Rs; Muhaari, A.; Crossler, J.; Price, Ma; Gilmour, J.; Michael, Nl; Mccutchan, Fm

    2010-01-01

    We compared HIV-1 strains in incident and prevalent infections in a cohort of men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) near Mombasa, Kenya and conducted a cross-sectional study of viral isolates from a sample of HIV-1-infected MSM and FSW in Kilifi, Coast Province, Kenya. RNA extracted from plasma of 13 MSM, 9 FSW, and one heterosexual male was amplified by nested RT-PCR and the products were directly sequenced. HIV-1 strains from 21 individuals were characterized with one o...

  12. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also alter their behavior and microhabitat use under a male-biased sex ratio. Consistent with surveys showing reduced detection probabilities for females, our research suggests that females avoid male encounters using edge and substrate habitat. Our work illustrates the integrated suite of impacts that sexual conflict can have on the structure and ecology of a population.

  13. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Amanda; Rivas, Virginia Mela; Kachani, Malika; Sinchak, Kevin; Wagner, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 ?M) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle- treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 ?g) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, nearly one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

  14. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714

  15. Government crackdown of sex work in China: responses from female sex workers and implications for their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

  16. Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal Rashmi; van Teijlingen Edwin R; Smith W. Cairns S.; Ghimire Laxmi; Luitel Nagendra P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs) and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Se...

  17. HIV prevalence and risk behavior among clients of female sex workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, B.; Ghys, P. D.; Traore?, M.; Konan, Y.; Mah-bi, G.; Maurice, C.; Soroh, D.; Diarra, J. N.; Roels, T. H.; Laga, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of clients of female sex workers in Abidjan, and to determine their HIV prevalence and related risk factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study among clients of female sex workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A trained interviewer approached clients leaving the room of a female sex worker and invited them for an interview using a structured questionnaire, and to provide a saliva sample. Saliva was tested for HIV antib...

  18. Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2014-09-01

    The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. PMID:25082156

  19. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors, and. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1%) of the participants reported always using alco...

  20. MOLECULAR TOOL FOR SEX IDENTIFICATION (FEMALE) IN MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB WITH REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Baratakke R.C.; Patil C.G.; Poornima B; Sankannavar S. H

    2013-01-01

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of pol...

  1. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Keith H.; Harry Bhiro P.; Jeune Michael; Nicholson Devian

    1997-01-01

    A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they wer...

  2. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic ...

  3. Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a histo...

  4. Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N

    2008-12-01

    Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684

  5. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients. PMID:24345848

  6. Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Sabin, Keith; Hien, Mai Thu; Huong, Pham Thi

    2006-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS to sample FSWs, to determine if RDS can reach otherwise inaccessible FS...

  7. Female sex pheromone suppression and the fate of sex-peptide-like peptides in mated moths of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, V K; Applebaum, S W; Azrielli, A; Rafaeli, A

    2007-03-01

    Insect males produce accessory gland (MAG) factors that are transferred in the seminal fluid to females during copulation, and elicit changes in the mated female's behavior and physiology. Our previous studies showed that the injection of synthetic Drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide (DrmSP) into virgin females of the moth Helicoverpa armigera causes a significant inhibition of pheromone production. In this and other moth species, pheromone production, correlated with female receptivity, is under neuroendocrine control due to the circadian release of the neuropeptide PBAN. In this study, we show that PBAN, present in the hemolymph during the scotophase in females, is drastically reduced after mating. We also identify 4 DrmSP-like HPLC peaks (Peaks A, S1, S2, and B) in MAGs, with increasing levels of DrmSP immunoreactivity during the scotophase, when compared to their levels observed during the photophase. In H. armigera MAGs, a significant reduction in the pheromonostatic peak (Peak B) was already evident after 15 min of copulation, and depletion of an additional peak (Peak S2) was evident after complete mating. Peak A is also detected in female brains, increasing significantly 1 h after mating, at which time inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis also occurs. However, changes corresponding to the other MAG peaks were not detected in mated female tissues. PMID:17294422

  8. Ant workers selfishly bias sex ratios by manipulating female development.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, R. L.; Bruford, M. W.; Bourke, A. F. G.

    2002-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that social insects should perform selfish manipulations as a function of colony genetic structure. We describe a novel mechanism by which this occurs. First, we use microsatellite analyses to show that, in a population of the ant Leptothorax acervorum, workers' relatedness asymmetry (ratio of relatedness to females and relatedness to males) is significantly higher in monogynous (single-queen) colonies than in polygynous (multiple-queen) colonies. Workers rear ma...

  9. Serum pituitary and sex steroid hormone levels in the etiology of prostatic cancer--a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, S. O.; Adami, H. O.; Bergstro?m, R.; Wide, L.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that serum concentrations of pituitary hormones, sex steroid hormones, or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) affect the occurrence of prostatic cancer was tested in a consecutive sample of 93 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated cancer and in 98 population controls of similar ages without the disease. Cases did not differ significantly from controls regarding serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Remarkably close agreement was foun...

  10. Sex-role stereotyping by high school females in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockell, Edward L.; Lobonc, Susan

    Although the participation by females in upper-level occupations and positions has expanded considerably in recent years, science is still considered a masculine career field. The results of this study show that only the physical sciences in particular (not science in general) are clearly viewed as masculine academic areas. Furthermore, the results suggest that the perception by girls of the physical sciences as masculine is much more likely to occur in coed classes than in all-female classes. The results can best be explained by two factors: (1) the attitudes conveyed by teachers and by society may predispose students toward a greater acceptance of women in biology than in the physical sciences; and (2) when girls perceive themselves as a deviant minority in physical science classes, their performance and preference for the physical sciences is reduced, perhaps because of competition and comparison with males. In all-female classes, however, girls are not a deviant minority, and therefore they are able to perform and develop preferences without inhibition.

  11. Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2012-05-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research. PMID:21818654

  12. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG MALE AND FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Zapartidis, I.; Nikolaidou, M. E.; Vareltzis, I.; Kororos, P.

    2011-01-01

    During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing th...

  13. MOLECULAR TOOL FOR SEX IDENTIFICATION (FEMALE IN MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB WITH REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratakke R.C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of polymorphic DNA was used to identify female plants before pre-flowering stage. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-15 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. This sex specific band OPA-15900 was identified only in female lines but not in male lines. This marker may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for female identification in Momordica dioica at pre-flowering stages so that it can be cultivated and utilized for its medicinal purpose.

  14. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881

  15. Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

    1982-01-01

    The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

  16. Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Felicia A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW and non-sex workers (non-SW in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506 comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

  17. HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: outputs, cost and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someshwar M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. Methods Detailed output and cost data for the 2002–2003 fiscal year were obtained using standardised methods at 15 HIV prevention programmes for female sex worker in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. The services provided and their relation to the total and unit economic costs were analysed using regression techniques. The trends for the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes since inception up to fiscal year 2004–2005 were examined. Results The 15 programmes provided services to 33941 sex workers in fiscal year 2002–2003 (range 803–6379, median 1970. Of the total number of contacts with sex workers, 41.6% were by peer educators and 58.4% by other programme staff. The number of sex worker contacts in a year by peer educators varied 74-fold across programmes as compared with a 2.7-fold variation in sex worker contacts by other programme staff. The annual economic cost of providing services to a sex worker varied 6-fold between programmes from Indian Rupees (INR 221.8 (US$ 4.58 to INR 1369 (US$ 28.29 with a median of INR 660.9 (US$ 13.66 and mean of INR 517.8 (US$ 10.70. Personnel salaries made up 34.7% of the total cost, and recurrent goods made up 38.4% of which 82.1% was for condoms. The cost per sex worker provided services had a significant inverse relation with the number of sex workers provided services by a programme (p 2 = 0.75; power function. There was no correlation between the full time equivalents of programme staff and the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes, but there was a modest inverse correlation between the number of sex workers served and the average time spent with each sex worker in the year adjusted for the full-time equivalents of programme staff (p = 0.011, R2 = 0.40; exponential function. The average number of sex workers provided services annually by the first batch of 7 programmes started in early 1999 plateaued after the fourth fiscal year to 3500, whereas the 8 second-batch programmes started in late 2000 reached an average of 2000 sex workers in 2004–2005 with an increasing trend up to this fourth fiscal year. Conclusion The HIV prevention efforts in this Indian state would benefit from standardisation of the highly variable services provided by peer educators, who form an important part of the sex worker programmes. The cost per sex worker served decreases with increasing number of sex workers served annually, but this has to be weighed against an associated modest trend of decrease in time spent with each sex worker in some programmes.

  18. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sharful I

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60% had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%. Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively, but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively, more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively. Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

  19. Does Sex (Female versus Male) Influence the Impact of Class Attendance on Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    The "conventional wisdom" is that grades are related to class attendance, i.e., students who attend classes more frequently obtain better grades and class attendance dramatically contributes to enhanced learning. However, the influence of sex (female vs. male) on this relationship is understudied. Furthermore, there have been several studies…

  20. Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

  1. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  2. Acceptability of circumcision among clients of female sex worker in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Gu, Jing

    2012-10-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSW) are at high risk of HIV transmission. Circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV. A total of 353 CFSW were interviewed using a combined interviewer-computer-assisted method. Amongst the participants, 28.0% were circumcised, whilst 63.8% of the uncircumcised participants were willing to take up circumcision (conditioned on being briefed about a 50% potential risk reduction effect). In a stepwise logistic regression model, frequency of patronizing female sex workers and factors related to the Health Belief Model were significantly associated with conditional willingness. Amongst uncircumcised participants, 20.9% anticipated risk compensation (i.e. would use condoms less frequently after being circumcised). Adjusting for background variables, inconsistent condom use during commercial sex and self-reported STD history in the last 6 months were significantly associated with anticipated risk compensation. It is feasible to promote circumcision among CFSW but such programs also need to promote condom use. PMID:22080385

  3. Sex allocation of females and hermaphrodites in the gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu; Mutikainen, Pia

    2003-08-01

    Seed production and patterns of sex allocation were studied in female and hermaphroditic plants in two gynodioecious populations of Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae). Females produced more flower buds and seeds than hermaphrodites in one of the two study populations. The other female traits measured (pistil biomass, seed number per fruit, individual seed mass) did not differ between the gender morphs. The relative seed fitness of hermaphrodites differed between the study populations, with hermaphrodites gaining less of their fitness through female function in the population with a high frequency of females. However, the amount and size of pollen produced by hermaphrodites did not differ between populations. The number of flower buds was positively correlated with seed production in females, whereas in hermaphrodites a positive correlation between number of buds and seed production was found in only one of the two study populations. These results suggest that fitness gain through female function is labile in hermaphrodites of this species, and is probably affected by environmental factors such as the sex ratio of the population. PMID:12814954

  4. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG MALE AND FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zapartidis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing the motor abilities of 214 male and 238 female handball players from four age groups (12-12.9, 13-13.9, 14-14.9, and 15-15.9 years. Five motor abilities tests were administered: a ball throwing velocity, b standing long jump, c 30-m running speed, d 20-m shuttle run and e sit-and-reach flexibility. ANCOVA was used to test for sex differences by age group with age, height and weight as covariates. Results showed that in the 12-12.9 age group males and females had similar performances in standing long jump and aerobic capacity. In the older age groups, and besides having the same performance demands and training experience, males performed better than females in motor abilities that are important for handball. It appears that sport-specific training is not sufficient to attenuate sex differences in motor performance of young handball players.

  5. Prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K M; Yeoh, Gary P S; Cheung, H N; Fong, François Y; Chan, K W

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the prevalence of pre-cancerous uterine cervix lesions as detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from female sex workers in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective analysis of laboratory records. SETTING. Private anatomical pathology laboratory, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Female sex workers undergoing Pap smear examinations at two non-governmental organisations between 2006 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Detection of pre-cancerous uterine cervical conditions and their management. RESULTS. A total of 2697 satisfactory Pap smears from female sex workers were performed during the study period from 2006 to 2012. In these subjects, the point prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance was 10.12% (compared with 3.92% for the general population during the same period), whereas that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with or without high-grade intraepithelial lesions was 2.22% (compared with 0.54% in the general population). For both categories of lesions, the higher prevalence among female sex workers than in the general population was statistically significant. Most patients who had abnormal Pap smears received proper referrals and follow-up management according to recommended guidelines. CONCLUSIONS. Female sex workers in Hong Kong as a group had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears than the general population. Non-governmental organisations providing free-of-charge screening services to these women helped early detection and proper follow-up for those who had abnormal Pap smears, whilst also increasing their awareness of women's health issues. PMID:23650200

  6. Reproductive periodicity and steroid hormone profiles in the sex-changing coral-reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A. J.; McCormick, M. I.; Pankhurst, N. W.

    2007-03-01

    The reproductive biology of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) was investigated by correlating gonadal condition with plasma levels of gonadal steroids. Female fish were found to be regressed from mid-summer to early spring, after which rapid and cyclical increases in gonado-somatic index ( I G), maximum oocyte diameter (MOD) and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17? and testosterone were detected. Male fish, in contrast, commenced recrudescence slightly earlier in winter and responded with less dramatic increases in both I G and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. The mode of oocyte development was multiple group-synchronous, and cyclical fluctuations in reproductive parameters ( I G, MOD and gonadal steroid concentrations) were synchronized with new-moon lunar phases. It is likely, therefore, that individual P. leopardus have the capacity to spawn on multiple occasions, with lunar periodicity. However, evidence suggests that early bouts of reproduction may be more important in terms of reproductive investment than subsequent bouts later in the same season. It is concluded that patterns of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in P. leopardus are similar to the patterns displayed by other tropical groupers, suggesting that management regimes and propagation protocols developed for these fishes may also be appropriate for use with P. leopardus.

  7. An Ecological Process Model of Female Sex Offending: The Role of Victimization, Psychological Distress, and Life Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2014-11-20

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  8. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria

  9. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  10. Environmental, biological, and social factors influencing fecal adrenal steroid concentrations in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Huffman, Michael A; Mouri, Keiko; Garcia, Cécile; Rigaill, Lucie; Shimizu, Keiko

    2014-11-01

    The ability to determine hormonal profiles of primate populations using non-invasive techniques can help to monitor physical fitness, stress, and physiological responses to environmental changes. We investigated fecal glucocorticoids (fGC) and DHEAS concentrations in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in relation to environmental, biological, and social factors. The subjects were female Japanese monkeys from 4 months to 31 years old housed in captivity (27 in social groups and 12 in single cages). Fecal samples were collected from all females, and behavioral data from the social groups during the mating season and the following birth season. Hormonal concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Our results revealed that both fGC and fecal DHEAS concentrations are higher in females housed indoors in single cages than in those living outdoors in social groups. We also found that fGC concentrations were higher in the cycling females during the mating (winter) season than the lactating females in the birth (spring) season. Age was negatively associated to both fGC and fecal DHEAS levels, but the relationship between age and fecal DHEAS was more evident in females housed indoors in single cages than in females housed in outdoor social groups. We did not observe any association of dominance rank with either fecal DHEAS or fGC. This study showed that measurement of fecal DHEAS and fGC can be a good method to assess stress in Japanese macaques. These findings provide insights about the physiology of these two adrenal hormones in female Japanese macaques, which can be applied to wild populations and is fundamental for captive management and conservation biology. PMID:24839268

  11. HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

  12. Risk factors for transactional sex among young females in post-conflict Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; McCarraher, Donna R; Chen, Mario; Pack, Allison

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the risk factors for engaging in transactional sex among young females in Montserrado County, Liberia. Data from an HIV behavioral survey conducted among young people aged 14 - 25 years were used. The analytical sample included 493 sexually-experienced females. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. We found that 72% of our sample had ever engaged in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with education (OR: 0.5); reporting no earned income (OR: 1.9); longer duration of sexual activity (OR: 3.5); early sexual debut (OR: 2.5); history of sexual violence (OR: 2.1) and multiple sexual partnerships (OR: 4.0). Respondents' age, residence, and drug/alcohol use were not associated with engagement in transactional sex. HIV interventions should incorporate educational strategies to reduce the prevalence of transactional sex among young people. These strategies should include economic opportunities to offset financial need as well as efforts to eradicate sexual violence. PMID:25508049

  13. Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?fgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

  14. Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risks for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie; Sherman, Susan G.; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their thirties and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixty-three older women sex workers and six focus groups interviews with stakeholders were conducted in thre...

  15. Sex differences in fear-induced feeding cessation: prolonged effect in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Gorica D; Lougee, Mariel A

    2011-10-24

    Fear inhibits food intake. Cessation of eating in anticipation of danger is an adaptive response that prepares an organism for an imminent threat, but it could become maladaptive when persistent. To begin to examine the underlying mechanisms, we developed an animal model for fear-cue induced inhibition of feeding. In that preparation, food-deprived rats stop eating when presented with a tone that signals a foot-shock based on prior associations. Here, we examined whether there are sex differences in adult male and female rats. We found that female rats showed sustained fear-cue induced feeding inhibition compared to males during the extinction. During the first of four extinction tests with tone presentations, both male and female rats showed similar, robust cessation of eating. Rats of both sexes that previously received tone-shock pairings ate significantly less than the control rats that received tones without shocks during training. Male rats extinguished this behavior during the second test, while females continued to show the effect during the second and third tests, and extinguished during the fourth test. The findings provide a novel framework for investigation of sex differences in the control of feeding and the underlying brain substrates. The animal model may also be informative for understanding human eating and associated disorders. In particular, the potential contribution of fear in the maintenance of low food intake in anorexia nervosa is hypothesized. PMID:21745485

  16. Novel galanin receptors in teleost fish: identification, expression and regulation by sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rute S T; Pinto, Patrícia I S; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V M

    2014-09-01

    In fish, the onset of puberty, the transition from juvenile to sexually reproductive adult animals, is triggered by the activation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion and its timing is influenced by external and internal factors that include the growth/adiposity status of the animal. Kisspeptins have been implicated in the activation of puberty but peripheral signals coming from the immature gonad or associated to the metabolic/nutritional status are also thought to be involved. Therefore we hypothesize the importance of the galinergic system in the brain and testis of pre-pubertal male sea bass as a candidate to translate the signals leading to activation of testicular maturation. Here, the transcripts for four galanin receptors (GALR), named GALR1a, 1b, 2a and 2b, were isolated from European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the previously reported duplication of GALR1 in teleost fish, and unravelled the duplication of GALR2 in teleost fish and in some tetrapod species. Comparison with human showed that the key amino acids involved in ligand binding are present in the corresponding GALR1 and GALR2 orthologs. Transcripts for all four receptors are expressed in brain and testes of adult fish with GALR1a and GALR1b abundant in testes and hardly detected in ovaries. In order to investigate whether GALR1 dimorphic expression was dependent on steroid context we evaluated the effect of 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol treatments on the receptor expression in brain and testes of pre-pubertal males. Interestingly, steroid treatments had no effect on the expression of GALRs in the brain while in the testes, GALR1a and GALR1b were significantly up regulated by 11KT. Altogether, these results support a role for the galaninergic system, in particular the GALR1 paralog, in fish reproductive function. PMID:25016048

  17. Sex, eyes, and vision: male/female distinctions in ophthalmic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin

    2015-02-01

    There is growing recognition: (1) that sex (male and female) and sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) are important for physiologic functions outside those pertaining expressly to reproduction, and (2) that both classes of sex hormones are active in both sexes, and moreover are produced locally in non-gonadal tissues throughout the body. The visual system, in addition to being of tremendous inherent importance, is unique in a very distinctive way; it possesses an organ - the eye - having a window allowing its interior to be examined with exquisite precision and control in both laboratory and clinical settings. Plus, many diseases manifest in the eye or are exclusive to the eye. This special issue of Current Eye Research contains 12 review articles, each addressing a different topical area important for Sex, Eyes, and Vision: Male/Female Distinctions in Ophthalmic Disorders. Of course, the distinctions between topical areas are blurred, and the overlap between the various lines of knowledge and investigation likewise is substantial. Eye diseases can be both neurodegenerative and involve altered blood flow, for instance. In fact, the thematic overlap is greater yet, in that the articles for this special issue address matters of interest to clinicians and scientists who may identify more with women's health or sex & gender fields than with eye & vision fields. Nevertheless, because this special issue needs a home, the following 12 topical areas each have here their own dedicated review: age-related maculopathy, central nervous system function and cognition & perception, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye, glaucoma, inherited diseases, lens and cataract, neuro-ophthalmology, ocular blood flow, ocular inflammatory disorders, optical coherence tomography, and sex/gender eye care disparities. This overview article itself raises additional points expressly concerning: (1) the estrogen therapy timing hypothesis, and (2) breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. PMID:25329177

  18. 'To put men in a bottle' : Eroticism, Kinship, Female Power and Transactional Sex in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of eroticism, kinship and gender in transactional sexual relationships between young women called curtidoras and older white men in Maputo. I draw on postcolonial feminism to argue that curtidoras’ erotic powers are a central part of sexual-economic exchanges with men and that senior female kin are deeply involved in processes of seduction and extraction of money. Relationships between curtidoras, female kin and male partners are conceptualized as “gendered triads of reciprocity" in order to unsettle Western stereotypes of female victims and patriarchal structures in Africa. Transactional sex often makes the partners mutually dependent and emotionally vulnerable and although moralities of exchange collide, young women tend to redistribute accumulated money from men among female seniors and kin.

  19. The value of outside support for male and female politicians involved in a political sex scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dennis D; Rose, Roger P; Rosales, Felixia M; Rudney, Philip D; Lehner, Tasha A; Miltich, Gemma; Snyder, Cassie; Sadecki, Brianna

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how third party statements impact the evaluation of male and female politicians caught in a scandal (i.e., extramarital affair). Governor's sex was crossed with three types of support statements: third party supportive (TPS), third party non-supportive (TPNS), and governor self-supportive (GSS). In Experiment 1, a female politician was evaluated more positively than a male politician. The TPS and the GSS conditions were both evaluated more positively than the TPNS condition. Experiment 2's design was similar to Experiment l's, except it involved multiple affairs. In Experiment 2, participants used the third party's statements as an information source and thus reduced their use of gender stereotypes in the TPS and TPNS conditions compared to the GSS condition. We also found that male respondents gave more negative evaluations of the female governor than female respondents. Implications for the gender stereotype and social influence literatures are discussed. PMID:23724705

  20. Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) demonstrate same-sex partner preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Lee, Theresa M

    2003-09-01

    Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are territorial during warm months but demonstrate social tolerance under low temperatures. In spring, females nest together and some pairs participate in communal nursing and rearing of young. Because communal nursing involves significant cooperation, selective pair-bonds may develop between 2 nestmates. Using a choice apparatus, the authors determined that (a) captive females demonstrated partner preferences for a nestmate; (b) partner preferences were enduring and persisted after dyadic separation; and (c) following the loss of a nestmate, females did not develop preferences for a new nestmate, even after extended cohabitation. Data support the hypothesis that captive meadow voles develop selective and enduring same-sex social bonds that may, under free-living conditions, facilitate communal nesting and cooperative rearing of young. PMID:14498804

  1. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor Hh; Tong, Terry Yy

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  2. Destabilising Sex work and Intimacy? : Gender Performances of Female Thai Migrants Selling Sex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Denne ph.d.-afhandling, der består af fire artikler, undersøger, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters sexkøb konstruerer kvindelighed forankret i en række subjektpositioner som mor, hustru og sexarbejder i forhold til allerede eksisterende subjektpositioner konstrueret inden for det danske politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og ’intimitet’? Den anden del består af fire artikler. Den første artikel analyserer forandringerne inden for prostitutionspolitikfeltet med fokus på handlingsplanerne for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel. Den anden artikel trækker på litteratur om globale omsorgskæder, medborgerskab og transnational migration. Artiklen analyserer, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranter konstruerer transnationalt og lokalt moderskab i forhold til, hvordan moderskab konstrueres inden for det sociale arbejde og i forhold til dansk politik om familiesammenføring. Den tredje artikel undersøger, hvordan kategorierne ægtefælle, sexarbejder og kvindelig migrant sammenflettes i kvindelige thailandske sexarbejderes fortællinger om romantisk kærlighed. Den sidste artikel anvender Butlers kønsteori og teori om rum. Artiklens formål er at analysere, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters kønsfremførelser afhænger af rum.

  3. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates estrogenic actions to prevent body weight gain in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expressed by hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons largely mediates the antiobesity effects of estrogens in females. However, the critical molecular events that are coupled to ERalpha and mediate estrogenic effects on energy balance rem...

  4. Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris

    2013-12-01

    The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

  5. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  6. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J. V.; Singh, V. K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia, and having sex without condom for extra money, failure to persuade the client and not doing anything were found to be important predictors for presence of STI.

  7. High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Sam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs, and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7% had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2% reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73, no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98, being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04, and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70 were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9% had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8% had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection as compared with brothel-based FSWs. With their high vulnerability, the success of expansion of HIV prevention efforts will depend on achieving and sustaining an environment that enables HIV prevention with the non-brothel based FSWs.

  8. Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Roberta Pati, Pascom; Célia Landmann, Szwarcwald; Aristides, Barbosa Júnior.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. METHODS: The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilis [...] tic or convenience). RESULTS: We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not adequate to estimate HIV prevalence rate in 35 studies. DISCUSSION: The use of convenience sample limits statistical inference for the whole group. It was observed that there was an increase in the number of published studies since 2005, as well as in the number of studies that used probabilistic samples. This represents a large advance in the monitoring of risk behavior practices and HIV prevalence rate in this group.

  9. Factors associated with establishment-based female sex workers accessing health care services in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Mao, Limin; He, Na; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Kun; Liao, Cuiqin; Tang, Xian; Gong, Xiangzhen; Blaxland, Megan; de Wit, John

    2015-06-01

    Female sex workers are a priority population for HIV prevention and health promotion in China. This paper examines the patterns of and factors associated with the utilisation of HIV-related and general health services by establishment-based sex workers in Hongkou District, Shanghai. Participants were recruited through a three-stage sampling strategy and invited to self-complete a brief survey in 2012. The median age of the 400 participants included in the analyses was 33 years (range = 18-52 years old), with over three-quarters being married at the time of the survey. Participants were mostly internal migrants, more than half had lived in Shanghai for six months or longer and nearly two-thirds were working in an establishment with a total of less than five female sex workers. Routine physical examination and HIV testing were the most commonly accessed health services in the previous 12 months. Altogether, 347 women (86.8%) had actively sought, including 157 women had obtained, free health services mainly from local Community Health Service Centres (CHSCs) in the previous 12 months. The active seeking of free, largely CHSC-provided health services was associated with a longer duration of residence in Shanghai (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.32-4.93; p sex workers in Shanghai. Scaling-up of free and integrated health services provided by community-based health service providers in metropolitan areas in China and beyond holds promise for promoting health and well-being of female sex workers. PMID:25634590

  10. Suppressed cellular alloimmune responses in HIV-exposed seronegative female sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennes, W.; Evertse, D.; Borget, M. Y.; Vuylsteke, B.; Maurice, C.; Nkengasong, J. N.; Kestens, L.

    2006-01-01

    Particular human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms have been associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission. However, protective alloimmune responses expected to result from such a genetic predisposition have not been demonstrated. To this end, we analysed and compared cellular and humoral alloimmune responses in a cohort of female sex workers who remained human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative despite more than 3 years of high-risk sexual activity (ESN FSWs) with those of lo...

  11. Partners and Clients of Female Sex Workers in an Informal Urban Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric Abella

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers (FSWs) and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among FSWs compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that FSWs with a romantic pa...

  12. A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, N.; Koetsawang, S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions...

  13. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shajy Isac; Stephen Moses; James Blanchard; Raghavendra, T.; Parinita Bhattacharjee; Apoorva Jadhav; Halli, Shiva S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older ...

  14. Innervation and neural regulation of the sex pheromone gland in female Heliothis moths.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, T. A.; Itagaki, H.; Teal, P. E.; Jasensky, R. D.; Tumlinson, J. H.; Hildebrand, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Female Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during scotophase, and this production is stimulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), presumably carried in the hemolymph. Several lines of evidence indicate that the central nervous system plays another critical role in this regulation. Pheromone biosynthesis was induced during photophase by electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord or the peripheral nerves pro...

  15. Regulation of onset of female mating and sex pheromone production by juvenile hormone in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Julide; Atallah, Jade; Azanchi, Reza; Levine, Joel D.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, JH is necessary for egg maturation. We show that the removal of JH delays both mating and the onset of the production of the major female sex pheromones in D. melanogaster. Importantly, this action of JH was via the Methoprene-tolerant (Met) JH receptor, rather than its paralog Germ-cell expressed, similar to its action in egg maturation. Thus, JH acting via Met coordinates pheromone production and...

  16. Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-figueroa, L.; Uribe-salas, F.; Conde-glez, C.; Hernandez-avila, M.; Olamendi-portugal, M.; Uribe-zuniga, P.; Calderon, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% C...

  17. Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Sheree R.; Erin Papworth; Odette Ky-Zerbo; Simplice Anato; Ashley Grosso; Henri Gautier Ouedraogo; Sosthenes Ketende; Vincent Palokinam Pitche; Stefan Baral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1...

  18. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Shethwala Nimisha; Mulla Summaiya; Kosambiya J; Desai Vikas

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs) from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, B...

  19. Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Aude Boislard P.; Zimmer-gembeck, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual subjectivity (SS) includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, ...

  20. Female sex hormones as modulators of gender differences in response to pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Tereshchenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular morbidity in developed countries has decreased, but only in men and it has increased in women. The risk of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women is 2-4 times less than this in men. A role of hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is reviewed. The results of retrospective and pla?ebo-controlled trials are presented. Cellular cardioprotective mechanisms of action of female sex hormones are shown.

  1. Suppression of sex behavior by kappa opiates and stress steroids occurs via independent neuroendocrine pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombana, Karla; Middleton, Natalie; Coddington, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and their receptors are found throughout the brain of all vertebrates. By virtue of their wide distribution, endocannabinoids have the potential to affect many behaviors. Prior research has shown that cannabinoids inhibit courtship-clasping and mediate behavioral responses to stress in male rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa, and cannabinoid signaling is initiated by rapid actions of the steroid corticosterone (CORT) at its specific membrane receptor (mCR). This same mCR also recognizes ?-opioid receptor agonists and antagonists. Prior behavioral studies show that ?-opioid agonists suppress clasping behavior in a dose dependent manner. Combined, these studies suggest that ?-opioid agonists might suppress clasping behavior via the same pathway initiated by CORT: up-regulation of endocannabinoid signaling. We examined whether pretreatment with a CB1 antagonist, AM281, would block ?-opioid-mediated suppression of clasping. We found that the CB1 antagonist did not reverse ?-opioid-induced suppression of clasping, revealing that while endocannabinoids mediate CORT-induced suppression of clasping, endocannabinoids do not mediate the ?-opioid-induced suppression of clasping. PMID:25307952

  2. Determination of steroid sex hormones in real matrices by bar adsorptive microextraction (BA?E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Nogueira, J M F

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the development of a novel analytical approach which combines a miniaturized bar adsorptive microextraction device with a micro-liquid desorption in one single step, followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (BAµE-µLD/HPLC-DAD), is proposed for the determination of trace levels of nine steroid hormones (estriol, 17ß-estradiol, 17?-estradiol, 19-northisterone, 17?-ethynylestradiol, estrone, D-(-)-norgestrel, progesterone and mestranol) in environmental and biological matrices. From the comparison of ten different coating phases (five polymeric and five activated carbon sorbents), the modified pyrrolidone polymer (P2) showed the best compromise between selectivity and efficiency. Assays performed through BAµE(P2, 1.3mg)-µLD(100µL)/HPLC-DAD on 25mL of ultrapure water samples spiked at the 6.0?g/L level, yielded recoveries ranging from 93±9% to 101±8%, under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance showed convenient detection (50.0-100.0ng/L) and quantification limits (165.0-330.0ng/L), as well as good linear dynamic ranges (0.2-24.0µg/L) with remarkable determination coefficients (r(2)>0.9968). Excellent repeatability were also achieved through intraday (RSDcombined with the minimization of the solvent volume for back-extraction in one single step demonstrated remarkable performance, increasing the enrichment factor, being simultaneously more easier to implement and environment friendly. PMID:25702996

  3. Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels

  4. Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dahan, M.I.

    1986-03-01

    The level of binding sites for (/sup 3/H)scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E/sub 2/) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels.

  5. Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO-PAES J. T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

  6. Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-haerer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces s...

  7. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

  8. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in a total reduction in energy expenditure. Together with a decrease in physical activity and consumption of a high fat diet, these factors significantly contribute to obesity in postmenopausal women. Obesity may contribute to breast cancer development through several mechanisms. Obesity causes localized inflammation, an increase in local estrogen production, and changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, obese women have a higher risk of insulin insensitivity, and an increase in insulin and other growth factor secretion. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the molecular actions of estrogen and progesterone and their contributions to cellular metabolism, obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer. We also discuss how modifications of estrogen and progesterone actions might be used as a therapeutic approach for obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  9. Application of Rapid and Simul­taneous Measurement of Sex Steroid Hormones to the Monitoring of Gonadotropin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayata,Koshi

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with both electrochemical detection (ECD and ultraviolet spectrometric detection (UVD was developed for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of estradiol (E2, estrone (E1, testosterone (T, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP and progesterone (P in serum. These hormones were extracted with diethylether, and chromatographed on an octadecyl silane-silica (ODS column with an eluent of a phosphate buffer solution - acetonitrile mixture (volume ratio 49:51. Estrogens were detected by ECD at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and other hormones by UVD at 242 nm. With this method, the simultaneous determination of sex steroid hormones could be performed within approximately two hours with high precision. The hormones of 34 patients (39 menstrual cycles undergoing human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG therapy were measured. It was concluded that the switch from HMG to HCG should be performed when the E2 level reaches 400 pg/ml for ovulation and 800 pg/ml for pregnancy. The occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS can be predicted when the P level rises above 30 ng/ml on the 7th day after the switch. Moreover, conception may be indicated when the P level does not increase from the 7th to 14th day after the switch. In this way, this method proved to be useful for the monitoring of HMG-HCG therapy.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed intere...

  11. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  12. Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mitchell; Philpott, Anne

    2003-05-01

    Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, supported by UNAIDS, and the manufacturers of the female condom, which have significantly expanded the number of female condoms being used. These projects have several key similarities: a focus on training for providers and peer educators, face-to-face communication with potential users to equip them with information and skills, an identified target audience, a consistent supply, a long assessment period to gauge actual use beyond the initial novelty phase, and a mix of public and private sector distribution. Female condom programmes require the sanction, leadership and funding of governments and donors. However, the non-governmental and private sectors have also played a major role in programme implementation. To ensure successful introduction of the female condom, it is crucial to involve a range of decision-makers, programme managers, service providers, community leaders and women's and youth groups. The rising cost of inaction and unprotected sex in the spread of HIV and AIDS force us to recognise the high cost of not providing female condoms alongside male condoms in family planning and AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:12800710

  13. Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (ames can help promoting safer practices. (author)

  14. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex : female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  15. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations. PMID:23895629

  16. Studying complex interactions among determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviours: Self-medication for STI symptoms in female sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Campos, Pablo E.; Buendia, Clara; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Segura, Patricia; Whittington, William L.; Hughes, James P.; Ward, Helen; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Holmes, King K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To describe frequency and determinants of self-medication for symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in a female sex worker population. To present a methodology exploring the best predictors as well as the interactions between determinants of self-medication. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 4,153 female sex workers carried out in Peru. We estimated the prevalence of self-medication from the subsample of participants who had experienced symptoms of s...

  17. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    OpenAIRE

    Medhi Gajendra; Mahanta Jagadish; Kermode Michelle; Paranjape Ramesh S; Adhikary Rajatashuvra; Phukan Sanjib; Ngully P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland...

  18. Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals.

  19. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Janet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters might be important in predisposing women to condom breakage.

  20. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption performance for human female sexual steroids into pentravan cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Ferreira, Anderson O; Ramos, Cristiano; Raposo, Nadia R B

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of studies on Pentravan cream, a widespread transdermal vehicle which is used by compounding pharmacies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this transdermal vehicle. The permeation performance for progesterone, estradiol, and estriol in formulations containing each of those drugs separately, as well as an association of estradiol + estriol (Biest), was evaluated regarding their compounding process and their potential biological application. An excised female human skin model was used to predict the permeation and the retention of the active compounds in every skin layer in lieu of conventional tape stripping. Progesterone was the drug with the highest permeation (37.02 mcg cm(-2) at the end of the experiment). Estradiol and estriol in Biest had permeations approximately 4-fold lower (9.44 mcg cm(-2) for estradiol-Biest and 14.02 mcg cm(-2) for estriol-Biest), and the profiles of estradiol in Eemuls and in Biest were almost the same (9.46 mcg cm(-2) for Eemuls). All permeations followed pseudo- first order kinetics. For progesterone, using the percentage of permeation by dose, one can infer that a patient using the 1-g emulsion dose released by the pump containing 50 mg of progesterone will have 38.4 mg of progesterone liberated into his bloodstream, gradually and continuously for 48 hours. The results indicate that the vehicle was able to provide percutaneous absorption rates compatible with and higher than clinical treatment needs. Using the same rationale, the Eemuls would deliver practically the entire amount of estradiol load per dose (1.0 mg), approximately 0.5 mg of estradiol per day. As for the Biest, the dosing used would deliver almost 0.5 mg estradiol/day and 2.0 mg estriol/ day. Thus, according to the results, human female sexual hormones incorporated in the oil-in-water vanishing cream base and applied topically are expected to exert their biological activities systemically with good efficacy due to their satisfactory permeation through human skin. However, one must take into account that a high quantity of drug was delivered. Thus, to avoid patient overdose, care has to be taken regarding the quantity of emulsion used. PMID:25508641

  1. Chronic exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids alters activity and synaptic function in neuroendocrine control regions of the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2011-09-01

    Disruption of reproductive function is a hallmark of abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in female subjects. To understand the central actions of AAS, patch clamp recordings were made in estrous, diestrous and AAS-treated mice from gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and neurons in the anteroventroperiventricular nucleus (AVPV); regions known to provide GABAergic and kisspeptin inputs to the GnRH cells. Action potential (AP) frequency was significantly higher in GnRH neurons of estrous mice than in AAS-treated or diestrous animals. No significant differences in AAS-treated, estrous or diestrous mice were evident in the amplitude or kinetics of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs), miniature PSCs or tonic currents mediated by GABA(A) receptors or in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression in GnRH neurons. In contrast, the frequency of GABA(A) receptor-mediated sPSCs in GnRH neurons showed an inverse correlation with AP frequency across the three hormonal states. Surprisingly, AP activity in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a likely source of GABAergic afferents to GnRH cells, did not vary in concert with the sPSCs in the GnRH neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of GABA(A) receptors did not alter the pattern in which there was lower AP frequency in GnRH neurons of AAS-treated and diestrous versus estrous mice. These data suggest that AAS do not impose their effects either directly on GnRH neurons or on putative GABAergic afferents in the mPOA. AP activity recorded from neurons in kisspeptin-rich regions of the AVPV and the expression of kisspeptin mRNA and peptide did vary coordinately with AP activity in GnRH neurons. Our data demonstrate that AAS treatment imposes a "diestrous-like" pattern of activity in GnRH neurons and suggest that this effect may arise from suppression of presynaptic kisspeptin-mediated excitatory drive arising from the AVPV. The actions of AAS on neuroendocrine regulatory circuits may contribute the disruption of reproductive function observed in steroid abuse. PMID:21645530

  2. Heterogeneous and vulnerable: the health risks facing transnational female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y P

    2011-01-01

    Representations of transnational sex workers have been dominated by the trafficked victim discourse that often overlooks the heterogeneity of this population and variations in the health risks that different sub-groups face. This paper addresses this deficiency by examining differences in the socio-economic backgrounds, working conditions, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and vulnerability to health risks of female sex workers from Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Mainland China currently working in the Chinese city of Macau. It also examines the correlates of three health risks: client-perpetrated violence, non-condom use and condom failure. The results show major differences in the socio-economic profiles, working conditions and exposure to health risks of the four groups of workers studied. They also suggest that age, ethnicity, education, economic pressure, AIDS and STI knowledge, and workplace condom-use norm are significant correlates of the three health risks examined. The findings shed light on the importance of locating the social and cultural contexts that constrain the response of different groups of transnational sex workers to health risks, and the need to tailor intervention measures to meet the specific conditions of individual groups. They also point out the urgency of tackling the interpersonal and structural obstacles to safe sex practices among marginalised populations. PMID:20942821

  3. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ng, Ee Ting; Koopman, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal gonads showed typical testicular size and vasculature. Key ovarian markers, including Wnt4 and Foxl2, were repressed. Sertoli cells expressing the hallmark testis-determining gene Sox9 were formed, although they did not assemble into normal testis cords. Other bipotential lineages differentiated into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans. PMID:25725066

  4. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal gonads showed typical testicular size and vasculature. Key ovarian markers, including Wnt4 and Foxl2, were repressed. Sertoli cells expressing the hallmark testis-determining gene Sox9 were formed, although they did not assemble into normal testis cords. Other bipotential lineages differentiated into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans.

  5. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984

  6. Female Sex Workers in the City of Bogotá: From Stigma to Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaida Martinez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs in Bogotá, Colombia experience stigmatization due to their work, which results in a violation of basic human rights. The article describes the social challenges and violations faced by this group due to different types of stigma present in Colombian society and discusses current political debates around the legality of sex work. It proposes that through empowering these women using a participatory approach and giving them access to technology such as photography and video, empathy can be mobilized and can reduce the barriers that FSWs and their children are facing. By raising awareness of the problem of stigmatization, it becomes possible to effect change on a political level through critical social inclusion praxis. The article begins by analyzing different stigmas that exist in Colombian society and the problems that result from such stigmas, before offering a review of social initiatives and proposing a project outline and policy options using participatory methods.

  7. Barriers to Utilisation of Sexual Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Ghimire

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Sexual health services are relatively rare in Nepal.  Female sex workers (FSWs do not use health services as much as would be desirable. A study was conducted to identify barriers to access of sexual health services by FSWs in Nepal. A mixed-method approach consisting of a 425 questionnaire-based survey and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007.One fifth of the FSWs had never visited health facilities. FSWs turned to private clinics followed by clinics belonging to non-governmental organisations and pharmacies for treatment. A combination of personal and service-related factors acted as critical barriers in accessing health services. Lack of confidentiality, discrimination and negative attitudes held by health care providers, poor communication between service providers and fear of exposure to the public as a sex worker were the major barriers to seeking sexual health services. These barriers should be taken into account while planning for  sexual health services.

  8. Effect of high altitude (3685 meter) on the serum levels of female sex hormones (progesterone, estradiol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of high altitude hypoxia on the secretion of female sex hormones. Methods: Serum progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured with RIA in 738 women who were moved from plain to Lhasa (3685 meter) and stayed there for various years and 430 controls. Results: The serum P and E2 levels in the newly arrived subjects (within one year) were significantly lower than those in the controls. The levels gradually increased as acclimation occurred (up to 20 year) but dropped again later (probably due to advancing age). Conclusion: Hypoxia might be the cause of decreasing serum famale sex hormones levels in subjects moved to high altitude. (authors)

  9. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  10. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ?25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam. PMID:23161344

  11. MULTIPLE-MATING OF MALE AND FEMALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN APPLE ORCHARDS TREATED WITH SEX PHEROMONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to evaluate the mating status of male and female moths in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and femal...

  12. Coverage of HIV Prevention Services for Female Sex Workers in Seven Cities of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; Mcfarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88–99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind o...

  13. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Brenda Y; Vu Nguyen Thuong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW) in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women ...

  14. Molecular biology of the honey bee : Complementary sex determination and female caste development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlying complementary sex determination remain an unresolved pussle and the link between dietary differences and female phenopypic plasticity has yet to be indentified. In the present PhD projekt different aspects of both types of development was explored using a combination of high throughourt sequencing and functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development

  15. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Carr Jean K; Sanchez José L; Montano Silvia M; Carrion Gladys; Eyzaguirre Lindsay M; Pando María A; Avila María M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs) was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B...

  16. Male Use of Female Sex Work in India: A Nationally Representative Behavioural Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffey, Michelle F.; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Dhingra, Neeraj; Khera, Ajay; Kumar, Rajesh; Arora, Paul; Nagelkerke, Nico; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV in India is driven by the male use of female sex workers (FSW), but few studies have examined the factors associated with using FSW. This nationally representative study examined the prevalence and correlates of FSW use among 31,040 men aged 15–49 years in India in 2006. Nationally, about 4% of men used FSW in the previous year, representing about 8.5 million FSW clients. Unmarried men were far more likely than married men to use FSW overall (PR?=?8.0), ...

  17. Clients of Female Sex Workers: A Population-Based Survey of China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suiming; Parish, William L.; Huang, Yingying

    2011-01-01

    The control of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a challenge in China, with female sex workers (FSW) and male clients suspected as bridge groups. This study used a 2006 national probability survey of 2,707 adult men. Among men 15–49 years old, the prevalence of FSW contacts last year was 4.2% (95% CI, 3.3–5.2) overall, with 7.2% (CI, 5.9–8.7) in urban and 1.8% (CI, 1.0–3.3) in rural areas. In urban areas, the men most at risk for FSW were high income, often travel...

  18. Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H

    1986-06-01

    A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product. PMID:24307127

  19. Depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among female sex workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among 278 female sex workers (FSW) in Guangxi, China. About 62% of these FSW had a high level of depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ? 16). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that FSW with high level of depressive symptoms were less likely to use condoms consistently (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.89) or use condoms properly (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.20–0.99). The findings suggested tha...

  20. Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risk for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie; Sherman, Susan G; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their 30s and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 63 older women sex workers and six focus-group interviews with stakeholders in three cities in China in 2012. Data were analysed inductively using constant comparative method. The mean age of participants was 43 years and the mean age of entry into sex work was 39 years. The primary reasons for entry into sex work included heavy economic burdens, limited employment opportunities and the appealing nature of sex work. Street-based and venue-based older sex workers were identified based on where they solicited clients. Street-based older sex workers were more likely to engage in unsafe commercial sex due to financial incentives, whereas those in entertainment venues were unlikely to use condoms with regular clients. The development of effective HIV interventions needs to consider older women sex worker's unique characteristics and target factors that impede safer-sex practices. PMID:23998493

  1. A cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and associations of HIV among female sex workers in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou; Loum, Jaegan; Baral, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the Gambia and HIV risk factors, we accrued participants (n = 251) through peer-referral and venue-based recruitment. Blood samples were screened for HIV and participants were administered a questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV status. Forty respondents (15.9%) were HIV-positive: 20 (8.0%) were infected with HIV-1 only, 10 (4.0%) with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) with both HIV-1 and HIV-2; 12.5% (n = 5/40) knew their status. Condom usage at last sex was 97.1% (n = 170/175) with new clients and 44.2% (n = 53/120) with non-paying partners. Having a non-paying partner, living with relatives or friends, having felt scared to walk in public, selling sex in multiple locations, and recent depressive symptoms were positively associated with HIV under multivariate regression. Female sex workers have a higher prevalence of HIV compared to the general Gambian population. Interventions should be rights-based, promote safer sex practices and regular testing for female sex workers and linkage to HIV treatment and care with adherence support for those living with HIV. In addition, service providers should consider non-paying partners of female sex workers, improve knowledge and availability of condoms and lubricant, and address safety and mental health needs. PMID:23970652

  2. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

  3. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2014-07-30

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  4. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

  5. Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear...

  6. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  7. The trap of sex in social insects: from the female to the male perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beani, Laura; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Cappa, Federico; Toth, Amy

    2014-10-01

    The phenotype of male Hymenoptera and the peculiar role of males has been neglected and greatly understudied, given the spectacular cooperative behavior of female social insects. In social insects there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind haplodiploid sex determination but, beyond that, very little is known concerning the neural, endocrine, and genetic correlates of sexual selection in males. An opportunity is being missed: the male phenotype in Hymenoptera is a natural experiment to compare the drives of natural versus sexual selection. In contrast to females, males do not work, they usually display far from the nest to gain mates, compete among rivals in nuptial flights or for a symbolic territory at leks, and engage in direct or ritualized conflicts. By comparing the available data on male paper wasps with studies on other social Hymenoptera, we summarize what we currently know about the physical, hormonal, neural and behavioral traits in a model system appropriate to examine current paradigms on sexual selection. Here we review male behavior in social Hymenoptera beyond sex stereotypes: the subtle role of "drones" in the colony, the lack of armaments and ornaments, the explosive mating crowds, the "endurance" race, the cognitive bases of the "choosy" male and his immune defense. Social insect males are not just simple-minded mating machines, they are shaped, constrained and perhaps trapped by sexual selection. PMID:25280909

  8. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted t...

  9. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  10. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, S. L.; Ingabire, C. M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M. M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C. J.; Nash, D.; Wijgert, J. H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing for HIV-1/2, HSV-2 and pregnancy, and BED-CEIA and Avidity Index (AI) to identify recent infections among HIV-infected women. Results: Prevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and pregnancy w...

  11. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: A multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taki...

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Drug Use and Unsafe Sex among Young African American Females

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Hotton, Anna; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This study prospectively examined associations among multiple theoretically informed risk (e.g., depression, sexual sensation seeking, and risky peers norms) and protective factors (e.g., social support, STI knowledge, and refusal to have sex self efficacy) on unsafe sex among 715 African American adolescent females aged 15–21 who participated in an STI/HIV prevention intervention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations between baseline characteristics and s...

  13. Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue

    OpenAIRE

    Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

    2014-01-01

    We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in m...

  14. Problems of Birds Sex Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina V. Trukhina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae and heteromorphic (Paleognatae sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system. DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc. in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex determination (GSD, although the effect of estrogen metabolites is noted for birds. For birds epigenetic mechanisms of regulation (methylation of DNA and non-coding RNA have been described for sex controlling genes such as CYP19A1 and DMRT1.

  15. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Marlise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases. Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P?=?0.075. Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period.

  16. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.

  17. Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

  18. Strategies for Recruiting Steady Male Partners of Female Sex Workers for HIV Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-02-01

    Steady male partners of female sex workers (FSW) are a key population for HIV prevention, but researchers face challenges finding and recruiting this population. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with FSW and steady male partners of FSW in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic about how to engage steady male partners in HIV research. Participants cautioned that male partners might be unwilling to participate because of discomfort disclosing intimate information and cultural norms of masculinity. They recommended inviting male partners to research offices, instead of venue-based recruitment, because it was more private and trust-promoting. Most participants suggested that FSW could refer their partners or men could refer their friends who have FSW partners. Participants emphasized that referrals could break down trust-related barriers that prevent male partners from participating. Establishing an environment of respect and trust in the research setting can aid referral processes as individuals who participate communicate their positive experiences to their networks. PMID:25192901

  19. The HIV care cascade and antiretroviral therapy in female sex workers: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Elisa; Pickles, Michael; Mishra, Sharmistha; Vickerman, Peter; Alary, Michel; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2014-10-01

    To achieve viral suppression and fully benefit from antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is important that individuals with HIV know that they are HIV infected, link to and remain in HIV care, start and remain on ART and adhere to treatment. In HIV epidemics where female sex workers (FSWs) are key drivers of HIV transmission, the extent to which FSWs use ART and engage in the HIV care cascade could have a considerable impact on HIV transmission from FSWs to the wider population. In this article we review the spectrum of FSW engagement in the HIV care cascade, look at the impact of the HIV care cascade and ART use among FSWs on population-level HIV transmission and discuss HIV prevention for FSWs in the context of ART and the HIV care cascade. PMID:25174997

  20. Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

  1. Female sex worker client behaviors lead to condom breakage: a prospective telephone-based survey in Bangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Moses, Stephen; Gowda, G Chandrashekhar; Pushpalatha, R; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Boily, Marie-Claude; Lobo, Anil; Gowda, Hareesh; Alary, Michel

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom breakage rates and predictors of breakage in a prospective telephone-based study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India. We obtained data on 3,257 condom-use sex acts, and breakage occurred in 2.1 % of these. Situational factors, especially those associated with male clients' behaviors, were the most important predictors of breakage, including sexual inexperience, roughness and violence. Breakage was also associated with having vaginal and anal sex at the same encounter and with poor-fitting condoms. Despite lower than expected breakage rates, the high client volume of FSWs means that there are many unprotected sex acts caused by breakage. Discussions should be held around new education messages, and how programs can respond quickly when sex workers encounter clients who are inebriated, violent or unusually sexually charged. More work is urgently needed with police, and on FSW empowerment, the use of help lines, and counseling for the most vulnerable women. PMID:22576127

  2. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  3. Deficiency of female sex hormones augments PGE2 and CGRP levels within midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Jian; Li, Jingqing; Yu, Shengyuan; Guo, Xinjin

    2014-11-15

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial component of the descending modulatory network to control on nociceptive transmission and autonomic functions. Also, accumulated evidence has suggested that the PAG plays a crucial role in regulating migraine headache, a neurovascular disorder. The purpose of this study was to employ ELISA methods to examine the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the PAG of rats who received ovariectomy and subsequent hormone replacement with 17?-estradiol, progesterone, or the combination of 17?-estradiol and progesterone. In addition, using Western blot analysis we examined expression of subtypes of PGE2 receptor in the PAG of rats with different conditions of female sex hormones. Results of our study demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly increased the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the dorsolateral PAG (P < 0.05) as well as expression of PGE2 EP3 receptors (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a liner relationship was observed between PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG (r = 092, P < 0.01). Also, inhibiting EP3 receptors by chronic administration of L-798106 (EP3 antagonist) into the lateral ventricles significantly attenuated expression of CGRP in the PAG of ovariectomized animals (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control). Overall, our findings for the first time show that (1) circulating 17?-estradiol and/or progesterone influences the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG; (2) a lower level of 17?-estradiol and/or progesterone augments PGE2 and its EP3 receptor; and (3) PGE2 plays a role in regulating expression of CGRP in the PAG. PMID:25175853

  4. Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. T., RIBEIRO-PAES; V., RODRIGUES.

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas do gênero Schistosoma situam-se entre os primeiros metazoários que desenvolveram sexos separados, determinado cromossomicamente no ovo fertilizado. Apesar da ocorrência de cromossomos sexuais específicos, as fêmeas de Schistosoma não atingem a maturidade somática e sexual sem a presença [...] dos machos. Na verdade, um dos aspectos mais controversos e, ao mesmo tempo, mais fascinantes, envolvendo o desenvolvimento sexual das fêmeas está em se desvendar a natureza do estímulo que controla e mantém tal processo. Muito embora a natureza do estímulo (físico ou químico) seja motivo de controvérsia, concordam os mais diferentes autores que o acasalamento é um requisito indispensável para que ocorra a maturação e migração das fêmeas para o sítio definitivo de permanência no sistema vascular do hospedeiro vertebrado. Admite-se, ainda, que o estímulo não é espécie-específico e, em alguns casos, nem mesmo gênero-específico. Não obstante a existência de um número considerável de artigos dedicados ao tema, não há um consenso sobre o processo (ou processos) que controla(m) o encontro de machos e fêmeas no sistema circulatório do hospedeiro vertebrado, bem como está por ser determinada a natureza do estímulo, oriundo dos machos, que controla e mantém o desenvolvimento somático e sexual das fêmeas. Ao longo dos anos os machos de Schistosoma têm sido considerados, por vezes pejorativamente, os irmãos, os músculos ou o fígado das fêmeas. Em síntese, resta saber se a natureza do estímulo responsável pelo desenvolvimento das fêmas envolve a transferência de hormônios, nutrientes, a mera estimulação tátil ou a combinação de dois ou mais desses fatores Abstract in english Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach n [...] o sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical) is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

  5. Barriers of condom use among female sex workers in Tehran, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Malery khah Langeroudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aim: In Iran, HIV prevalence in sex workers is reaching to an epidemic, but still consistent use of condoms is low. This qualitative study aimed to assess barriers to condom use in female sex workers (FSWs.   Materials and Methods: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 40 FSWs and 12 partners in the year 2010 in Tehran. The FSWs were purposefully selected from four different groups based on the level of socioeconomic status and history of using substance. Findings were extracted and coded manually and the responses of the groups were categorized and compared.   Results: Almost all FSWs had not used condoms regularly in the past six months. The main barriers of condom use were: lack of awareness of the modes of transmission of HIV and prognosis of the disease, doubt on the role of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, fear of violence or rejection by male customers, reluctance of sexual partners to use condoms due to diminution of sexual pleasure, and believing in health of some customers.   Conclusions: Increasing awareness of the FSWs through education about HIV, ways to prevent the disease and empowering them on negotiating skills to use condoms as part of harm reduction programs are recommended .

  6. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  7. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ? 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  8. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime. PMID:24495052

  9. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  10. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  11. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100 and immediately following (n = 112 the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001. Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001, there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use.

  12. Sex Differences in (+)-Amphetamine- and (+)-Methamphetamine-induced Behavioral Response in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Milesi-halle?, Alessandra; Mcmillan, Donald E.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Byrnes-blake, Kelly A.; Owens, S. Michael

    2007-01-01

    (+)-Methamphetamine (METH) and (+)-amphetamine (AMP) are structurally similar drugs that are reported to induce similar pharmacological effects in rats of the same sex. Because pharmacokinetic data suggest female rats should be more affected than males, the current studies sought to test the hypothesis that the behavioral and temporal actions of METH and AMP should be greater in female Sprague-Dawley rats than in males. Using a dosing regimen designed to reduce the possibility of tolerance an...

  13. Latent human herpesvirus - 8 (HHV-8 infection in female commercial sex workers from Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Caterino-de-Araujo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection was identified in 6 out of 90 (6.7% female commercial sex workers from Imbituba, Santa Catarina, and was associated to age. Frequencies of 5.6% of anti-latent and 3.3% of anti-lytic antibodies were detected. Considering non-endemic areas from Brazil, the anti-latent antibodies frequency seems elevated and requires further investigation on referent female population.

  14. Homofarnesals: female sex attractant pheromone components of the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kenji; Nojima, Satoshi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2008-04-01

    The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of stored legumes in warm temperate and tropical climates. The female sex attractant pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from containers that housed virgin females. The extracts were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active components in the fractions were screened by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis with male antennae. Two compounds that elicited electrophysiological responses were isolated, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and micro-chemical analyses suggested that the active compounds were homofarnesals, (2Z,6E)- and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienals. Males of C. chinensis were significantly attracted to filter paper discs loaded with the synthetic compounds at 0.01-0.1 ng compared to solvent control in a Y-tube olfactometer assay. These pheromone components represent unique chemical structures within the genus Callosobruchus. PMID:18351422

  15. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  16. Sex-specific defence behaviour against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    Nest protection against intruders is an indispensable component of avian parental care. In species with biparental care, both mates should evolve nest defence behaviour to increase their reproductive success. In most host-parasite systems, host females are predicted to have more important roles in nest defence against brood parasites, because they typically are primarily responsible for clutch incubation. Male antiparasitic behaviour, on the other hand, is often underestimated or even not considered at all. Here we investigated sex-specific roles in four aspects of great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) nest defence against a brood parasite-the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), namely (1) mobbing, (2) nest attendance/guarding, (3) nest checking and (4) egg ejection. Using dummy experiments, simulating brood parasitism and by video-monitoring of host nests we found that males took the key roles in cuckoo mobbing and nest guarding, while females were responsible for nest checking and egg ejection behaviours. Such partitioning of parental roles may provide a comprehensive clutch protection against brood parasitism. PMID:19154783

  17. Sex Hormones as Potential Modulators of Vascular Function in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2005-01-01

    The greater incidence of hypertension in men and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women has suggested gender differences in vascular function. Vascular effects of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone testosterone have been described. Sex steroid receptors have been identified in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. Interaction of sex hormones with cytosolic/nuclear receptors initiates long-term genomic effects that stimulate endothelial ce...

  18. Transcripts involved in steroid biosynthesis and steroid receptor signaling are expressed early in development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard K; Seidel, Jason S; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    Sex differentiation in organisms is correlated to sex steroid production and receptor signaling pathways involving androgens and estrogens. Timing of expression is critical, and characterization of sensitive windows is needed to determine how environmental stressors may perturb sex differentiation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether genes related to steroid biosynthesis, steroid receptor signaling, and those related to sex differentiation were expressed in pre-differentiated fathead minnow (FHM) embryos, an ecotoxicological model. Transcripts were measured over two weeks (1day post fertilization (dpf) to 14days), prior to sex differentiation. The first three time points investigated (1, 3, and 5dpf) corresponded to the neurula stage, dorsal swim bladder pigmentation, and pre-hatch. The fourth time point (6dpf) was collected immediately post-hatch and the fifth time point investigated was after 8days of larval growth (14dpf). The majority of transcripts investigated, for example estrogen, androgen, and thyroid receptors as well as steroid biosynthesis transcripts, were expressed within the first 72hours of development; exceptions were star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and cyp19a, which did not have detectable expression until 5dpf (pre-hatch). Transcripts that increased in relative mRNA abundance over the first two weeks of development included ar, dax1, hsd11b2, hsd17b, cyp19a and thra. This study demonstrates that there is early expression of transcripts related to steroid biosynthesis, steroid receptor signaling, and sex differentiation in pre-hatch FHM embryos. Additional studies are required to determine their relative roles in male and female differentiation during these early developmental periods. PMID:25546055

  19. Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

  20. Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  2. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N?=?61) and of infants in 2010 (N?=?12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. Am. J. Primatol. 77:376-387, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399677

  3. Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.

  4. Pilot study assessing HIV vaccine trial readiness among female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users, and men who have sex with men in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, María Florencia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Meroño, Mercé; Sierra, Ernesto; Del Romero, Jorge; Evans, Jennifer L; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Jacques, Constanza; Rojas, Daniela; Segú, Marta; Gatell, José María; Joseph, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess HIV risk and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in three high risk populations in Spain. Eight hundred and forty-four participants, comprising female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs and NIDUs, respectively), and men who have sex with men were tested for HIV and surveyed for risk and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. HIV seroprevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 2-11). HIV infection was associated with transgender identification, IDU in the past year, and sex with an IDU or other drug-using partner. The majority (82%) expressed their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Substantial sexual and parenteral risk in all groups and concomitant willingness to participate in vaccine trials was found, particularly among women and IDUs. Additional longitudinal cohort studies in Spain are needed to plan future vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:19037720

  5. Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Dudbridge, F; Kent, L; Wheelwright, S; Hill-Cawthorne, G; Allison, C; Banerjee-Basu, S; Baron-Cohen, S

    2009-06-01

    Genetic studies of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have mostly focused on the "low functioning" severe clinical subgroup, treating it as a rare disorder. However, ASC is now thought to be relatively common ( approximately 1%), and representing one end of a quasi-normal distribution of autistic traits in the general population. Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms in 68 candidate genes in three functional groups (sex steroid synthesis/transport, neural connectivity, and social-emotional responsivity) in two experiments. These were (a) an association study of relevant behavioral traits (the Empathy Quotient (EQ), the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)) in a population sample (n=349); and (b) a case-control association study on a sample of people with AS, a "high-functioning" subgroup of ASC (n=174). 27 genes showed a nominally significant association with autistic traits and/or ASC diagnosis. Of these, 19 genes showed nominally significant association with AQ/EQ. In the sex steroid group, this included ESR2 and CYP11B1. In the neural connectivity group, this included HOXA1, NTRK1, and NLGN4X. In the socio-responsivity behavior group, this included MAOB, AVPR1B, and WFS1. Fourteen genes showed nominally significant association with AS. In the sex steroid group, this included CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. In the socio-emotional behavior group, this included OXT. Six genes were nominally associated in both experiments, providing a partial replication. Eleven genes survived family wise error rate (FWER) correction using permutations across both experiments, which is greater than would be expected by chance. CYP11B1 and NTRK1 emerged as significantly associated genes in both experiments, after FWER correction (P<0.05). This is the first candidate-gene association study of AS and of autistic traits. The most promising candidate genes require independent replication and fine mapping. PMID:19598235

  6. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

  7. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2014-10-15

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use. PMID:25315353

  8. Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Euser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

  9. Violence, HIV risk behaviour and depression among female sex workers of eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Bhattarai, Sailesh; Adhikari, Baikuntha Raj; Baral, Dharanidhar; Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression among female sex workers (FSWs) of eastern Nepal. The secondary objective was to search for an association between depression, violence and HIV risk behaviour. Design Cross-sectional/observational study. Study setting This study was carried out in five cities of eastern Nepal (Dharan, Itahari, Biratnagar, Damak and Birtamode). Both restaurant-based and street-based FSWs were recruited in the study. Participants Women who had been involved in commercial sex activity in the past 6?months and gave informed consent were included in the study. Primary outcome measure A score of more than or equal to 16 on the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) scale was considered as depression. Methodology Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents who were sought through a snowball sampling technique. Information regarding their depression status, HIV high-risk behaviour and violence was recorded. The estimated sample size was 210. Results We interviewed 210 FSWs (both restaurant-based and street-based). The prevalence of depression among respondents was 82.4%. FSWs who had experienced violence were five times more likely to be depressed than those who were not victims of violence. The odds of depression were six times higher among respondents who were involved in any HIV risk behaviour compared with those who were not involved. Conclusions The present study reports a high prevalence of depression, HIV risk behaviours and violence among FSWs of eastern Nepal. The mental health of FSWs should also be regarded as an important aspect of HIV prevention efforts which can help to promote the overall health of this population. PMID:23794589

  10. “Talking the talk, walking the walk: Social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic”

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-01-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partn...

  11. Correlation between plasma steroid hormones and vitellogenin profiles and lunar periodicity in the female golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M D; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2000-09-01

    Characteristics of the lunar reproductive cycle in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, were determined by histological observations of ovarian development, and immunological measurements of plasma steroid hormones, estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), and vitellogenin (VTG). Ovarian and plasma samples were collected every week according to the lunar phases from May to July. Weekly change of gonadosomatic index (GSI) showed two peaks at the first lunar quarter in June and July. Yolky oocytes were also observed around this time. Histological observations revealed that the vitellogenic oocytes appeared again 1 week after spawning and developed synchronously. These results suggest that this species is a multiple spawner and the oocyte development is in a group-synchronous manner. Plasma steroid hormones (E2, T, DHP and 20beta-S) and VTG levels changed in parallel with changes in GSI. The peak of plasma VTG level occurred prior to spawning. These cyclic changes of plasma steroid hormones and VTG support the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is the major factor in stimulating reproductive activity of S. guttatus. PMID:11126747

  12. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

  13. Identification of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene linked to the female (F) locus that enhances female sex expression in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsh, T; Staub, J E; O'Neill, S D

    1997-03-01

    Sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is controlled largely by three genes: F, m, and a. The F and m loci interact to produce monoecious (M_f_) or gynoecious (M_f_) sex phenotypes. Ethylene and factors that induce ethylene biosynthesis, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) and auxin, also enhance female sex expression. A genomic sequence (CS-ACS1) encoding ACC synthase was amplified from genomic DNA by a polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Expression of CS-ACS1 is induced by auxin, but not by ACC, in wounded and intact shoot apices. Southern blo hybridization analysis of near-isogenic gynoecious (MMFF) and monoecious (MMff) lines derived from divers genetic backgrounds revealed the existence of an additional ACC synthase (CS-ACS1G) genomic sequence in the gynoecious lines. Sex phenotype analysis of a segregating F2 population detected a 100% correlation between the CS-ACS1G marker and the presence of the F locus. The CS-ACS1G gene is located in linkage group B coincident with the F locus, and in the population tested there was no recombination between the CS-ACS1G gene and the F locus. Collectively, these data suggest that CS-ACS1G is closely linked to the F locus and may play a pivotal role in the determination of sex in cucumber flowers. PMID:9085580

  14. Expression analysis of cyp11a1 during gonadal development, recrudescence and after hCG induction and sex steroid analog treatment in the catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Anbazhagan; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2014-10-01

    In teleosts, the levels of steroids are critical for sexual development and hence, expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes and specific substrate availability are indispensable for gonadal steroidogenesis. Early stages of steroidogenesis specifically cholesterol to pregnenolone conversion by Cyp11a1 is crucial for estradiol and testosterone biosynthesis. Based on this, in this study, full length cDNA of cyp11a1 (2581bp) was cloned from catfish testis to investigate the importance of Cyp11a1 by analyzing the expression of cyp11a1 during gonadal development, seasonal reproductive cycle, after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induction and sex steroid analog treatment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Cyp11a1 is more conserved across teleosts. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the cyp11a1 expression was higher in the testis followed by the brain, head kidney, muscle and ovary compared to other tissues analyzed. High expression of cyp11a1 in the head kidney and muscle revealed that Cyp11a1 could potentially regulate the extra-gonadal and/or circulating steroid levels in teleosts. Developing and mature testes showed higher expression of cyp11a1 than the ovary of corresponding age group. Further, cyp11a1 expression was found to be higher during pre-spawning and spawning phases of testicular cycle and was upregulated by hCG, in vivo and in vitro, which indicates the possible regulation by gonadotropin. Exposure of methyltestosterone (1?g/L) and ethinylestradiol (1?g/L) for 21days during catfish testicular development showed lower cyp11a1 expression levels in the testis and brain indicating a certain feedback intervention. These results suggest possible role for Cyp11a1 in the testis development and recrudescence. PMID:25107325

  15. The relationship between HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection risk and alcohol use during commercial sex episodes: results from the study of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Morisky, Donald E; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) risk associated with alcohol use between female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) and their customers has been understudied. We examined this relationship for 1,114 FCSWs aged 15-54 with data collected during the baseline study period (1994 to 1998) in four southern provinces of the Philippines. Two alcohol-related risk situations during commercial sex episodes were examined: prior alcohol use by an FCSW and perceived intoxication in a customer. The influence of sociodemographic variables on sexual risk behaviors was also studied. Multiple sexual risk behaviors were observed with more frequency for FCSWs if alcohol was used before commercial sex or if the episode involved a customer perceived to be intoxicated. Forty-two percent of FCSWs who had sex with an intoxicated customer were STI positive, significantly more than FCSWs who did not have sex with an intoxicated customer (28%, p targeting customer substance use and other situational and structural factors have proven to be pivotal mediators in our other research with this population. These experiences and the limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:17002991

  16. Prenatal sex ratios influence sexual dimorphism in a reptile.

    OpenAIRE

    Uller, T.; Olsson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The prenatal environment influences offspring traits in a variety of ways and in a wide range of taxa. For example, maternal allocation of steroids to the eggs influences offspring traits in birds, and in some mammals the intrauterine position influences morphological, behavioural, and physiological traits due to sex-related steroid transfer between sibling fetuses. We show that similar phenomena occur in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), a viviparous reptile. Females developing in male-b...

  17. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T.; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

  18. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  19. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethwala Nimisha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

  1. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shethwala, Nimisha D; Mulla, Summaiya A; Kosambiya, J K; Desai, Vikas K

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs) from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%), trichomoniasis in six (2%), candidiasis in 31 (10.33%), HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%), HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33%) and rapid plasma regain (RPR) reactivity in 20 (6.66%) cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%), candidiasis in six (17.14%), syphilis in five (14.28%) and HBsAg in two (5.71%). One (2.85%) HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis. PMID:19332911

  2. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the presand E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  3. Sumoylated PPAR? mediates sex-specific gene repression and protects the liver from estrogen-induced toxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Pradervand, Sylvain; Wahli, Walter

    2009-01-01

    As most metabolic studies are conducted in male animals, understanding the sex specificity of the underlying molecular pathways has been broadly neglected; for example, whether PPARs elicit sex-dependent responses has not been determined. Here we show that in mice, PPAR? has broad female-dependent repressive actions on hepatic genes involved in steroid metabolism and immunity. In male mice, this effect was reproduced by the administration of a synthetic PPAR? ligand. Using the steroid oxyst...

  4. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  5. Reconceptualizing the HIV Epidemiology and Prevention Needs of Female Sex Workers (FSW) in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Ketende, Sosthenes; Green, Jessie L.; Chen, Ping-An; Grosso, Ashley; Sithole, Bhekie; Ntshangase, Cebisile; Yam, Eileen; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Adams, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV is hyperendemic in Swaziland with a prevalence of over 25% among those between the ages of 15 and 49 years old. The HIV response in Swaziland has traditionally focused on decreasing HIV acquisition and transmission risks in the general population through interventions such as male circumcision, increasing treatment uptake and adherence, and risk-reduction counseling. There is emerging data from Southern Africa that key populations such as female sex workers (FSW) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV even in generalized epidemics such as Swaziland. The burden of HIV and prevention needs among FSW remains unstudied in Swaziland. Methods A respondent-driven-sampling survey was completed between August-October, 2011 of 328 FSW in Swaziland. Each participant completed a structured survey instrument and biological HIV and syphilis testing according to Swazi Guidelines. Results Unadjusted HIV prevalence was 70.3% (n?=?223/317) among a sample of women predominantly from Swaziland (95.2%, n?=?300/316) with a mean age of 21(median 25) which was significantly higher than the general population of women. Approximately one-half of the FSW(53.4%, n?=?167/313) had received HIV prevention information related to sex work in the previous year, and about one-in-ten had been part of a previous research project(n?=?38/313). Rape was common with nearly 40% (n?=?123/314) reporting at least one rape; 17.4% (n?=?23/314)reported being raped 6 or more times. Reporting blackmail (34.8%, n?=?113/314) and torture(53.2%, n?=?173/314) was prevalent. Conclusions While Swaziland has a highly generalized HIV epidemic, reconceptualizing the needs of key populations such as FSW suggests that these women represent a distinct population with specific vulnerabilities and a high burden of HIV compared to other women. These women are understudied and underserved resulting in a limited characterization of their HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs and only sparse specific and competent programming. FSW are an important population for further investigation and rapid scale-up of combination HIV prevention including biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. PMID:25531771

  6. Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female and Male Response of Ephestia calidella (Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex pheromone gland of female oases date moth, Ephestia calidella is located inter segmentally between eight and nine abdominal segment. Effect of three sub sterilizing doses 75, 100 and 125 Gy of gamma radiation on pheromone production and on male response were studied. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation reduce the pheromone production by female and the responsiveness of male. The effect was increased by increasing the radiation dose. Histological studies of pheromone gland also, indicated that gamma irradiation disturb epithelial cells of the gland and becoming thin at certain parts. Also, gland hairs ruptured or completely disappeared at the highest dose of 125 Gy.

  7. Gender performance as spatial acts : (Fe)male Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Synthesising Butler's theory with space, the objective of this paper is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as these are reproduced in the sex industry in two different settings. I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work. Likewise, the paper analyses the ways in which sex work plays a significant part in how the Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. The analysis of the Thai migrant sex workers becoming intelligible or non-intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. In this paper I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.

  8. Gender performances as spatial acts : (fe)male Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity/masculinity as they are reproduced in the Danish sex industry. To do so I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work and the ways in which sex work plays a significant role in how Thai migrant sex workers understand their gendered subject positions in the spaces away from their sex work. Whether Thai migrant sex workers become intelligible gendered subjects depends on different spaces. Based on two case stories I focus on the space of domesticity, the space of sexual consumption and the quasi-public space of leisure.

  9. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and female-biased sex ratio in the Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankola, Kunal; Brueckner, Dorothea; Puttaraju, H P

    2011-12-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in India. A total of nine butterfly species belonging to four different families were screened using PCR with Wolbachia-specific wsp and ftsZ primers. The presence of the Wolbachia super group 'B' in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T. nyseus, suggesting a putative role for Wolbachia in the observed female-biased sex ratio distortion. PMID:22116282

  10. The use of cffDNA in fetal sex determination during the first trimester of pregnancy of female DMD carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Hou, Qiaofang; Li, Tao; Chu, Yan; Guo, Qiannan; Kang, Bing; Liao, Shixiu

    2012-11-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis for fetal sex determination is generally the first step in the prenatal diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) techniques such as measurement of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma are preferable given the procedure-related miscarriage rate of CVS. We determined fetal sex during the first trimester using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of cffDNA in pregnant carriers of DMD. The fetal sex was confirmed by amniocentesis karyotype analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) at 16 weeks. This procedure may avoid unnecessary CVS or amniocentesis of female fetuses. PMID:25343090

  11. The master switch gene Sex-lethal promotes female development by negatively regulating the N signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Jill K M; Schedl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Notch (N) signaling is used for cell fate determination in many different developmental contexts. Here we show that the master control gene for sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster, Sex-lethal (Sxl), negatively regulates the N signaling pathway in females. In genetic assays, reducing Sxl activity suppresses the phenotypic effects of N mutations while increasing Sxl activity enhances the effects. Sxl appears to negatively regulate the pathway by reducing N protein accumulation and higher levels of N are found in Sxl?clones than in adjacent wild type cells. The inhibition of N expression does not depend on the known downstream targets of Sxl; however we find that Sxl protein can bind to N mRNAs. Finally our results indicate that downregulation of the N pathway by Sxl contributes to sex specific differences in morphology and suggest that it may also play an important role in follicle cell specification during oogenesis. PMID:17276344

  12. Evaluation of a targeted HIV prevention programme among female commercial sex workers in the south of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Griensven, G. J.; Limanonda, B.; Ngaokeow, S.; Ayuthaya, S. I.; Poshyachinda, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a targeted HIV prevention programme among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the south of Thailand. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pretest-post-test comparison group study was carried out in Sungai Kolok and Betong between June and December 1994. In June 408 CSWs were entered in Sungai Kolok (the intervention area) and 343 CSWs were enrolled in Betong (the comparison area). In December 1994, 416 women were enrolled in Sungai Kolok and 342 in Betong. Of these women 3...

  13. A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Yong; Shi Rong; Shen Tian; Pei Bei; Jiang Xueqin; Ye Xiuxia; Xu Gang; Li Shenghui; Huang Hong; Shang Meili

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five ...

  14. Female Sex as a Risk Factor for Glycemic Control and Complications in Iranian Patients with Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rabbani; Fereydoun Mostafavi; Aria Setoodeh; Tina Hedayat

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on glycemic control, diabetes complications and associated abnormalities in patients with type one diabetes mellitus. Methods:In a cross-sectional study in 309 patients (156 females and 153 males within the age range of 3-16 years) with type one diabetes mellitus referred to endocrinology clinic in Childrens Medical Center in Tehran from March 2005 to March 2007 gender differences in diabetes control were analyzed. Findings:...

  15. Characteristics of Female Sex Workers in Southern India Willing and Unwilling to Participate in a Placebo Gel Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mensch, Barbara S.; Friedland, Barbara A.; Abbott, Sharon A.; Katzen, Lauren L.; Tun, Waimar; Kelly, Christine A.; Sarna, Avina; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Solomon, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling was used to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) for a community survey conducted in southern India. After survey completion, participants were given a brochure describing a clinical trial that entailed daily use of a placebo vaginal gel for four months. This study assessed predictors of screening among survey respondents, predictors of enrollment among those eligible for the trial, and predictors of visit attendance and retention among those enrolled. FSWs who reporte...

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Remedios Lozada; Gudelia Rangel, M.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before a...

  17. The Influence of Stigma and Discrimination on Female Sex Workers’ Access to HIV Services in St. Petersburg, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    King, Elizabeth J.; Maman, Suzanne; Bowling, J. Michael; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Dudina, Viktoria

    2013-01-01

    Stigma associated with HIV and risk behaviors is known to be a barrier to health care access for many populations. Less is known about female sex workers (FSW) in Russia, a population that is especially vulnerable to HIV-infection, and yet hard-to-reach for service providers. We administered a questionnaire to 139 FSW to better understand how stigma and discrimination influence HIV service utilization. Logistic regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma is negatively associated wit...

  18. The Effect of Resistant Soybean on Male and Female Development and Adult Sex Ratios of Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Colgrove, A. L.; Niblack, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether currently used sources of resistance (soybean Plant Introductions [PI] 548402, 88788, 90763, 437654, 209332, 89772, and 548316) influence sex ratios in H. glycines, four inbred lines of the nematode characterized by zero or high numbers of females on resistant soybean were used to observe the number of adult males produced. Nematodes were allowed to infect soybean roots for 5 days in pasteurized sand. Infected plants were washed and transferred to hydroponic culture tubes...

  19. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    OpenAIRE

    La, Swe; Rashid A.

    2013-01-01

    Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amo...

  20. HIV Risk Behaviors Among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female Partners of Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Harawa, Nina T.; Mcculler, William J.; Chavers, Constance

    2013-01-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW). We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reporte...

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove

  2. Clinical characteristics associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S; Smith, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

  3. From Female Infanticide To Female Foeiticide – A Case Study In A Low Sex Ratio Districts Of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Elangovan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Infanticide is the custom of killing girls at birth. The female child unborn and born was unwelcome to such an extent that parents were event willing to kill. Various methods like poisoning the milk, strangling , burning alive or even drowning were used to do away with female babies. In Tamil Nadu, the Kallar community were practising this evil. Even though they liberalized their womenfolk within the caste rules, they committed female infanticide due to the problem of poverty. This practice is not confined to the Kallars alone. Tribal people like the Todas have practiced female infanticide. The steady growth of this evil forced the British Administrators to take some preventive measures. Two regulations were passed by the Government to suppress infanticide, namely, Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804. During the first half of the Nineteenth Century, a few British Officials took an active role in abolition of female infanticide. In 1890, the Infanticide Act (Act III was passed which required for its working special police surveillance of the suspected. Statistics shows that in Madras in 19920 out of every thousand babies born as 199 die within the year of birth. The cause for such death rate are early marriage, poverty, low standard of living, bad nourishment, low vitality of mothers and overwork in the case of expectant mothers. This evil has occurred not only in several cultures across history, but is known to occur in contemporary societies as well. Female infanticide in India has been documented for period of British colonial rule by several scholars. In the period since infanticide, the gruesome practice has been reported as occurring in many parts of the country including Tamil Nadu, where the phenomenon is of recent origin, and was not known to exist before independence , except among the Todas

  4. Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) confirmed by a molecular sexing technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise, Monnerat Nogueira; Maria Alice, S. Alves.

    1629-16-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris p [...] uede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como control. Analizamos muestras de DNA de 190 individuos. Los tamaños de los productos del PCR fueron identificados como 350 pares de bases (pb) para CHD-Z y 388 pb para CHD-W. Pudimos confirmar que las hembras adultas presentan iris rojo y las hembras jóvenes iris marrón. También pudimos distinguir machos jóvenes de hembras, que presentan el mismo color de iris y plumaje. Abstract in english The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be us [...] ed to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp) for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.

  5. ALTERED SERUM SEX STEROIDS AND VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) COLLECTED NEAR A METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...

  6. Neighbours' breeding success and the sex ratio of their offspring affect the mate preferences of female zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern "success-stay, failure-leave" have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351

  7. Contextual determinants of condom use among female sex exchangers in East Harlem, NYC: an event analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M; Tortu, Stephanie; Pouget, Enrique R; Hamid, Rahul; Neaigus, Alan

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of contexts involving HIV risk behaviors among women who exchange sex for money or drugs. Event analysis was used to identify the individual, relationship, and contextual factors that contribute to these high-risk sex exchange practices. Analyses were conducted on data obtained from 155 drug-using women who reported details of their most recent sex exchange event with male clients. The majority of sex exchange encounters (78%) involved consistent condom use. In multivariable analysis, protective behavior was associated primarily with situational and relationship variables, such as exchange location, substance use, sexual practices, and respondent/client discussion and control. In order to inform HIV prevention programs targeted to women sex exchangers, further research is needed on the contextual determinants of risk, especially with regard to condom-use negotiation and factors involving substance use that adversely affect women's ability to manage protective behavior in the context of sex exchange. PMID:16779657

  8. Female-biased sex ratios in marine pelagic copepods: Comment on Gusmao et al. (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Bonnet, D

    2013-01-01

    Gusmao et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 482:279-298) review causes of sex ratio skew in pelagic copepods and in doing so repeatedly dispute the paper of Hirst et al. (2010) ‘Does predation control adult sex ratios and longevities in marine pelagic copepods?’ Here we respond to some important errors in their citation of our paper and briefly highlight where future work is needed in order to attribute the causes of strong sex ratio skew seen in some copepod families

  9. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social ...

  10. Psychological fears among low-paid female sex workers in southwest China and their implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

  11. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs' income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs' health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

  12. Prevalence of rape and client-initiated gender-based violence among female sex workers: kampala, Uganda, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, Amee; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Serwadda, David; Muyonga, Michael; Shiraishi, Ray W; Benech, Irene; Mital, Sasha; Bosa, Rose; Lubwama, George; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    We utilized data from the 2012 Crane Survey in Kampala, Uganda to estimate prevalence of rape among female sex workers (FSWs) and to identify risk factors for and prevalence of client-initiated gender-based violence (GBV) among FSWs. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Analyses were weighted using RDSAT-generated individualized weights for each of the five dependent GBV outcomes. Analyses were conducted utilizing SAS 9.3. Among 1,467 FSWs who were interviewed, 82 % (95 % CI: 79-84) experienced client-initiated GBV and 49 % (95 % CI: 47-53) had been raped at least once in their lifetime. GBV risk increased with increasing frequency of client demands for unprotected sex, length of time engaged in sex work, and FSW alcohol consumption. Risk decreased when sex with clients occurred at the FSW's or client's house or a hotel compared to when sex occurred in open spaces. Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of GBV among FSWs. This research reinforces the urgent need for GBV prevention and response strategies to be integrated into FSW programming and the continuing need for GBV research among key populations. PMID:25432876

  13. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face. PMID:11177587

  14. Men who report recent male and female sex partners in Cape Town, South Africa: an understudied and underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has largely focused on the needs of heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the sexual risk histories of men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Furthermore, we know very little about the psychosocial health needs or of the possibility of a syndemic (numerous interrelated epidemics) among MSMW. We surveyed 1,203 men attending drinking establishments in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We compared the behaviors and experiences of MSMW to men reporting only having sex with women (MSW). Twelve percent of the sample reported having sex with both men and women in the past 4 months. MSMW were twice as likely as MSW to report being HIV positive (10.5 vs. 4.6 %). MSW were more likely to be married than MSMW but reported similar numbers of female sex partners. MSMW were more likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse, recent experienced and perpetrated physical and sexual partner violence, both receiving and giving sex for money, drugs, or shelter, and a recent STI. These factors were found to be interrelated among MSW but not MSMW. Although MSMW demonstrate considerable risk taking and report higher rates of HIV infection than MSW, their needs are largely unmet and underemphasized. Findings suggest the need to better understand factors contributing to sexual risk taking among MSMW. HIV prevention interventions should consider psychosocial health problems unique to MSMW residing in South African townships. PMID:23519592

  15. An estrogen-responsive module in the ventromedial hypothalamus selectively drives sex-specific activity in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Stephanie M; Newstrom, David W; Warne, James P; Flandin, Pierre; Cheung, Clement C; Lin-Moore, Alexander T; Pierce, Andrew A; Xu, Allison W; Rubenstein, John L; Ingraham, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-receptor alpha (ER?) neurons in the ventrolateral region of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL) control an array of sex-specific responses to maximize reproductive success. In females, these VMHVL neurons are believed to coordinate metabolism and reproduction. However, it remains unknown whether specific neuronal populations control distinct components of this physiological repertoire. Here, we identify a subset of ER? VMHVL neurons that promotes hormone-dependent female locomotion. Activating Nkx2-1-expressing VMHVL neurons via pharmacogenetics elicits a female-specific burst of spontaneous movement, which requires ER? and Tac1 signaling. Disrupting the development of Nkx2-1(+) VMHVL neurons results in female-specific obesity, inactivity, and loss of VMHVL neurons coexpressing ER? and Tac1. Unexpectedly, two responses controlled by ER?(+) neurons, fertility and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, are unaffected. We conclude that a dedicated subset of VMHVL neurons marked by ER?, NKX2-1, and Tac1 regulates estrogen-dependent fluctuations in physical activity and constitutes one of several neuroendocrine modules that drive sex-specific responses. PMID:25543145

  16. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2014-07-25

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-adminstration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens. PMID:25059808

  17. Female Sex as a Risk Factor for Glycemic Control and Complications in Iranian Patients with Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on glycemic control, diabetes complications and associated abnormalities in patients with type one diabetes mellitus. Methods:In a cross-sectional study in 309 patients (156 females and 153 males within the age range of 3-16 years with type one diabetes mellitus referred to endocrinology clinic in Childrens Medical Center in Tehran from March 2005 to March 2007 gender differences in diabetes control were analyzed. Findings:Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, was significantly higher in females (9.25 vs. 8.01. Insulin dose per kilogram of body weight was significantly more in girls (0.91±0.31 vs. 0.74±0.37, P<0.001 self monitoring of blood glucose was performed significantly more in boys. Frequency of Diabetic ketoacidosis, height growth problems and dyslipidemia were significantly higher in girls. 1.20±0.86 vs. 0.93±0.55, P=0.004, (-0.05±1.20 vs. -0.41±1.17, P=0.015, (134.60±44.43 vs. 110.56±20.72, P=<0.001 respectively. Conclusion:Female sex is a risk factor in glycemic control and complications of diabetes type I and females should be managed more seriously regarding self monitoring of blood glucose, nutritional and psychological factors and puberty issues.

  18. An Estrogen-Responsive Module in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Selectively Drives Sex-Specific Activity in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Correa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor alpha (ER? neurons in the ventrolateral region of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL control an array of sex-specific responses to maximize reproductive success. In females, these VMHVL neurons are believed to coordinate metabolism and reproduction. However, it remains unknown whether specific neuronal populations control distinct components of this physiological repertoire. Here, we identify a subset of ER? VMHVL neurons that promotes hormone-dependent female locomotion. Activating Nkx2-1-expressing VMHVL neurons via pharmacogenetics elicits a female-specific burst of spontaneous movement, which requires ER? and Tac1 signaling. Disrupting the development of Nkx2-1+ VMHVL neurons results in female-specific obesity, inactivity, and loss of VMHVL neurons coexpressing ER? and Tac1. Unexpectedly, two responses controlled by ER?+ neurons, fertility and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, are unaffected. We conclude that a dedicated subset of VMHVL neurons marked by ER?, NKX2-1, and Tac1 regulates estrogen-dependent fluctuations in physical activity and constitutes one of several neuroendocrine modules that drive sex-specific responses.

  19. The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Oh, William K; Jacobus, Susanna; Regan, Meredith; Pomerantz, Mark; Freedman, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

    2011-12-01

    Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness. PMID:21900597

  20. Reversal of sex roles in genetic female mice by disruption of estrogen receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, S; Taylor, J A; Lubahn, D B; Korach, K S; Pfaff, D W

    1996-12-01

    Deficiency of normal estrogen receptor(ER) gene function led to behavioral change in female mice (ERKO females). Maternal behavior as measured by retrieving of pups was reduced. In some cases, pups were killed by the ERKO females, which was not seen in wild-type animals. Aggression toward other females was increased. Female-typical lordosis behavior was reduced for at least two reasons: less response to somatosensory stimuli on the hindquarters, as well as the fact that ERKO females were immediately treated as intruder males by resident 'stud' males and were thus attacked. In sum, disruption of the ER gene led to a pattern of hormonal and neural changes which caused the females to lose their normal female-typical behavior and to behave and be treated more like males. PMID:8990081

  1. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  2. Signal honesty through differential quantity in the female-produced sex pheromone of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Johnson, Chris P

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, female-produced sex pheromones of moths have been subjected to intensive study. Most work has focused on their role in mate recognition, and little on any role they may have in mate assessment. This is largely because it has been assumed that female, rather than male, moths are "choosy", and invest larger amounts of carbon in eggs than in pheromone. Recently, we found that pheromone production in the moth Heliothis virescens depended on hemolymph trehalose concentration, and that sugar-stressed females produced less pheromone than unstressed ones. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time in moths, that a female-produced pheromone signal can allow H. virescens males to assess sugar resources (quality) of a female. This signal honesty is based on quantitative, rather than qualitative (component ratio), differences in pheromone, produced and released by sugar-stressed and unstressed females. Increasing marginal cost of pheromone production, as sugar resources are depleted, may ensure signal honesty. PMID:21681664

  3. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards. PMID:22127179

  4. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  5. Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard

    2015-01-01

    Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. PMID:25059942

  6. Male only progeny in Anastrepha suspensa by RNAi-induced sex reversion of chromosomal females

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Tephritidae sex determination is established by orthologs to the Drosophila melanogaster transformer and transformer-2 genes. In contrast, primary signals for sex determination are different in these species corresponding to the number of X chromosomes (XSE) in Drosophilidae species and to the pr...

  7. Estradiol stimulation of Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in vitro: Correlation with perinatal exposure to sex steroids and induction of sexual precocity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Matagne, V.; Rasier, G.; Lebrethon, Marie-christine; Gerard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-pierre

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to study the effect of estradiol (E2) on pulsatile GnRH secretion in vitro in relation to sex and development. When hypothalamic explants obtained from 5- and 15-d-old female rats were exposed to E2 (10(-7) m), a reduction of GnRH interpulse interval (IPI) occurred but not at 25 and 50 d of age. This effect was prevented by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182.780 and the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist DNQX but not by the AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists SY...

  8. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Interest among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhong, Xiaoni; Ruan, Yuhua; Lin, Xinqin; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Deren; Jiang, Junjun; Xie, Peiyan; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Zhou, Bo; Su, Jinming; Liang, Hao; Huang, Ailong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three cities in Guangxi. Structured, self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the acceptability of PrEP and the willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors. Results Among 405 participants, 15.1% had heard of PrEP. If PrEP was deemed to be effective, safe and provided for free, 85.9% reported that they would accept it, and 54.3% of those who accepted PrEP said that they would participate in a clinical trial. The increased acceptability of PrEP was associated with working in male dominated venues, higher income, a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, not being forced to use condoms by the gatekeepers, consistent use of condoms, and use of drugs to prevent STD infection. The increased willingness to participate in a clinical trial was associated with a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, a willingness to adhere to daily PreP use, and not being concerned about discrimination by others. The main reason for rejecting PrEP or participating in a clinical trial was the concern about the side effects of PrEP. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP among Guangxi FSWs is relatively high, indicating that PrEP intervention programs may be feasible for Chinese FSWs. Given the fact that most of the participants had never heard of PrEP before, and that family, gatekeepers, and social discrimination could significantly affect its acceptability, a comprehensive mix of multiple interventions is necessary for the successful implementation of a PrEP program among this population in Guangxi. PMID:24465956

  9. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Danilowicz; Oscar D, Bruno; Daniela, Mana; Hector A, Serra; Graciela, Cross; Jorge A, Rey.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia los valores de referencia utilizados para las evaluaciones bioquímicas endocrinológicas son los sugeridos por los kits utilizados, a pesar de las recomendaciones de que cada laboratorio debiera obtener sus propios valores de normalidad. Nuestros objetivos fueron (i) analizar los rango [...] s de referencia para testosterona (T) y globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuales (SHBG) apropiados para nuestro laboratorio y población, y (ii) analizar su influencia en la evaluación de la hiperandrogenemia. Se midió T y SHBG y se calculó testosterona libre y biodisponible en un grupo (a) control de 30 mujeres no hiperandrogénicas, (b) 87 mujeres no seleccionadas donantes de sangre, (c) 53 mujeres con hiperandrogenismo, y (d) 38 mujeres con desórdenes hiperandrogénicos pero sin hiperandrogenemia de acuerdo a los rangos de normalidad sugeridos por el kit. La concentración media de SHBG fue significativamente diferente entre los cuatro grupos. Los niveles de SHBG fueron significativamente más altos en las mujeres controles seleccionadas (grupo a). Tomando en consideración los resultados obtenidos en este grupo y estableciendo los rangos de referencia adecuados, 12 de 38 mujeres (31.6%) hiperandrogénicas sin hiperandrogenemia (grupo d) fueron recategorizadas como con exceso androgénico bioquímico. De igual manera, al analizar mujeres normopesas no seleccionadas, en edad reproductiva (grupo b), 4 de 63 (6.4%) pudieron ser definidas como hiperandrogénicas. Utilizando valores adecuados de referencia para SHBG, se mejora la precisión del diagnóstico de exceso androgénico. Abstract in english It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i) determine reference ranges for serum te [...] stosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii) to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a) 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b) 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c) 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d) 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a). Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6%) women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d) were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4%) non-selected, normal weight, women (group b), were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  10. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, T C; David, C N

    1986-12-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10(-2) per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps contain a mixture of male and female stem cells. A model is presented in which the sexual phenotype of Hydra polyps is controlled by (i) the switching rate of male and female stem cells and (ii) the repression of female differentiation by male stem cells. PMID:16593789

  11. Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: Involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeung Eui-Bae; Ck, Leung Peter; Choi Kyung-Chul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex stero...

  12. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  13. HIV prevention while bulldozers roll: developing evidence based HIV prevention intervention for female sex workers following the demolition of Goa’s redlight area

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmanesh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal to HIV prevention in India. Societal factors and legislation around sex-work are potential barriers to achieving this. In recent years several high profile closures of red-light areas and dance bars in India have occurred. In this thesis I describe the effects of the demolition of Goa’s red-light area on the organsiation of sex-work, HIV risk environment, and implications for evidence-based HIV preventi...

  14. Profile of female sex workers in a Chinese county: Does it differ by where they came from and where they work?

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, informal or clandestine sex work in the service or entertainment industry has spread from municipalities to small towns in most areas of China. Despite recognition of the important role of female sex workers in HIV and STD epidemics in China, limited data are available regarding their individual characteristics and social and environmental context of their work. Furthermore, most existing studies on commercial sex in China have been conducted in large cities or tourist attrac...

  15. Who are the Preferential Targets for Intervention Programs Related to the Female Condom among Sex Workers in Southern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Weeks, Margaret R.; Nie, Li; Li, Jianghong; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Fei; Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning

    2015-01-01

    We used a cluster analysis approach to investigate which female sex workers (FSW) are preferential targets for female condom (FC) intervention programs in southern China. Cross-sectional 6-month (N=316) and 12-month (N=217) post-intervention surveys of FSW were analyzed. Based on FC attitudes and beliefs, initially suggesting FC use to a partner, practicing insertion, total times ever used, and willingness to use in the future, cluster analysis apportioned women into two clusters, with 50.6% and 58.1% of participants in the likely future FC users group at 6-months and 12-months, respectively. Likely future FC users tended to be from boarding houses, older, currently or previously married, experienced with childbirth, with current multiple sex partners, longer history of sex work, and more unprotected sexual encounters. Focusing FC programs on sectors of the community with more FSW who are likely to use FC may be more cost-effective for enhancing FC acceptability and usage. PMID:23837812

  16. HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Yohana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, and drug users (DU remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among MSM, FSW and DU, calculating a combined pooled prevalence and summarizing factors associated the pooled prevalence for each group. Methods Nine electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, AIDSLINE, AMED, CINAHL, TOXNET, SciELO, and ISI-Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, from 1999 to 2009. To be included in the review, studies had to measure HIV prevalence and/or incidence as the primary outcome among at least one specific population under analysis. Results The studies targeting the three populations analyzed mostly young participants aged 30 years or less. Among FSW, eight studies were selected (3,625 participants, consistently identifying higher condom use with sexual clients than with occasional and stable partners. The combined HIV prevalence for FSW was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.4-8.3. Ten studies targeting MSM were identified (6,475 participants. Unprotected anal intercourse was commonly reported on those studies, but with great variability according to the nature of the relationship - stable vs. occasional sex partners - and sexual practice - receptive vs. insertive anal sex. Pooled HIV prevalence for MSM was 13.6 (95% CI: 8.2-20.2. Twenty nine studies targeting DU were identified (13,063 participants. Those studies consistently identified injection drug use and syringe/needle sharing as key predictors of HIV-infection, as well as engagement in sex work and male-to-male sex. The combined HIV prevalence across studies targeting DU was 23.1 (95% CI: 16.7-30.2. Conclusions FSW, MSM and DU from Brazil have a much risk of acquiring HIV infection compared to the general population, among which HIV prevalence has been relatively low (~0.6%. Those vulnerable populations should be targeted by focused prevention strategies that provide accurate information, counseling and testing, as well as concrete means to foster behavior change (e.g. access to condoms, drug abuse treatment, and clean syringes in the case of active injecting drug users, tailored to gender and culture-specific needs. Programs that provide these services need to be implemented on public health services throughout the country, in order to decrease the vulnerability of those populations to HIV infection.

  17. Chlamydia prevalence and associated behaviours among female sex workers in Vanuatu: results from an integrated bio-behavioural survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Caroline; Stoove, Mark; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bulu, Siula; Bergeri, Isabel; Wanyeki, Ian; Badman, Steve; Malverus, Jayline; Vella, Alyce; Tarivonda, Len; Johnston, Lisa Grazina

    2014-10-01

    There is insufficient data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) and related behaviours among key populations, including female sex workers (FSW), in the Pacific region. Using respondent driven sampling, we conducted an integrated bio-behavioural survey with FSW in Vanuatu (aged ?18 years) to investigate risk behaviours associations with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Weighted population estimates and correlates of CT infection were calculated. Among 149 FSW, prevalence of CT was 36 % (95 % CI 26-48 %). Few FSW reported consistent condom use with recent transactional sex partners (TSP) (8 %; 95 % CI 2-13 %). CT infection was positively associated with increasing number of TSP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2) and group sex (AOR 2.9; 95 % CI 1.1-8.2). CT was negatively associated with increasing age of first sex (AOR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.9) and previous STI treatment (AOR 0.1; 95 % CI 0.0-0.4). A comprehensive public health strategy for prevention and treatment of STI among FSW, incorporating community empowerment strategies, FSW-targeted health services and periodic presumptive treatment, is urgently needed in Vanuatu. PMID:24833521

  18. Differential Expression of Na+/H+-Exchanger (NHE-1, 2, and 4) Proteins and mRNA in Rodent's Uterus under Sex Steroid Effect and at Different Phases of the Oestrous Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2013-01-01

    Precise uterine fluid pH regulation may involve the Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE). We hypothesized that NHE isoforms are differentially expressed under different sex steroid treatment and at different oestrous cycle phases which may explain the uterine fluid pH changes observed under these conditions. Method. Oestrous cycle phases of intact WKY rats were identified by vaginal smear. Another group of rats was ovariectomized and treated with 0.2??g 17?-oestradiol (E), 4?mg progesterone (P), and ...

  19. Welfare of entire males and females in organic pig production when reared in single-sex groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Bonde, Marianne Kjær

    2012-01-01

    In the 25 EU countries more than 100 million male piglets are castrated each year. Castration is particularly problematic in organic pig production because it conflicts with the high welfare and other ethical standards associated with this system of animal production. The objective was to investigate possible welfare implications of producing organic entire male pigs. A total of 281 entire male pigs and 250 female pigs, raised in accordance with Danish organic standards in two commercial herds, were distributed into 15 male groups and 15 female groups. The pigs were observed at 40, 70 and 90 kg. Behaviour observations was made in two different periods, ‘roughage provision’ with observation of aggressive interactions lasting 30 min, and ‘post-roughage provision’ with observations of aggressive interactions, number of mountings and number of active animals in intervals of 15 min, lasting 90 min in total. Number of skin lesions and prevalence of lameness and general debility were assessed for each animal. The mean aggression levels were 4.3 interactions per animal per hour during ‘roughage provision’ and 1.9 during ‘post-roughage provision’, with no difference between genders in either period. Also no difference in severity of the aggressive behaviour between males and females was observed. Aggression decreased significantly with increasing pig weight during ‘post-roughage provision’ (P<0.001), and also during ‘roughage provision’ in herd B (P<0.05). No effect of pig weight on aggression level during ‘roughage provision’ was found in herd A. No significant difference in activity was found between males and females. The level of activity decreased with increasing weight of the animals (P<0.001). For skin lesions 10.4% of both males and females had ?5 lesions, with a significant difference between sexes only at 70 kg in herd A (P<0.05) Most lesions were located on the front and chest/side of the pigs. Frequency of mounting was 0.3 per entire male per hour and 0.01 per female per hour, showing a difference between entires and females. Mounting was not affected by increasing weight of the animals. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6%, and a difference between males and females was found only at 70 kg on herd B (P<0.04). Poor general debility overall occurred in 3.5% of the pigs and no difference between sexes was found. The results indicate that it is possible to produce entire male pigs within the organic production system without compromising the welfare of the animals.

  20. Characteristics of female sex workers in southern India willing and unwilling to participate in a placebo gel trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, Barbara S; Friedland, Barbara A; Abbott, Sharon A; Katzen, Lauren L; Tun, Waimar; Kelly, Christine A; Sarna, Avina; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Solomon, Suniti

    2013-02-01

    Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) for a community survey conducted in southern India. After survey completion, participants were given a brochure describing a clinical trial that entailed daily use of a placebo vaginal gel for four months. This study assessed predictors of screening among survey respondents, predictors of enrollment among those eligible for the trial, and predictors of visit attendance and retention among those enrolled. FSWs who reported having symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI), engaging in sex work in the past month, and living in a subdistrict easily accessible by public transportation with a high concentration of FSWs, were more likely to screen. FSWs who had never been tested for HIV were more likely to enroll. This analysis suggests that the primary reason FSWs participated in the trial was a desire for health care-not other factors hypothesized to be important, e.g., HIV risk perception and poverty status. PMID:22907287

  1. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe LA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom

  2. Bridging Populations—Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence in Clients and Partners of Female Sex Workers, Bangkok, Thailand 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Neha S.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Subhachaturas, Wonchart; Anand, Abhijeet; Whitehead, Sara J.; Tanpradech, Suvimon; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Sabin, Keith M.; Fox, Kimberley K.; Kim, Andrea Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok, where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was obtained, participants completed a questionnaire, were HIV-tested, and were asked to return for results. Analyses were weighted to control for ...

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-1 Infected Female Sex Workers in Benin: A Comparative Study with Patients from the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Souleymane Diabaté; Djimon Marcel Zannou; Nassirou Geraldo; Annie Chamberland; Jocelyn Akakpo; Carin Ahouada; Marguerite Massinga Loembé; Sévérin Anagonou; Annie Claude Labbé; Michel Alary; Cecile Tremblay

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study conducted in Benin was to compare HIV-1 infected female sex workers (FSW) and patients from the general population (GP) to see whether there was a difference in adherence level, mortality rate and immuno-virologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Fifty-tree FSW and 318 patients from the GP were recruited and followed for at least one year. We compared both cohorts according to poor-adherence (taking <95% of the pills), CD4 count increase, ...

  4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Hazelnut and its Effect on Some Sex Hormones in Alloxan Induced Diabetic in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer, E. El-khamisy; Amr, A. Rezq

    2013-01-01

    Hazelnut is the second richest source of monounsaturated fatty acids among nuts and is rich in vitamins E and B6, phytosterols, folate, L-arginine, polyphenols and fiber. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of hazelnut and its effect on some sex hormones in diabetic female rats. Animals were randomly assigned to five groups of equal number and weight. Group I, kept as a normal control group; Group II, kept as a diabetic control group, Groups III, IV and V, kep...

  5. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-07-25

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  6. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35–39 days) and expos...

  7. Cloning, characterization of two female-specific AFLP markers and development of PCR-based sex identification method for the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu MA, Songlin CHEN, Jing LI, Jin-Zhen BI, Tianjun XU

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two female-specific AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (named CseF464 and CseF136 were isolated by using one selective primer combination (E-AGC/M-CTG from the genomic DNA of 20 females and 20 males of the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis. Both the markers were re-amplified, recovered from the agarose gels, cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the length of the two markers were 468bp and 134bp, respectively, and the sequences showed no similarity to each other, as well as to the known sequences deposited in the GenBank database using BLASTn. Two pairs of SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers were designed based on the sequences of the two female-specific markers. Furthermore, PCR-based genetic sex identification method was developed in Cynoglossus semilaevis. A specific fragment was amplified in all females but not in any males by using these SCAR primers on the initial 20 female and 20 male individuals of Cynoglossus semilaevis. The feasibility of the two SCAR primer pairs was confirmed in additional 100 individuals (50 females and 50 males. This allowed for reliable, rapid molecular identification of genetic sex of the species, genetic mapping on the sex chromosomes and better understanding of the sex determination and sex differentiation in the half-smooth tongue sole [Current Zoology 55 (4: 309–314, 2009].

  8. Renal expression of organic anion transporter Oat5 in rats and mice exhibits the female-dominant sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breljak, Davorka; Ljubojevic, Marija; Balen, Daniela; Zlender, Vilim; Brzica, Hrvoje; Micek, Vedran; Kusan, Marija; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolic, Ivan

    2010-11-01

    The organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5, Slc22a19) was previously localized to the brush-border of proximal tubule (PT) S3 segment in rat and mouse kidneys. Here we report on sex hormone-regulated expression of Oat5 in rat kidneys, after reinvestigating: a) expression of its mRNA by end-point and real time RT-PCR in the tissue, b) abundance of its protein by Western blotting (WB) in isolated membranes, and c) immunolocalization in tissue cryosections. In untreated male (M) and female (F) adult rats, the expression of Oat5 mRNA was predominant in the outer stripe (OS), exhibiting sex differences (Msex-independent. In adult mice, the sex-dependent pattern of renal Oat5 protein expression was comparable to that in rats. Therefore, the renal expression of Oat5 in rats (and mice) exhibits zonal (COsex differences (M

  9. Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Apger-mcglaughon, Jennifer; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila seminal fluid proteins elicit physiological and behavioral changes in the female after mating. For example, the seminal protein sex peptide (SP) causes females to lay more eggs, reduce receptivity to re-mating, consume more food and produce more concentrated excreta upon mating. It has been reported that SP indirectly increases food consumption as a result of its stimulation of egg production, but its role in producing more concentrated excreta in the mated female was reported to b...

  10. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refer to the following sources on NIDA’s Web site: Research Report: Anabolic Steroid Abuse Health Effects Chart Tags Fact Sheets Parents Students Teachers Steroids (Anabolic) DrugFacts This page was last updated ...

  11. Predictors of workplace violence among female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha; Lopez, Vera; Robillard, Alyssa

    2015-05-01

    For sex workers, differences in rates of exposure to workplace violence are likely influenced by a variety of risk factors, including where one works and under what circumstances. Economic stressors, such as housing insecurity, may also increase the likelihood of exposure. Bivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between workplace violence and selected predictor variables, including age, drug use, exchanging sex for goods, soliciting clients outdoors, and experiencing housing insecurity. Multivariate regression analysis shows that after controlling for each of these variables in one model, only soliciting clients outdoors and housing insecurity emerge as statistically significant predictors for workplace violence. PMID:25091980

  12. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nadine E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent STI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 200 FSW was conducted in Mexico: 100 from Nuevo Laredo (U.S. border; 100 from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. Eligibility criteria included age ?18 years, speaking English or Spanish, and having ?1 truck driver client in the past month. The main outcome was reporting any recent STI symptoms, defined as experiencing genital/anal warts, genital ulcers/sores, genital itching, or abnormal vaginal discharge in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of recent STI symptoms. Results Median age of FSW was 29 years, 74% were single, 87% had th grade education, and median income was 4000 pesos/month ($300 USD. Sex work occurred at a bar/cantina for 70%. One-quarter had never been tested for HIV, 53% reported lifetime drug use, 22% reported drinking alcohol before/during transactional sex and 17% reported recent STI symptoms. After controlling for age and study site, factors associated with STI symptoms were lifetime drug use (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.9, drug use before/during sex (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, alcohol use before/during sex (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 2.2, 12.6, forced sex ever (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.1, lifetime history of arrest (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0, and being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo rather than Ciudad Hidalgo (AOR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-10.0. Conclusions The associations we observed between recent STI symptoms and drug and alcohol use suggest that interventions are needed that promote consistent and effective safer sex practices, especially while under the influence of alcohol or other substances.

  13. Female sex pheromones of two Japanese saturniid species, Rhodinia fugax and Loepa sakaei: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Kanegae, Akiko; Miyachi, Takashi; Naka, Hideshi; Tatsuta, Haruki; Ando, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    While 11 species in the family Saturniidae are found in Japan, no sex pheromones of the native species had been investigated previously. We collected larvae of Rhodinia fugax in Nagano and Tottori Prefecture, and of Loepa sakaei in Okinawa Prefecture, and extracted sex pheromones of these two species from virgin female moths. In gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses, male antennae of each species responded to one component in the respective pheromone extracts of conspecific females. Chemical analyses of the extracts by GC/mass spectrometry revealed that the EAD-active compounds of R. fugax and L. sakaei were a hexadecadienal and a tetradecadienyl acetate, respectively. The two species belong to the subfamily Saturniinae, and the mass spectra of both were similar to that of the 6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate identified from Antheraea polyphemus, classified in the same subfamily, suggesting the same 6,11-dienyl structure for the C16 aldehyde and a 4,9-dienyl structure for the C14 acetate. Based on this assumption, four geometrical isomers of each dienyl compound were stereoselectively synthesized via acetylene intermediates, compared to the natural products, and tested in the field. Male catches confirmed the pheromone structures of the two Japanese saturniid species as (6E,11Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal for R. fugax and (4E,9Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate for L. sakaei. The compounds have a characteristic 1,6-dienyl motif common to the pheromones of Saturniinae species. PMID:25533776

  14. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  15. Analysis of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in sex reversed patients: point-mutation in SRY causing sex-reversion in a 46,XY female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, JØrn; Schwartz, M

    1992-01-01

    The first and essential step in normal sexual differentiation takes place during the 5th-6th week of gestation. The testis determining factor (TDF) directs the undifferentiated gonad into a testis, which secretes hormones responsible for normal male development. A new candidate for TDF has recently been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has to be determined. We have tested three human females with 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis and two 46,XX males for the presence of SRY using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. Both 46,XX males contained SRY, whereas one of the 46,XY females had suffered a point mutation in SRY changing a codon for lysine to a stop codon. This information supports the hypothesis that SRY is significant in normal male sex differentiation. The two remaining 46,XY individuals had an intact HMG box, but it is possible that a mutation may be found in a regulatory gene or further downstream in the gene regulatory cascade. Two patients including the one with a mutation in SRY had gonadoblastomas supporting the hypothesis that another gene on the Y-chromosome is involved in the pathogenesis of this neoplasia.

  16. Growth and obesity and its association with plasma level of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in Slovak female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, T; Matejovicova, B; Boledovicova, M; Vondrakova, M; Bezakova, A; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in the control of human growth and obesity. We measured plasma level of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol and IGF-I in 301 young women at different stages of their ovarian cycle, and compared them to the standard morphometric indexes of their growth and obesity - body height, body weight, abdomen circumstance and waist to hip ratio (WHR). The ovarian cycle-dependent changes in plasma progesterone and estradiol, but not in testosterone and IGF-I level were found. Young women with higher body height had significantly higher plasma level of estradiol, testosterone and IGF-I, but not of progesterone, compared to subjects with lower body height in both follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle. Subjects with a higher body weight had significantly higher plasma estradiol and progesterone, but not testosterone and IGF-I than subjects with lower body weight in both follicular and luteal phases of ovarian cycle. Women with a higher abdomen circumference had significantly lower plasma estradiol, but not the other hormones than the subjects with lower abdomen circumference. Women with higher WHR index had significantly higher plasma level of estradiol, but not other hormones than subjects with lower WHR index in both follicular and luteal phases of ovarian cycle. The present observations suggests: (1) that luteal phase of the women ovarian cycle is characterised by a dramatically increase in both progesterone and estradiol, but not in testosterone and IGF-I release, (2) that in human females growth can be up-regulated by testosterone, estradiol and IGF-I, but not by progesterone, (3) that body mass can be up-regulated by progesterone and estradiol, but not by testosterone or IGF-I, and (4) that women obesity (high WHR, but not abdomen circumference) can be promoted by estradiol, but not by other steroid hormones or IGF-I (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 45). PMID:24156681

  17. Exceptional Use of Sex Pheromones by Parasitoids of the Genus Cotesia: Males Are Strongly Attracted to Virgin Females, but Are No Longer Attracted to or Even Repelled by Mated Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex pheromones have rarely been studied in parasitoids, and it remains largely unknown how male and female parasitoids locate each other. We investigated possible attraction (and repellency between the sexes of two braconid wasps belonging to the same genus, the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L., and the solitary parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson. Males of both species were strongly attracted to conspecific virgin females. Interestingly, in C. glomerata, the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. This repellency of mated females was only evident hours after mating, implying a change in pheromone composition. Males of C. marginiventris were also no longer attracted, but not repelled, by mated females. Females of both species showed no attraction to the odors of conspecific individuals, male or female, and C. glomerata females even appeared to be repelled by mated males. Moreover, the pheromones were found to be highly specific, as males were not attracted by females of the other species. Males of Cotesia glomerata even avoided the pheromones of female Cotesia marginiventris, indicating the recognition of non-conspecific pheromones. We discuss these unique responses in the context of optimal mate finding strategies in parasitoids.

  18. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Langen, Tom A; Berg, Elena C

    2009-09-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the social context and behavioural phenology of loud calling and allofeeding in this species and compared these with predictions from each functional hypothesis. We found that reproductive females are the primary producers of beg calls, and their begging peaks during the fertile period when reproductive conflict among males and females was highest. Loud begging rates correlated positively with provisioning rates, but females called more in the pre-incubation fertile period than after they initiated incubation. Based on the context, phenology and active space of the signal, we conclude that female loud begging vocalizations function to signal nutritional need to group members, but also have been evolutionarily co-opted to advertise fertility to potential extra-pair partners. The location of calling is likely a consequence of nest guarding by breeding females to prevent intraspecific brood parasitism. PMID:23293376

  19. Origins and working conditions of female sex workers in urban Thailand: consequences of social context for HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, M J; Podhisita, C; Kanungsukkasem, U; Pramualratana, A; McNamara, R

    1996-02-01

    This paper examines the social origins and working conditions of selected female commercial sex workers in Thailand. Quantitative data gathered from 678 commercial sex workers (CSWs) in low-price brothels, tea houses and other work sites in three urban centers were supplemented by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The commercial sex establishments were selected from lists provided by local health officials. Social factors associated with entry into commercial sex work and condom use for sexual intercourse were investigated as they operate on contextual, intermediate and proximate levels. Women from the North region of Thailand predominated (68%) and they tended to be younger than the 27% from the Northeast. The majority of all women maintained financial ties to the home by sending income to parents, siblings and other relatives but this pattern is stronger among Northern women. Qualitative data suggest that women were systematically recruited into prostitution from villages in the North and their work enabled them to comply with traditional family support roles. Women from the Northeast revealed a more complex pattern of entry with intrafamily strife, divorce, efforts to find other employment, and entry into sex work at a later age than the women from the North. Northeastern women were more than twice as likely as Northern women to have had a husband as their first sex partner (55% vs 22%). The lives of CSWs were found to be tightly controlled by brothel owners and managers, although 8% were living with a husband or partner, and non-commercial sexual relationships in the month prior to interview were reported by up to 23%. Data indicate need for even more intensive education on HIV transmission, especially with respect to risk of transmission in the absence of AIDS symptoms. Appearance and a trusting relationship were the common reasons given for not using condoms. With the most recent client, 92% reported use if the client was not known and 70% reported use if the client had visited the same CSW three or more times. Education on HIV must take these attitudes and motivations into account as well as sanctions for brothel owners who do not enforce condom use. The proportion of Thai men who visit brothels in addition to other sexual partners, high rates of HIV among CSWs, and inconsistent use of condoms create a complex web that accelerates the spread of the HIV epidemic in Thailand. PMID:8658239

  20. Identification of female sex pheromone in alfalfa blotch leafminer,Agromyza frontella (Rondani)(Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriére, Y; Millar, J G; McNeil, J N; Miller, D; Underbill, E W

    1988-03-01

    Gas chroinatography of hexane extracts of 3-day-old virgin A.frontella adults revealed a branched saturated hydrocarbon present only in females. This compound was isolated by argentation chromotography and preparative GC, identified by GC and GC-MS as 3,7-dimethylnonadecane, and subsequently synthesized. Three-day-old virgin females contained 54.1 ± 3.5 ng (± SEM;N = 48) of 3,7-dimethylnonadecane. Male cadavers do not elicit male courtship behavior, but when treated with ? 18 ng of 3,7-dimethylnonadecane they were as attractive as cadavers of 3-day-old virgin females. Black cotton knots were less attractive than male cadavers when treated with 3,7-dimethylnonadecane, but all bioassays indicated that this compound is an important semiochemical modulating male mating behavior. PMID:24276143

  1. Brothel-based female child sex workers in Cambodia : key health determinants and recommendations for change

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, L.

    2009-01-01

    Brothel based child prostitution in Cambodia is not a new phenomenon. The latest estimate, revealed nearly 2 000 child prostitutes currently residing in Cambodian brothels. Children are most often forced into sex work by an intermediary and suffer physical and mental abuse at the hands of their perpetrators or brothel owners. The purpose of this review was to gain a better understanding of the children’s key health determinants and their subsequent health problems. Recommendations for the M...

  2. Performance of rapid HIV testing by lay counselors in the field during the behavioral and biological surveillance survey among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Madisa; Chishala, Samuel; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Tafuma, Taurayi A; Bolebantswe, Jerry; Merrigan, Mike B

    2015-03-01

    : The study assessed the performance of rapid HIV testing with whole blood using Kehua Bio-engineering HIV (1 + 2) and Uni-Gold HIV test kits by trained and certified lay counselors, offered to female sex workers and men who have sex with men during the 2012 survey fieldwork. The results of rapid HIV testing were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing performed in a parallel algorithm at the HIV Reference Laboratory. The sensitivity and the specificity of rapid HIV testing were high for men who have sex with men and female sex workers, with 98.1% and 100%, and 98.2% and 98.5%, respectively. Misclassifications occurred with rapid testing. PMID:25394190

  3. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C R; Duerr, A; Pruithithada, N; Rugpao, S; Hillier, S; Garcia, P; Nelson, K

    1995-09-01

    To explore a possible association between bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 144 consecutively enrolled commercial sex workers from a sexually transmitted disease clinic (STD) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were interviewed and underwent serologic testing and genital examination. 62 (43%) of sex workers were HIV-positive. A self-reported history of syphilis, chancroid, herpes, gonorrhea, or Chlamydia was significantly associated with HIV infection. Bacterial vaginosis, detected in 49 (34%), was also associated with HIV infection. Sex workers reporting 10-19 and 20 or more sexual encounters per week were 2.2 and 3.5 times, respectively, more likely to be infected with HIV than those reporting under 10 encounters. A clinically established diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was independently associated with HIV seropositivity even when age, number of sexual encounters per week, current condom use, and past and current STD infection were controlled (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-9.4). When the bacterial vaginosis diagnosis was based on Gram stain (score 7-10), however, the association with HIV seropositivity disappeared, but having abnormal vaginal flora (gram stain score 4-10) was related to HIV status. Further epidemiologic studies are recommended to investigate the possibility that bacterial vaginosis--the most prevalent genital infection in Thailand--acts as a cofactor for the heterosexual transmission of HIV. PMID:8527084

  4. Sex-specific survival rates of adult roseate terns: are males paying a higher reproductive cost than females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, J.A.; Shealer, D.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA from the late 1980s through the mid 2000s, and from 1995-1998 an intensive collaborative study of food-provisioning of chicks by their parents also was conducted on many of the banded individuals at this site. Adult female Roseate Terns have significantly higher 'local survival' rates than do males. While both sexes feed their young, males usually have higher prey delivery rates than do females and do most feeding of the (oldest if more than one) chick just before it fledges. Males usually depart at the same time as the (oldest) fledgling, while successful females parents may linger at the colony site for up to two weeks. The lower 'local survival' rate of males probably does not represent lower colony-site fidelity, but instead may reflect the price they pay for doing more 'child care,' especially if fledglings are still dependant on them for food during post breeding dispersal and (at least early) migration.

  5. Sex Differences in Secondary School Success: Why Female Students Perform Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Franziska; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    School success is closely linked to intelligence but also to non-cognitive factors such as achievement motivation. The present study examines which non-cognitive factors predict secondary school grades and looks at reasons why female students tend to outperform their male counterparts. A sample of 554 German freshman students provided measures of…

  6. HIV and STI Prevalence among Female Sex Workers in Côte d'Ivoire: Why Targeted Prevention Programs Should Be Continued and Strengthened

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, B.; Semde?, G.; Sika, L.; Crucitti, T.; Traore?, V. E.; Buve?, A.; Laga, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess condom use and prevalence of STIs and HIV among female sex workers (FSWs), as part of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan of a nationwide sex worker prevention project in Cote d'Ivoire. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs attending five project clinics in Abidjan and San Pedro (2007), and in Yamoussoukro and Gagnoa (2009). A standardized questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face interview, which included questions on soc...

  7. Clients of street-based female sex workers and potential bridging of HIV/STI in Russia: Results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Niccolai, Linda M.; Odinokova, Veronika A.; Safiullina, Liliya Z.; Bodanovskaya, Zinaida D.; Heimer, Robert; Levina, Olga S.; Rusakova, Maia M.

    2012-01-01

    In Russia, sexual transmission of HIV is increasing and street-based female sex workers (FSW) have a high HIV prevalence, but the role of male clients of FSW in HIV transmission and bridging to the general population has not been studied. Sixty-two male clients completed structured interviews during February-March of 2010 in St. Petersburg Russia. Descriptive analyses focused on condom use with different types of sex partners, substance use, and STI/HIV testing histories. The median lifetime ...

  8. Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India: Implications for HIV prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances M.; Warner, Pamela; Copas, Andrew; Mabey, David; Shahmanesh, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: In India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study using respond...

  9. Yes, I Am Ready Now: Differential Effects of Paced versus Unpaced Mating on Anxiety and Central Oxytocin Release in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nyuyki, Kewir D.; Waldherr, Martin; Baeuml, Sandra; Neumann, Inga D.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual activity and partner intimacy results in several positive consequences in the context of stress-coping, both in males and females, such as reduced state anxiety in male rats after successful mating. However, in female rats, mating is a rewarding experience only when the estrous female is able to control sexual interactions, i.e., under paced-mating conditions. Here, we demonstrate that sex-steroid priming required for female mating is anxiolytic; subsequent sexual activity under paced ...

  10. Prevalence and determinants of hepatitis C virus infection among female drug injecting sex workers in Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Susan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection have focussed on women who work as street sex workers to finance their drug use. Methods The investigators report the survey findings of such a population in Glasgow. All women attending the health and social care drop-in centre, situated in Glasgow's "Red Light Area", during a four-week period in 1999 were invited to participate in a survey involving the provision of a saliva sample for anonymous HCV testing and the self-completion of a questionnaire seeking demographic, sexual and injecting practice data. Results Of the 223 women who attended, 51% agreed to participate. Of the 98 women who provided a sufficient saliva sample, 64% (95% CI: 54%–74% tested HCV antibody positive; 98% of those who tested positive had ever injected drugs. Adjusting for the 85% sensitivity of the saliva test, the HCV antibody prevalence among IDU sex workers sampled was 81%; a rate which is considerably higher than those recorded, contemporaneously, among Glasgow IDUs generally. Two factors were independently associated with HCV antibody positivity in saliva: ever shared needles and syringes (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 2–16 and number of times imprisoned (adjusted OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.4–39, for more than five times compared to zero times. Conclusion Women who engage in street sex work to finance their drug habit are a particularly desperate, chaotic and vulnerable population. This study demonstrates that their HCV infection risk may be greater than that for other IDUs. Those responsible for designing interventions to prevent HCV infection among IDUs should consider the special needs of this group.

  11. Sex reassignment surgery for male to female transsexuals: initial experience in Okayama university hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai,Atsushi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and wound dehiscence. Although ours is only an initial experience, we describe our surgical technique herein.

  12. Sex reassignment surgery for male to female transsexuals: initial experience in Okayama university hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Atsushi; Tokuyama, Eijirou; Nanba, Yuzaburo; Tsutsui, Tetsuya; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Koshima, Isao; Saika, Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and ...

  13. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2014-10-29

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism. PMID:25351529

  14. Safety and Adherence to Intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, Peter; Anzala, Omu; Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David; Barin, Burc; Rooney, James F.; Mark, David; Chetty, Paramesh; Fast, Patricia; Priddy, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods/Principal Findings MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2?1?2?1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63–92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28–78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p?=?0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14–50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Conclusions/Significance Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230 PMID:22511916

  15. Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  16. Assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and risk practices among female commercial sex workers in Isla Margarita, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Beau; Pacheco, Maria E; Aponte, Carlos; Michini, Ana; Taibo, Maria E; Pinto, Belkis; Montano, Silvia M; Chauca, Gloria; Negrete, Monica; Russell, Kevin L; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    Sexual transmission represents the principal mode of transmission for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) worldwide. We examined the HIV-1 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection among 613 female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in Isla Margarita, Venezuela. Recruitment was conducted in street venues and working locations. None of the FCSW tested positive for HIV; this correlated with the low self-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (6%), drug use (80% of time) with clients; however, such practices were found to be very uncommon in nonclient relations (<20% of the time). Understanding the sexual risk behaviors, beliefs, and drug use patterns of FCSW is important for future development of effective public prevention policies and educational campaigns aimed at decreasing the risk of infection with HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections among FCSW. PMID:16532865

  17. A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The activities of female sex workers (FSWs have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.

  18. Production of female bovine embryos with sex-sorted sperm using intracytoplasmic sperm injection: efficiency and in vitro developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Tae; Bang, Jae-Il; Kim, Seong-Su; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Jin, Jong-In; Kim, Heyng-Lyool; Jung, In-Suk; Suh, Tae-Kwang; Ghanem, Nasser; Wang, Zhongde; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-03-15

    The production of embryos with a preselected sex sperm is important in the livestock industry. In this study, we examined the efficiency of producing female embryos by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with flow cytometry sorted (ssICSI) and unsorted (usICSI) bovine sperm, and their developmental competence in vitro. For comparison, bovine embryos were also produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sorted (ssIVF) and unsorted (usIVF) bovine sperm. The semen used in this study was from a bull selected for its high fertility and blastocyst developmental competence among four bulls. We first examined and compared pronuclear (PN) formation and cleavage rates of the produced embryos among the treatment groups. Our results demonstrated that PN formation rates (judged by two pronucleus [2PN]) and cleavage rates in ssIVF group (23.1% and 43.6%) were lower than those in the usIVF (71.1% and 71.6%), usICSI (73.1% and 92.8%) and ssICSI (75% and 79.1%) groups, respectively (P quality by counting the number of normal and apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It was found that, despite the fact that blastocyst formation rate in the ssIVF group was significantly lower than those in the usIVF, usICSI and ssICSI groups, there was no difference in total and apoptotic cell numbers among these groups (P > 0.05). Finally, karyotyping analysis demonstrated that the proportion of female embryos in the ssICSI and ssIVF groups was 100%, whereas it was 58.8% and 57.8% in the usIVF and usICSI groups, respectively. In conclusion, ICSI with flow cytometry sorted bovine sperm provides an alternative approach to produce embryos with predetermined sex. PMID:24360289

  19. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Daphna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the “female” form at all levels, or the “male” form at all levels. About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels. These two types of “intersex” reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the “male” form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics. Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-“intersex”, when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits and an intersex brain (a mosaic of “male” and “female” brain characteristics.

  20. HIV risks and HIV prevention among female sex workers in two largest urban settings in Croatia, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Landripet, Ivan; Boži?, Jasmina; Boži?evi?, Ivana

    2015-06-01

    Harm reduction-based HIV prevention has been in place among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia for more than a decade. However, little is known about how well the existing programs meet the needs of FSWs in an environment where sex work remains criminalized and highly stigmatized. This study aims to assess changes in FSWs' vulnerability to HIV infection in the 2008-2014 period. Using convenience samples of FSWs in Croatia's two largest urban settings, behavioral data were collected in 2007-2008 and 2014. Outreach workers interviewed 154 FSWs in the first wave of the survey and 158 in the second. The period under observation was characterized by a stable prevalence of most HIV-relevant risk behaviors and experiences. Significant changes in client-based victimization and HIV knowledge were observed only among FSWs in the capital city. Substantial and mostly sustained levels of sexual and nonsexual victimization call for more research into the limits of the current behavior-based harm reduction approach to HIV prevention in the country. PMID:25566879

  1. Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Male-to-Female Transgenders in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Praptoraharjo, Ignatius

    2013-11-01

    This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations. PMID:24203992

  2. Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. PMID:23948341

  3. Retention in HIV Care Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Research, Policy and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulliger, Rose; Maulsby, Cathy; Barrington, Clare; Holtgrave, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-04-01

    There are clear benefits of retention in HIV care, yet millions of people living with HIV are sub-optimally retained. This study described factors from Andersen's behavioral model that were associated with retention in HIV care among 268 female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in the Dominican Republic using two measures of retention: a 6-month measure of HIV clinic attendance and a measure that combined clinic attendance and missed visits. FSWs who ever attended HIV care reported high rates (92 %) of 6-month attendance, but 37 % reported missed visits. Using the combined retention measure, the odds of being retained in HIV care were higher among FSWs with more positive perceptions of HIV service providers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.17; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 01.09, 1.25] and lower among women who reported recent alcohol consumption (AOR 0.50; 95 % CI 0.28, 0.92) and self-stigmatizing beliefs related to sex work (AOR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88, 0.98). These findings support the hypothesis that retention in HIV care may be best determined through a combined measure as missed visits are an important mechanism to identify in-care patients who require additional support. PMID:25566761

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behavior among female sex workers in nine provinces in Indonesia, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanudyaya, Flora K; Rahardjo, Eko; Bollen, Liesbeth J M; Madjid, Nurholis; Daili, Sjaiful Fahmi; Priohutomo, Sigit; Morineau, Guy; Nurjannah; Roselinda; Anartati, Atiek S; Purnamawati, Kemmy Ampera; Mamahit, Endang R Sedyaningsih

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Indonesia. This cross-sectional 2005 study involved 2500 FSWs in nine provinces in Indonesia. Informed consent was obtained; behavioral and clinical data were collected. Specimens were collected for STI testing, endocervical swabs were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PCR), vaginal smears were cultured to detect Trichomonas vaginalis and sera were tested for syphilis (RPR and TPHA). The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 43.5%, gonorrhea 28.6%, trichomoniasis 15.1%, and syphilis 8.7%; the prevalence of any STI was 64.0%. Inconsistent condom use, younger age, and higher number of clients were independent risk factors for the presence of gonorrhea/chlamydia. Inconsistent condom use was common (73.2%); starting sex work at younger age, and higher number of clients were independent risk factors. Vaginal douching was reported by 89.6% of FSWs; no association with gonorrhea/chlamydial infection was found. This study identified a high STI prevalence and low consistent condom use among FSWs in Indonesia. This will need to be addressed to prevent further spread of infections, including HIV. PMID:20578531

  5. Condom access: Associations with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two northern border cities of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fátima A; Pollini, Robin A; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A; Valles-Medina, Ana M; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past 2 months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent ("often" or "always") condom use, 74% said condoms were available, and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.03), condom affordability (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25-2.38) and self-efficacy (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54-3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.90), methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.83), alcohol use (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96), and recent injection drug use (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39-0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  6. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, C; Prybylski, D; Subhachaturas, W; Tanpradech, S; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Johnston, L G; Akarasewi, P; Anand, A; Fox, K K; Whitehead, S J

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of sex work in Thailand has shifted substantially over the last two decades from direct commercial establishments to indirect venues and non-venue-based settings. This respondent-driven sampling survey was conducted in Bangkok in 2007 among female sex workers (FSW) in non-venue-based settings to pilot a new approach to surveillance among this hidden population. Fifteen initial participants recruited 707 consenting participants who completed a behavioural questionnaire, and provided oral fluid for HIV testing, and urine for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Overall HIV prevalence was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3-24.7). Three-quarters of women were street-based (75.8%, 95% CI 69.9-81.1) who had an especially high HIV prevalence (22.7%, 95% CI 18.2-28.4); about 10 times higher than that found in routine sentinel surveillance among venue-based FSW (2.5%). STI prevalence (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-10.8) and 1.0% (95% CI 0.2-1.9), respectively. Lower price per sex act and a current STI infection were independently associated with HIV infection (P < 0.05). High HIV prevalence found among FSW participating in the survey, particularly non-venue-based FSW, identifies need for further prevention efforts. In addition, it identifies a higher-risk segment of FSW not reached through routine sentinel surveillance but accessible through this survey method. PMID:23512512

  7. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical llt is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  8. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  9. Biological and Histological Studies on The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female Spiny Bollworm Earias Insulana Boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sex pheromone extraction and bioassay production male attractiveness to alive females on male response and the histological structure of pheromone glands in normal and irradiated females of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. with 100 and 150 Gy. Reproduction of adults irradiated as moths less than 24 hours old or three days was also investigated. Sex pheromone extracts from 1 day old females were less active than those from 3 day old females. The percentage of male moths response to alive female moths at 1 day old was lower than at 3 days old. The sex pheromone production by females was increased as the females became older (from 3 days old to up). The gland of normal female moths is found between 8th and 9th abdominal segments travelling deep inside the body cavity and has large, darkly stained and well defined epithelial cells. The scent gland is of the well developed, tubular and closed ring shaped type. In parental females less than 24 hours old irradiated with 100 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells became loose, rupture, disappeared, shrink, irregular, abnormal or broken and were separated from each other and their nuclei were not clear. The scales were abnormal or loose and there are many vacuoles. The histological effects following gamma irradiation were also noticed in case of parental moths irradiated with 150 Gy. The glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape with the appearancet their peculiar shape with the appearance of some vacuoles between them, broken and disappeared in another place and also many secretory cells disappeared and the glands showed increasing. The effects of radiation were continued among females of F1 , generation moths less than 24 hours old descendant of irradiated parental male with 100 and 150 Gy and decreased the fecundity and egg hatch ability significantly. The effect was dose dependent

  10. Tracking post-hibernation behavior and early migration does not reveal the expected sex-differences in a "female-migrating" bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elisabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats. PMID:25517947

  11. Tracking Post-Hibernation Behavior and Early Migration Does Not Reveal the Expected Sex-Differences in a “Female-Migrating” Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elisabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M. Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats. PMID:25517947

  12. Female aggression and male peace-keeping in a cichlid fish harem: conflict between and within the sexes in Lamprologus ocellatus

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Bernhard; Trillmich, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Conflicts of interest within and between the sexes are important processes leading to variability in mating systems. The behavioral interactions mediating conflict are little documented. We studied pairs and harems of the snail-shell inhabiting cichlid fish Lamprologus ocellatus in the laboratory. Due to their larger size, males controlled the resource that limited breeding: snail shells. Males were able to choose among females ready to spawn. Females were only accepted if they produced a clu...

  13. Effect of hormonal manipulation on sociosexual behavior in adult female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D L; Crews, D

    1995-12-01

    Aggressive and sexual behavior in the adult leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), is influenced by the temperature experienced as an egg, as well as by prenatal and perinatal hormones. This study focused on the effects of hormonal manipulation of adult female leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures. Following ovariectomy, females from both all-female (26 degrees C) and male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperatures exhibited a significant decrease in high-posture (HP) aggression toward male and female stimulus animals. Testosterone treatment attenuated this decrease in HP aggression toward female but not toward male stimulus animals. Ovariectomy also resulted in a loss in attractiveness in both groups of females. Following treatment with testosterone, over 50% of the females were attacked by male stimulus animals, suggesting a change in the pheromonal cues normally secreted by females. Unmanipulated females never exhibit tail vibrations, a male-typical courtship behavior. However, following ovariectomy with testosterone treatment, half of the females from both incubation temperatures exhibited this behavior, indicating an activational effect of testosterone. An effect of incubation temperature on aggression was evident with females from the male-biased incubation temperature exhibiting a greater likelihood of aggression compared to females from the all-female incubation temperature. This effect continued to be detected after hormone manipulation. Ovariectomized females from the all-female incubation temperature were less aggressive even with testosterone treatment toward males, whereas females from the male-biased incubation temperature showed no significant decline in aggression following testosterone treatment, suggesting that individuals from different incubation temperatures may have different sensitivities to hormones. PMID:8748508

  14. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  15. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Males and females have a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, most of which result from hormonal differences. However, differences between male and female embryos initiate very early in development, before hormonal influence begins, suggesting the presence of genetically driven sexual dimorphisms. By comparing the gene expression profiles of male and X-inactivated female human pluripotent stem cells, we detected Y-chromosome-driven effects. We discovered that the sex-determining gene SRY is expressed in human male pluripotent stem cells and is induced by reprogramming. In addition, we detected more than 200 differentially expressed autosomal genes in male and female embryonic stem cells. Some of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism pathways and lead to sex-dependent differentiation in response to the estrogen precursor estrone. Thus, we propose that the presence of the Y chromosome and specifically SRY may drive sex-specific differences in the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  16. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu Beng

    2014-01-01

    As men grow older, testosterone (T) levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD. PMID:24407188

  17. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  18. Journeys of Patronage : Moral Economies of Transactional Sex, Kinship and Female Migration from Mozambique to Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The article explores how young Mozambican women's migratory trajectories towards Europe are shaped by sexual relationships with older white men and obligations towards female kin. Triads of exchange between young women known as curtidoras (women enjoying life) and their partners and kin in Maputo are understood through theories of patronage and exchange moralities. Searching for respect, adventure, and consumption in the sexual economy, young women at the same time struggle to ensure their families' well-being by redistributing the money they extract from white men. Sexual-monetary transactions, love, and desire must be understood as part of broader moralities of exchange in which migration to Europe and sending of remittances is also a kinship project. The forms of patronage available in Maputo's sexual economy become stepping stones as well as obstacles to migration northwards

  19. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  20. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and performance of STI syndromes against aetiological diagnosis, in female sex workers of red light area in Surat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, V.; Kosambiya, J.; Thakor, H.; Umrigar, D.; Khandwala, B.; Bhuyan, K.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To measure prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV among female sex workers (SWs) in the red light area of Surat, India, and to evaluate the performance of STI syndrome guidelines (for general population women in India) in this group against the standard aetiological diagnosis of STIs by laboratory methods.

  1. Masculinization of female golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus using an aromatase inhibitor treatment during sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Toru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate the involvement of endogenous estrogen (estradiol-17beta; E2) and the decisive factor (somatic or germinal element) in the ovarian differentiation of tropical marine teleosts, the effect of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) fadrozole on gonadal sex differentiation in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) was examined for different dosages and periods of treatment. Fadrozole interrupted ovarian cavity formation at a dose of 500 microg g(-1) diet, while there was little effect at 10 or 100 microg g(-1). The gonads from both the 30-day and 90-day administration (500 microg g(-1) diet) groups were significantly biased toward testes (P=0.002 and <0.0001, respectively), which suggests strongly that E2 is involved in early ovarian differentiation and that its suppression is an indispensable condition for testicular differentiation in S. guttatus. The results from the two different AI treatment periods imply that the initial feminization of somatic gonadal elements determines subsequent ovarian differentiation, including oogenesis: a conclusion supported by the considerable time lag between ovarian cavity formation and subsequent oogenesis during normal ovarian differentiation in S. guttatus. PMID:16807123

  2. Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Papworth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The West and Central Africa (WCA sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, people who inject drugs (PWID and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods: We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results: The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270, among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986, among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714 and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459. Conclusions: The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key populations than the epidemics in Southern and Eastern Africa. Evidence-based HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes in WCA should focus on engaging populations with the greatest burden of disease in the continuum of HIV care.

  3. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  4. Mechanisms of pain modulation by sex hormones in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; McCarson, Kenneth E; Welch, K M A; Berman, Nancy E J

    2011-06-01

    A number of pain conditions, acute as well as chronic, are much more prevalent in women, such as temporomandibular disorder (TMD), irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and migraine. The association of female sex steroids with these nociceptive conditions is well known, but the mechanisms of their effects on pain signaling are yet to be deciphered. We reviewed the mechanisms through which female sex steroids might influence the trigeminal nociceptive pathways with a focus on migraine. Sex steroid receptors are located in trigeminal circuits, providing the molecular substrate for direct effects. In addition to classical genomic effects, sex steroids exert rapid nongenomic actions to modulate nociceptive signaling. Although there are only a handful of studies that have directly addressed the effect of sex hormones in animal models of migraine, the putative mechanisms can be extrapolated from observations in animal models of other trigeminal pain disorders, like TMD. Sex hormones may regulate sensitization of trigeminal neurons by modulating expression of nociceptive mediator such as calcitonin gene-related peptide. Its expression is mostly positively regulated by estrogen, although a few studies also report an inverse relationship. Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a neurotransmitter implicated in migraine; its synthesis is enhanced in most parts of brain by estrogen, which increases expression of the rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and decreases expression of the serotonin re-uptake transporter. Downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, calcium-dependent mechanisms, and cAMP response element-binding activation, are thought to be the major signaling events affected by sex hormones. These findings need to be confirmed in migraine-specific animal models that may also provide clues to additional ion channels, neuropeptides, and intracellular signaling cascades that contribute to the increased prevalence of migraine in women. PMID:21631476

  5. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25118691

  6. Non-Disclosure of Violence among Female Sex Workers: Evidence from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. Results About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3–2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9). Conclusions Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward. PMID:24846145

  7. Sex Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

    2005-04-14

    A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  9. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and fe