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Comparing sex steroid levels during the annual cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diploid female (XX) and triploid female (XXX) genotypic sex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared for two populations of rainbow trout, XX diploid females (n = 40) and XXX triploid females (n = 15). In females, E2 and DHP levels were found to be significantly related to body weight (r = 0.22513; p < 0.0001 and r = 0.15831; p > 0.001, respectively). In this group, E2 concentrations peaked in November (25.05 ng/ml), while maximum DHP levels, only measurable from October to April, were attained in February (64.14 ng/ml). No significant differences in hormone ranges related to egg output ability were observed. Finally, sex steroid concentrations were low in the triploid female XXX fish compared to the female XX population. Nevertheless, maximum T (33.85 ng/ml) and 11-KT (32.35 ng/ml) levels were recorded in January, for XXX. The levels for these two hormones are relatively high and are also significantly associated (r = 0.8430; p < 0.0001). Diploid females showed significantly higher levels of E2 than triploids over the 12-month study period. The female triploid fish produced the lowest steroid hormone levels, such that these would be the most suitable for human consumption.

Espinosa E; Josa A; Gil L; Malo C; Mitjana O

2013-02-01

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Roles of Sex Steroids in the Crowings with Sexual and Non-Sexual Motivations in Female Japanese Quail, Coturnix Japonica  

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Full Text Available To examine the sex differences in the crowing behavior of the Japanese quail, we investigated the effects of sex steroids on calling behaviors using female birds, and the data were compared with those obtained in our previous study in male birds which was performed using the same experimental procedures as those in the present study. We injected the female quails daily from 11 to 41 days after hatching with testosterone propionate (TP), 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; a non-aromatizable androgen), estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle, and examined their calling behaviors in both sexual and non-sexual contexts. In a non-sexual context of the birds being isolated in a recording chamber, androgens, either TP or DHT, induced crowing in place of distress calling while EB simply inhibited distress calling. These effects of sex steroids on the calling behaviors were almost identical to those in the male quails. In a sexual context of the birds being left undisturbed in their home cages, crowing was induced by chronic treatment with TP, but not either DHT or EB, suggesting that both estrogenic and androgenic actions are required to induce the sexually motivated crowing. Although these results were basically the same as those in the male quails, the crowing in the female quails occurred much less frequently compared to that of the male quails. These data suggest that in the Japanese quail, crowing behavior, when it is restricted to sexually motivated one, is quantitatively different between male and female in the responsiveness to sex steroids.

Atsuhiko Chiba; Masaya Fujiwara

2013-01-01

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Anatomical distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of female medaka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogen and androgen play crucial roles in coordinating reproductive functions through estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors (ARs), respectively. These receptors are considered important for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite their biological importance, the distribution of sex steroid receptors has not been fully analyzed anatomically in the teleost brain. The teleosts have many characteristic features, which allow unique approaches toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of reproductive functions. Medaka serves as a good model system for studying the mechanisms by which steroid receptor-mediated systems are regulated, because (1) their breeding conditions can be easily manipulated; (2) we can take advantage of the genome database; and 3) molecular genetic tools, such as transgenic techniques, are applicable. We analyzed the distribution of ER?, ER?1, ER?2, AR?, and AR? mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brain of female medaka. We found that all subtypes of ERs and ARs were expressed in the following nuclei: the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), supracommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs), postcommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vp), preoptic area (POA), and nucleus ventralis tuberis (NVT). These regions are known to be involved in the regulation of sexual behavior (Vd, Vs, Vp, POA) or the HPG axis (NVT). These ER- and/or AR-expressing neurons may regulate sexual behavior or the HPG axis according to their axonal projections. Future analysis should be targeted to the neurons described in the present study to extend our understanding of the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction.

Zempo B; Kanda S; Okubo K; Akazome Y; Oka Y

2013-06-01

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Anatomical distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of female medaka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen and androgen play crucial roles in coordinating reproductive functions through estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors (ARs), respectively. These receptors are considered important for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite their biological importance, the distribution of sex steroid receptors has not been fully analyzed anatomically in the teleost brain. The teleosts have many characteristic features, which allow unique approaches toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of reproductive functions. Medaka serves as a good model system for studying the mechanisms by which steroid receptor-mediated systems are regulated, because (1) their breeding conditions can be easily manipulated; (2) we can take advantage of the genome database; and 3) molecular genetic tools, such as transgenic techniques, are applicable. We analyzed the distribution of ER?, ER?1, ER?2, AR?, and AR? mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brain of female medaka. We found that all subtypes of ERs and ARs were expressed in the following nuclei: the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), supracommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs), postcommissural part of the ventral telencephalic area (Vp), preoptic area (POA), and nucleus ventralis tuberis (NVT). These regions are known to be involved in the regulation of sexual behavior (Vd, Vs, Vp, POA) or the HPG axis (NVT). These ER- and/or AR-expressing neurons may regulate sexual behavior or the HPG axis according to their axonal projections. Future analysis should be targeted to the neurons described in the present study to extend our understanding of the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction. PMID:23124931

Zempo, Buntaro; Kanda, Shinji; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

2013-06-01

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Sources of variation in HPG axis reactivity and individually consistent elevation of sex steroids in a female songbird.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding sources of individual differences in steroid hormone production has important implications for the evolution of reproductive and social behaviors. In females in particular, little is known about the mechanistic sources of these individual differences, despite established linkages between sex steroids and a variety of fitness-related traits. Using captive female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) from two subspecies, we asked how variation in different components of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis related to variation in testosterone production among females, and we compared females to males in multiple components of the HPG axis. We demonstrated consistent individual differences in testosterone elevation in response to challenges with luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These hormone challenges led to more LH production but less testosterone production in females than males, and the sexes differed in some but not all measures of sensitivity to hormones along the HPG axis. Similar to findings in males, variation in testosterone production among females was not related to variation in LH production, gonadal LH-receptor mRNA abundance, or hypothalamic abundance of androgen receptor mRNA or aromatase mRNA. Rather, the primary source of individual variation in circulating steroids appears to the gonad, a conclusion further supported by positive correlations between testosterone and estradiol production. Unlike males, females did not differ by subspecies in any of the endocrine parameters that we assessed, suggesting some degree of independent evolution between the two sexes. Our results highlight the sources of physiological variation that may underlie the evolution of hormone-mediated phenotypes in females.

Rosvall KA; Bergeon Burns CM; Hahn TP; Ketterson ED

2013-09-01

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Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroi (more) ds. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%). Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups) increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48%) CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

Azevedo, R.B.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Miyasaka, C.K.; Chaves, S.B.; Curi, R.

2001-05-01

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Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior. PMID:4065527

Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

1985-11-01

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Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

Moore MC; Whittier JM; Crews D

1985-11-01

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[Sex steroid profiles and ovarian activities of the female panda Yan Yan in the Berlin Zoo  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nine years old giant panda YAN YAN was received in April 1995 on loan for 5 years to the Berlin Zoo. Urine samples were collected daily or every second day from April 1995 to June 1996 in order to follow up sex hormone secretions and ovarian activities. Conjugated steroids were hydrolysed, extracted and measured with two enzyme immuno assays (EIA) being specific for either total oestrogenes or pregnandiol. The evaluation of the hormone secretion pattern yielded the following results: There is a significant synchronous cross correlation between estrogen and progestin metabolites secretion indicating its simultaneous synthesis. In addition, we found a regular increase and decrease of both hormones with a 13 days interval. This secretory pattern indicates repeating development and atresia of follicle cohorts with a cycle length of about 13 days. Only a single period of slightly elevated oestrogen synthesis was monitored in Feb. 96 without any signs of oestrus. Obviously the stimulation of ovarian function was insufficient for complete ovulation and corpus luteum formation.

Meyer HH; Rohleder M; Streich WJ; Göltenboth R; Ochs A

1997-04-01

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Effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

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Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ..mu..g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation.

Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia). School of Veterinary Studies)

1983-11-01

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The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

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Full Text Available AbstractObjective(s)Gastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat), Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI), TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI) and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil), E2 (estradiol), P4 (progesterone) or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001) and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05) compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01). P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05) and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01).ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

Zakieh Keshavarzi; Mohammad Khaksari Hadad; Mohammad Javad Zahedi; Abbas Bahrami

2011-01-01

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Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17? (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42??m, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2?ng/mL and 36.0?ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

Estay F; Colihueque N; Araneda C

2012-01-01

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Female sex steroid residues in the tissues of steers treated with progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progesterone, oestrone and oestradiol-17 beta levels in the muscle, fat, liver, kidney and plasma of steers treated with Synovex S, untreated steers, and cows during the normal oestrous cycle, were examined. Progesterone levels in female tissues reached a maximum in the luteal phase and fell to a minimum in the follicular phase. Oestrogen levels (oestrone and oestradiol-17 beta) did not change during the cycle. Progesterone and oestrogen levels in the tissues of steers treated with Synovex S and untreated steers were not statistically different. Tissue progesterone levels in steers were much lower than those in cows during the luteal phase. The highest oestrogen levels were found in the fat of female animals. These results indicate that residue levels of progesterone and oestrogen in the muscle and fat of steers treated with Synovex S were within the physiological range, and lower than those of cows. PMID:1553428

Tsujioka, T; Ito, S; Ohga, A

1992-01-01

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Female sex steroid residues in the tissues of steers treated with progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Progesterone, oestrone and oestradiol-17 beta levels in the muscle, fat, liver, kidney and plasma of steers treated with Synovex S, untreated steers, and cows during the normal oestrous cycle, were examined. Progesterone levels in female tissues reached a maximum in the luteal phase and fell to a minimum in the follicular phase. Oestrogen levels (oestrone and oestradiol-17 beta) did not change during the cycle. Progesterone and oestrogen levels in the tissues of steers treated with Synovex S and untreated steers were not statistically different. Tissue progesterone levels in steers were much lower than those in cows during the luteal phase. The highest oestrogen levels were found in the fat of female animals. These results indicate that residue levels of progesterone and oestrogen in the muscle and fat of steers treated with Synovex S were within the physiological range, and lower than those of cows.

Tsujioka T; Ito S; Ohga A

1992-01-01

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In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

1978-01-01

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Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa Gurgel; Marcelo Alvarenga

2006-01-01

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Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas/ Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato (more) de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 (more) - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

Vicelli, José Tadeu; Gurgel, Maria Salete Costa; Alvarenga, Marcelo

2006-10-01

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Divergent regulation of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia and female sex steroids in human endometrial stromal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hypoxia or the female sex steroids exert direct effects on angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), ANGPT2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) to clarify the regulatory function of these local angiogenic factors in the endometrium. STUDY DESIGN: Human endometrial tissues were obtained from 18 patients aged 34-47 years undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons. ESCs were cultured under hypoxic condition or treated with 17?-estradiol (E) and/or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The mRNA levels and production of ANGPT1, ANGPT2, and VEGF were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) protein levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULT(S): Hypoxia reduced the mRNA expression and protein production of ANGPT-1 in ESCs, whereas those of ANGPT2 were unaffected, resulting in an increase of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. Hypoxia induced mRNA expression and protein production of VEGF. E simultaneously induced VEGF production and suppressed ANGPT1 production, resulting in an increase of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. MPA or E+MPA reduced ANGPT2 production and sustained the levels of ANGPT1, resulting in a decrease of the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio. With regard to the interaction of E and hypoxia, E did not affect the regulation of angiogenic factors, HIF-1?, and ER? under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia and female sex hormones independently regulate the ANGPT2/ANGPT1 ratio and VEGF expression in human ESCs. These results may indicate a potential mechanism for hypoxia or female sex steroids influencing angiogenesis in the human endometrium.

Tsuzuki T; Okada H; Cho H; Shimoi K; Miyashiro H; Yasuda K; Kanzaki H

2013-05-01

19

The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

1983-01-01

20

The relationship between the concentration of female sex steroids and prostaglandins production by human gingiva in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between various concentrations of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone, alone and in combination, and the formation of radioactive prostaglandins (PGs) from 14C-arachidonic acid by gingival homogenate has been investigated. There was a statistically significant negative linear trend between each of the hormone treatments at concentrations of 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5) and 10(-3)M and the amounts of 6-keto-PGF1a, PGF2a, PGE2, PGD2 and 15-keto-PGE2 formed. Each of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone at 10(-9) and 10(-7)M exerted stimulatory effect, whereas at higher concentrations they had an inhibitory effect on all PGs tested. These observations suggest that the concentration of female sex hormones is an important factor in regulating PG biosynthesis by gingival tissue.

ElAttar TM; Lin HS; Tira DE

1982-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GONADOTROPIN - RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES COMBINED WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS ON PLASMA SEX STEROID HORMONES, IN ENDANGERED MALE AND FEMALE CASPIAN BROWN TROUT, SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day) in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only). The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET) were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW) and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW), respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T) showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P) levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

Seyed Ehsan Mousavi

2013-01-01

22

Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes). The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh; Juan E. Arenas; Arafat Tfayli

2013-01-01

23

Sex steroids, carcinogenesis, and cancer progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between sex steroids and cancer has been studied for more than a century. Using an original intact cell analysis, we investigated sex steroid metabolism in a panel of human cancer cell lines, either hormone responsive or unresponsive, originating from human breast, endometrium, and prostate. We found that highly divergent patterns of steroid metabolism exist and that the catalytic preference (predominantly reductive or oxidative) is strictly associated with the steroid receptor status of cells. We explored intratissue concentrations and profiles of estrogens in a set of human breast tumors as compared to normal mammary tissues, also in relation to their estrogen receptor status. In particular, we showed that, with hydroxyestrogens representing the majority of all tissue estrogens, concentrations of individual metabolites, as well as their ratios, significantly differ when comparing normal tissue with cancer tissues or when they are related to the overall survival of cancer patients. PMID:15650249

Castagnetta, Luigi; Granata, Orazia M; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Saetta, Annalisa; Polito, Lucia; Bronte, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Sergio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Agostara, Biagio; Carruba, Giuseppe

2004-12-01

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Effects of female sex steroids on concanavalin A-mediated agglutination of hepatocytes from nonregenerating and regenerating rat liver and hepatic tumor marker enzymes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effect of treatment of female rats with an oral contraceptive agent (OCA), Ovulen-50, for 7 weeks on agglutination of hepatocytes with concanavalin A (con A) and activities of certain tumor marker enzymes were examined to find out if OCA treatment is related to preneoplastic or neoplastic processes. Hepatocytes from regenerating and nonregenerating livers of control female rats showed negligible agglutination with Con A, whereas hepatocytes from non regenerating but not from the regenerating livers of female rats treated with a combination of 5 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 100 micrograms ethynodiol diacetate showed agglutination. Of the tumor marker enzymes such as hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and arginase examined in the liver, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a significant increase in activity in the steroid-treated rats. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was also higher in the treated animals. However, the magnitude of the changes observed was relatively small and perhaps unrelated to the neoplastic process.

Annapurna VV; Mukundan MA; Sesikeran B; Bamji MS

1987-12-01

25

Gender, sex steroid hormones, and Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Age-related loss of sex steroid hormones is a established risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women and men. While the relationships between the sex steroid hormones and AD are not fully understood, findings from both human and experimental paradigms indicate that depletion of estrogens in women and androgens in men increases vulnerability of the aging brain to AD pathogenesis. We review evidence of a wide range of beneficial neural actions of sex steroid hormones that may contribute to their hypothesized protective roles against AD. Both estrogens and androgens exert general neuroprotective actions relevant to a several neurodegenerative conditions, some in a sex-specific manner, including protection from neuron death and promotion of select aspects of neural plasticity. In addition, estrogens and androgens regulate key processes implicated in AD pathogenesis, in particular the accumulation of ?-amyloid protein. We discuss evidence of hormone-specific mechanisms related to the regulation of the production and clearance of ?-amyloid as critical protective pathways. Continued elucidation of these pathways promises to yield effective hormone-based strategies to delay development of AD.

Vest RS; Pike CJ

2013-02-01

26

Effects of female sex steroids on concanavalin A-mediated agglutination of hepatocytes from nonregenerating and regenerating rat liver and hepatic tumor marker enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of treatment of female rats with an oral contraceptive agent (OCA), Ovulen-50, for 7 weeks on agglutination of hepatocytes with concanavalin A (con A) and activities of certain tumor marker enzymes were examined to find out if OCA treatment is related to preneoplastic or neoplastic processes. Hepatocytes from regenerating and nonregenerating livers of control female rats showed negligible agglutination with Con A, whereas hepatocytes from non regenerating but not from the regenerating livers of female rats treated with a combination of 5 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 100 micrograms ethynodiol diacetate showed agglutination. Of the tumor marker enzymes such as hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and arginase examined in the liver, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a significant increase in activity in the steroid-treated rats. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was also higher in the treated animals. However, the magnitude of the changes observed was relatively small and perhaps unrelated to the neoplastic process. PMID:3435681

Annapurna, V V; Mukundan, M A; Sesikeran, B; Bamji, M S

1987-12-01

27

Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female

Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

2001-01-01

28

Sex Steroids and Gene Variants in Bipolar Disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bipolar disorder is a chronic, cycling disorder affecting circa 2% of the population and whose pathophysiology is still largely unknown. It has been suggested that common treatments used for bipolar disorder have effects on the sex steroids yet sex steroids have also been shown to have widespread...

Johansson, Anette GM

29

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

1982-01-01

30

Effects of sex steroids on spawning in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroids have long been known to exist in molluscs, but few studies have focused on the roles of these substances in molluscan reproduction. In this study, we demonstrate that injections of estradiol into ripe sea scallops induced spawning in both sexes, testosterone injections induced spawning in males only and progesterone blocked spawning in both sexes. We also show that injections of sex steroids significantly affected subsequent 5-HT-induced spawning. Injection of estradiol promoted 5-HT-induced spawning in both sexes and testosterone potentiated spawning in males only. In addition, progesterone inhibited 5-HT-induced spawning in females while potentiating the spawning in males. These findings are consistent with a hormonal role for steroids in molluscan reproduction and also suggest the possible development of more efficient methods for spawning induction in molluscan aquaculture.

Wang C; Croll RP

2006-06-01

31

Effects of sex steroids on gonadal development and gender determination in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous work has demonstrated the presence of various sex steroids in molluscs and suggested their possible functions in the control of reproduction. However, their potential roles in early sexual development have remained unexplored. The results of the present study showed that injections of estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) all accelerated gonadal differentiation and shifted sex ratios toward more males in the sea scallop. Morphological changes were also observed in the females of steroid-injected groups. Estradiol appeared to stimulate oocyte growth while testosterone appeared to induce degeneration of oocytes. No parallel changes were noted in males of steroid-injected groups. Hermaphroditic animals were also found in the progesterone- and DHEA-injected groups. Together, these results support the hypothesis that sex steroids are involved in invertebrate reproduction and may be exploited for gender manipulation in bivalve aquaculture.

Wang C; Croll RP

2004-09-01

32

The roles of sex steroid receptor coregulators in cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Sex steroid hormones, estrogen, progesterone and androgen, play pivotal roles in sex differentiation and development, and in reproductive functions and sexual behavior. Studies have shown that sex steroid hormones are the key regulators in the development and progression of endocrine-related cancers, especially the cancers of the reproductive tissues. The actions of estrogen, progesterone and androgen are mediated through their cognate intracellular receptor proteins, the estrogen receptors (ER), the progesterone receptors (PR) and the androgen receptor (AR), respectively. These receptors are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, which function as transcription factors that regulate their target gene expression. Proper functioning of these steroid receptors maintains the normal responsiveness of the target tissues to the stimulations of the steroid hormones. This permits the normal development and function of reproductive tissues. It can be inferred that factors influencing the expression or function of steroid receptors will interfere with the normal development and function of the target tissues, and may induce pathological conditions, including cancers. In addition to the direct contact with the basal transcription machinery, nuclear receptors enhance or suppress transcription by recruiting an array of coactivators and corepressors, collectively named coregulators. Therefore, the mutation or aberrant expression of sex steroid receptor coregulators will affect the normal function of the sex steroid receptors and hence may participate in the development and progression of the cancers.

Gao Xiuhua; Loggie Brian W; Nawaz Zafar

2002-01-01

33

The evolution of female sex pheromones  

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Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection) and in competition over breeding resources (social selection) has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates) has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4): 569–578, 2013].

Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

2013-01-01

34

Non-reproductive effects of sex steroids: their immunoregulatory role.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this special issue of Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, the reader will find reviewed some of the hottest topics in the field of the non-reproductive effects of sex steroids. Cabrera-Muñoz et al., show that progesterone participates in the regulation of human brain tumors growth. The contribution of Martocchia suggests that sex steroid receptor modulating drugs provide new therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases. The role of sex steroid participation in the differentiation of stem cells to neurones is discussed by I. Velasco. Pérez-Torres and collaborators demonstrate that sex steroids play an important role in the appearance and development of renal diseases and the metabolic syndrome, the new epidemics of our century. Paris and Frye hypthetize that gestational stress, have effects on cognitive performance and/or neuronal integrity in the fetus, and that exposure to variable stress during gestation can perturb cognitive performance, concomitant with dendrite development in hippocampus and diencephalon. Muñoz-Cruz et al. thoroughly review the growing body of evidence that shows reciprocal relationship between sex steroids and the immune system, and conclude that understanding the mechanisms of action of sex steroids on immune cells is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic diseases associated to immune dysregulation. Besides, the effects of sexual steroids on pancreatic function and diabetes are reviewed by Morimoto et al. Yanes et al. review some of the contradictions raised in the context of the recently proposed critical period hypothesis, which takes into account the frame-time after cessation of ovarian function. Finally, another vey intetresting aspect of the non-reproductive effects of sex-steroids, is the related to some cognition-related aspects, which is reviewed by Picazo et al.

Arroyo IC; Montor JM

2011-01-01

35

A comparison of the effects of various sex steroids on cholecystokinin- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogen (E) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. During pregnancy E and progesterone (P) levels are elevated. A biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the effect of 17?-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), and a P metabolite, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20-P) on contraction in female guinea pig gallbladder strips. DHT, P, 17-P, 20-P, and E2 each induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK) induced tension. DHT, E2, and P also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of KCl-induced tension. When the response to E2 was compared to strips from young female guinea pigs with those taken from guinea pigs in late pregnancy, there was no significant difference in the response to either 50 or 100 ?M E2; however, 10 ?M E2 caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in the amount of relaxation in strips from pregnant guinea pigs. Treatment of the strips from young guinea pigs with PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated had no significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Treatment of the strips with 2-APB, an inhibitor of IP3 induced Ca(2+) release, produced a significant (p<0.001) increase in the amount of E2-induced relaxation when either CCK or KCl were used. Neither KT5823, a PKG inhibitor, nor L-NMMA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, had a significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl(-), PKC blockers, were used in combination with no significant effect on the amount of CCK-induced tension, but significantly (p<0.01) increased the amount of E2-induced relaxation. When either E2 or P were added to the chambers 3 min prior to either CCK or KCl, a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the amount of tension generated was observed. The inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) entry mediates both P-induced and E2-induced relaxation of CCK- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips.

Kline L; Karpinski E

2013-05-01

36

A comparison of the effects of various sex steroids on cholecystokinin- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen (E) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. During pregnancy E and progesterone (P) levels are elevated. A biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the effect of 17?-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), and a P metabolite, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20-P) on contraction in female guinea pig gallbladder strips. DHT, P, 17-P, 20-P, and E2 each induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK) induced tension. DHT, E2, and P also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of KCl-induced tension. When the response to E2 was compared to strips from young female guinea pigs with those taken from guinea pigs in late pregnancy, there was no significant difference in the response to either 50 or 100 ?M E2; however, 10 ?M E2 caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in the amount of relaxation in strips from pregnant guinea pigs. Treatment of the strips from young guinea pigs with PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated had no significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Treatment of the strips with 2-APB, an inhibitor of IP3 induced Ca(2+) release, produced a significant (p<0.001) increase in the amount of E2-induced relaxation when either CCK or KCl were used. Neither KT5823, a PKG inhibitor, nor L-NMMA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, had a significant effect on the E2-induced relaxation. Bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl(-), PKC blockers, were used in combination with no significant effect on the amount of CCK-induced tension, but significantly (p<0.01) increased the amount of E2-induced relaxation. When either E2 or P were added to the chambers 3 min prior to either CCK or KCl, a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the amount of tension generated was observed. The inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) entry mediates both P-induced and E2-induced relaxation of CCK- and KCl-induced tension in female guinea pig gallbladder strips. PMID:23399969

Kline, Loren; Karpinski, Edward

2013-02-08

37

The Effects of [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]-LHRHa and LHRHa + Pimozide on Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Adult Female Seabream (Sparus aurata)  

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Full Text Available The present study examined changes in the concentrations of plasma testosterone (T), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17ß (E2) to determine changes in serum hormone profiles during the functional female phases in Sparus aurata. The fish were treated with [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]- luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) alone, LHRHa plus pimozide (PIM) and Physiological Saline (PS) alone to stimulate gonadal development and sexual maturation. All fish were sampled and plasma levels of oestradiol (E2) Testosterone (T) and progesterone (P4) were measured by radioimmuno assay. LHRHa treatment alone, or in combination with PIM, elevated serum E2 and T concentrations (p0.05). Vitellogenesis was also stimulated by a combined LHRHa and PIM treatment. Responses to treatment with LHRHa plus PIM were comparable to those treated with LHRHa alone (p>0.05), suggesting that dopamine receptor antagonist, pimozide may not inhibit dopamine secretion in S. aurata.

Sehriban Cek; M. Ali Gokce

2006-01-01

38

Genome-wide association studies on serum sex steroid levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Even though the levels of circulating sex steroid hormones are to a large extent heritable, their genetic determinants are largely unknown. With the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), much progress has been made and several genetic loci have been identified to be associated with serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The variants identified so far only explain a small amount of the overall heritability, but may help to elucidate the role of sex steroid hormones in common disorders such as hypogonadism, type 2 diabetes and hormone-sensitive cancers. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the genetic determinants of sex steroid hormones, with a focus on recent GWAS and brief directions for elucidating the remaining heritability.

Vandenput L; Ohlsson C

2013-03-01

39

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ER?, ER?a, ER?b; androgen receptors: AR?, AR?; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single vertebrate. Our data suggest that changes in steroid receptor mRNA expression in the inner ear could be a regulatory mechanism for physiological state-dependent auditory plasticity across vertebrates.

Maruska Karen P; Fernald Russell D

2010-01-01

40

Female Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Chicken  

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During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas ...

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.

 
 
 
 
41

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-07-18

42

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation.

Baum MJ; Bakker J

2013-10-01

43

Reptilian sex steroid receptors: amplification, sequence and expression analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA and alter the transcription rates of nearby genes. We have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify cDNA fragments of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor from the unisexual whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens. The lizard steroid hormone receptors share a high degree of sequence homology to the steroid hormone receptors of other vertebrates. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrate that both estrogen receptor mRNA and progesterone receptor mRNA are increased in the oviduct during vitellogenesis and after estrogen treatment. This report demonstrates the utility of the polymerase chain reaction to generate species specific probes for comparative molecular studies and provides the first report of cDNA sequences for reptilian steroid hormone receptors.

Young LJ; Godwin J; Grammer M; Gahr M; Crews D

1995-11-01

44

Reptilian sex steroid receptors: amplification, sequence and expression analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA and alter the transcription rates of nearby genes. We have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify cDNA fragments of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor from the unisexual whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens. The lizard steroid hormone receptors share a high degree of sequence homology to the steroid hormone receptors of other vertebrates. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrate that both estrogen receptor mRNA and progesterone receptor mRNA are increased in the oviduct during vitellogenesis and after estrogen treatment. This report demonstrates the utility of the polymerase chain reaction to generate species specific probes for comparative molecular studies and provides the first report of cDNA sequences for reptilian steroid hormone receptors. PMID:7495707

Young, L J; Godwin, J; Grammer, M; Gahr, M; Crews, D

1995-11-01

45

Sex steroid receptor expression profile in brown adipose tissue. Effects of hormonal status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent investigations suggest that sex hormones play an important role in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic program by acting on several steps of the lipolytic signal cascade and on the UCP1 transcription control. However, the number of studies focusing on steroid receptor status in brown adipose tissue is negligible. In the present study, we analyze steroid receptor mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue in male and female rats and in pregnant and lactating females, all of them models with a different hormonal background. The direct effect of sex hormones on the expression of their receptors was studied in vitro in primary culture of brown adipocytes. Oestrogen receptor (ERalpha) and androgen receptor (AR) densities were higher in male than in female BAT. PR A+B mRNA expression was downregulated in lactation, suggesting a role of progesterone signalling in thermogenesis impairment at this stage. In vitro studies showed that progesterone decreased PR A+B mRNA and that testosterone downregulated ERalpha mRNA. The results highlighted in this study demonstrate the presence of steroid receptor mRNA in BAT and in brown cell cultured adipocytes, supporting the idea that changes in steroid receptor expression would be important for the understanding of sex hormone effects on BAT physiology. PMID:17982270

Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Monjo, Marta; Frontera, Marga; Gianotti, Magdalena; Proenza, Ana Maria; Roca, Pilar

2007-01-01

46

Sex, sex steroids, and diabetic cardiomyopathy: making the case for experimental focus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than three decades ago, the Framingham study revealed that cardiovascular risk is elevated for all diabetics and that this jeopardy is substantially accentuated for women in particular. Numerous studies have subsequently documented worsened cardiac outcomes for women. Given that estrogen and insulin exert major regulatory effects through common intracellular signaling pathways prominent in maintenance of cardiomyocyte function, a sex-hormone:diabetic-disease interaction is plausible. Underlying aspects of female cardiovascular pathophysiology that exaggerate cardiovascular diabetic risk may be identified, including increased vulnerability to coronary microvascular disease, age-dependent impairment of insulin-sensitivity, and differential susceptibility to hyperglycemia. Since Framingham, considerable progress has been made in the development of experimental models of diabetic disease states, including a diversity of genetic rodent models. Ample evidence indicates that animal models of both type 1 and 2 diabetes variably recapitulate aspects of diabetic cardiomyopathy including diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and cardiac structural pathology including fibrosis, loss of compliance, and in some instances ventricular hypertrophy. Perplexingly, little of this work has explored the relevance and mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Only a small number of experimental studies have addressed this question, yet the prospects for gaining important mechanistic insights from further experimental enquiry are considerable. The case for experimental interrogation of sex differences, and of sex steroid influences in the aetiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, is particularly compelling-providing incentive for future investigation with ultimate therapeutic potential.

Reichelt ME; Mellor KM; Bell JR; Chandramouli C; Headrick JP; Delbridge LM

2013-09-01

47

Sex steroids and variants of gender identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior. PMID:24011879

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

2013-09-01

48

Sex steroids and variants of gender identity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior.

Meyer-Bahlburg HF

2013-09-01

49

Female sex offenders' relationship experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts, & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest, & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and ATLAS.ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships, and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

Lawson, Louanne

2008-01-01

50

Female sex offenders' relationship experiences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts, & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest, & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and ATLAS.ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships, and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children.

Lawson L

2008-01-01

51

Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decreases in testosterone and 17?-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in ?-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

Overk CR; Perez SE; Ma C; Taves MD; Soma KK; Mufson EJ

2013-02-01

52

Regulation by Gonadal Steroids of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Along the Reproductive Tract in Female Lambs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) expression by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in the oviduct, uterus and cervix of female lambs was studied. The animals received three intramuscular injections of E2, P4 or vehicle with an interval of 24 h and they were slaugthered 24 h after the third injection. Determinations of ER and PR were performed by binding assays and mRNAs of ER? and PR by solution hybridization. High levels of ER and PR in both cervix and oviduct were found in the female lamb, differing from other mammalian species. No significant effects by either E2 or P4 treatment on ER and PR levels in the cervix and oviduct could be observed. E2 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR more than 3-fold in the cervix, while P4 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR in the uterus. The results show differential effects of gonadal steroids on sex steroid receptor expression along the reproductive tract in female lambs, suggesting that steroid target tissues can modulate responses to the same circulating levels of steroid hormones.

Meikle A; Garófalo EG; Rodríguez-Piñón M; Tasende C; Sahlin L

2001-01-01

53

Consistent sex ratio bias of individual female dragon lizards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex ratio evolution relies on genetic variation in either the phenotypic traits that influence sex ratios or sex-determining mechanisms. However, consistent variation among females in offspring sex ratio is rarely investigated. Here, we show that female painted dragons (Ctenophorus pictus) have highly repeatable sex ratios among clutches within years. A consistent effect of female identity could represent stable phenotypic differences among females or genetic variation in sex-determining mechanisms. Sex ratios were not correlated with female size, body condition or coloration. Furthermore, sex ratios were not influenced by incubation temperature. However, the variation among females resulted in female-biased mean population sex ratios at hatching both within and among years.

Uller T; Mott B; Odierna G; Olsson M

2006-12-01

54

Regulation of Kiss1 expression by sex steroids in the amygdala of the rat and mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside of the hypothalamus have not been studied and are poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of Kiss1 in the amygdala, predominantly in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), a region implicated in social and emotional behaviors as well as various aspects of reproduction. In gonadally intact rats and mice, Kiss1-expressing neurons were identified in the MeA of both sexes, with higher Kiss1 expression levels in adult males than females in diestrus. In rats, Kiss1 expression in the MeA changed as a function of the estrous cycle, with highest levels at proestrus. Next, we tested whether Kiss1 in the MeA is regulated by the circulating sex steroid milieu. Kiss1 levels in the MeA were low in gonadectomized mice and rats of both sexes, and treatment with either testosterone or estradiol amplified Kiss1 expression in this region. Testosterone's inductive effect on Kiss1 expression in the MeA likely occurs via estrogen receptor-dependent pathways, not through the androgen receptor, because dihydrotestosterone (a nonaromatizable androgen) did not affect MeA Kiss1 levels. Thus, in rodents, Kiss1 is expressed and regulated by sex steroids in the MeA of both sexes and may play a role in modulating reproduction or brain functions that extend beyond reproduction.

Kim J; Semaan SJ; Clifton DK; Steiner RA; Dhamija S; Kauffman AS

2011-05-01

55

Regulation of Kiss1 expression by sex steroids in the amygdala of the rat and mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside of the hypothalamus have not been studied and are poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of Kiss1 in the amygdala, predominantly in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), a region implicated in social and emotional behaviors as well as various aspects of reproduction. In gonadally intact rats and mice, Kiss1-expressing neurons were identified in the MeA of both sexes, with higher Kiss1 expression levels in adult males than females in diestrus. In rats, Kiss1 expression in the MeA changed as a function of the estrous cycle, with highest levels at proestrus. Next, we tested whether Kiss1 in the MeA is regulated by the circulating sex steroid milieu. Kiss1 levels in the MeA were low in gonadectomized mice and rats of both sexes, and treatment with either testosterone or estradiol amplified Kiss1 expression in this region. Testosterone's inductive effect on Kiss1 expression in the MeA likely occurs via estrogen receptor-dependent pathways, not through the androgen receptor, because dihydrotestosterone (a nonaromatizable androgen) did not affect MeA Kiss1 levels. Thus, in rodents, Kiss1 is expressed and regulated by sex steroids in the MeA of both sexes and may play a role in modulating reproduction or brain functions that extend beyond reproduction. PMID:21363930

Kim, Joshua; Semaan, Sheila J; Clifton, Donald K; Steiner, Robert A; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

2011-03-01

56

Sex and season influence gonadal steroid biosynthetic pathways, end-product production and steroid conjugation in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined differences in gonadal steroid production and biosynthetic pathway activity with changing reproductive condition and between sexes in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed clear seasonal and sexual variation in the production of androgens and steroid conjugates, but detected no 17beta-estradiol or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone produced by the gonads. An alternative steroid, more polar than estradiol, was detected: an investigation of this steroid is reported separately [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 129 (2002) 114]. There were seasonal and sex-related differences in steroid biosynthetic pathway activity. The Delta5 pathway metabolite, dehydroepiandrosterone, was detected only in males, and only from incubations using regressed testicular tissue. There was also a seasonal difference between the sexes in rates of progesterone accumulation, although the absence of corresponding elevated plasma concentrations suggests that the role of progesterone switches from a directly acting hormone to a precursor for others during the reproductive cycle in females. These results suggest that within the traditional view that vertebrate biosynthetic pathway activity and end-products are phylogenetically conserved, there is likely to be considerably species- and/or genus-specific variation. PMID:14511983

Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M; Davies, Noel W

2003-11-01

57

Sex and season influence gonadal steroid biosynthetic pathways, end-product production and steroid conjugation in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined differences in gonadal steroid production and biosynthetic pathway activity with changing reproductive condition and between sexes in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed clear seasonal and sexual variation in the production of androgens and steroid conjugates, but detected no 17beta-estradiol or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone produced by the gonads. An alternative steroid, more polar than estradiol, was detected: an investigation of this steroid is reported separately [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 129 (2002) 114]. There were seasonal and sex-related differences in steroid biosynthetic pathway activity. The Delta5 pathway metabolite, dehydroepiandrosterone, was detected only in males, and only from incubations using regressed testicular tissue. There was also a seasonal difference between the sexes in rates of progesterone accumulation, although the absence of corresponding elevated plasma concentrations suggests that the role of progesterone switches from a directly acting hormone to a precursor for others during the reproductive cycle in females. These results suggest that within the traditional view that vertebrate biosynthetic pathway activity and end-products are phylogenetically conserved, there is likely to be considerably species- and/or genus-specific variation.

Edwards A; Jones SM; Davies NW

2003-11-01

58

Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVES: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). INTERVENTIONS: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. RESULTS: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

Kim C; Pi-Sunyer X; Barrett-Connor E; Stentz FB; Murphy MB; Kong S; Nan B; Kitabchi AE

2013-07-01

59

Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. OBJECTIVE: Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. METHOD: Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. RESULTS: Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes.

Pereira VM; Arias-Carrión O; Machado S; Nardi AE; Silva AC

2013-09-01

60

Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis. PMID:19461881

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

2009-05-22

 
 
 
 
61

Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

Schoenmakers S; Wassenaar E; Hoogerbrugge JW; Laven JS; Grootegoed JA; Baarends WM

2009-05-01

62

Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P < 0.01), whereas the OrchX + T and OrchX + DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment.

Brewer C; Otto-Duessel M; Wood RI; Wood JC

2013-09-01

63

Seasonal Changes in Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Sex Steroid Hormones in Captive Hill Mynah Gracula religiosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study seasonal changes of gonadotropins, prolactin and sex steroid hormones in captive Hill Mynah were measured from October 1995 to September 1996. During the breeding season, these hormone levels were higher than during the non-breeding one. Plasma levels of FSH in males and females rose in December, prior to the onset of breeding and remained elevated throughout the breeding season except in May. LH, testosterone and estradiol in both sexes were elevated in January, the onset of breeding. The maximum levels of these hormones were coincident with development of the gonads, secondary sex characters, territorial aggression and sexual behavior. Plasma testosterone and estradiol titers in males and females respectively were evidently bimodal with peaks in January and April which corresponded to the norm of two clutches per breeding season of this species. Progesterone levels in females surged in March, April and May which was the period of egg laying and incubation. Circulating prolactin in females was high during the parental phase of the breeding cycle in April and June. In addition, social cues such as sexual partner and external stimuli such as eggs or nestlings influenced the reproductive endocrinology.

Manee Archawaranon

2006-01-01

64

Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed.

Mariotti A; Mawhinney M

2013-02-01

65

Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed. PMID:23240944

Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael

2013-02-01

66

Developmental programming: postnatal steroids complete prenatal steroid actions to differentially organize the GnRH surge mechanism and reproductive behavior in female sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In female sheep, estradiol (E2) stimulates the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge and receptive behavior, whereas progesterone blocks these effects. Prenatal exposure to testosterone disrupts both the positive feedback action of E2 and sexual behavior although the mechanisms remain unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that both prenatal and postnatal steroids are required to organize the surge and sex differences in reproductive behavior. Our approach was to characterize the LH surge and mating behavior in prenatally untreated (Control) and testosterone-treated (T) female sheep subsequently exposed to one of three postnatal steroid manipulations: endogenous E2, excess E2 from a chronic implant, or no E2 due to neonatal ovariectomy (OVX). All females were then perfused at the time of the expected surge and brains processed for estrogen receptor and Fos immunoreactivity. None of the T females exposed postnatally to E2 exhibited an E2-induced LH surge, but a surge was produced in five of six T/OVX and all Control females. No surges were produced when progesterone was administered concomitantly with E2. All Control females were mounted by males, but significantly fewer T females were mounted by a male, including the T/OVX females that exhibited LH surges. The percentage of estrogen receptor neurons containing Fos was significantly influenced in a brain region-, developmental stage-, and steroid-specific fashion by testosterone and E2 treatments. These findings support the hypothesis that the feedback controls of the GnRH surge are sensitive to programming by prenatal and postnatal steroids in a precocial species.

Jackson LM; Mytinger A; Roberts EK; Lee TM; Foster DL; Padmanabhan V; Jansen HT

2013-04-01

67

Patterns of peripheral steroid metabolism vary with sex, season, and tissue type in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined sexual and seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues (liver, skin, adrenal gland, cloaca, kidney, renal sexual segment, epididymis, oviduct, muscle, testis, and ovary) to metabolise a primary steroid [testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2)] in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed considerable variation between sexes and across seasons in the patterns of conjugation and derivatisation of the primary steroids by these tissues. All tissues demonstrated the ability to conjugate the relevant primary steroid. Other general trends included increased conjugation by all tissues of gestating females, reduced metabolism of E2 by female tissues during late vitellogenesis, and reduced metabolism of T by males during early spermatogenesis. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was the most commonly detected derivative in males, and production varied with season and tissue type. We suggest that seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues may be important in the physiological regulation of reproduction in this species. PMID:15596067

Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M; Davies, Noel W

2005-01-01

68

Patterns of peripheral steroid metabolism vary with sex, season, and tissue type in blotched blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined sexual and seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues (liver, skin, adrenal gland, cloaca, kidney, renal sexual segment, epididymis, oviduct, muscle, testis, and ovary) to metabolise a primary steroid [testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2)] in the scincid lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea. We observed considerable variation between sexes and across seasons in the patterns of conjugation and derivatisation of the primary steroids by these tissues. All tissues demonstrated the ability to conjugate the relevant primary steroid. Other general trends included increased conjugation by all tissues of gestating females, reduced metabolism of E2 by female tissues during late vitellogenesis, and reduced metabolism of T by males during early spermatogenesis. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was the most commonly detected derivative in males, and production varied with season and tissue type. We suggest that seasonal variation in the ability of reproductively relevant tissues may be important in the physiological regulation of reproduction in this species.

Edwards A; Jones SM; Davies NW

2005-01-01

69

Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2008-02-14

70

Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5?-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

2004-12-01

71

Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 ?Ci Na251CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

1986-01-01

72

Gonadal restructuring and correlative steroid hormone profiles during natural sex change in protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The honeycomb grouper shows protogynous hermaphroditism. The endocrine mechanisms involved in gonadal restructuring throughout protogynous sex change are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated changes in the gonadal structures and levels of serum sex steroid hormones during female to male sex change in the honeycomb grouper. On the basis of histological changes, entire process of sex change was assigned into four developmental phases: female, early transition (ET), late transition (LT), and male phase. At the female phase, the oocytes of several developmental stages were observed including gonial germ cells in the periphery of ovigerous lamellae. At the beginning of ET phase, perinucleolar and previtellogenic oocytes began degenerating, followed by proliferation of spermatogonia toward the center of lamella. The LT phase was characterized by further degeneration of oocytes and rapid proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells throughout the gonad. At the male phase, no ovarian cells were observed and testis had germ cells undergoing active spermatogenesis. Serum levels of estradiol-17beta (E2) were high in females in the breeding season, but low in the non-breeding female, transitional and male phase, and those of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were low in females and gradually increased in the transitional and male phase. The present results suggest that low serum E2 levels and degeneration of oocytes accompanied by concomitant increase in the 11-KT levels and proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells are probably the events mediating protogynous sex change in the honeycomb grouper.

Bhandari RK; Komuro H; Nakamura S; Higa M; Nakamura M

2003-11-01

73

Gonadal restructuring and correlative steroid hormone profiles during natural sex change in protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra).  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeycomb grouper shows protogynous hermaphroditism. The endocrine mechanisms involved in gonadal restructuring throughout protogynous sex change are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated changes in the gonadal structures and levels of serum sex steroid hormones during female to male sex change in the honeycomb grouper. On the basis of histological changes, entire process of sex change was assigned into four developmental phases: female, early transition (ET), late transition (LT), and male phase. At the female phase, the oocytes of several developmental stages were observed including gonial germ cells in the periphery of ovigerous lamellae. At the beginning of ET phase, perinucleolar and previtellogenic oocytes began degenerating, followed by proliferation of spermatogonia toward the center of lamella. The LT phase was characterized by further degeneration of oocytes and rapid proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells throughout the gonad. At the male phase, no ovarian cells were observed and testis had germ cells undergoing active spermatogenesis. Serum levels of estradiol-17beta (E2) were high in females in the breeding season, but low in the non-breeding female, transitional and male phase, and those of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were low in females and gradually increased in the transitional and male phase. The present results suggest that low serum E2 levels and degeneration of oocytes accompanied by concomitant increase in the 11-KT levels and proliferation of spermatogenic germ cells are probably the events mediating protogynous sex change in the honeycomb grouper. PMID:14624040

Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Komuro, Hiroki; Nakamura, Shigeo; Higa, Mikihiko; Nakamura, Masaru

2003-11-01

74

Effect of sex steroids on Babesia microti infection in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex-based-differences are known to affect susceptibility to protozoan infections, but their effects on parasitemia and clinical symptoms in Babesia infections remain unclear. We examined the sex-based susceptibility of various mouse strains to Babesia microti Munich strain infection. In all strains, male mice exhibited significantly higher peak parasitemia and more severe anemia than female mice. Testosterone and estradiol-17? treatment caused an increase in parasitemia and aggravation of anemia. Orchidectomized male mice receiving testosterone exhibited smaller splenic macrophage populations three days after infection, smaller B cell populations 10 days after infection, and reduced splenic tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? mRNA expression than mice that did not receive testosterone. Mice receiving estradiol-17? did not exhibit immunosuppressive effects. Thus, a weakened and delayed innate immunity response may lead to acquired immunity failure. The results suggested that testosterone directly affects T or B cells, leading to delayed acquired immunity, dramatically increased parasitemia, and severe anemia.

Sasaki M; Fujii Y; Iwamoto M; Ikadai H

2013-02-01

75

Sex steroid hormones, hormonal contraception, and the immunobiology of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Worldwide, an increasing number of women use oral or injectable hormonal contraceptives. However, inadequate information is available to aid women and health care professionals in weighing the potential risks of hormonal contraceptive use in individuals living with HIV-1 or at high risk of infection. Numerous epidemiological studies and challenge studies in a rhesus macaque model suggest that progesterone-based contraceptives increase the risk of HIV-1 infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, accelerate disease progression, and increase viral shedding in the genital tract. However, because several other studies in humans have not observed any effect of exogenously administered progesterone on HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression, the issue continues to be a topic of intense research and ongoing discussion. In contrast to progesterone, systemic or intravaginal treatment with estrogen efficiently protects female rhesus macaques against the transmission of SIV, likely by enhancing the natural protective properties of the lower genital tract mucosal tissue. Although the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of sex steroid hormones on HIV-1 and SIV acquisition and disease progression are not well understood, progesterone and estrogen are known to regulate a number of immune mechanisms that may exert an effect on retroviral infection. This review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of various types of sex steroid hormones on immune processes involved in the biology of HIV-1 infection.

Hel Z; Stringer E; Mestecky J

2010-02-01

76

Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular ...

Van Vugt, Harmke H.; Van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Van der Beek, Eline M.

77

Association of serum sex steroid receptor bioactivity and sex steroid hormones with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postmenopausal women with elevated serum sex steroids have an increased risk of breast cancer. Most of this risk is believed to be exerted through binding of the sex steroids to their receptors. For the first time, we investigate the association of estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) serum bioactivity (SB) in addition to hormone levels in samples from women with breast cancer collected before diagnosis. Two hundred postmenopausal women participating in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening who developed ER-positive breast cancer 0.6-5 years after sample donation were identified and matched to 400 controls. ER and AR bioassays were used to measure ER?, ER?, and AR SB. Androgen and estrogen levels were measured with immunoassays. Subjects were classified according to quintiles of the respective marker among controls and the associations between SB and hormones with breast cancer risk were determined by logistic regression analysis. ER? and ER? SB were significantly higher before diagnosis compared with controls, while estrogens showed no difference. Women had a twofold increased breast cancer risk if ER? SB (odds ratio (OR), 2.114; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.050-4.425; P=0.040) was in the top quintile >2 years before diagnosis or estrone (OR, 2.205; 95% CI, 1.104-4.586; P=0.029) was in the top quintile <2 years before diagnosis. AR showed no significant association with breast cancer while androstenedione (OR, 3.187; 95% CI, 1.738-6.044; P=0.0003) and testosterone (OR, 2.145; 95% CI, 1.256-3.712; P=0.006) were significantly higher compared with controls and showed a strong association with an almost threefold increased breast cancer risk independent of time to diagnosis. This study provides further evidence on the association of androgens and estrogens with breast cancer. In addition, it reports that high ER but not AR SB is associated with increased breast risk >2 years before diagnosis.

Fourkala EO; Zaikin A; Burnell M; Gentry-Maharaj A; Ford J; Gunu R; Soromani C; Hasenbrink G; Jacobs I; Dawnay A; Widschwendter M; Lichtenberg-Fraté H; Menon U

2012-04-01

78

Impact of ovarian sex steroids on ovulation and ovulatory gene induction in aromatase-null mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mice deficient in the aromatase gene [aromatase knockout (ArKO)] fail to ovulate owing to an inability to produce estrogens. Here, we demonstrated that sequential administration of adequate amounts of 17?-estradiol (E2), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin could induce ovulation in immature ArKO mice; nevertheless, significantly fewer oocytes were released into the oviducts in ArKO mice than in wild-type mice. Analysis of ovarian steroids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified a trace amount of E2 in the untreated immature ArKO ovary. The analysis further detected significant increases and decreases in progesterone and testosterone contents, respectively, in addition to an increase of E2 in the ovulation-induced ArKO ovaries compared with the levels in untreated ArKO ovaries. Gene expression analysis demonstrated marked elevation in the mRNA levels of members of the epidermal growth factor family and extracellular matrix-related proteins at 4 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the ovaries of ArKO mice treated for ovulation, as observed in the ovulation-induced wild-type ovaries. Collectively, these findings suggest the vital contribution of the intraovarian milieu of sex steroids to ovulatory regulation in vivo. PMID:22147013

Toda, Katsumi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji

2011-12-06

79

Impact of ovarian sex steroids on ovulation and ovulatory gene induction in aromatase-null mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female mice deficient in the aromatase gene [aromatase knockout (ArKO)] fail to ovulate owing to an inability to produce estrogens. Here, we demonstrated that sequential administration of adequate amounts of 17?-estradiol (E2), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin could induce ovulation in immature ArKO mice; nevertheless, significantly fewer oocytes were released into the oviducts in ArKO mice than in wild-type mice. Analysis of ovarian steroids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified a trace amount of E2 in the untreated immature ArKO ovary. The analysis further detected significant increases and decreases in progesterone and testosterone contents, respectively, in addition to an increase of E2 in the ovulation-induced ArKO ovaries compared with the levels in untreated ArKO ovaries. Gene expression analysis demonstrated marked elevation in the mRNA levels of members of the epidermal growth factor family and extracellular matrix-related proteins at 4 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the ovaries of ArKO mice treated for ovulation, as observed in the ovulation-induced wild-type ovaries. Collectively, these findings suggest the vital contribution of the intraovarian milieu of sex steroids to ovulatory regulation in vivo.

Toda K; Hayashi Y; Ono M; Saibara T

2012-01-01

80

HIV due to female sex work: regional and global estimates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. METHODS: Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. RESULTS: An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe) female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. DISCUSSION: Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. CONCLUSION: FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population.

Prüss-Ustün A; Wolf J; Driscoll T; Degenhardt L; Neira M; Calleja JM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sex steroids and bone mass in older men. Positive associations with serum estrogens and negative associations with androgens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone density in older men was associated with serum sex steroids or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Bone density and sex steroids were measured in men over age 65 at 6-mo intervals for an average of 2.1 yr. Bone density was significantly positi...

Slemenda, C W; Longcope, C; Zhou, L; Hui, S L; Peacock, M; Johnston, C C

82

Anopheles gambiae males produce and transfer the vitellogenic steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone to females during mating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In female insects, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis, a process required for egg development. By contrast with vertebrates, production of large amounts of hormonal steroids has not been reported in adult male insects. In the present study, w...

Pondeville, Emilie; Maria, Annick; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Bourgouin, Catherine; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal

83

Adolescent female sex workers: invisibility, violence and HIV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis.

Silverman JG

2011-05-01

84

Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered.

Safika I; Levy JA; Johnson TP

2013-01-01

85

Effect of sex steroids on soleus muscle response in hypocalcemic medium (in vitro).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a frequently encountered complication of thyroid surgery. Since hypocalcemic symptoms are closely associated with sex, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sex steroids on muscle tissue under hypocalcemic conditions. METHODS: Six groups consisting of control male (M), control female (F), gonadectomized male (M-), gonadectomized female (F-), estradiol-applied gonadectomized male (MX), and testosterone-applied gonadectomized female (FX) rats were used. Contraction recordings were obtained from soleus muscle flaps. Maximal tension (PT), frequency required for 50% of PT (F50), contraction velocity at F50 (V50), and changes in contraction values (d[PT], d[F50], d[V50]) between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic conditions were calculated. RESULTS: d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] were significantly higher in M- and MX groups compared with control M group. Whereas d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] parameters of the F- group were significantly higher than control F group, d[F50] and d[PT] of the FX group showed no significant change and d[V50] for the FX group was significantly lower. A comparison of control groups showed that d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] of the F group were significantly higher than those of the M group. CONCLUSION: Whereas absence of both testosterone and estradiol caused an increase in hypocalcemia-induced changes in contraction parameters of rat skeletal muscle, presence or application of testosterone clearly stabilized contraction parameters.

Kökçam SS; Tekin S; Kartal A; Ayaz M; Sahin M; Acar F; Cakir M; Küçükba?riaçik Y

2013-03-01

86

Effect of sex steroids on soleus muscle response in hypocalcemic medium (in vitro).  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a frequently encountered complication of thyroid surgery. Since hypocalcemic symptoms are closely associated with sex, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sex steroids on muscle tissue under hypocalcemic conditions. METHODS: Six groups consisting of control male (M), control female (F), gonadectomized male (M-), gonadectomized female (F-), estradiol-applied gonadectomized male (MX), and testosterone-applied gonadectomized female (FX) rats were used. Contraction recordings were obtained from soleus muscle flaps. Maximal tension (PT), frequency required for 50% of PT (F50), contraction velocity at F50 (V50), and changes in contraction values (d[PT], d[F50], d[V50]) between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic conditions were calculated. RESULTS: d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] were significantly higher in M- and MX groups compared with control M group. Whereas d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] parameters of the F- group were significantly higher than control F group, d[F50] and d[PT] of the FX group showed no significant change and d[V50] for the FX group was significantly lower. A comparison of control groups showed that d[PT], d[F50], and d[V50] of the F group were significantly higher than those of the M group. CONCLUSION: Whereas absence of both testosterone and estradiol caused an increase in hypocalcemia-induced changes in contraction parameters of rat skeletal muscle, presence or application of testosterone clearly stabilized contraction parameters. PMID:23510550

Kökçam, S Said; Tekin, Sakir; Kartal, Adil; Ayaz, Murat; Sahin, Mustafa; Acar, Fahreddin; Cakir, Murat; Küçükba?riaçik, Yusuf

2013-03-13

87

Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

de Water E; Braams BR; Crone EA; Peper JS

2013-02-01

88

Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Marine Science Inst.; Laidley, C.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

1995-12-31

89

Uniform female-biased sex ratios in alpine willows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The development of biased sex ratios in dioecious plant species has been ascribed to either (1) factors influencing differential adult mortality of male and female plants or (2) factors acting at an early life stage that determine seed sex ratio or seedling survival. METHODS: To discriminate between these two competing hypotheses, we surveyed sex and age of 379 individuals from five species of the genus Salix across 11 alpine valleys in the southwest Yukon. KEY RESULTS: We observed uniformly female-biased sex ratios of approximately 2:1 across all adult age cohorts and patch sizes of the five willow species. No spatial variation in sex ratio occurred that could be associated with site-specific characteristics such as elevation or aspect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the female-biased sex ratios in the alpine willow species investigated in this study are not a consequence of ecological processes acting on established adult plants. The sex ratio is instead determined at an early life stage by a mechanism that remains unknown.

Myers-Smith IH; Hik DS

2012-07-01

90

Induction of female-to-male sex change in the honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra) by 11-ketotestosterone treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeycomb grouper, Epinephelus merra, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Sex steroid hormones play key roles in sex change of this species. A significant drop in endogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) levels alone triggers female-to-male sex change, and the subsequent elevation of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels correlates with the progression of spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of an androgen in sex change, we attempted to induce female-to-male sex change by exogenous 11KT treatments. The 75-day 11KT treatment caused 100% masculinization of pre-spawning females. Ovaries of the control (vehicle-treated) fish had oocytes at various stages of oogenesis, while the gonads of the 11KT-treated fish had transformed into testes; these contained spermatogenic germ cells at various stages, including an accumulation of spermatozoa in the sperm duct. In the sex-changed fish, plasma levels of E2 were significantly low, while both testosterone (T) and 11KT were significantly increased. Our results suggest that 11KT plays an important role in sex change in the honeycomb grouper. Whether the mechanism of 11KT-induced female-to-male sex change acts through direct stimulation of spermatogenesis in the ovary or via the inhibition of estrogen synthesis remains to be clarified. PMID:16547407

Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masaru

2006-01-01

91

Induction of female-to-male sex change in the honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra) by 11-ketotestosterone treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The honeycomb grouper, Epinephelus merra, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Sex steroid hormones play key roles in sex change of this species. A significant drop in endogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) levels alone triggers female-to-male sex change, and the subsequent elevation of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels correlates with the progression of spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of an androgen in sex change, we attempted to induce female-to-male sex change by exogenous 11KT treatments. The 75-day 11KT treatment caused 100% masculinization of pre-spawning females. Ovaries of the control (vehicle-treated) fish had oocytes at various stages of oogenesis, while the gonads of the 11KT-treated fish had transformed into testes; these contained spermatogenic germ cells at various stages, including an accumulation of spermatozoa in the sperm duct. In the sex-changed fish, plasma levels of E2 were significantly low, while both testosterone (T) and 11KT were significantly increased. Our results suggest that 11KT plays an important role in sex change in the honeycomb grouper. Whether the mechanism of 11KT-induced female-to-male sex change acts through direct stimulation of spermatogenesis in the ovary or via the inhibition of estrogen synthesis remains to be clarified.

Bhandari RK; Alam MA; Soyano K; Nakamura M

2006-01-01

92

Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation. PMID:23651580

Sessa, Anna K; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

2013-05-04

93

Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana nigrofasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating behavioral responses to various social stimuli. It has been suggested that variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior across species is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay of hormones and behavior in social situations, we exposed males of the monogamous convict cichlid Amatitliana nigrofasciata to three social stimuli: gravid female, intruder male, and a nonsocial stimulus. We used a repeated measure design to create behavioral profiles and explore how sex steroid hormones respond to and regulate social behavior. Results show distinct behavioral responses to different social situations, with circulating 11-ketotestosterone increasing in response to social stimuli. Pharmacological manipulations using specific androgen and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists exposed complex control over digging behavior in the social opportunity context. In the social challenge context, aggressive behaviors decreased in response to blocking the androgen receptor pathway. Our results extend our understanding of sex steroid regulation of behavioral responses to social stimulation.

Sessa AK; Harris RM; Hofmann HA

2013-08-01

94

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli.

Saint Girons H; Bradshaw SD; Bradshaw FJ

1993-09-01

95

Sexual activity and plasma levels of sex steroids in the aspic viper Vipera aspis L. (Reptilia, Viperidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive behavior and associated sexual activity was studied in individual male and female Vipera aspis over a 3-year period in western France in an attempt to correlate mating behavior with blood levels of gonadal sex steroids. Males had higher average levels of both testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than females. Levels of progesterone (P) did not differ significantly between the two sexes but estradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations were significantly higher in females during the season of mating. Spring mating behavior and copulation in males was associated with significantly increased levels of T and DHT, compared with postmating males; and a similar, but not significant trend, was evident with autumnal mating. The only statistically significant hormonal difference detected in males showing no sexual activity in autumn, was an elevated level of E2 at 0.52 +/- 0.20 ng/ml compared with 0.09 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in spring-breeding males (P = 0.05). Estrus in females is associated with increased levels of all four steroids but significant only for E2 and DHT. Levels of P were significantly reduced in females displaying seasonal anestrous in the spring immediately following reproduction. Females not displaying estrus in either spring or autumn had significantly lower plasma DHT and E2. Although mating behavior in males is associated statistically with elevated levels of T and DHT, a tight correlation is not obvious at the individual level, suggesting that increased concentrations of androgens are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for mating. The data from V. aspis suggest that, as in a number of other reptilian species, high circulating levels of androgens function to "condition" or "organize" sexual behavior in males which may be displayed at some later time, well after actual levels have fallen, thus engendering the impression that reproductive behavior may be temporally dissociated from essential hormonal stimuli. PMID:8224772

Saint Girons, H; Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J

1993-09-01

96

Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

2010-03-01

97

The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

2006-01-01

98

Interaction of blood sex steroid-binding globulin-steroid complexes with the plasma membranes of cells of the human decidual endometrium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma membranes of cells of the decidual tissue specifically bind complexes of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of the blood with estrogens (estradiol, estriol, estrone) and the pharmacological agent danazol but do not interact with SBG-testosterone and SBG-dihydrotestosterone complexes. The selectivity of the interaction of SBG-steroid complexes with the cell membranes of the decidual tissue confirms the hypothesis of an active role of SBG in the action of steroids on this target tissue.

Zhuk, N.I.; Avvakumov, G.V.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-10

99

Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of prenatal and postnatal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. METHODS: Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-h food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. RESULTS: Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 25:643-654, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Thompson AL; Michelle L

2013-09-01

100

Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Synthesis of sex hormone-derived modified steroids possessing antiproliferative activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During recent years intensive research has been focused on the synthesis of structurally modified steroid hormones in order to obtain compounds with beneficial biological activity such as cell-growth inhibition. Experimental results have revealed that some steroidal derivatives possess direct cytostatic effect on cancer cells in a hormone receptor-independent manner. After a brief account on the most important biological function and characteristics of the naturally occurring sex hormones in physiological and pathological conditions, structural modifications of estrane and androstane scaffolds are discussed in detail. The review covers literature publications (from 2002 to 2012) relating to the synthesis and antiproliferative activity of semisynthetic sex hormone-derived molecules containing simple or heterocyclic substituents. The compounds reviewed are divided into three main categories according to their sterane framework and the nature of substitution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Synthesis of steroids'.

Frank E; Schneider G

2013-03-01

102

Steroid binding sites in liver membranes : interplay between glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones activate target cells through specific receptors that discriminate among ligands based upon recognition of distinct structural features. For most known steroids, membrane and nuclear receptors co-exist in many target cells. However, while the structure of the nuclear receptors and their function as transcriptional activators of specific target genes is generally well understood, the identity of the membrane receptors remains elusive. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we are beginning to characterize receptors for glucocorticoids and anabolic-androgenic steroids in male rat liver membranes. Male rat liver endoplasmic reticulum contains two steroid binding sites which are functionally related and associated with a 90-134 kDa oligomeric protein: (1) the low-affinity glucocorticoid binding site (LAGS), composed at least in part of two peptides (37 and 53 kDa) that bind glucocorticoids and (2) the stanozolol binding protein (STBP), composed at least in part of three peptides (22, 31, and 55 kDa) that bind the synthetic androgen stanozolol. These steroid binding proteins have many properties different from those of classical nuclear receptors, with the salient differences being a failure to recognize "classical" ligands for nuclear receptors together with marked differences in biochemical properties and physiological regulation. The mechanism of interaction of glucocorticoids with the LAGS can be clearly distinguished from that with STBP. Moreover, STBP shows an extremely narrow pharmacological profile, being selective for ST and its analog, danazol, among more than 100 steroids and non-steroidal compounds that were assayed, including those that are able to displace glucocorticoids from the LAGS. The level of LAGS activity undergoes dramatic variations following changes from the physiological serum levels of thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, GH, vitamin A, and E2. However, neither thyroid hormones nor GH have a critical role on STBP activity. The STBP is functionally related to LAGS. We have suggested a novel mechanism for STBP whereby membrane-associated glucocorticoid binding activity is targeted by stanozolol (and 16beta-hydroxylated stanozolol): stanozolol modulates glucocorticoid activity in the liver through negative allosteric modulation of the LAGS resulting in an effective increase in classical GR-signaling by increasing glucocorticoid availability to the cytosolic GR.

Fernández-Pérez, L; Flores Morales, Amilcar

2008-01-01

103

Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. RESULTS: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. CONCLUSION: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

Tucker S; Krishna R; Prabhakar P; Panyam S; Anand P

2012-01-01

104

Ovarian steroid hormones: effects on immune responses and Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the female genital tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female sex hormones are known to regulate the adaptive and innate immune functions of the female reproductive tract. This review aims to update our current knowledge of the effects of the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone in the female reproductive tract on innate immunity, antigen presentation, specific immune responses, antibody secretion, genital tract infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, and vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:23860476

Hafner, L M; Cunningham, K; Beagley, K W

2013-07-17

105

Sex steroid levels and response to weight loss interventions among postmenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen. Design and Methods The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysis, we examined sex steroid levels and reductions in weight and waist circumference (WC) among postmenopausal women using (n=324) and not using (n=382) oral estrogen. Results Estrogen users and non-users randomized to lifestyle change and metformin both lost significant amounts of weight compared to placebo. Reductions in weight and WC over 1 year associated with randomization arm were not associated with baseline sex steroid levels among estrogen users or non-users. Conclusions Among estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC, suggesting that exogenous estrogen does not potentiate weight loss by altering sex steroids. Among non-estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC.

Kim C; Barrett-Connor E; Randolph JF Jr; Kong S; Nan B; Mather KJ; Golden SH

2013-06-01

106

Sex steroid hormone-mediated functional regulation of microglia-like BV-2 cells during hypoxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

17ß-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective hormones in different neurological disorders and in particular under hypoxic conditions in the brain. Both hormones dampen brain-intrinsic immune responses and regulate local glial cell function. Besides astrocytes which are functionally regulated in a manifold and complex manner, especially microglial cells are in the focus of steroid-mediated neuroprotection. In previous studies using a transient brain artery occlusion model, we demonstrated that microglial characteristics are critically modified after the administration of either E2 or P. We here studied the influence of sex steroids on the murine BV-2 microglia cell line under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia changed the cell morphology from an amoeboid-like phenotype with processes to a rounded shape of secreting cell type. BV-2 cells expressed both estrogen receptor-ß and progesterone receptors under each condition. Oxygen deprivation increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and up-regulated selected cytokines and chemokines. Both hormones selectively prevented the induction of pro-inflammatory iNOS, interleukin IL-1ß, and chemokine ligand CCL5, whereas anti-inflammatory IL-10 and protective TREM 2 were up-regulated by sex steroids. Sex hormones abrogated hypoxia-dependent reduction of BV-2 phagocytic activity. We demonstrate that BV-2 microglia cells respond to hypoxia by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduced phagocytic activity. This effect is prevented by sex steroids resulting in a switch of BV-2 cells from a pro-inflammatory to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. Anti-inflammatory effects of gonadal steroids might directly be mediated through hormone-microglia interactions in addition to known effects via astroglial regulation.

Habib P; Dreymüller D; Ludwig A; Beyer C; Dang J

2013-06-01

107

Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3) micrograms/ml) after exposure for 24 h.

Yoshimoto,Jun; Matsumura,Yosuke; Tanahashi,Toyoko; Ohmori,Hiroyuki; Tokiwa,Takayoshi; Sato,Jiro

1982-01-01

108

Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. PMID:18391529

Ramsey, M; Crews, D

2007-01-01

109

Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%). The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0%) than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males). The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites). These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml). All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%). A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0%) que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as fêmeas e 10,0% para os machos). A presença de três linhas na escama foi rara (3,5% entre os peixes infestados e 2,0% entre as fêmeas não infestadas). Estes resultados sugerem que o crescimento no hospeideiro pode ser mais rapido que no peixes não parasitados. As concentrações de esteróides sexuais no soro dos peixes não infestados variaram entre os diferentes estágios reprodutivos (17 beta-estradiol: 60,0 a 976,7 pg/ml; total testosterona: 220,0 a 3.887,7 pg/ml). Todos os peixes infestados apresentaram baixos níveis dos dois hormônios esteroidais e ausência de desenvolvimento gonadal. Os níveis de esteróides sexuais nas fêmeas infestadas foram próximos aos níveis encontrados nas fêmeas pós-desovadas. A concentração de testosterona encontrada nos machos infestados foi inferior àquela obtida nos machos que estavam iniciando o desenvolvimento gonadal. Estes resultados sugerem que R. paranensis impede a reprodução de C. gilbert, afetando o sistema endócrino do hospedeiro.

Neuza R. W. Lima; Juliana de S. Azevedo; Leonardo G. da Silva; Marilvia Dansa-Petretski

2007-01-01

110

Steroid hormone signaling is involved in the age-dependent behavioral response to sex pheromone in the adult male moth Agrotis ipsilon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In most animals, including insects, male reproduction depends on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones. In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, both behavioral response and neuronal sensitivity in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to female sex pheromone are age- and hormone-dependent. In many animal species, steroids are known to act at the brain level to modulate the responsiveness to sexually relevant chemical cues. We aimed to address the hypothesis that the steroidal system and in particular 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the main insect steroid hormone, might also be involved in this olfactory plasticity. Therefore, we first cloned the nuclear ecdysteroid receptor EcR (AipsEcR) and its partner Ultraspiracle (AipsUSP) of A. ipsilon, the expression of which increased concomitantly with age in ALs. Injection of 20E into young sexually immature males led to an increase in both responsiveness to sex pheromone and amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP in their ALs. Conversely, the behavioral response decreased in older, sexually mature males after injection of cucurbitacin B (CurB), an antagonist of the 20E/EcR/USP complex. Also, the amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP significantly declined after treatment with CurB. These results suggest that 20E is involved in the expression of sexual behavior via the EcR/USP signaling pathway, probably acting on central pheromone processing in A. ipsilon.

Duportets L; Maria A; Vitecek S; Gadenne C; Debernard S

2013-06-01

111

Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause mood and behavioral effects. In some individuals, steroid use can cause dramatic mood swings, increased feelings of ... enough to lead one to commit suicide. Anabolic steroid use may also cause psychological dependence and addiction. How ...

112

The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17?-oestradiol ([3H]17?-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci.

Hinojosa L; Valdez RA; Salvador V; Rodríguez AG; Willms K; Romano MC

2012-12-01

113

The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17?-oestradiol ([3H]17?-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17?-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci. PMID:22152276

Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2011-12-12

114

Visual preferences for sex and status in female rhesus macaques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most primates are both highly visual and highly social. These qualities predict that visual cues to social variables, such as identity, sex, social status, and reproductive quality, would be intrinsically valuable and systematically attract attention. Supporting this idea, thirsty male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) will forego fluid reward to view images of the faces of high-ranking males and the sexual skin of females. Whether female rhesus macaques, who experience dramatically different social pressures and reproductive costs than male macaques, also systematically and spontaneously value visual cues to social information remains untested experimentally. We probed the preferences of female rhesus macaques, given the opportunity to display an image from a known class of social stimuli or touch a second target to display a blank screen. We found that females preferred faces of high-status males and also images of the perinea of both males and females, but were not motivated to display images of subordinate males or control stimuli. These findings endorse the view that both male and female rhesus macaques-and presumably other highly social primates-seek information about other individuals in a way that matches the adaptive value of that information for guiding social behavior.

Watson KK; Ghodasra JH; Furlong MA; Platt ML

2012-05-01

115

Moral reasoning, parental sex attitudes, and sex guilt in female college students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-eight female college students completed the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Rest Defining Issues Test, and the Family Attitude and Communication Scale in order to study the relationship between sex guilt, moral reasoning, and perceived parental sex attitudes. Analysis of variance indicated that Stage 4 moral reasoners had significantly higher sex guilt scores than Stage 5 reasoners. There was also a significant interaction effect between moral reasoning and perceived parental sex attitudes with respect to sex guilt, with Stage 5 reasoners from permissive family backgrounds having very low levels of guilt. The findings suggested that there is an overall negative relationship between sex guilt and moral reasoning, supporting prior studies. However, the relationship between sex guilt and permissive/restrictive family background is more complicated. Paradoxically, more advanced Stage 5 reasoners seemed more influenced by family sexual attitudes than Stage 4 reasoners. The authors offer an explanation for this finding and stress the importance of moral reasoning as a variable in understanding sexual attitudes and behavior.

Propper S; Brown RA

1986-08-01

116

Human papillomavirus infections among Hungarian female sex workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in cervical, oropharyngeal and anal samples of the high-risk population of Hungarian female sex workers (FSWs). HPV testing of swab specimens from FSWs (n = 34) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was performed. Results were compared with control group (n = 52) matched for age. Questionnaires were used to obtain data regarding participants' sexual behaviour. Data were analysed using SPSS. HPV DNA was detected in at least one location in a great majority of FSWs (82.4%), compared with 46.2% of the general female population (P < 0.05). Both the cervical and the anal samples of sex workers showed higher infection rates than those of controls (64.7% vs. 34.6% and 50.0% vs. 15.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). High-risk HPV prevalence was also significantly higher in sex workers (55.9% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion of FSWs had a history of genital warts (26.5% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.05). The results suggest that condom use may not result in adequate protection from HPV infection. The high infection rates among FSWs should be viewed as a priority group for HPV and cervical cancer prevention programmes since they are sources of HPV infection for the general population.

Marek E; Dergez T; D'cruz G; Bozsa S; Cseh A; Szilard I; Benczik M; Kiss I; Varszegi D; Vilagi S; Ember I; Gocze P

2013-08-01

117

HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.

Hong Y; Zhang C; Li X; Fang X; Lin X; Zhou Y; Liu W

2012-01-01

118

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, p

Thomsen, Henrik Holm; MØller, Holger Jon

2013-01-01

119

Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection.

Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

1987-03-01

120

Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate.

Shi L

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

1983-12-01

122

Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-[14C]leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-[14C]leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of 14C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function

1983-01-01

123

Sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora: implication in mass spawning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence and annual cycle of sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. The free and conjugated forms of sex steroids in coral and spawning seawater were investigated, and aromatase activity in the coral tissue was identified. Polyps collected from corals and seawater were extracted with diethyl ether, and purified by alumina column and reversed-phase HPLC; testosterone and estradiol-17beta (E2) was measured by a validated RIA. E2 and testosterone in their free and glucuronide forms were consistently detected in coral tissue throughout the year. Peak concentrations of free E2, E2 glucuronide, and testosterone glucuronide were obtained in the coral tissue just prior to spawning. The presence of specific aromatase activity was demonstrated in coral tissue. Free E2 and E2 glucuronide concentrations were higher than androgen (testosterone and testosterone glucuronide) in coral tissue and spawning seawater. Higher concentrations of free E2 than E2 glucuronide were detected in coral tissues throughout the year. In contrast, higher concentrations of E2 glucuronide than free E2 and testosterone glucuronide were found in seawater during mass coral spawning. No steroid sulfate could be detected in the coral tissue and seawater. We suggest that the release of E2 glucuronide may play an important role in coral mass spawning. PMID:12606339

Twan, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chang, Ching-Fong

2003-01-22

124

Sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora: implication in mass spawning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence and annual cycle of sex steroids in scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. The free and conjugated forms of sex steroids in coral and spawning seawater were investigated, and aromatase activity in the coral tissue was identified. Polyps collected from corals and seawater were extracted with diethyl ether, and purified by alumina column and reversed-phase HPLC; testosterone and estradiol-17beta (E2) was measured by a validated RIA. E2 and testosterone in their free and glucuronide forms were consistently detected in coral tissue throughout the year. Peak concentrations of free E2, E2 glucuronide, and testosterone glucuronide were obtained in the coral tissue just prior to spawning. The presence of specific aromatase activity was demonstrated in coral tissue. Free E2 and E2 glucuronide concentrations were higher than androgen (testosterone and testosterone glucuronide) in coral tissue and spawning seawater. Higher concentrations of free E2 than E2 glucuronide were detected in coral tissues throughout the year. In contrast, higher concentrations of E2 glucuronide than free E2 and testosterone glucuronide were found in seawater during mass coral spawning. No steroid sulfate could be detected in the coral tissue and seawater. We suggest that the release of E2 glucuronide may play an important role in coral mass spawning.

Twan WH; Hwang JS; Chang CF

2003-06-01

125

Sex-related differences in metabolism of 14C-acetate in response to steroid hormones by isolated rat hepatocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] No differences were found in the basal rate of lipid synthesis from 14C-acetate in hepatocytes isolated from mature male and virgin female rats. Lipid biosynthesis was stimulated 22-43% in the female 60 min after the addition of gonadal steroids. This rapid response suggests that subtle differences exist in the enzyme profile controlling the pathways of lipid metabolism in male and female rats. This difference may have been determined genetically or acquired after a period of sex-dependent hormonal stimulation beginning with puberty. (orig.)[de] Grundsaetzlich wurden im Hinblick auf die Lipidsynthese aus 14C-Acetat keine Unterschiede zwischen isolierten Leberzellen von geschlechtsreifen maennlichen und noch nicht geschlechtsreifen weiblichen Ratten festgestellt. Die Lipid-Biosynthese steigerte sich bei den weiblichen Ratten innerhalb von 60 Minuten nach der Administration von Gonadensteroiden um 22-43%. Diese rasche Reaktion laesst vermuten, dass zwischen maennlichen und weiblichen Ratten minimale Unterschiede im Enzymprofil bestehen, das die Wege des Enzymstoffwechsels kontrolliert. Dieser Unterschied ist entweder genetisch festgelegt, oder er wird nach einer Periode geschlechtsabhaengiger hormoneller Stimulation erworben, die mit der beginnenden Geschlechtsreife einsetzt. (orig./AK)

1975-01-01

126

Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%), belonging to scheduled caste (35.3%) and scheduled tribe (10.5%), illiterate (74.7%), and of those separated/divorced (30.7%) was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years) and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years) was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively). Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

Dandona Rakhi; Dandona Lalit; Kumar G Anil; Gutierrez Juan; McPherson Sam; Samuels Fiona; Bertozzi Stefano M

2006-01-01

127

Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10/sup -12/ M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes.

Avvakumov, G.V.; Survilo, L.I.; Strel' chenok, O.A.

1986-01-20

128

DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

RTD-03-031 Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press). Abstract Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

129

Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this functional...

Abbs, Brandon; Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

130

Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers in US men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers are both associated with the development and progression of chronic diseases, but their interrelationship is relatively uncharacterized. We examined the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count. The study included data from 809 adult men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for CRP and WBC concentrations by sex steroid hormones and SHBG using weighted linear regression models. Higher concentrations of total (slope per one quintile in concentration, -0.18; p-trend, 0.001) and calculated free (slope, -0.13; p-trend, 0.03) testosterone were statistically significantly associated with lower concentrations of CRP, but not with WBC count. Men in the bottom quintile of total testosterone (?3.3 ng/mL), who might be considered to have clinically low testosterone, were more likely to have elevated CRP (?3 mg/L) compared with men in the top four quintiles (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.00-2.61). Total and calculated free estradiol (E2) were positively associated with both CRP (Total E2: slope, 0.14; p-trend, <0.001; Free E2: slope, 0.15; p-trend, <0.001) and WBC (Total E2: slope, 0.02; p-trend, 0.08; Free E2: slope, 0.02; p-trend, 0.02) concentrations. SHBG concentrations were inversely associated with WBC count (slope, -0.03; p-trend, 0.04), but not with CRP. These cross-sectional findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher androgen and lower oestrogen concentrations may have an anti-inflammatory effect in men.

Tsilidis KK; Rohrmann S; McGlynn KA; Nyante SJ; Lopez DS; Bradwin G; Feinleib M; Joshu CE; Kanarek N; Nelson WG; Selvin E; Platz EA

2013-11-01

131

Fecal Steroid Profile of Female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch) Maintained in Pairing-Typed Cage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estrone conjugate (E1C) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) were predominant steroid metabolites of estrogen and progesterone in feces of most primates and could be used to evaluate ovarian function. These metabolites were determined along with records of genital swelling throughout 3-4 months period from three female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch) maintained in pairing-typed cage at Schmutzer Primate Center, Jakarta (Ullah) and at Taman Margasatwa Taman Sari, Bandung (Donna and Citah). Following methanolic extraction of lyophilized fecal powder, samples were analyzed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for E1C and PdG. In all of the three females observed, both hormone profiles did not indicate any regular cycle of ovarian function even though genital swellings were sometimes observed. In one female (Donna) the hormone patterns showed clear signs of cycle irregularities with extended luteal phase of 40 days and erratic pattern of follicular phase. Of the other two females, no ovarian cycle was found. The data indicate that the fecal steroids analysis is a practical and valuable diagnostic tool for providing reliable information on ovarian function in Javan Gibbon. Factors affected reproductive hormonal profile should be taken in consideration in trying to achieve success in captive breeding program for this species.

HERA MAHESHWARI; LUTHFIRALDA SJAHFIRDI; PUDJI ASTUTI; BAMBANG PURWANTARA; HADI SUKADI ALIKODRA; DONDIN SAJUTHI; REVIANY WIDJAJAKUSUMA

2010-01-01

132

Fast method for the resolution and determination of sex steroids in urine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of the study was to develop a simple, fast, sensitive and inexpensive method for the separation and quantification of various steroid hormones in urine. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze estrone, estriol, 17-?-estradiol, 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. Three columns were chosen for the present study: two octadecyl columns and one octyl column. The best results of separation were obtained for the octadecyl columns. Complete separation of all sex steroids was impossible when methanol was used during the chromatographic studies. The most interesting and valuable result was obtained with regard to the complete separation of isomers. All seven steroids were successfully separated in 10min, next the time of single analysis was reduced to 5.5min with gradient elution. Linearity was evaluated over a range of concentrations of 0.08-12.11ngml(-1). The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9998. The LOD values were between 0.02 and 0.33ngml(-1) and LOQ ranged between 0.10 and 1.10ngml(-1). The developed method is suitable for routine analysis of these compounds in urine.

Studzi?ska S; Buszewski B

2013-05-01

133

Fast method for the resolution and determination of sex steroids in urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the study was to develop a simple, fast, sensitive and inexpensive method for the separation and quantification of various steroid hormones in urine. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze estrone, estriol, 17-?-estradiol, 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. Three columns were chosen for the present study: two octadecyl columns and one octyl column. The best results of separation were obtained for the octadecyl columns. Complete separation of all sex steroids was impossible when methanol was used during the chromatographic studies. The most interesting and valuable result was obtained with regard to the complete separation of isomers. All seven steroids were successfully separated in 10min, next the time of single analysis was reduced to 5.5min with gradient elution. Linearity was evaluated over a range of concentrations of 0.08-12.11ngml(-1). The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9998. The LOD values were between 0.02 and 0.33ngml(-1) and LOQ ranged between 0.10 and 1.10ngml(-1). The developed method is suitable for routine analysis of these compounds in urine. PMID:23352635

Studzi?ska, S; Buszewski, B

2013-01-09

134

Female sex pheromone of the Gelechiid moth Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sex pheromone system of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller), an important pest of the halophyte Salicornia europaea in the tidal salt marshes, was studied. Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc were identified from both female pheromone glands and female emissions, but in quite different ratios. Field trapping tests demonstrated that Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc are essential for optimal attraction of male moths, and a 100:5 blend found in gland extracts is significantly more attractive to males than a 100:50 ratio similar to that found in SPME samples. Small amounts of E3-12:OAc and Z5-14:OAc also were present in pheromone gland extracts. A blend of E3-12:OAc with Z3-12:OAc attracted a few males, but was not as attractive as the binary blend of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc. Moreover, addition of E3-12:OAc did not affect captures of males to the primary binary blend. Another glandular component, Z5-14:OAc, had no behavioral activity in field bioassays. Therefore, a synthetic mixture of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc in a 100:5 ratio can be used as an effective tool for monitoring and control of this species.

Yang CY; Paik CH; Lee GH; Park JY

2011-11-01

135

Female sex pheromone of the Gelechiid moth Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sex pheromone system of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller), an important pest of the halophyte Salicornia europaea in the tidal salt marshes, was studied. Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc were identified from both female pheromone glands and female emissions, but in quite different ratios. Field trapping tests demonstrated that Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc are essential for optimal attraction of male moths, and a 100:5 blend found in gland extracts is significantly more attractive to males than a 100:50 ratio similar to that found in SPME samples. Small amounts of E3-12:OAc and Z5-14:OAc also were present in pheromone gland extracts. A blend of E3-12:OAc with Z3-12:OAc attracted a few males, but was not as attractive as the binary blend of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc. Moreover, addition of E3-12:OAc did not affect captures of males to the primary binary blend. Another glandular component, Z5-14:OAc, had no behavioral activity in field bioassays. Therefore, a synthetic mixture of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc in a 100:5 ratio can be used as an effective tool for monitoring and control of this species. PMID:22037791

Yang, Chang Yeol; Paik, Chae Hoon; Lee, Geon Hwi; Park, Jin Young

2011-10-29

136

Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on kisspeptin neuron development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, is a neuropeptide required for puberty and adult reproductive function. Understanding the regulation and development of the kisspeptin system provides valuable knowledge about the physiology of puberty and adult fertility, and may provide insights into human pubertal or reproductive disorders. Recent studies, particularly in rodent models, have assessed how kisspeptin neurons develop and how hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate this developmental process. Exposure to sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) during critical periods of development can induce organizational (permanent) effects on kisspeptin neuron development, with respect to both sexually dimorphic and non-sexually dimorphic aspects of kisspeptin biology. In addition, sex steroids can also impart activational (temporary) effects on kisspeptin neurons and Kiss1 gene expression at various times during neonatal and peripubertal development, as they do in adulthood. Here, we discuss the current knowledge--and in some cases, lack thereof--of the influence of hormones and other factors on kisspeptin neuronal development.

Poling MC; Kauffman AS

2013-01-01

137

Engineered multilayer ovarian tissue that secretes sex steroids and peptide hormones in response to gonadotropins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although hormone replacement therapy is an option for the loss of ovarian function, hormone delivery through pharmacological means results in various clinical complications. The present study was designed to deliver sex steroids by a functional construct fabricated using encapsulation techniques. Theca and granulosa cells isolated from ovaries of 21-day old rats were encapsulated in multilayer alginate microcapsules to recapitulate the native follicular structure. Cells encapsulated in two other schemes were used as controls to assess the importance of the multilayer structure. The endocrine functions of the encapsulated cells were assessed in vitro for a period of 30 days. Encapsulated cells showed sustained viability during long-term in vitro culture with those encapsulated in multilayer capsules secreting significantly higher and sustained concentrations of 17 ?-estradiol (E(2)) than the two other encapsulation schemes (p < 0.05, n = 6) in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In addition, cells in the multilayer microcapsules also secreted activin and inhibin in vitro. In contrast, when granulosa and theca cells were cultured in 2D culture, progesterone (P(4)) secretion increased while E(2) secretion decreased over a 30-day period. In summary, we have designed a multilayer engineered ovarian tissue that secretes sex steroids and peptide hormones and responds to gonadotropins, thus demonstrating the ability to recapitulate native ovarian structure ex vivo.

Sittadjody S; Saul JM; Joo S; Yoo JJ; Atala A; Opara EC

2013-03-01

138

New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)

2005-01-01

139

Differential male and female adrenal cortical steroid hormone and cortisol responses to interleukin-6 in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence from experimental animal studies show that sex hormones influence the glucocorticoid response to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory stimuli. In this study we assessed gender differences in the response of ACTH and cortisol in normal young male and female humans following intraven...

Silva, C; Inês, L; Nour, D; Straub, RH; Pereira da Silva, JA

140

Levels of advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor female sex workers in West Yorkshire, UK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of independent indoor female sex workers (FSW) in West Yorkshire, UK who advertise unprotected sex, and to investigate any association with cost, location and provision of anal sex. METHODS: Data on whether independent indoor FSW (defined as those not advertising via an escort agency or through a parlour) advertised unprotected sexual services, along with demographic data, were collected from 462 advertisement profiles of FSW in West Yorkshire from the website http://www.adultwork.com. Independent t test and ?(2) statistics were used to test the association between advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and FSW age, cost of services, location and whether they advertised anal sex. RESULTS: Unprotected vaginal sex was advertised by 8% of FSW, and unprotected oral sex by 74% of FSW. FSW advertising unprotected vaginal sex were more likely to live in Wakefield and Bradford than in Leeds, had significantly lower hourly rates, and were more likely to advertise anal sex. CONCLUSIONS: Advertised condom use for vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor FSW in West Yorkshire was significantly lower than reported rates of protected sex found in previous studies based in London and the south of England. The advertisement of unprotected vaginal sex is associated with factors such as lower hourly rates and the advertisement of higher risk anal sex, which may signify greater economic need. FSW offering unprotected sex therefore represent an at-risk target group for health promotion.

Eccles C; Clarke J

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work, and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n = 253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2 and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2012-05-01

142

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work, and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n = 253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2 and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs.

Goldenberg SM; Rangel G; Vera A; Patterson TL; Abramovitz D; Silverman JG; Raj A; Strathdee SA

2012-05-01

143

Differential display analysis of gene expression in female-to-male sex-reversing gonads of the frog Rana rugosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroids play pivotal roles in gonadal differentiation in many species of vertebrates. The sex can be reversed from female to male by testosterone in the Japanese wrinkled frog Rana rugosa, but it is still unclear what genes are up- or down-regulated during the XX sex-reversal in this species. To search the genes for the female-to-male sex-reversal, we employed differential display and 5'/3'-RACE. Consequently, we isolated from the gonads at day 8 after testosterone injection 24 different cDNA fragments showing a testosterone treatment-related change and then obtained three full-length cDNAs, which we termed Zfp64, Zfp112, and Rrp54. The former two cDNAs encoded different proteins with zinc-finger domains, whereas the latter cDNA encoded an unknown protein. Transcripts of the three genes were hardly detectable in the sex-reversing gonads at day 24 after the injection; at this time few growing oocytes were observed in the sex-reversing gonad. Besides, in situ hybridization analysis showed positive signals of the three genes in the cytoplasm of growing oocytes of an ovary when testosterone was injected into a tadpole. Thus, the decrease in expression of these three genes was probably due to the disappearance of growing oocytes and not to their direct involvement in the testis formation. To find the key-gene for testis formation, it will be necessary to analyze, by the differential display method, more genes showing a change in expression pattern during sex reversal.

Okada G; Maruo K; Funada S; Nakamura M

2008-02-01

144

Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

2013-07-15

145

Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs ...

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

146

Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have important biological roles in prepubertal children.

Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise

2010-01-01

147

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age g...

Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

148

Melatonin and ethanol intake exert opposite effects on circulating estradiol and progesterone and differentially regulate sex steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts, and uteri of adult rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic ethanol intake is associated with sex hormone disturbances, and it is well known that melatonin plays a key role in regulating several reproductive processes. We report the effects of ethanol intake and melatonin treatment (at doses of 100 ?g/100 g BW/day) on sex hormones and steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts and uteri of ethanol-preferring rats. After 150 days of treatment, animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were harvested to evaluate androgen, estrogen, progesterone and melatonin receptor subunits (AR, ER-? and ER-?, PRA, PRB and MT1R, respectively). Melatonin decreased estradiol (E2) and increased progesterone (P4) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-STM), while an ethanol-melatonin combination reduced both P4 and E2. Ovarian AR was not influenced by either treatment, and oviduct AR was reduced after ethanol-melatonin combination. Oviduct ER-?, ER-? and uterine ER-? were down-regulated by either ethanol or melatonin. Conversely, ovarian PRA and PRB were positively regulated by ethanol and ethanol-melatonin combination, whereas PRA was down-regulated in the uterus and oviduct after ethanol consumption. MT1R was increased in ovaries and uteri of melatonin-treated rats. Ethanol and melatonin exert opposite effects on E2 and P4, and they differentially regulate the expression of sex steroid receptors in female reproductive tissues.

Chuffa LG; Seiva FR; Fávaro WJ; Amorim JP; Teixeira GR; Mendes LO; Fioruci-Fontanelli BA; Pinheiro PF; Martinez M; Martinez FE

2013-08-01

149

Melatonin and ethanol intake exert opposite effects on circulating estradiol and progesterone and differentially regulate sex steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts, and uteri of adult rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic ethanol intake is associated with sex hormone disturbances, and it is well known that melatonin plays a key role in regulating several reproductive processes. We report the effects of ethanol intake and melatonin treatment (at doses of 100 ?g/100 g BW/day) on sex hormones and steroid receptors in the ovaries, oviducts and uteri of ethanol-preferring rats. After 150 days of treatment, animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were harvested to evaluate androgen, estrogen, progesterone and melatonin receptor subunits (AR, ER-? and ER-?, PRA, PRB and MT1R, respectively). Melatonin decreased estradiol (E2) and increased progesterone (P4) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-STM), while an ethanol-melatonin combination reduced both P4 and E2. Ovarian AR was not influenced by either treatment, and oviduct AR was reduced after ethanol-melatonin combination. Oviduct ER-?, ER-? and uterine ER-? were down-regulated by either ethanol or melatonin. Conversely, ovarian PRA and PRB were positively regulated by ethanol and ethanol-melatonin combination, whereas PRA was down-regulated in the uterus and oviduct after ethanol consumption. MT1R was increased in ovaries and uteri of melatonin-treated rats. Ethanol and melatonin exert opposite effects on E2 and P4, and they differentially regulate the expression of sex steroid receptors in female reproductive tissues. PMID:23591044

Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fávaro, Wagner José; Amorim, João Paulo A; Teixeira, Giovana R; Mendes, Leonardo O; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

2013-04-13

150

Anal sex and associated HIV-related sexual risk factors among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the correlates of anal sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) and examine the association of anal sex with HIV-related sexual risk factors in Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A cross-sectional behavioural survey was conducted in 2011 among 795 FSWs aged 18 years or older. Probability-based cluster sampling was used to select respondents from sex work hotspots. RESULTS: One-quarter (23%) of FSWs had practiced anal sex in the last year. The odds of practicing anal sex were higher among FSWs aged 35 years or more than in those aged less than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.05, P<0.05), in those formerly married compared to those currently married (AOR: 1.88, P<0.01), in those having an income only from sex work compared to those having additional sources of income (AOR: 1.54, P<0.05), those reporting heavy alcohol consumption compared to those who did not (AOR: 2.80, P<0.01) and those who experienced violence compared to those who had not (AOR: 2.80, P<0.01). FSWs practicing anal sex were more likely to experience sexually transmissible infection (STI) related symptoms than those practicing only vaginal sex. There was no association between anal sex practice and condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Anal sex is associated with STI symptoms, a factor for HIV risk. HIV intervention programmes need to educate FSWs about the risks associated with anal sex.

Patra RK; Mahapatra B; Kovvali D; Proddutoor L; Saggurti N

2012-11-01

151

The influence of steroid sex hormones on the cognitive and emotional processing of visual stimuli in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid sex hormones are responsible for some of the differences between men and women. In this article, I review evidence that steroid sex hormones impact on visual processing. Given prominent sex-differences, I focus on three topics for sex hormone effects for which there is most research available: 1. Preference and mate choice, 2. Emotion and recognition, and 3. Cerebral/perceptual asymmetries and visual-spatial abilities. For each topic, researchers have examined sex hormones and visual processing using various methods. I review indirect evidence addressing variation according to: menstrual cycle phase, pregnancy, puberty, and menopause. I further address studies of variation in testosterone and a measure of prenatal testosterone, 2D:4D, on visual processing. The most conclusive evidence, however, comes from experiments. Studies in which hormones are administrated are discussed. Overall, many studies demonstrate that sex steroids are associated with visual processing. However, findings are sometimes inconsistent, differences in methodology make strong comparisons between studies difficult, and we generally know more about activational than organizational effects. PMID:23988462

Little, Anthony C

2013-08-26

152

Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates estrogenic actions to prevent body weight gain in female mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogen receptor-? (ER?) expressed by hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons largely mediates the antiobesity effects of estrogens in females. However, the critical molecular events that are coupled to ER? and mediate estrogenic effects on energy balance remain unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1), a nuclear receptor coactivator, is abundantly expressed by both proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons. We further showed that central administration of an ER? agonist, propyl pyrazole triol, acutely increases physical interaction between SRC1 and ER? in the hypothalamus. Finally, we demonstrated that the effects of estrogens on energy homeostasis are significantly blunted in female mice lacking SRC1 globally. Collectively our results indicate that SRC1 is functionally required to mediate the antiobesity effects of estrogen-ER? signals.

Zhu L; Yang Y; Xu P; Zou F; Yan X; Liao L; Xu J; O'Malley BW; Xu Y

2013-01-01

153

Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis.

Hachero-Cruzado I; Forniés A; Herrera M; Mancera JM; Martínez-Rodríguez G

2013-04-01

154

Lipids and addiction: how sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids interact with drugs of abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipidomics aims to identify and characterize all endogenous species of lipids and understand their roles in cellular signaling and, ultimately, the functioning of the organism. We are on the cusp of fully understanding the functions of many of the lipid signaling systems that have been identified for decades (e.g., steroids, prostaglandins), whereas our understanding of newer lipid signaling systems (e.g., endocannabinoids, N-acyl amides) still lags considerably behind. With an emphasis on their roles in the neurophysiology of addiction, we will examine three classes of lipids--sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids--and how they work synergistically in the neurocircuitry of motivation. We will first give a brief overview of the biosynthesis for each class of lipid and its receptors, and then summarize what is known about the collective roles of the lipids in cocaine and alcohol abuse. This approach provides a novel view of lipid signaling as a class of molecules and their synergistic roles in addiction.

Leishman E; Kokesh KJ; Bradshaw HB

2013-04-01

155

Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis. PMID:22806610

Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Forniés, Asunción; Herrera, Marcelino; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

2012-07-18

156

Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

Nyina-wamwiza L; Defreyne PS; Ngendahayo L; Milla S; Mandiki SN; Kestemont P

2012-10-01

157

Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in Healthy Boys with Pubertal Gynaecomastia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying etiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of estrogens and/or deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role. In the present study we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of FSH, LH, SHBG, testosterone, E2, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6.1-19.8 yr) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance. Non-fasting blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and prolactin. RESULTS: We found that 23% (31/133) of all pubertal boys had gynaecomastia. More specifically 63% (10/16) of boys in genital stage 4 had gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher IGF-I levels compared to controls (IGF-I SD-score 0.72 vs. -0.037, p<0.001). This difference was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age and pubertal stage). Sex steroid levels, estradiol/testosterone-ratio, or free testosterone were not associated with the presence of gynaecomastia with or without adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels were elevated in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia compared to boys without gynaecomastia, whereas sex steroid levels did not differ. We speculate that the GH-IGF-I axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of pubertal gynaecomastia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Mieritz MG; Sorensen K; Aksglaede L; Mouritsen A; Hagen CP; Hilsted L; Anderson AM; Juul A

2013-09-01

158

Reconstruction of endometrium in vitro via rabbit uterine endometrial cells expanded by sex steroid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To culture rabbit endometrial cells by using sex steroids to provide adequate seeding cells for endometrium reconstruction and uterine tissue engineering. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Academy of Military Medical Sciences. ANIMAL(S): New Zealand rabbit and Kunming white strain mice. INTERVENTION(S): Rabbits were primed with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and hCG. Endometrial cells were cultured with E(2) and P(4) of different concentrations. The endometrium was reconstructed by using endometrial cells as seeding cells and collagen-basement membrane matrix as scaffolds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Assay with 93-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometric analysis, hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, and developmental rate of embryos. RESULT(S): The expression patterns of estrogen receptor and P receptor of rabbit endometrium were different before and after treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-hCG. One hundred nanomolar E(2) with 10 nmol/L P(4) facilitated the proliferation of epithelial cells whereas 100 nmol/L P(4) facilitated that of stromal cells. The epithelial cells could be stable if cultured for seven or eight passages. Cells in the epithelial layer of the reconstructed endometrium were cytokeratin positive. Some showed columnar morphology akin to the luminal epithelium in vivo. Reconstructed endometrium could improve the developmental rate and quality of one-cell mice embryos. CONCLUSION(S): Rabbit endometrial cells could be cultured with a long-standing proliferation capability by sex steroids and applied in uterine tissue engineering. Reconstructed endometrium with proliferated endometrial cells was akin to native endometrium in structure and function.

Wang HB; Lü SH; Lin QX; Feng LX; Li DX; Duan CM; Li YL; Wang CY

2010-05-01

159

A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme

2004-09-22

160

Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to transitional males, to nesting males in all brain macroareas. These results suggest that the transition into the nesting male tactic is accompanied both by an increase in testicular androgen production and by a higher conversion of androgens into estrogens in the brain. The increase in androgen production is likely to mediate the development of male secondary sexual characters while the increase in brain AA may be related to the behavioral changes associated with tactic transition. PMID:18760279

Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

2008-08-09

 
 
 
 
161

Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to transitional males, to nesting males in all brain macroareas. These results suggest that the transition into the nesting male tactic is accompanied both by an increase in testicular androgen production and by a higher conversion of androgens into estrogens in the brain. The increase in androgen production is likely to mediate the development of male secondary sexual characters while the increase in brain AA may be related to the behavioral changes associated with tactic transition.

Gonçalves D; Teles M; Alpedrinha J; Oliveira RF

2008-11-01

162

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:21331628

Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

2011-02-18

163

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

Mestre-Alfaro A; Ferrer MD; Sureda A; Tauler P; Martínez E; Bibiloni MM; Micol V; Tur JA; Pons A

2011-09-01

164

Functional impact of silencing the Helicoverpa armigera sex-peptide receptor on female reproductive behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female Helicoverpa armigera sex pheromone production is under the control of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). After mating, females undergo suppression of sex pheromone production and enhanced oviposition as a result of the transfer of male-derived seminal peptides. In a previous study we identified a putative H. armigera sex-peptide receptor (HeaSP-R) and demonstrated a significant up-regulation in gene expression levels of this receptor in brains and pheromone glands of mated females, thereby implicating a regulatory role for sex peptide in the reproductive behaviour of H. armigera. In the present study, we show that virgin females injected with Drosophila melanogaster SP (DrmSP), in addition to inhibition of pheromone production, also exhibited a suppression of calling behaviour and a significant reduction in the gene expression levels of the PBAN-receptor. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of the HeaSP-R expression by 50-60% prevented DrmSP-suppression of pheromone production and calling behaviour. Moreover, mated, silenced females failed to increase their oviposition rates as is normally observed in mated females, and their behaviour did not differ from that of virgin females. However, sex pheromone production by mated, silenced females remained low, comparable to mated, normal females, thereby indicating the probable involvement of additional factors in the suppression of sex pheromone production after mating.

Hanin O; Azrielli A; Applebaum SW; Rafaeli A

2012-04-01

165

Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds. PMID:23660445

González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-05-06

166

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

2010-12-01

167

Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds.

González-Morán MG; González-Arenas A; Germán-Castelán L; Camacho-Arroyo I

2013-08-01

168

Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g) were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co): received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL): received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM) was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and melatonin receptor (MTR) along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

A Chuffa Luiz Gustavo; Seiva Fábio RF; Fávaro Wagner; Teixeira Giovana R; Amorim João PA; Mendes Leonardo O; Fioruci Beatriz A; Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F; Fernandes Ana Angélica H; Franci Janete AA; Delella Flávia K; Martinez Marcelo; Martinez Francisco E

2011-01-01

169

Doing Marriage and Love in the Borderland of Transnational Sex Work. : Female Thai Migrants in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article analyses how the subject positions of wife, sex worker and female migrant intersect in the narratives of love of female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark. To a certain extent, the borders between migration, sex work and marriage are fluid. I argue that such narratives of love are highly relevant in studies of transnational sex work if we want to grasp the complexity of female migrants’ selling sexual services. In this connection, conditions such as the Danish migration policy, according to which a non-EU migrant can only be granted a residence permit by marrying a Danish citizen, become relevant. The article analyses the many meanings ascribed to love by female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark.

Spanger, Marlene

2013-01-01

170

Acute effects of sex-specific sex hormones on heat shock proteins in fast muscle of male and female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock protein (HSP) expression and sex hormone levels have been shown to influence several aspects of skeletal muscle physiology (e.g., hypertrophy, resistance to oxidative stress), suggesting that sex hormone levels can effect HSP expression. This study evaluated the effects of differing levels of sex-specific sex hormones (i.e., testosterone in males and estrogen in females) on the expression of 4: HSP70, HSC70, HSP25, and ?B-crystallin in the quadriceps muscles of male and female rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 5 M and F/group). The first group (Ctl) consisted of typically cage-housed animals that served as controls. The second group (H) was gonadectomized and received either testosterone (males) or estradiol (females) via injection for 12 consecutive days. The third group (Gx) was gonadectomized and injected as above, but with vehicle only, rather than hormones. Significant sex by condition interactions (P HSP70, which exhibited a significant effect of condition only. The expression of all HSPs was greater (1.9-2.5-fold) in males vs. females in the Ctl group, except for HSP70, which was no different. Generally, gonadectomy appeared to have greater effects in males than females, but administration of the exogenous sex hormones tended to produce more robust relative changes in females than males. There were no differences in myosin composition in any of the groups, suggesting that changes in fiber type were not a factor in the differential protein expression. These data may have implications for sex-related differences in muscular responses to exercise, disuse, and injury. PMID:23821238

Romani, William A; Russ, David W

2013-07-03

171

Females are the ecological sex: sex-specific body mass ecogeography in wild sifaka populations (Propithecus spp.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous work in primates has shown that body size often covaries with ecological parameters related to resource or energy availability in the environment. This relationship may differ for males and females as access to resources has greater importance for reproductive success in females. We test the hypotheses that (1) female body mass may be more tightly constrained than male body mass by ecological variables, and (2) female body mass may respond more strongly than male body mass to changes in ecological variables (i.e., population-specific female mass may vary more across an ecological gradient than male mass). Specifically, we investigate the relationship between climatic variables and sex-specific body mass in Propithecus, a genus in which species-specific body mass has already been demonstrated to covary significantly with climatic variables. Data from 733 wild sifakas are used to identify sex-specific body mass for 27 populations representing all nine described sifaka species, and climatic data for each population are derived from the WorldClim database. We use phylogenetic generalized least squares models to demonstrate that body mass in both sexes is significantly correlated with annual rainfall and number of dry months. Furthermore, coefficients of determination are always higher for female models, and coefficients for each climatic variable are higher for females in all significant models. These results support the two hypotheses tested, indicating that ecological forces can have a greater impact on female mass than on male mass in primates.

Gordon AD; Johnson SE; Louis EE Jr

2013-05-01

172

Seasonal variations and alterations of sex steroid levels during the reproductive cycle of male roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal variations of plasma steroid concentrations i.e. progesterone (P), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-?-estradiol (E2) were determined immunoenzymatically during a whole reproductive cycle in male roach (Rutilus rutilus) caught in a reference site. Plasma 11-KT concentrations were significantly correlated with gonad growth, expressed as the gonado-somatic index (R² =0.60; p<0.05) and highest concentrations (757 ± 99 pg ml?¹ ) coincided with the final testis maturation in March. E2 and P concentrations peaked once during the reproductive cycle. E2 synthesis was significantly induced during the spawning period while P concentration peaked at the very start of the gametogenesis (June) thus suggesting specific roles of these steroids in the reproductive cycle. Comparison of reference levels were then made with plasma steroid concentrations from male roach sampled in polluted areas in the North of France. A significant decrease of E2 (50-60%) and 11-KT (76-84%) was measured, indicating that endocrine disrupting compounds may have interfered with the normal sex steroid synthesis. Contrary to the E2 and 11-KT sex steroids, plasma P concentration was not significantly affected in fish inhabiting impacted areas.

Geraudie P; Gerbron M; Minier C

2010-01-01

173

Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbro (more) w, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

Richter, M; Chersich, M; Temmerman, M; Luchters, S

2013-04-01

174

Expression of heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 in endometrial carcinomas. Correlation with clinicopathology, sex steroid receptor status, and p53 protein expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 are involved in the functional modulation of sex steroid receptors and are expressed in normal endometrium. However, little is known about the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 in endometrial carcinomas. METHODS: The immunohistochemical reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against HSP70 and HSP90 was examined in 42 endometrial carcinomas, and the presence or absence of correlation with the clinicopathologic features, sex steroid receptor status, and p53 protein expression was analyzed. RESULTS: Expression of HSP70 was found in 52% of endometrial carcinomas and was correlated with nonendometrioid histology (P < 0.05), a poorly differentiated state (P < 0.01), p53 protein expression (P < 0.01), and absence of sex steroid receptors (P < 0.001) in the tumor. By contrast, strong expression of HSP90 was observed in 29% of endometrial carcinomas, and occurred more frequently in well-differentiated carcinomas that were positive for sex steroid receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Both HSP70 and HSP90 are significantly correlated with the histology and the sex steroid receptor status of endometrial carcinomas. Expression of HSP70 may be associated with a loss of sex steroid receptors in either nonendometrioid or poorly differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium, which frequently exhibits p53 protein expression. Conversely, strong expression of HSP90 may indicate high levels of sex steroid receptors in the tumor cells.

Nanbu K; Konishi I; Komatsu T; Mandai M; Yamamoto S; Kuroda H; Koshiyama M; Mori T

1996-01-01

175

The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme.

Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S.; Hiremath, Jyoti M.; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

2012-01-01

176

THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D.), weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05). Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05). The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani; Maria Rahmani; Mohammad Javad Rasaee; Farshad Tojari; Parisa Pournemat; Sergej M Ostojic; Stephan Robert Stannard

2010-01-01

177

Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17? enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17?-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17?,20?-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

2004-03-01

178

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimata-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

Arantes FP; Santos HB; Rizzo E; Sato Y; Bazzoli N

2011-07-01

179

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-04-08

180

Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology during the annual reproductive cycle of river catfish Hemibagrus nemurus (Valenciennes, 1840) in captivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology were correlated to study the annual reproductive cycle of Hemibagrus nemurus. Hormones were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gonad tissues were observed by using light microscopy. The highest testosterone (T) value for male was observed in November and that of female was in October. 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels were highest in June and November, respectively. Hormonal profiles of T, 11-KT and E2 showed several peaks which indicated a non-seasonal pattern. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the monthly levels of T, 11-KT and E2. Gonadosomatic index of H. nemurus ranged from 1.14 ± 0.02 % to 7.06 ± 1.40 %, and high gonadosomatic indices were recorded in May, August and November. Gonad histology revealed that spermatozoa were always present in the testes which implied continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous ovarian development pattern was observed in the ovaries. The annual reproductive cycle of H. nemurus did not show a seasonal pattern and this indicate that H. nemurus is a non-seasonal breeder with several spawning cycles and can be referred to as indeterminate batch spawner. The major significances of this study are annual sex steroid hormonal profile and asynchronous ovarian development of H. nemurus. This information will contribute to our knowledge of reproductive biology of H. nemurus.

Adebiyi FA; Siraj SS; Harmin SA; Christianus A

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Parana basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish.

Perini VD; Paschoalini AL; Cruz CK; Rocha RD; Senhorini JA; Ribeiro DM; Formagio PS; Bazzoli N; Rizzo E

2013-04-01

182

Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in the canine ovary and their relation to sex steroid hormone concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to describe the normal cellular distribution of progesterone receptors in the canine ovary at different stages of the oestrous cycle. Samples of both ovaries were obtained from 75 healthy adult bitches of various breeds and ages, including five pregnant bitches and three bitches that had just delivered. The presence of progesterone receptors was visualized by immunohistochemistry on paraffin wax sections using a monoclonal antibody. Nuclear staining for progesterone receptors was observed in the surface epithelium, cortical tubules, rete ovarii, follicle cells, thecal cells, luteal cells, granulosa cell cords and ovarian stroma. The staining intensity for progesterone receptors in the follicle cells increased with the stage of follicle development, indicating an intrafollicular role of progesterone in the mechanism of ovulation and luteinization. The stronger staining intensities for progesterone receptors in thecal cells compared with follicle cells may be explained by the fact that thecal cells mediate some effects of steroid hormones on the follicle cells in secondary and tertiary follicles. Little correlation was found between the expression of progesterone receptors in follicle cells and oestradiol, progesterone or testosterone concentrations. This finding indicates a different regulating mechanism for progesterone receptors in canine ovarian follicles compared with other tissues of the genital tract. During pregnancy all groups of ovarian cells had lower staining intensity scores than during the oestrous cycle, although the sex steroid hormone concentrations in pregnant bitches were similar to those in non-pregnant bitches during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. The lower expression of progesterone receptors during pregnancy may be due to higher tissue concentrations of progesterone that are not reflected in the serum because of haemodilution and increased metabolism and clearance during pregnancy.

Vermeirsch H; Simoens P; Coryn M; Van den Broeck W

2001-07-01

183

Female sex and estrogen receptor-beta attenuate cardiac remodeling and apoptosis in pressure overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated sex differences and the role of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) on myocardial hypertrophy in a mouse model of pressure overload. We performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery in male and female wild-type (WT) and ERbeta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) mice. All mice were characterized by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements and were killed 9 wk after surgery. Left ventricular (LV) samples were analyzed by microarray profiling, real-time RT-PCR, and histology. After 9 wk, WT males showed more hypertrophy and heart failure signs than WT females. Notably, WT females developed a concentric form of hypertrophy, while males developed eccentric hypertrophy. ERbeta deletion augmented the TAC-induced increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in both sexes. Gene expression profiling revealed that WT male hearts had a stronger induction of matrix-related genes and a stronger repression of mitochondrial genes than WT female hearts. ERbeta(-/-) mice exhibited a different transcriptional response. ERbeta(-/-)/TAC mice of both sexes exhibited induction of proapoptotic genes with a stronger expression in ERbeta(-/-) males. Cardiac fibrosis was more pronounced in male WT/TAC than in female mice. This difference was abolished in ERbeta(-/-) mice. The number of apoptotic nuclei was increased in both sexes of ERbeta(-/-)/TAC mice, most prominent in males. Female sex offers protection against ventricular chamber dilation in the TAC model. Both female sex and ERbeta attenuate the development of fibrosis and apoptosis, thus slowing the progression to heart failure. PMID:20375266

Fliegner, Daniela; Schubert, Carola; Penkalla, Adam; Witt, Henning; Kararigas, Georgios; Kararigas, George; Dworatzek, Elke; Staub, Eike; Martus, Peter; Ruiz Noppinger, Patricia; Kintscher, Ulrich; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

2010-04-07

184

Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the effects of stress on the brain.

Franklin TB; Perrot-Sinal TS

2006-01-01

185

Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

Yan Hong; Chen Weiqi; Wu Haocheng; Bi Yongyi; Zhang Miaoxuan; Li Shiyue; Braun Kathryn L

2009-01-01

186

Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.  

Science.gov (United States)

An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli. PMID:19016319

Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

2008-11-19

187

Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

Alexander GM; Charles N

2009-06-01

188

Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). METHODS: Ninety-nine ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (premenopausal women); and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E(2) were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E(2), and SHBG. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among premenopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile = 5.16, 95% CI, 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E(2), fE(2), and DHEAS showed nonsignificant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among postmenopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR = 3.14; 95% CI, 1.21-9.37), whereas E(2) and fT showed nonsignificant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in postmenopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E(2) may be involved in the etiology of ICC. IMPACT: The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.

Rinaldi S; Plummer M; Biessy C; Castellsagué X; Overvad K; Krüger Kjær S; Tjønneland A; Clavel-Chapelon F; Chabbert-Buffet N; Mesrine S; Lukanova A; Kaaks R; Weikert C; Boeing H; Trichopoulou A; Lagiou P; Trichopoulos D; Palli D; Agnoli C; Tumino R; Vineis P; Panico S; Bueno-de-Mesquita B; van Kranen HJ; Peeters PH; Bakken K; Lund E; Gram IT; Rodríguez L; Bosch FX; Sánchez MJ; Dorronsoro M; Navarro C; Gurrea AB; Kjellberg L; Dillner J; Manjer J; Butt S; Khaw KT; Wareham N; Allen NE; Travis R; Romieu I; Ferrari P; Riboli E; Franceschi S

2011-12-01

189

Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complete sex reversal of fish is accomplished routinely in aquaculture practices by exposing fish to exogenous sex steroids during gonadal differentiation. A variety of environmental chemicals are also active at sex steroid receptors and theoretically possess the potential to alter normal sexual dif...

Edmunds, J S; McCarthy, R A; Ramsdell, J S

190

Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

Walaszczyk EJ; Johnson NS; Steibel JP; Li W

2013-06-01

191

The relationship between serum sex steroid levels and heart rate variability parameters in males and the effect of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationships between sex steroid levels and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 114 male subjects (mean age 46.6±11.3 years) presenting to our department for cardiologic evaluation. Hormonal analysis included serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone, estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). Parameters of HRV were derived from 24-hour Holter monitoring. The associations between serum sex steroid levels and HRV parameters were investigated in three age groups (20-39 years; 40-59 years; >60 years). RESULTS: All the participants had normal biochemical results. The three age groups were similar in terms of anthropometric measurements. Among sex steroids analyzed, only serum DHEA-S level was significantly different among the groups (p=0.026), showing a decreasing trend with age. In the evaluation of HRV, all parasympathetic activities decreased (for HFn, pNN50, and rMSDD: p=0.001, p=0.000, and p=0.000, respectively), while only LF/HF among sympathetic activities increased (p=0.000) with age. Partial correlation analysis with control of age and waist circumference showed that TT and DHEA-S were positively correlated with HFn (parasympathetic parameter), and were in negative correlation with LF/HF24 hours and global sympathetic index (GSI) (sympathetic parameters). Serum E2 level was negatively correlated with the parasympathetic parameter of rMSSD, and positively correlated with LF/HF24 hours and GSI. Among serum sex steroids, DHEA-S was the most correlated parameter with autonomic functions. CONCLUSION: Our results showed positive correlations between androgens and parasympathetic activity and between estradiol and sympathetic activity in men, independent from anthropometric factors.

Do?ru MT; Ba?ar MM; Yuvanç E; Sim?ek V; Sahin O

2010-10-01

192

The studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content. (Chiba, N.)

1981-01-01

193

Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-oestradiol (E2) and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; p<0.0001) or KT (r=0.52494 and 0.43545, respectively; p<0.0001) concentrations. Plasma androgen levels in XY and sex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (p<0.0001) between T and 11-KT levels for XY males (r=0.7533) and sex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (<0.1 ng/ml) over the year. Levels of E2 were undetectable through the year in both groups of trout. In conclusion, the androgenic and oestrogenic profiles of sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile.

Espinosa E; Josa A; Gil L; González N

2011-02-01

194

Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. PARTICIPANTS: Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self reported gender based violence. RESULTS: Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio-legal policy reforms, improved access to housing and drug treatment, and scale up of violence prevention efforts, including police-sex worker partnerships, will be crucial to stemming violence against female sex workers.

Shannon K; Kerr T; Strathdee SA; Shoveller J; Montaner JS; Tyndall MW

2009-01-01

195

Urinary steroid profiling in the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and disorders of sex development: experience of a urinary steroid referral centre in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Deficiency in any one of the steroidogenic enzymes may result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and disorders of sex development (DSD). Urinary steroid profiling (USP) can quantify metabolites of all relevant steroids simultaneously in a single analysis and has established clinical applications in the investigation and diagnosis in these disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all the samples sent to the Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, for the investigation of suspected disorders in steroid metabolism by USP between 2003 and 2011. RESULTS: 432 patients had urine samples sent to our laboratory for USP for the investigation of CAH and DSD in the review period. USP showed diagnostic pattern of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n=21), 5?-reductase 2 deficiency (n=12), 17?-hydroxylase deficiency (n=3), isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency (n=1), 11?-hydroxylase deficiency (n=1) and P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of CAH while 5?-reductase 2 deficiency is the most common cause of 46,XY DSD in our population. USP is a useful tool in the investigation and diagnosis of CAH and DSD due to different steroidogenesis defects and should be included as a first-line endocrine investigation in this group of patients.

Chan AO; Shek CC

2013-03-01

196

Sex differences in sexual partner acquisition, retention, and harassment during female homosexual consortships in Japanese macaques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in certain populations are unusual in that they exhibit male-typical patterns of mounting behavior and sexual-partner preference. The goal of this study was to determine whether female Japanese macaques, from one such population, employ male-typical behavioral tactics to disrupt existing homosexual consortships, as well as to acquire and retain same-sex sexual partners. "Harassment" of homosexual consortships occurred when a sexually motivated, third-party male or female interrupted a consorting female couple by displacing or aggressing them. Sexual harassment was a male-typical strategy for disrupting existing homosexual consortships, but was rarely performed by females. "Intrusions" occurred when a male or female competitor attempted to acquire exclusive access to a female engaged in a homosexual consortship by targeting that female as the focus of competition and her partner as his/her competitor. "Sexual coercion" occurred when one individual alternately sexually solicited and aggressed another individual as part of the same behavioral sequence during an intrusion. Males employed consortship intrusions and sexual coercion when they attempted to acquire female sexual partners that were already engaged in homosexual consortships, but females rarely did so. However, females did employ male-typical patterns of aggressive competition and sexual coercion to retain same-sex sexual partners when confronted with male competitors' attempts to usurp those partners. These results indicate that female sexual activity during homosexual consortships is not uniformly "masculine" in expression, but rather is a mixture of male- and female-typical behaviors.

Vasey PL

2004-12-01

197

Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. METHODS: Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as fro...

Vandepitte, J.; Lyerla, R.; Dallabetta, G.; Crabbé, F.; Alary, M.; Buvé, A.

198

Sex chromosome pairing and heterochromatin body appearance in Cydia pomonella females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis

2005-01-01

199

Structural barriers to receiving health care services for female sex workers in Russia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female sex workers in Russia have been particularly vulnerable to recent social, political, and economic changes. In this article, we describe the facilitators and barriers for sex workers receiving health care services in St. Petersburg, Russia. We conducted observations at medical institutions and nongovernmental organizations and in-depth interviews with 29 female sex workers. We identified the following barriers: poverty, not having documents, lack of anonymity in testing, and the official registration system. We identified the following facilitators: intervention by family members, social connections within the health care system, and referral services from a nongovernmental organization. Our findings indicate a need for reassessing policies and designing programs that better facilitate the use of health care services for the most vulnerable populations. This should include the expansion of support systems and outreach services designed to help female sex workers navigate the health care system.

King EJ; Maman S

2013-08-01

200

Disulphates of 16-oxygenated ketonic C19 steroids as biliary metabolities of androsterone sulphate in female rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical synthesis of 16beta-hydroxyandrosterone was described preparatory to studies of the disulphates of the 16-oxygenated ketonic C19 steroids present in the bile of female rats dosed with [3H]androsterone sulphate. The biliary metabolites were separated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 to afford monosulphate and diconjugate fractions. After solvolysis of the diconjugate fraction, the liberated steroids were separated by partition chromatography on Celite 545 and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry. In addition to 3alpha, 17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstan-16-one isolated previously, 16beta-hydroxyandrosterone was identified as a disulphate.

Matsui M; Hakozaki M

1978-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of n-3HUFA Content in Broodstock Diets on Reproductive Perfor maryce and Seasonal Changes of Plasma Sex Steroids Levels in Plectorhynchus cinctus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to study the effects of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids(n-3 HUFA) content in broodstock diets on the reproductive performance and seasonal changes of plasma sex steroids levels?five groups of Plectorhynchus cinctus female broodstocks were respectively fed a natural diet composed of trash fish(D5) and four artificial formulated diets containing 0. 16%(D1)?1 .27%(D2)?2. 36%(D3) and 3.47%(D4) of n-3 HUFA?during the whole reproductive cy-cle .Their fecundity?egg and larval quality were evaluated?and the levels of plasma sex steroids were monthly monitore d .It was found that the eggs production/ kg of female?fertilization rate of eggs?larval survival and length at mouthopening stage of both D2 and D3 group were equivalent to those of D5 group;however?those of D1 and D4 group were significantly lower than D5 group.Dietary n-3 HUFA content showed no obvious influence on the seasonal change pattern of plasma 17-estradiol(E_(2) and testosterone(T).However?the plasma E_(2) and T levels in gonad developmental and ma ture seasons of Dl and D4 group were significantly lower than those of D5 group.Dietary n-3 HUFA content also displayed some influence on Ez and T production by in vitro ovarian follicles .Little basic E_(2 )production was observed by varian follicles of D4 group .Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG?100 l U/ mL) stimulated Ez and T production by ovarian follicles of D2-D5 group;however?ovarian follicles of Dl group had no response to HCG .The results suggest that the optimum n-3 HUFA requirements in broodstock diet of P. cinctus range between 1.27%and 2.36%?deficient or high dietary n-3 HUFA content may have negative effect on reproductive performance of broodstocks;n-3 HUFA may affeet the reproductive performance by influencing the production of sex steroids.

Li Yuanyou; Chen Weizhou; Sun Zewei; Chen Hehui; Wu Kegang

2004-01-01

202

Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

2013-01-01

203

Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

2013-06-13

204

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD. PMID:23505265

Gillespie, Charles F; Almli, Lynn M; Smith, Alicia K; Bradley, Bekh; Kerley, Kimberly; Crain, Daniel F; Mercer, Kristina B; Weiss, Tamara; Phifer, Justine; Tang, Yilang; Cubells, Joseph F; Binder, Elisabeth B; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J

2013-03-15

205

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD.

Gillespie CF; Almli LM; Smith AK; Bradley B; Kerley K; Crain DF; Mercer KB; Weiss T; Phifer J; Tang Y; Cubells JF; Binder EB; Conneely KN; Ressler KJ

2013-04-01

206

The endocrine control of reproduction and molt in male and female emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins. I. Annual changes in plasma levels of gonadal steroids and LH.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in plasma LH, testosterone, and estrogens were investigated throughout reproduction and molt in free-living male and female emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins. In both sexes and species, plasma LH and gonadal steroids were severalfold above basal level at the time of arrival on the breeding grounds, suggesting that environmental cues (especially decreasing daylength in emperors) rather than mating and courting primarily stimulate gonadal development and reproduction. In both species a marked increase in plasma LH (both sexes), testosterone (males), and estrogens (females) corresponded with the time of maximum gonadal size, and peak values were obtained at the time of copulation, i.e., in emperors about 10-15 days prior to egg laying. In females, plasma LH and estrogens dropped to low levels between copulation and egg laying. Similarly, following copulation in males plasma testosterone fell to lower levels that in emperors were maintained during incubation and brooding of the non-thermally emancipated chick. Plasma LH levels followed the same trend as testosterone, falling after copulation and falling further prior to molt. Though lower than at copulation, plasma LH was higher in incubating (males) and brooding (males and females) emperors than during rearing of the thermally emancipated chicks, suggesting that plasma LH might be related to incubating, brooding, and territorial behavior. In male and female emperors and in male adelies, plasma gonadal steroids and LH were at basal levels throughout molt.

Groscolas R; Jallageas M; Goldsmith A; Assenmacher I

1986-04-01

207

The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards.

Billy AJ; Crews D

1986-02-01

208

The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards. PMID:3959084

Billy, A J; Crews, D

1986-02-01

209

Development, sex steroid regulation, and phenotypic characterization of RFamide-related peptide (Rfrp) gene expression and RFamide receptors in the mouse hypothalamus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in Rfrp-expressing neurons in mice of both sexes during development and under different adulthood hormonal milieus. We found no sex differences in Rfrp expression or cell number in adult mice. Interestingly, we identified two interspersed subpopulations of Rfrp cells (high Rfrp-expressing, HE; low Rfrp-expressing, LE), which have unique developmental and steroidal regulation characteristics. The number of LE cells robustly decreases during postnatal development, whereas HE cell number increases significantly before puberty. Using Bax knockout mice, we determined that the dramatic developmental decrease in LE Rfrp cells is not due primarily to BAX-dependent apoptosis. In adults, we found that estradiol and testosterone moderately repress Rfrp expression in both HE and LE cells, whereas the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone has no effect. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we determined that approximately 25% of Rfrp neurons coexpress estrogen receptor-? in each sex, whereas Rfrp cells do not readily express androgen receptor in either sex, regardless of hormonal milieu. Lastly, when we looked at RFRP-3 receptors, we detected some coexpression of Gpr147 but no coexpression of Gpr74 in GnRH neurons of both intact and gonadectomized males and females. Thus, RFRP-3 may exert its effects on reproduction either directly, via Gpr147 in a subset of GnRH neurons, and/or indirectly, via upstream regulators of GnRH. PMID:22355072

Poling, Matthew C; Kim, Joshua; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

2012-02-21

210

Development, sex steroid regulation, and phenotypic characterization of RFamide-related peptide (Rfrp) gene expression and RFamide receptors in the mouse hypothalamus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in Rfrp-expressing neurons in mice of both sexes during development and under different adulthood hormonal milieus. We found no sex differences in Rfrp expression or cell number in adult mice. Interestingly, we identified two interspersed subpopulations of Rfrp cells (high Rfrp-expressing, HE; low Rfrp-expressing, LE), which have unique developmental and steroidal regulation characteristics. The number of LE cells robustly decreases during postnatal development, whereas HE cell number increases significantly before puberty. Using Bax knockout mice, we determined that the dramatic developmental decrease in LE Rfrp cells is not due primarily to BAX-dependent apoptosis. In adults, we found that estradiol and testosterone moderately repress Rfrp expression in both HE and LE cells, whereas the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone has no effect. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we determined that approximately 25% of Rfrp neurons coexpress estrogen receptor-? in each sex, whereas Rfrp cells do not readily express androgen receptor in either sex, regardless of hormonal milieu. Lastly, when we looked at RFRP-3 receptors, we detected some coexpression of Gpr147 but no coexpression of Gpr74 in GnRH neurons of both intact and gonadectomized males and females. Thus, RFRP-3 may exert its effects on reproduction either directly, via Gpr147 in a subset of GnRH neurons, and/or indirectly, via upstream regulators of GnRH.

Poling MC; Kim J; Dhamija S; Kauffman AS

2012-04-01

211

Associations between visceral adipose tissue, inflammation and sex steroid concentrations in men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In men, obesity and the metabolic syndrome are accompanied by decreased testosterone levels, but little is known about the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT-related inflammation and sex steroids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative impact of VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a marker of VAT-induced inflammation, on testosterone (T) and 17?-oestradiol (E2) levels in dysmetabolic men. METHODS: We study the NUMEVOX cohort of 229 men, aged 27-77 years, who all had at least one metabolic syndrome criterion (on average three). IL-6, C-reactive protein, Homeostasis Model Assessment of (HOMA) insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), liver enzymes, E2, LH, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), T, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured; bioavailable testosterone (BT) was calculated from T and SHBG; MRI-assessed VAT and SAT were analysed in 109 of these men. RESULTS: Visceral adipose tissue was strongly correlated with E2 (Spearman r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and with BT/E2 ratio (r = -0.42, P < 0.001), while SAT was not correlated with either. IL-6 was correlated with E2 (r = 0.19, P = 0.007), BT (r = -0.19, P = 0.006) and BT/E2 ratio (r = -0.30 P < 0.001). In multivariate linear analysis, the relation between VAT and E2 was independent of age, BMI (P = 0.008), leptin (P < 0.001), T and SHBG. Log(IL-6) was significantly inversely related with log(BT) (P = 0.032) independently of age, VAT, leptin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: 17?-oestradiol levels were positively associated with VAT, but not with SAT, while T and BT were negatively and independently associated with IL-6. The significant inverse association between IL-6 and T suggests an important role of low-grade visceral fat inflammation in the central hypogonadism associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Gautier A; Bonnet F; Dubois S; Massart C; Grosheny C; Bachelot A; Aubé C; Balkau B; Ducluzeau PH

2013-03-01

212

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

Katsulis Y; Durfee A

2012-01-01

213

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom.

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

214

Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone.

Suzuki S

1999-09-01

215

Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone. PMID:10480988

Suzuki, S

1999-09-01

216

Biochemical and physiological characteristics of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This works studies the biochemical (protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity) and physiological characteristics (sperm motility characteristics) of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (n=42) obtained with the application of 11?-hydroksyandrostendione for sex reversal. All data were arbitrarily divided into three classes depending on the percentage of sperm motility: I XX<25%; II XX 25-50% and III XX>50%. The average percentage of sperm motility was 18±7% n=12 (group I XX); 42±6% n=15 (group II XX) and 65±12% n=15 for group III XX, respectively) to link the values of semen parameters to the maturation stage of semen. Semen from 12 normal males of the same age was used as a reference group. Sperm concentration as well as protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma of sex-reversed females were higher compared with the values obtained for normal male rainbow trout. The values of these parameters declined with the increasing percentage of sperm motility toward values established for normal males. The fertilization success of semen (3×10(6) spermatozoa/egg) of sex-reversed females was very high (above 90%) for both the percentage of eyed embryos and hatched larvae and was related to sperm motility classes. Correlations between the quality parameters of sex-reversed females semen corresponded to those established previously for the semen of normal male rainbow trout. Antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, protein concentration, and osmolality were found to be characteristic of seminal plasma of sex-reversed females. The maturity of sex-reversed female spermatozoa seems to be associated with the decline in the values of those parameters toward the values characteristic for seminal plasma of normal males.

Nynca J; Ku?mi?ski H; Dietrich GJ; Hliwa P; Dobosz S; Liszewska E; Karol H; Ciereszko A

2012-01-01

217

Perspectives of Medical Interns Regarding Female Feticide and Declining Sex Ratio in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Female feticide, skewed sex ratio, and its attendant social evils have grave ethical undertones for medical professionals and our commitment to save lives. A concerted effort by all is essential against female feticide. Aim: This study was to assess the knowledge of female feticide, declining sex ratio, and corrective measures among medical interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 79 medical interns. Data werecollected with the help of predesigned structured questionnaire. Chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Z tests were used to test the significance level. Results: Knowledge of current sex ratio was significantly better among female interns than male interns. Majority of interns opined that creating awareness is an effective measure to combat declining sex ratio and only 33 interns had correct knowledge regarding all measures. Only 37.9% of interns knew all the legal indications for use of prenatal diagnostic techniques. However, 81% of interns were aware of punishments mentioned for violation of the Act. Mean score of knowledge was 22.06 among males and 24.4 among females. Conclusion: The findings in our study underline the need to sensitize doctors regardingevery aspect of Pre-Conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act and selective sex determination.

Avachat, Shubhada; Raut, Pritish; Zambare, Mrinal; Gund, Dilipkumar; Pundkar, Rutuja

2013-01-01

218

Transactional sex risk across a typology of rural and urban female sex workers in Indonesia: a mixed methods study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n=310), in-depth interviews (n=11), key informant interviews (n=5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13-0.90, p=0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology.

Puradiredja DI; Coast E

2012-01-01

219

Perceived Stigma of Purchasing Sex Among Latino and Non-Latino Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

Pitpitan EV; Strathdee SA; Semple SJ; Wagner KD; Chavarin CV; Earnshaw VA; Patterson TL

2013-08-01

220

Effects of dopamine 2 receptor antagonist on sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performances in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study has investigated the effects of domperidone (DOM), a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, on plasma steroid hormone levels and reproductive performances of a female tropical marine finfish, Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis), with potential for cultivation in Vietnam. We showed that oral treatment of DOM during early stage of the reproductive cycle had no significant effects on the maturation and reproductive performances of the female fish, while plasma steroid hormone (testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P)) levels were modulated based on month, DOM dose and the individual hormones measured. Overall, these findings suggest that DOM may not be needed for the induction of maturation and spawning of this species under aquaculture conditions. The data in the present study are significant in highlighting practical efforts for reducing drug use, production costs and for a sustainable aquaculture in a developing country such as Vietnam.

Pham HQ; Arukwe A

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

222

Change of the heterogametic sex from male to female in the frog.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two different types of sex chromosomes, XX/XY and ZZ/ZW, exist in the Japanese frog Rana rugosa. They are separated in two local forms that share a common origin in hybridization between the other two forms (West Japan and Kanto) with male heterogametic sex determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes. In this study, to find out how the different types of sex chromosomes differentiated, particularly the evolutionary reason for the heterogametic sex change from male to female, we performed artificial crossings between the West Japan and Kanto forms and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crossing results showed male bias using mother frogs with West Japan cytoplasm and female bias using those with Kanto cytoplasm. The mitochondrial genes of ZZ/ZW and XX/XY forms, respectively, were similar in sequence to those of the West Japan and Kanto forms. These results suggest that in the primary ZZ/ZW form, the West Japan strain was maternal and thus male bias was caused by the introgression of the Kanto strain while in the primary XX/XY form and vice versa. We therefore hypothesize that sex ratio bias according to the maternal origin of the hybrid population was a trigger for the sex chromosome differentiation and the change of heterogametic sex.

Ogata M; Ohtani H; Igarashi T; Hasegawa Y; Ichikawa Y; Miura I

2003-06-01

223

Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also alter their behavior and microhabitat use under a male-biased sex ratio. Consistent with surveys showing reduced detection probabilities for females, our research suggests that females avoid male encounters using edge and substrate habitat. Our work illustrates the integrated suite of impacts that sexual conflict can have on the structure and ecology of a population.

Grayson Kristine L; De Lisle Stephen P; Jackson Jerrah E; Black Samuel J; Crespi Erica J

2012-01-01

224

Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

Lee C; Tran DY; Thoi D; Chang M; Wu L; Trieu SL

2013-04-01

225

Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

2013-04-01

226

Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.

Wijkman M; Bijleveld C; Hendriks J

2010-06-01

227

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

Purves-Tyson Tertia D; Handelsman David J; Double Kay L; Owens Samantha J; Bustamante Sonia; Weickert Cynthia

2012-01-01

228

HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea  

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Full Text Available Eunice Bruce1, Ludwina Bauai2, Mathias Sapuri3, John M Kaldor4, Christopher K Fairley1, Louise A Keogh51Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Central Papua Mission (CPM) of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, Pacific Adventist University, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 3Pacific International Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 4National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Centre for Women's Health, Gender and Society, School of Public Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms 'sometimes', almost one-sixth 'never' used condoms, only a fraction used condoms 'always' with clients, and none used condoms 'always' with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.Keywords: HIV knowledge, risk perception, safer sex practices, female sex workers, clients, regular sexual partners

Eunice Bruce; Ludwina Bauai; Mathias Sapuri; et al

2011-01-01

229

The use of profile similarity indices and the Bem sex role inventory in determining the sex role characterization of a group of male and female nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A group of male and female general nurses was tested using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), with statistical modifications, to determine the degree of pshychologically 'androgynous' sex role characterization, so that comparisons might be drawn between the sexes regarding attributes commonly held to be desirable for nurses. Some indicators for future trends in nurse recruitment are given.

Pontin DJ

1988-11-01

230

THE COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna; Bartusiak Irena; Nowak Agata

2010-01-01

231

Sex allocation in a polyembryonic parasitoid with female soldiers: an evolutionary simulation and an experimental test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasitoid wasps are convenient subjects for testing sex allocation theory. However, their intricate life histories are often insufficiently captured in simple analytical models. In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma koehleri, a clone of genetically identical offspring develops from each egg. Male clones contain fewer individuals than female clones. Some female larvae develop into soldiers that kill within-host competitors, while males do not form soldiers. These features complicate the prediction of Copidosoma's sex allocation. We developed an individual-based simulation model, where numerous random starting strategies compete and recombine until a single stable sex allocation evolves. Life-history parameter values (e.g., fecundity, clone-sizes, larval survival) are estimated from experimental data. The model predicts a male-biased sex allocation, which becomes more extreme as the probability of superparasitism (hosts parasitized more than once) increases. To test this prediction, we reared adult parasitoids at either low or high density, mated them, and presented them with unlimited hosts. As predicted, wasps produced more sons than daughters in all treatments. Males reared at high density (a potential cue for superparasitism) produced a higher male bias in their offspring than low-density males. Unexpectedly, female density did not affect offspring sex ratios. We discuss possible mechanisms for paternal control over offspring sex.

Bügler M; Rempoulakis P; Shacham R; Keasar T; Thuijsman F

2013-01-01

232

Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs.

Sachin JP; Selvasundaram R; Babu A; Muraleedharan N

2008-12-01

233

Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684

Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N

2008-12-01

234

Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research.

Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

2011-01-01

235

Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research.

Surratt HL; Kurtz SP

2012-05-01

236

Studying Alcohol Use Prior to Sexual Intercourse Among Female Sex Workers in Eastern Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researching female sex workers (FSWs) in Indonesia, where commercial sex tends to be hidden or undercover, is challenging but possible. This is even more challenging when it involves investigation of sensitive behaviors, such as their alcohol use, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior. The adoption of effective strategies is needed to increase response rates and improve data quality. This article describes procedures used to research FSWs' alcohol use during commercial sex in the Eastern part of Indonesia. Challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations for best practices are discussed.

Safika I; Johnson TP

2013-07-01

237

Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

Huchard E; Canale CI; Le Gros C; Perret M; Henry PY; Kappeler PM

2012-04-01

238

Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal. PMID:21976684

Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

2011-10-05

239

Effects of Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Inversion and Spermatogenesis in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of letrozole (LZ), a potent nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI), on growth performance, sex inversion, and sex changes were investigated in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which display sexual dimorphic growth. Growth performance was promoted significantly in the low-dose LZ treatment, compared with the control. Four LZ treatments produced dose-dependent male proportions that were significantly higher than that of the control. Histological examination of testes treated by LZ displayed a large amount of spermatozoa and enlarged lobule lumens, indicating that LZ treatments can potentially stimulate spermatogenesis. Changes of sex proportions 45 days after the end of the LZ treatments prove that the female germ cells possess a certain degree of bipotentiality. These results suggest that aromatase activity plays a vital role in sex differentiation, as in other teleosts, with inhibition of aromatase activity by AI bringing about sex inversion.

Shen ZG; Fan QX; Yang W; Zhang YL; Hu PP; Xie CX

2013-09-01

240

Surgical reconstruction for male-to-female sex reassignment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The primary challenge of male-to-female reassignment surgery is to create natural-appearing female genitalia with neovaginal dimensions adequate for intercourse, neoclitoris sensitivity, and minimal risk of complications. Surgical positioning is an important component of the procedure that successfully minimizes the risk of morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We modified various vaginoplasty techniques to better position the urethral neomeatus in the proper anatomic location to minimize the chance for complications and enhance aesthetic satisfaction. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively reviewed data stored in a prospective database for 24 consecutive patients who underwent male-to-female gender reassignment at a German university clinic between January 2007 and March 2011. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: First, orchiectomy and penile disassembly are performed with the patient in the supine position. Both corpora cavernosa are resected with the patient in the lithotomy position, and neovaginal construction is accomplished with the incorporation of the penile urethra into the penile shaft skin. The glans is preserved and resized to form the neoclitoris. The assembled neovagina is inverted, inserted into the expanded rectoprostatic space, and secured to the sacrospinous ligament. Scrotal skin is tailored to create the labia. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Complications and patient satisfaction with neovaginal depth, appearance, neoclitoral sensation, and capacity for sexual intercourse were evaluated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The mean neovaginal depth was 11cm (range: 10-14cm); median follow-up was 39.7 mo (range: 19-69 mo). All patients reported satisfactory vaginal functionality. One patient noted stenosis after 4 yr that was histologically confirmed as lichen sclerosus. Neoclitoral sensation was good or excellent in 97% of patients; 33% reported regular intercourse. No major complications were observed. Because this is a retrospective review to describe a complex reconstructive surgery and illustrate these techniques in the accompanying intraoperative surgery-in-motion video, no control group was undertaken. CONCLUSIONS: Gender reassignment can be performed with minimal complications using penile skin with incorporated penile urethra and intraoperative repositioning of the patient to achieve adequate neovaginal dimensions for intercourse and neoclitoral sensation.

Amend B; Seibold J; Toomey P; Stenzl A; Sievert KD

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS.

Nishigaya K

2002-01-01

242

Sex reversal in female Betta splendens as a function of testosterone manipulation and social influence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Experiment 1, female Betta given daily injections of testosterone (T) for 9 weeks acquired anatomical features characteristic of males as indicated by changes in fin length, body coloration, and gonadal morphology. These findings suggested that a potential for sex reversal exists in females of this species. In Experiment 2 we measured changes in aggressive behavior during testosterone-induced anatomical changes. Aggression decreased toward females and increased toward males as treatment with T progressed. The final displays of aggressive behavior and anatomical characteristics of fish injected with T resembled those of typical males. In Experiment 3, female Betta primed with T injections for 3 or 6 weeks and permitted to interact socially with females continued to display characteristics of sex reversal after T supplementation ceased. Sex reversal in isolated fish injected with T for 3 or 6 weeks was not sustained, and fish receiving only the control vehicle showed negligible change in both the isolated and community conditions. We discuss the results in terms of similarities with the sex change process found in isolated communities of coral reef fish.

Badura LL; Friedman H

1988-09-01

243

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-04-25

244

Sex differences in sexual partner acquisition, retention, and harassment during female homosexual consortships in Japanese macaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in certain populations are unusual in that they exhibit male-typical patterns of mounting behavior and sexual-partner preference. The goal of this study was to determine whether female Japanese macaques, from one such population, employ male-typical behavioral tactics to disrupt existing homosexual consortships, as well as to acquire and retain same-sex sexual partners. "Harassment" of homosexual consortships occurred when a sexually motivated, third-party male or female interrupted a consorting female couple by displacing or aggressing them. Sexual harassment was a male-typical strategy for disrupting existing homosexual consortships, but was rarely performed by females. "Intrusions" occurred when a male or female competitor attempted to acquire exclusive access to a female engaged in a homosexual consortship by targeting that female as the focus of competition and her partner as his/her competitor. "Sexual coercion" occurred when one individual alternately sexually solicited and aggressed another individual as part of the same behavioral sequence during an intrusion. Males employed consortship intrusions and sexual coercion when they attempted to acquire female sexual partners that were already engaged in homosexual consortships, but females rarely did so. However, females did employ male-typical patterns of aggressive competition and sexual coercion to retain same-sex sexual partners when confronted with male competitors' attempts to usurp those partners. These results indicate that female sexual activity during homosexual consortships is not uniformly "masculine" in expression, but rather is a mixture of male- and female-typical behaviors. PMID:15580585

Vasey, Paul L

2004-12-01

245

Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

Wechsberg Wendee M; Wu Li-Tzy; Zule William A; Parry Charles D; Browne Felicia A; Luseno Winnie K; Kline Tracy; Gentry Amanda

2009-01-01

246

Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. RESULTS: As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. CONCLUSION: FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

Wechsberg WM; Wu LT; Zule WA; Parry CD; Browne FA; Luseno WK; Kline T; Gentry A

2009-01-01

247

Changes in androgen-producing cell size and circulating 11-ketotestosterone level during female-male sex change of honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent male-specific androgen in fish, has important roles on spermatogenesis, male behavior, and nuptial coloration. The site of 11-KT synthesis and its role on male germ cell development during protogynous sex change is not clearly understood. We examined the dynamics of steroidogenic enzymes immunolocalization, viz cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), biomarker of steroids and cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta), downstream to 11-KT production, throughout the process of sex change in honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra). In female, P450scc immunoreactivity (-ir) was observed in the theca layer and tunica near blood vessels (BV). During the onset of sex change, P450scc reactive cells were observed in the remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte of the ovo-testis in early transitional (ET) and late transitional (LT). In male, P450scc-ir was localized in the interstitial Legdig cells of testis. P45011beta reactive cells were observed in the tunica near BV in female but not in theca layer. In ET and LT phases gonads, P45011beta localized in remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte and tunica near BV. On the other hand, in male, both interstices and tunica near BV showed strong signals against P45011beta. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro levels of 11-KT related with the changes in the nuclei diameter of P45011beta-positive cells in both tunica near BV and remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte to interstices during the progress of sex change. The present results suggest that 11-KT produced in the tunica near BV may provide the stimulus for female to degenerate oocytes and initiate sex change. However, 11-KT produced both in tunica near BV and remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte possibly plays critical role during testicular differentiation as well as gonadal restructuring at mid to late phases (ET to LT) of sex change in honeycomb grouper.

Alam MA; Bhandari RK; Kobayashi Y; Nakamura S; Soyano K; Nakamura M

2006-02-01

248

Changes in androgen-producing cell size and circulating 11-ketotestosterone level during female-male sex change of honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra.  

Science.gov (United States)

11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent male-specific androgen in fish, has important roles on spermatogenesis, male behavior, and nuptial coloration. The site of 11-KT synthesis and its role on male germ cell development during protogynous sex change is not clearly understood. We examined the dynamics of steroidogenic enzymes immunolocalization, viz cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), biomarker of steroids and cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta), downstream to 11-KT production, throughout the process of sex change in honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra). In female, P450scc immunoreactivity (-ir) was observed in the theca layer and tunica near blood vessels (BV). During the onset of sex change, P450scc reactive cells were observed in the remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte of the ovo-testis in early transitional (ET) and late transitional (LT). In male, P450scc-ir was localized in the interstitial Legdig cells of testis. P45011beta reactive cells were observed in the tunica near BV in female but not in theca layer. In ET and LT phases gonads, P45011beta localized in remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte and tunica near BV. On the other hand, in male, both interstices and tunica near BV showed strong signals against P45011beta. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro levels of 11-KT related with the changes in the nuclei diameter of P45011beta-positive cells in both tunica near BV and remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte to interstices during the progress of sex change. The present results suggest that 11-KT produced in the tunica near BV may provide the stimulus for female to degenerate oocytes and initiate sex change. However, 11-KT produced both in tunica near BV and remaining follicle layer of degenerated oocyte possibly plays critical role during testicular differentiation as well as gonadal restructuring at mid to late phases (ET to LT) of sex change in honeycomb grouper. PMID:16261615

Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Shigeo; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masaru

2006-02-01

249

MOLECULAR TOOL FOR SEX IDENTIFICATION (FEMALE) IN MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB WITH REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL VALUES  

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Full Text Available Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of polymorphic DNA was used to identify female plants before pre-flowering stage. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-15 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. This sex specific band OPA-15900 was identified only in female lines but not in male lines. This marker may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for female identification in Momordica dioica at pre-flowering stages so that it can be cultivated and utilized for its medicinal purpose.

Baratakke R.C.; Patil C.G.; Poornima.B; Sankannavar S. H

2013-01-01

250

Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions. PMID:20524949

Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

2010-05-26

251

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success.

Sharaf SM

2012-05-01

252

Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M

2012-02-25

253

HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: outputs, cost and efficiency  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. Methods Detailed output and cost data for the 2002–2003 fiscal year were obtained using standardised methods at 15 HIV prevention programmes for female sex worker in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. The services provided and their relation to the total and unit economic costs were analysed using regression techniques. The trends for the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes since inception up to fiscal year 2004–2005 were examined. Results The 15 programmes provided services to 33941 sex workers in fiscal year 2002–2003 (range 803–6379, median 1970). Of the total number of contacts with sex workers, 41.6% were by peer educators and 58.4% by other programme staff. The number of sex worker contacts in a year by peer educators varied 74-fold across programmes as compared with a 2.7-fold variation in sex worker contacts by other programme staff. The annual economic cost of providing services to a sex worker varied 6-fold between programmes from Indian Rupees (INR) 221.8 (US$ 4.58) to INR 1369 (US$ 28.29) with a median of INR 660.9 (US$ 13.66) and mean of INR 517.8 (US$ 10.70). Personnel salaries made up 34.7% of the total cost, and recurrent goods made up 38.4% of which 82.1% was for condoms. The cost per sex worker provided services had a significant inverse relation with the number of sex workers provided services by a programme (p 2 = 0.75; power function). There was no correlation between the full time equivalents of programme staff and the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes, but there was a modest inverse correlation between the number of sex workers served and the average time spent with each sex worker in the year adjusted for the full-time equivalents of programme staff (p = 0.011, R2 = 0.40; exponential function). The average number of sex workers provided services annually by the first batch of 7 programmes started in early 1999 plateaued after the fourth fiscal year to 3500, whereas the 8 second-batch programmes started in late 2000 reached an average of 2000 sex workers in 2004–2005 with an increasing trend up to this fourth fiscal year. Conclusion The HIV prevention efforts in this Indian state would benefit from standardisation of the highly variable services provided by peer educators, who form an important part of the sex worker programmes. The cost per sex worker served decreases with increasing number of sex workers served annually, but this has to be weighed against an associated modest trend of decrease in time spent with each sex worker in some programmes.

Dandona Lalit; Sisodia Pratap; Kumar SG Prem; Ramesh YK; Kumar A Anod; Rao M Chalapathi; Marseille Elliot; Someshwar M; Marshall Nell; Kahn James G

2005-01-01

254

Clients of Female Sex Workers: A Population-Based Survey of China  

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The control of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a challenge in China, with female sex workers (FSW) and male clients suspected as bridge groups. This study used a 2006 national probability survey of 2,707 adult men. Among men 15–49 years old, the prevalence of FSW contacts last...

Pan, Suiming; Parish, William L.; Huang, Yingying

255

Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers  

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OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City...

Juarez-Figueroa, L.; Uribe-Salas, F.; Conde-Glez, C.; Hernandez-Avila, M.; Olamendi-Portugal, M.; Uribe-Zuniga, P.

256

Male Use of Female Sex Work in India: A Nationally Representative Behavioural Survey  

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Heterosexual transmission of HIV in India is driven by the male use of female sex workers (FSW), but few studies have examined the factors associated with using FSW. This nationally representative study examined the prevalence and correlates of FSW use among 31,040 men aged 15–49 years in India in 2...

Gaffey, Michelle F.; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Dhingra, Neeraj; Khera, Ajay; Kumar, Rajesh; Arora, Paul; Nagelkerke, Nico

257

Gonorrhoea: auxotypes, serovars, and clinical manifestations among female sex workers from Kinshasa, Zaïre.  

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The main question in this paper was to look at the distribution of auxotypes and serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and check whether they correlate with clinical symptoms/signs among female sex workers (FSW) from Kinshasa, Zaïre. The subject were 1233 FSW enrolled in a cross sectional study on STDs ...

Mukenge-Tshibaka, L; Alary, M; Van Dyck, E; Laga, M; Nzila, N

258

Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females  

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Full Text Available Sexual subjectivity (SS) includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, self-efficacy and self-reflection, and those in longerromantic relationships (> 1.5 years) had higher sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy, but lower self-reflection.Females with a history of same-sex sexual experience were higher in sexual entitlement, self-efficacy andself-reflection. In multiple regression, females with a steady partner and who reported more positive romanticquality had greater sexual body-esteem. Females in longer relationships were higher in sexual self-efficacy butlower in self-reflection. Same-sex sexual experience was associated with greater entitlement to self-pleasure. Forsexual self-efficacy and self-reflection, having a steady partner and a history of same-sex sexual experience wereuniquely associated. The developmental, theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

Marie-Aude Boislard P.; Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck

2011-01-01

259

ENANTIOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF THE FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE OF THE PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG, MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is an exotic insect pest and recently invaded Southern California and Florida. The female M. hirsutus releases a novel cyclobutanoid monoterpene alcoholic ester that together with lavandulyl ester constitutes the sex pheromone to attract...

260

Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons.  

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In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate grou...

Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

 
 
 
 
261

Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100 mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper.

Garcia CE; Araújo BC; Mello PH; Narcizo AD; Rodrigues-Filho JA; Medrado AT; Zampieri RA; Floeter-Winter LM; Moreira RG

2013-06-01

262

Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

2013-06-19

263

Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

Azim Tasnim; Chowdhury Ezazul I; Reza Masud; Ahmed Munir; Uddin Mohammed T; Khan Repon; Ahmed Giasuddin; Rahman Motiur; Khandakar Irona; Khan Sharful I; Sack David A; Strathdee Steffanie A

2006-01-01

264

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimata-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the Sao Francisco River, downstream from the Tres Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam.

Arantes FP; Santos HB; Rizzo E; Sato Y; Bazzoli N

2010-04-01

265

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity, and spawning of the curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated for the first time sex steroid profiles and fecundity in females of Prochilodus argenteus from two sections of the São Francisco River Brazil, downstream from the Três Marias Dam, which influences characteristics of their water habitat. The model species in the study, P. argenteus, is an important commercial and recreational species in Brazil. In the region closest to the dam (section 1), females did not reach final oocyte maturation, failed to spawn, and displayed lesser circulating concentrations of testosterone, 17(-hydroxyprogesterone (17(-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) than those farther downstream of the dam (section 2). The endocrine and fecundity deficiencies probably are attributed to lower water temperature and oxygen concentration in (section 1). The follicular atresia rate in the region closest to the dam (26%) was greater than those fish captured farther downstream of the dam (13%), after the Abaeté River (section 2). Variations in testosterone, E2 and 17(-P concentrations in section 2, followed gonadal maturation which are typical features of species which have seasonal reproduction, group-synchronous oocyte development, and are single batch spawners such as P. argenteus. Results document the first evidence of endocrine and reproductive dysfunctions caused by inadequate water conditions in a wild population of the migratory species P. argenteus in the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam. PMID:19683404

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Helio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2009-07-23

266

Sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of growth-associated protein 43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is well known for its involvement in the regulation of the female reproductive behavior. The dendritic trees of neurons in its ventrolateral division (VMNvl), the dendritic spines, and the dendritic and spine synapses undergo alterations along the estrous cycle. Because these changes are conspicuous, we thought of interest to examine the influence of sex steroids in the levels of the structural proteins of axons and dendrites. The VMNvl of female rats at all phases of the estrous cycle was labeled for growth-associated protein-43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin. The intensity of the labeling was measured using a modified Brightness-Area-Product method that is sensitive to variations the size of the VMN. The brightness per unit area of these proteins did not undergo significant variations over the estrous cycle, except synapsin 1 that was significantly reduced in diestrus relative to the remaining phases of the ovarian cycle. Conversely, the Brightness-Area-Product of all labeled proteins changed along the estrous cycle and was greater at proestrus than at all other phases. Our results show the presence of estrous cycle-related oscillations in the levels of the structural proteins that are involved in dendritic and synaptic plasticity.

Sá SI; Madeira MD

2012-03-01

267

Prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the prevalence of pre-cancerous uterine cervix lesions as detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from female sex workers in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective analysis of laboratory records. SETTING. Private anatomical pathology laboratory, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Female sex workers undergoing Pap smear examinations at two non-governmental organisations between 2006 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Detection of pre-cancerous uterine cervical conditions and their management. RESULTS. A total of 2697 satisfactory Pap smears from female sex workers were performed during the study period from 2006 to 2012. In these subjects, the point prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance was 10.12% (compared with 3.92% for the general population during the same period), whereas that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with or without high-grade intraepithelial lesions was 2.22% (compared with 0.54% in the general population). For both categories of lesions, the higher prevalence among female sex workers than in the general population was statistically significant. Most patients who had abnormal Pap smears received proper referrals and follow-up management according to recommended guidelines. CONCLUSIONS. Female sex workers in Hong Kong as a group had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears than the general population. Non-governmental organisations providing free-of-charge screening services to these women helped early detection and proper follow-up for those who had abnormal Pap smears, whilst also increasing their awareness of women's health issues.

Leung KM; Yeoh GP; Cheung HN; Fong FY; Chan KW

2013-06-01

268

SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG MALE AND FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing the motor abilities of 214 male and 238 female handball players from four age groups (12-12.9, 13-13.9, 14-14.9, and 15-15.9 years). Five motor abilities tests were administered: a) ball throwing velocity, b) standing long jump, c) 30-m running speed, d) 20-m shuttle run and e) sit-and-reach flexibility. ANCOVA was used to test for sex differences by age group with age, height and weight as covariates. Results showed that in the 12-12.9 age group males and females had similar performances in standing long jump and aerobic capacity. In the older age groups, and besides having the same performance demands and training experience, males performed better than females in motor abilities that are important for handball. It appears that sport-specific training is not sufficient to attenuate sex differences in motor performance of young handball players.

I. Zapartidis; M.E. Nikolaidou; I. Vareltzis; P. Kororos

2011-01-01

269

The effect of sex peptide and calorie intake on fecundity in female Drosophila melanogaster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The accessory gland proteins (Acps) of the male Drosophila cause changes in the behavior and physiology of female flies. Sex peptide (SP) is one of the Acps that initiates many changes, including an increase in egg production. The data presented here show that SP overexpression in transgenic (G-10) female flies increases egg production when females are kept on a standard and high-calorie diet, relative to controls that do not express SP. Particularly, a high increase in egg production observed in G-10 females on a high-calorie diet suggests that SP overexpression magnifies the female response to caloric uptake. However, on a calorie-restricted diet, the fecundity of G-10 females overexpressing SP is lower than control females. On a high-calorie diet, mating increases early egg production in G-10 and control females, but lifelong total egg production is only increased in control females, most likely due to the physiological changes set off by substantial initial egg production in G-10 females.

Rogina B

2009-01-01

270

HIV risk behaviours differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele  

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Full Text Available Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stable (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results. Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (Conclusions. Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes.

Nadine E. Chen; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Gudelia Rangel; Thomas L Patterson; Felipe J. Uribe-Salas; Perth Rosen; Jorge Villalobos; Kimberly C. Brouwer

2012-01-01

271

Leptin-mediated modulation of steroidogenic gene expression in hypoxic zebrafish embryos: implications for the disruption of sex steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypoxia can impair reproduction of fishes through the disruption of sex steroids. Here, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, we investigated (i) whether hypoxia can directly affect steroidogenesis independent of pituitary regulation via modulation of steroidogenic gene expression, and (ii) the role of leptin in hypoxia-induced disruption of steroidogenesis. Exposure of fertilized zebrafish embryos to hypoxia (1.0 mg O(2) L(-1)) from 0-72 h postfertilization (hpf), a developmental window when steroidogenesis is unregulated by pituitary influence, resulted in the up-regulation of cyp11a, cyp17, and 3?-hsd and the down-regulation of cyp19a. Similar gene expression patterns were observed for embryos exposed to 10 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF-1), suggesting a regulatory role of HIF-1 in steroidogenesis. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations in hypoxic embryos were greater and lesser, respectively, relative to the normoxic control, thus leading to an increased T/E2 ratio. Expression of the leptin-a gene (zlep-a) was up-regulated upon both hypoxia and CoCl(2) treatments. Functional assays suggested that under hypoxia, elevated zlep-a expression might activate cyp11a and 3?-hsd and inhibit cyp19a. Overall, this study indicates that hypoxia, possibly via HIF-1-induced leptin expression, modulates sex steroid synthesis by acting directly on steroidogenic gene expression.

Yu RM; Chu DL; Tan TF; Li VW; Chan AK; Giesy JP; Cheng SH; Wu RS; Kong RY

2012-08-01

272

Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications.

Rizk MZ; Metwally NS; Hamed MA; Mohamed AM

2012-10-01

273

Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)

1979-01-01

274

Prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest among injection drug-using female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended.

Stockman JK; Morris MD; Martinez G; Lozada R; Patterson TL; Ulibarri MD; Vera A; Strathdee SA

2012-10-01

275

HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria

Ankomah A; Omoregie G; Akinyemi Z; Anyanti J; Ladipo O; Adebayo S

2011-01-01

276

Biliary lipids, bile acids, and gallbladder function in the human female:effects of contraceptive steroids  

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Reported are biliary lipid composition and secretion, bile acid composition and kinetics, and gallbladder function in a group of healthy, nonobese women taking a contraceptive steroid preparation. A comparable group of healthy women served as controls. Biliary lipid secretion rate was measured by the marker perfusion technique. Bile acid distribution was determined by gas-lipid chromatography. The pool size, FTR, and synthesis rate of each bile acid were measured by using CA and CDCA labeled with the stable isotope of carbon, /sup 13/C. In some of the subjects gallbladder storage and emptying were measured during the kinetic study, by real-time ultrasonography. Contraceptive steroid use was associated with a significant increase in biliary cholesterol saturation and in the lithogenic index of bile. The rate of cholesterol secretion in the contraceptive steroid group was 50% greater than in the control (p << 0.001) and the rate of bile acid secretion was reduced (p < 0.02). The total bile acid pool size was significantly increased by contraceptive steroids. The major increase occurred in the CA pool (p < 0.04). The daily rate of enterohepatic cycles of the bile acid pool was decreased by contraceptive steroids from 6.6 to 4.3 (p < 0.01). The only effect of contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function was a slower emptying rate in response to intraduodenal amino acid infusion. No index of gallbladder function correlated significantly with any parameter of bile acid kinetics in this small group of subjects. The findings confirm the lithogenic effect of contraceptive steroids and indicate that its causes are an increase in cholesterol secretion and a decrease in bile acid secretion.

Kern, F., Jr. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver); Everson, G.T.; DeMark, B.; McKinley, C.; Showalter, R.; Braverman, D.Z.; Szczepanik-Van Leeuwen, P.; Klein, P.D.

1982-06-01

277

Understanding out-migration among female sex workers in South India  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Migrant sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV. There is substantial female sex worker (FSW) mobility between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka, but little programming emphasis on migrant FSWs in India. We sought to understand the individual/cultural, structural and contextual determinants of migration among FSWs from Karnataka. METHODS A cross sectional face-to-face interview of 1567FSWs from 142 villages in 3 districts of northern Karnataka, India was conducted from January–June 2008. Villages having 10+FSWs, a large number of whom were migrant, were selected following mapping of FSWs. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify characteristics associated with migrant (travelled for ?2weeks outside the district past year) and mobile (travelled for 2languages (AOR 5.6%; 2.6–12.0), have more clients (AORper client 2.9; 1.2–7.2) and have more sex acts/day (AORper sex act 3.5; 1.3–9.3). Mobile FSWs had higher income from sex work (AOR=13.2; 3.9–44.6) relative to non-migrants, but not as strongly as for migrant FSWs. CONCLUSION Out-migration of FSWs in Karnataka was strongly tied to sex work characteristics; thus, the structure inherent in sex work should be capitalized on when developing HIV preventive interventions. The important role of FSWs in HIV epidemics, coupled with the potential for rapid spread of HIV with migration, requires the most effective interventions possible for mobile and migrant FSWs.

Banandur, Pradeep; Ramnaik, Satyanarayana; Manhart, Lisa E.; Buzdugan, Raluca; Mahapatra, Bidhubhushan; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S; Washington, Reynold G; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

2012-01-01

278

Migration Status, Work Conditions and Health Utilization of Female Sex Workers in Three South African Cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3 %) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0 % (638/1636) internal and 46.3 % (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41 % lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95 % confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed.

Richter M; Chersich MF; Vearey J; Sartorius B; Temmerman M; Luchters S

2012-12-01

279

The relationship between same-sex sexual experience, sexual distress, and female sexual dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is little research estimating the occurrence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in women with same-sex sexual experience and none incorporating a key feature of standardized DSM-IV diagnoses-sexual distress. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of FSD in women with and without same-sex sexual experience and whether any effects of same-sex sexual experience on women's sexual functioning are moderated by frequency and type of sexual activity. METHODS: The sample consisted of 5,998 female individuals aged 18-49 years. Prevalence of FSD was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index and an abbreviated version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Measurement of frequency and variation in sexual activity was conducted using a modified version of the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. Lifetime same-sex experience was assessed with a single question. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of FSD. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the subsample-specific, mediating role of frequency and mode of sexual activities on FSD. RESULTS: Women with same-sex sexual experience (13.6%) engaged significantly more in all sexual activities (P < 0.01) compared with women without such experience. They further reported significantly more desire (Z = 3.1, P < 0.05) and satisfaction problems (z = 10.6, P < 0.001). When controlling patterns of sexual activities no significant effect of same-sex sexual experience on desire could be detected (OR 1.1, CI 95% 0.9-1.2, P > 0.1), whereas the significant association between same-sex sexual experience and sexual dissatisfaction remained (OR 1.28, CI 95% 1.1-1.6, P < 0.05). Sexual distress was significantly more prevalent in women with same-sex sexual experience (23%) compared with their counterparts (19%). CONCLUSIONS: Same-sex sexual experience is related, both directly and indirectly, to FSD. Testing of the mediating factors underlying this association may offer important clues into the etiology of FSD in general. The results further highlight the need to consider sexual distress as a multidimensional concept.

Burri A; Rahman Q; Santtila P; Jern P; Spector T; Sandnabba K

2012-01-01

280

Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India  

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Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors...

Medhi Gajendra; Mahanta Jagadish; Kermode Michelle; Paranjape Ramesh S; Adhikary Rajatashuvra; Phukan Sanjib; Ngully P

 
 
 
 
281

A Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Structural and Environmental Influences on Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers  

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This study uses multilevel analysis to examine individual, organizational and community levels of influence on condom use among female commercial sex workers (FSW) in the Philippines. A randomized controlled study involving 1,382 female commercial sex workers assigned to three intervention groups co...

Ang, Alfonso; Morisky, Donald E.

282

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

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Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction ...

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

283

The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. METHODS: We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. RESULTS: A total number of 89 178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs.

Emmanuel F; Thompson LH; Athar U; Salim M; Sonia A; Akhtar N; Blanchard JF

2013-09-01

284

The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. Methods We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. Results A total number of 89?178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs.

Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

285

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions.

Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

2012-01-01

286

Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. RESULTS: No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made.

Mattila AK; Fagerholm R; Santtila P; Miettinen PJ; Taskinen S

2012-11-01

287

The cost of sex: quantifying energetic investment in gamete production by males and females.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative energetic investment in reproduction between the sexes forms the basis of sexual selection and life history theories in evolutionary biology. It is often assumed that males invest considerably less in gametes than females, but quantifying the energetic cost of gamete production in both sexes has remained a difficult challenge. For a broad diversity of species (invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and mammals), we compared the cost of gamete production between the sexes in terms of the investment in gonad tissue and the rate of gamete biomass production. Investment in gonad biomass was nearly proportional to body mass in both sexes, but gamete biomass production rate was approximately two to four orders of magnitude higher in females. In both males and females, gamete biomass production rate increased with organism mass as a power law, much like individual metabolic rate. This suggests that whole-organism energetics may act as a primary constraint on gamete production among species. Residual variation in sperm production rate was positively correlated with relative testes size. Together, these results suggest that understanding the heterogeneity in rates of gamete production among species requires joint consideration of the effects of gonad mass and metabolism.

Hayward A; Gillooly JF

2011-01-01

288

HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7%) of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008), the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053) and by their clients (p = 0.005), and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015). The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.

Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol; Marcos Vinicius da Silva

2005-01-01

289

Behavioural evidence for a female sex pheromone in Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mating behaviour of Cotesia flavipes Cameron, 1891 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was observed under laboratory conditions. The results demonstrate that chemical stimuli play an important role in bringing males and females together for mating. Females from this species release chemical compounds to attract males, which exhibit a distinct courtship behaviour divided into three main steps: (i) antennation, (ii) lateral bouncing and (iii) wing fluttering. Ethological tests using hexane extracts from two different parts of the female's body (head plus thorax and abdomen) demonstrate that males are more attracted and also display a courtship behaviour when a filter paper containing hexane extracts from the abdomen is presented to them, indicating that the abdomen is the source of the sex pheromone of this species. Naive males of this species respond to hexane extracts of this gland by displaying courtship behaviour. Furthermore, additional tests show that C. flavipes females mate only once, whereas virgin males do not show any preference for virgin or mated females, suggesting that mated females of this species continue to produce sex attractants after mating.

Freitas MdoRTde; Mendonca AdeL; Nascimento RRdo; Sant'Ana AEG

2004-06-01

290

Sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster males is a global regulator of reproductive processes in females.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) alter female behaviour and physiology and can mediate sexual conflict. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and sexual receptivity. These effects can favour the evolutionary interests of males while generating costs in females. We tested the hypothesis that SP is an upstream master-regulator able to induce diverse phenotypes through efficient induction of widespread transcriptional changes in females. We profiled mRNA responses to SP in adult female abdomen (Abd) and head+thorax (HT) tissues using microarrays at 3 and 6 h following mating. SP elicited a rich, subtle signature of temporally and spatially controlled mRNAs. There were significant alterations to genes linked to egg development, early embryogenesis, immunity, nutrient sensing, behaviour and, unexpectedly, phototransduction. There was substantially more variation in the direction of differential expression across time points in the HT versus Abd. The results support the idea that SP is an important regulator of gene expression in females. The expression of many genes in one sex can therefore be under the influence of a regulator expressed in the other. This could influence the extent of sexual conflict both within and between loci.

Gioti A; Wigby S; Wertheim B; Schuster E; Martinez P; Pennington CJ; Partridge L; Chapman T

2012-11-01

291

Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT) and fetal estradiol (fE) levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35) following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT) levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT), a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT) levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal) androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

Auyeung Bonnie; Ahluwalia Jag; Thomson Lynn; Taylor Kevin; Hackett Gerald; O’Donnell Kieran J; Baron-Cohen Simon

2012-01-01

292

[Metamizol-caffeine elimination in females with increased serum aminotransferase activities treated with steroidal oral contraceptives].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The elimination of caffeine from the plasma and the excretion of the major metabolites of metamizol (AnalginR) in the urine was studied in 25 women on long-term oral steroid contraceptives. Both tests allowed to draw conclusions about metabolic liver function. A steroid-induced delay of the elimination of caffeine in clinically healthy women with/without serologic elevation of aminotransferase activities was demonstrated. --We regard this as the consequence of an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450-dependent poly-functional oxidases of the P-450MC type, which was produced by oral contraceptives. The differences in the elimination of metamizol were not significant.

Bergmann M; Splinter FC; Henschel L; Balogh A; Hoffmann A; Klinger G

1988-01-01

293

Alpha-acaridial a female sex pheromone from an alarm pheromone emilting mite Rhizoglyphus robini.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The female sex pheromone of Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède (Astigmata: Acaridae) was identified as alpha-acaridial [2(E)-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-butenedial], which stimulated males sexually and enhanced the frequency of male mounting behavior. Although a hexane extract of females manifested alarm pheromone activity against tested males due to the presence of the alarm pheromone neryl formate, silica gel column fractions containing alpha-acaridial evoked increased mounting behavior by males at a dose of 0.1 female equivalent. Synthetic alpha-acaridial at a dose of 10 ng showed a peak of activity as a sex pheromone, with a convex dose-response relationship. Its content was determined to be 388 +/- 244 ng per female and 163 +/- 97 ng per male by GC. This is the first time that two pheromones (the alarm pheromone neryl formate, and the sex pheromone alpha-acaridial) have been demonstrated to be components of the same opisthonotal gland secretion in astigmatid mites. A mechanism for the appropriate expression of the two pheromones by the mites under different conditions is proposed.

Mizoguchi A; Mori N; Nishida R; Kuwahara Y

2003-07-01

294

Female Fertilization: Effects of Sex-Specific Density and Sex Ratio Determined Experimentally for Colorado Potato Beetles and Drosophila Fruit Flies  

Science.gov (United States)

If males and females affect reproduction differentially, understanding and predicting sexual reproduction requires specification of response surfaces, that is, two-dimensional functions that relate reproduction to the (numeric) densities of both sexes. Aiming at rigorous measurement of female per capita fertilization response surfaces, we conducted a multifactorial experiment and reanalyzed an extensive data set. In our experiment, we varied the density of male and female Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetles) by placing different numbers of the two sexes on enclosed Solanum tuberosum (potato plants) to determine the proportion of females fertilized after 3 or 22 hours. In the reanalysis, we investigated how the short-term fertilization probability of three Drosophila strains (melanogaster ebony, m. sepia, and simulans) depended on adult sex ratio (proportion of males) and total density. The fertilization probability of female Leptinotarsa decemlineata increased logistically with male density, but not with female density. These effects were robust to trial duration. The fertilization probability of female Drosophila increased logistically with both sex ratio and total density. Treatment effects interacted in m. sepia, and simulans. These findings highlight the importance of well-designed, multifactorial experiments and strengthen previous experimental evidence for the relevance of sex-specific densities to understanding and prediction of female fertilization probability.

Vahl, Wouter K.; Boiteau, Gilles; de Heij, Maaike E.; MacKinley, Pamela D.; Kokko, Hanna

2013-01-01

295

Female fertilization: effects of sex-specific density and sex ratio determined experimentally for Colorado potato beetles and Drosophila fruit flies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

If males and females affect reproduction differentially, understanding and predicting sexual reproduction requires specification of response surfaces, that is, two-dimensional functions that relate reproduction to the (numeric) densities of both sexes. Aiming at rigorous measurement of female per capita fertilization response surfaces, we conducted a multifactorial experiment and reanalyzed an extensive data set. In our experiment, we varied the density of male and female Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetles) by placing different numbers of the two sexes on enclosed Solanum tuberosum (potato plants) to determine the proportion of females fertilized after 3 or 22 hours. In the reanalysis, we investigated how the short-term fertilization probability of three Drosophila strains (melanogaster ebony, m. sepia, and simulans) depended on adult sex ratio (proportion of males) and total density. The fertilization probability of female Leptinotarsa decemlineata increased logistically with male density, but not with female density. These effects were robust to trial duration. The fertilization probability of female Drosophila increased logistically with both sex ratio and total density. Treatment effects interacted in m. sepia, and simulans. These findings highlight the importance of well-designed, multifactorial experiments and strengthen previous experimental evidence for the relevance of sex-specific densities to understanding and prediction of female fertilization probability.

Vahl WK; Boiteau G; de Heij ME; MacKinley PD; Kokko H

2013-01-01

296

Semicomprehensive analysis of the postnatal age-related changes in the mRNA expression of sex steroidogenic enzymes and sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sex steroids play a crucial role in the postnatal brain development, the age-related changes in the hippocampal steroidogenesis remain largely unknown. We performed comprehensive investigations for the mRNA expressions of 26 sex steroidogenic enzymes/proteins and three sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus, at the ages of postnatal day (PD) 1, PD4, PD7, PD10, PD14, 4 wk, and 12 wk (adult), by RT-PCR/Southern blotting analysis. The relative expression levels of these enzymes/receptors at PD1 were Srd5a1 > Star > Ar ? Hsd17b4 ? Hsd17b1 ? Hsd17b7 ? Esr1 ? Srd5a2 > Hsd17b3 > Esr2 > Cyp11a1 > Cyp17a1 > Cyp19a1 ? Hsd17b2 > 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I. The mRNA levels of essential enzymes for progesterone/testosterone/estradiol metabolisms (Cyp17a1, Hsd17b7, and Cyp19a1) were approximately constant between PD1 and PD14 and then declined toward the adult levels. Cyp11a1 increased during PD4-PD14 and then considerably decreased toward the adult level (?8% of PD1). Hsd17b1, Hsd17b2, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I mRNA decreased approximately monotonously. Hsd17b3 increased to approximately 200% of PD1 during PD4-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The 5?-reductase mRNA was maintained constant (Srd5a1) or decreased monotonically (Srd5a2) toward the adult level. The Esr1 level peaked at PD4 and decreased toward the adult level, whereas Ar greatly increased during PD1-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The Star and Hsd17b4 levels were maintained constant from neonate to adult. These results suggest that the hippocampal sex steroidogenic properties are substantially altered during the postnatal development processes, which might contribute to brain sexual maturation. PMID:21047951

Kimoto, Tetsuya; Ishii, Hirotaka; Higo, Shimpei; Hojo, Yasushi; Kawato, Suguru

2010-11-03

297

Semicomprehensive analysis of the postnatal age-related changes in the mRNA expression of sex steroidogenic enzymes and sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sex steroids play a crucial role in the postnatal brain development, the age-related changes in the hippocampal steroidogenesis remain largely unknown. We performed comprehensive investigations for the mRNA expressions of 26 sex steroidogenic enzymes/proteins and three sex steroid receptors in the male rat hippocampus, at the ages of postnatal day (PD) 1, PD4, PD7, PD10, PD14, 4 wk, and 12 wk (adult), by RT-PCR/Southern blotting analysis. The relative expression levels of these enzymes/receptors at PD1 were Srd5a1 > Star > Ar ? Hsd17b4 ? Hsd17b1 ? Hsd17b7 ? Esr1 ? Srd5a2 > Hsd17b3 > Esr2 > Cyp11a1 > Cyp17a1 > Cyp19a1 ? Hsd17b2 > 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I. The mRNA levels of essential enzymes for progesterone/testosterone/estradiol metabolisms (Cyp17a1, Hsd17b7, and Cyp19a1) were approximately constant between PD1 and PD14 and then declined toward the adult levels. Cyp11a1 increased during PD4-PD14 and then considerably decreased toward the adult level (?8% of PD1). Hsd17b1, Hsd17b2, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I mRNA decreased approximately monotonously. Hsd17b3 increased to approximately 200% of PD1 during PD4-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The 5?-reductase mRNA was maintained constant (Srd5a1) or decreased monotonically (Srd5a2) toward the adult level. The Esr1 level peaked at PD4 and decreased toward the adult level, whereas Ar greatly increased during PD1-PD14 and was maintained at this high level. The Star and Hsd17b4 levels were maintained constant from neonate to adult. These results suggest that the hippocampal sex steroidogenic properties are substantially altered during the postnatal development processes, which might contribute to brain sexual maturation.

Kimoto T; Ishii H; Higo S; Hojo Y; Kawato S

2010-12-01

298

High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7%) had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2%) reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73), no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98), being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04), and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70) were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9%) had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8%) had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection as compared with brothel-based FSWs. With their high vulnerability, the success of expansion of HIV prevention efforts will depend on achieving and sustaining an environment that enables HIV prevention with the non-brothel based FSWs.

Dandona Rakhi; Dandona Lalit; Gutierrez Juan; Kumar Anil G; McPherson Sam; Samuels Fiona; Bertozzi Stefano M

2005-01-01

299

High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. METHODS: Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6,648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. RESULTS: 5,010 (75.4%), 1,499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6,648 FSWs, 6,165 (92.7%) had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2,907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2-53.2%) reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38-5.73), no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99-3.98), being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87-6.04), and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50-2.70) were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1-95.9%) had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8%) had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. CONCLUSION: About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection as compared with brothel-based FSWs. With their high vulnerability, the success of expansion of HIV prevention efforts will depend on achieving and sustaining an environment that enables HIV prevention with the non-brothel based FSWs.

Dandona R; Dandona L; Gutierrez JP; Kumar AG; McPherson S; Samuels F; Bertozzi SM

2005-01-01

300

Relational correlates of unprotected oral and vaginal sex and among African-American adolescent females.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To identify relational correlates of unprotected oral sex (UOS) and vaginal intercourse (UVI) among African-American females. METHODS: Participants (n=715) provided data on demographics, sexual communication self efficacy (SCSE), sexual communication frequency, condom self-efficacy, power in sexual relationships, fear of negotiating condom use, UOS and UVI. RESULTS: Participants reporting low SCSE were 2.5 and 1.6 times more likely to report UOS and UVI respectively. Additionally, participants who reported fear of condom negotiation were 3.1 times more likely to report UVI. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions promoting stronger SCSE may be a protective factor against having UOS and UVI among African-American females.

Crosby RA; Voisin DR; Diclemente RJ; Wingood GM; Salazar LF; Head S; Rose E; McDermott-Sales J

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

"Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

Hobby E

2001-01-01

302

Females scan more than males: a potential mechanism for sex differences in recognition memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition-memory tests reveal individual differences in episodic memory; however, by themselves, these tests provide little information regarding the stage (or stages) in memory processing at which differences are manifested. We used eye-tracking technology, together with a recognition paradigm, to achieve a more detailed analysis of visual processing during encoding and retrieval. Although this approach may be useful for assessing differences in memory across many different populations, we focused on sex differences in face memory. Females outperformed males on recognition-memory tests, and this advantage was directly related to females' scanning behavior at encoding. Moreover, additional exposures to the faces reduced sex differences in face recognition, which suggests that males may be able to improve their recognition memory by extracting more information at encoding through increased scanning. A strategy of increased scanning at encoding may prove to be a simple way to enhance memory performance in other populations with memory impairment. PMID:23696202

Heisz, Jennifer J; Pottruff, Molly M; Shore, David I

2013-05-21

303

The Female Condom: A Promising but Unavailable Method for Dominican Sex Workers, Their Clients, and Their Partners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population.

van Dijk MG; Pineda DL; Grossman D; Sorhaindo A; García SG

2013-02-01

304

The Female Condom: A Promising but Unavailable Method for Dominican Sex Workers, Their Clients, and Their Partners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population. PMID:23465398

van Dijk, Marieke G; Pineda, Diana Lara; Grossman, Daniel; Sorhaindo, Annik; García, Sandra G

2013-02-25

305

Resilience and syndemic risk factors among African-American female sex workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on street-based female sex workers documents a multitude of problems faced by these women, such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, victimization, and homelessness. The presence of problems such as these is understood as a syndemic, or co-occurrence of two or more risk factors that act synergistically to create an excess burden of disease. However, the syndemic framework has not previously incorporated the examination of resilience to understand what protective factors enable female sex workers to cope with syndemic risk. Using 562 baseline interviews from street-based African-American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial, this study is the first to investigate expressions of resilience among this vulnerable population. Specifically, these analyses examine high levels of resilience, as measured by personal mastery, in order to understand the contributions of syndemic risk factors and protective factors on the expression of resilience. In bivariate logistic regression models, women with high resilience reported significantly higher odds of high school education, greater access to transportation, and more social support, in addition to lower odds of foster care history, homelessness, substance dependence, severe mental distress, victimization, and HIV risk. In the multivariate model, higher odds of high school education and increased social support, in addition to lower odds of mental distress and HIV risk remained associated with high resilience. The findings suggest specific targets for intervention to assist female sex workers in coping with syndemic risk factors and achieving better health outcomes. These include the prioritizing of education and training opportunities and the enhancement of social support.

Buttram ME; Surratt HL; Kurtz SP

2013-08-01

306

Synthesis of the female sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) is a common pest in the Southern U. S. and the Mediterranean. Two alternative syntheses of the female sex pheromone, (1R)-(+)-cis-2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropenyl-cyclobutane methanol acetate, have been developed. Key transformations include an allylic oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to (+)-R-verbenone, oxidative decarboxylation using RuCl(3)-NaIO(4), and methylenation with Zn/CH(2)Br(2)/TiCl(4).

Passaro LC; Webster FX

2004-05-01

307

Neuropeptidase activity is down-regulated by estradiol in steroid-sensitive regions of the hypothalamus in female mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) are neuropeptidases involved in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH is regulated in part by feedback from steroid hormones such as estradiol. Previously, we demonstrated that TOP levels are down-regulated by estradiol in reproductively-relevant regions of the female rodent brain. The present study supports these findings by showing that TOP enzyme activity, as well as protein levels, in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of female mice is controlled by estradiol. We further demonstrate that PEP levels in this same brain region are down-regulated by estradiol in parallel with those of TOP. These findings provide evidence that these neuropeptidases are part of the fine control of hormone levels in the HPG axis.

Bruce LA; Cyr NE; Qiao JW; Defries CC; Tetel MJ; Wolfson AJ

2012-08-01

308

Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1.  

Science.gov (United States)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

Gill, John C; Navarro, Víctor M; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K; Carroll, Rona S; Steiner, Robert A; Kaiser, Ursula B

2012-08-14

309

Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse.

Gill JC; Navarro VM; Kwong C; Noel SD; Martin C; Xu S; Clifton DK; Carroll RS; Steiner RA; Kaiser UB

2012-10-01

310

"One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

Wong William CW; Holroyd Eleanor; Chan Emily Y; Griffiths Sian; Bingham Amie

2008-01-01

311

Effect of a non steroidal tamoxifen on the gonad and sex differentiation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of different doses of anti-estrogenic chemical was studied in a cichlid Oreochromis niloticus on mortality, growth, sexual development and sex differentiation. Percent mortality (5, 10 and 10) appeared to be dose-dependent. All groups of tamoxifen (TA) treated fishes exhibited significant growth as compared to the controlled fishes. Immature fishes treated with TA at 200 microg l(-1), showed lower gonado-somatic-index (GSI) (male 0.137; female 0.118) than control group (male 0.138; female 0.122) of fishes. Ovarian and testicular differentiation was adjudged by the appearance of the ovarian cavity (ovary) and the efferent (sperm) duct (testis), respectively. Sex and sexual maturity of individual fishes were determined using standard histological method. Tamoxifen treatment to the fry (yolk sac absorbed stage) of Oreochromis niloticus in the dose of 200 microg l(-1) for 60 days produced 90% males and 1% intersex population. Results suggested masculinizing action of tamoxifen reversing the sex of genetic female tilapia.

Singh R; Singh AK; Tripathi M

2012-07-01

312

Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G

1982-01-01

313

Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

1988-07-01

314

Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review  

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Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical) is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors

RIBEIRO-PAES J. T.; RODRIGUES V.

1997-01-01

315

Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein over-expression in endometrial carcinomas: inverse correlation with sex steroid receptor status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutations of the tumour suppressor p53 gene have been reported in a variety of human malignant tumours, and are frequently associated with over-expression of p53 protein. To examine the significance of p53 gene alteration in endometrial carcinomas, we studied the immunohistochemical reactivity with a monoclonal antibody against p53 (PAb 1801) in 30 endometrial carcinomas as well as in 64 normal endometria. The presence or absence of correlation of p53 over-expression with the clinicopathological features and with the immunohistochemical expression of sex steroid receptors (oestrogen receptors; ER, progesterone receptors; PR) was also analysed. Expression of p53 was found in none of 64 normal endometria, but was identified in 5 of the 30 (16.7%) endometrial carcinomas. All 5 of the p53-positive tumours developed in women more than 3 years post-menopause, whereas the carcinomas in 5 pre-menopausal women and 3 women less than 3 years post-menopause were p53-negative. None of the 5 p53-positive carcinomas was associated with adjacent endometrial hyperplasia. Two of the 5 p53-positive tumours showed non-endometrioid histology: serous papillary and clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, 6 carcinomas accompanied by adjacent hyperplasia were p53-negative. In addition, ER and/or PR expression was found in none of the 5 p53-positive tumours, but was present in 21 of the 25 p53-negative tumours (p < 0.01). These clinicopathological features of p53-positive carcinomas and the inverse correlation of p53 immunoreactivity with sex steroid receptor status suggest that p53 over-expression is frequent in a specific category of endometrial carcinoma, presumably oestrogen-unrelated tumours.

Koshiyama M; Konishi I; Wang DP; Mandai M; Komatsu T; Yamamoto S; Nanbu K; Naito MF; Mori T

1993-01-01

316

Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in northern Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (i) sex work prior to injecting drugs initiation; (ii) injection drug use prior to sex work initiation; and (iii) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e. initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). DESIGN: Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. SETTING: Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-US border. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 557 FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years. MEASUREMENTS: Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. FINDINGS: Nearly half (n = 258) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n = 163) initiated injection first and a quarter (n = 136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. CONCLUSIONS: Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one-third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work and one-quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention.

Morris MD; Lemus H; Wagner KD; Martinez G; Lozada R; Gómez RM; Strathdee SA

2013-01-01

317

HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana  

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Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%). But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum), accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign), worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.

Carter Keith H.; Harry Bhiro P.; Jeune Michael; Nicholson Devian

1997-01-01

318

From violence to sex work: agency, escaping violence, and HIV risk among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Violence experienced by female sex workers has been found to affect the HIV risk and quality of life of these women. Research on this topic has dealt with female sex workers and current experiences of violence with partners, clients, and in the workplace. In this study, we used feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore perceptions of violence among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. A key concept that emerged from 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews was "escaping violence with a romantic partner by becoming independent through sex work." The women also emphasized the negative impact of violence in the workplace but felt that achieving separation from a violent partner gave them strength to protect their lives and health. Interventions to help these women protect themselves from HIV infection and improve their quality of life should aim to build upon their strengths and the agency they have already achieved.

Choudhury SM; Anglade D; Park K

2013-07-01

319

Sex-steroids associated with the reproductive cycle in male and female bolson tortoise, Gopherus flavomarinatus  

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Full Text Available Estudiamos los ciclos de esteroides sexuales de machos y hembras en estado silvestre de la tortuga del Bolsón en la Reserva de la Biósfera de Mapimí (Durango). Tomamos muestras de sangre por venipunción de la yugular a intervalos bisemanales durante un período de 14 meses, determinándose los niveles circulantes de esteroides por medio de radioinmunoensayos. Los niveles hormonales mostraron tendencias estacionales. En las hembras, la testosterona tuvo un valor máximo al salir de la brumación, en asociación con el incremento en la receptividad sexual, y el nivel de estradiol aumentó después de la emergencia asociado con la maduración folicular. El nivel de estos dos esteroides se incrementó con las lluvias estacionales, cuando ocurrieron el crecimiento folicular y la vitelogénesis. La progesterona mostró niveles bajos a la emergencia, los cuales aumentaron con el incremento de la duración del dia y la temperatura, llegando al máximo antes del pico de la oviposición. La caída en los niveles de las tres hormonas estuvo asociada con la oviposición. Las hembras probablemente almacenan esperma durante parte del otoño y el invierno para usarlo en la siguiente estación reproductiva. Los machos salieron de la hibernación con bajos niveles de testosterona, pero exhibieron conductas reproductivas poco después. Junto con un incremento de la testosterona, el cortejo y la frecuencia de apareamientos se incrementaron con estímulos ambientales, prolongándose hasta principios del otoño. Los niveles de testosterona y la actividad reproductiva disminuyeron conforme se aproximaba el inicio de la hibernación. Los niveles máximos de testosterona en machos de esta especie son mayores que los conocidos para cualquier otro vertebrado.

Rolando González Trápaga; Gustavo Aguirre; Gary A. Adest

2000-01-01

320

Association of sex steroids, gonadotrophins, and their trajectories with clinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly men from the Framingham Heart Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggest that low sex steroid concentrations in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. The impact of longitudinal trajectory patterns from serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements on the observed associations is unknown to date. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 254 elderly men (mean age, 75·5 years) of the Framingham Heart Study with up to four serial measurements of serum total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and total estradiol (EST); and constructed age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models relating baseline hormone concentrations and their mean, slope and variation over time (modelled as continuous and categorized into quartiles) to the incidence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality at 5- and 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: We observed no association between baseline concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotrophins and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD over 5- and 10-year follow-up. Although higher baseline TT concentrations were associated with lower mortality risk at 5 years (hazard ratio per quartile increment, 0·74; 95% confidence interval, 0·56-0·98), correction for multiple statistical testing (P < 0·005) rendered this association statistically nonsignificant. Repeat analyses at the 10-year follow-up time point also demonstrated no significant association between sex steroids, gonadotrophins or their trajectories and mortality. CONCLUSION: Investigating longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements, the present study found no consistent associations with incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men from the community.

Haring R; Teng Z; Xanthakis V; Coviello A; Sullivan L; Bhasin S; Murabito JM; Wallaschofski H; Vasan RS

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Timing and Circumstances of First Sex Among Female and Male Youth From Select Urban Areas of Nigeria, Kenya, and Senegal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To examine the timing and circumstances of first sex among urban female and male youth in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. METHODS: Recently collected data are used to examine youth sexual behaviors in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. In each country, a large, representative sample of women (ages 15-49) and men (ages 15-59) was collected from multiple cities. Data from youth (ages 15-24) are used for the analyses of age at sexual initiation, whether first sex was premarital, and modern family planning use at first sex. Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression analyses are performed to determine factors associated with these outcomes. RESULTS: Across all three countries, a greater percentage of male youth than female youth report initiating sex with a nonmarital partner. More educated youth are less likely to have initiated sex at each age. In Nigeria and Senegal, poor female youth report earlier first sex than wealthier female youth. In Kenya, richer female youth are more likely to have premarital first sex and to use contraception/condom at first sex than their poorer counterparts. Older age at first sex and youth who report that first sex was premarital are significantly more likely to use a method of contraception (including condom) at first sex. City-specific distinctions are found and discussed for each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Programs seeking to reduce HIV and unintended pregnancy risk among urban youth need to undertake needs assessments to understand the local context that influences the timing and circumstances of first sex in each city/country-specific context.

Speizer IS; Fotso JC; Davis JT; Saad A; Otai J

2013-07-01

322

Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. RESULTS: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4 +/- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1 +/- 1.2. three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices.

Altaf A; Agha A; Holte-McKinzie M; Abbas Q; Jafri SB; Emmanuel F

2012-06-01

323

Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

Skafte I; Silberschmidt M

2013-07-01

324

Sex-dependent alterations in BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of reelin heterozygous mice: a role for sex steroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia may be caused by a combination of gene × environment, gene × gene, and/or gene × sex interactions. Reduced expression of both Reelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with schizophrenia in human post-mortem studies. However, it remains unclear how Reelin and BDNF interact (gene × gene) and whether this is sex-specific (gene × sex). This study investigated BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of male and female Reelin heterozygous (Rln(+/-) ) mice. We found significantly increased levels of BDNF in the ventral hippocampus (VHP) of female, but not male Rln(+/-) compared to wild-type (WT) controls. While levels of TrkB were not significantly altered, phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) levels were significantly lower, again only in female Rln(+/-) compared to WT. This translated to downstream effects with a significant decrease in phosphorylated ERK1 (pERK1). No changes in BDNF, TrkB, pTrkB or pERK1/2 were observed in the dorsal hippocampus of Rln(+/-) mice. Ovariectomy (OVX) had no effect in WT controls, but caused a significant decrease in BDNF expression in the VHP of Rln(+/-) mice to the levels of intact WT controls. The high expression of BDNF was restored in OVX Rln(+/-) mice by 17?-estradiol treatment, suggesting that Rln(+/-) mice respond differently to an altered estradiol state than WT controls. In addition, while OVX had no significant effect on TrkB or ERK expression/phosphorylation, OVX + estradiol treatment markedly increased TrkB and ERK1 phosphorylation in Rln(+/-) and, to a lesser extent in WT controls, compared to intact genotype-matched controls. These data may provide a better understanding of the interaction of Reelin and BDNF in the hippocampus, which may be involved in schizophrenia.

Hill RA; Wu YW; Gogos A; van den Buuse M

2013-08-01

325

Sex-dependent alterations in BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of reelin heterozygous mice: a role for sex steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia may be caused by a combination of gene × environment, gene × gene, and/or gene × sex interactions. Reduced expression of both Reelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with schizophrenia in human post-mortem studies. However, it remains unclear how Reelin and BDNF interact (gene × gene) and whether this is sex-specific (gene × sex). This study investigated BDNF-TrkB signaling in the hippocampus of male and female Reelin heterozygous (Rln(+/-) ) mice. We found significantly increased levels of BDNF in the ventral hippocampus (VHP) of female, but not male Rln(+/-) compared to wild-type (WT) controls. While levels of TrkB were not significantly altered, phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) levels were significantly lower, again only in female Rln(+/-) compared to WT. This translated to downstream effects with a significant decrease in phosphorylated ERK1 (pERK1). No changes in BDNF, TrkB, pTrkB or pERK1/2 were observed in the dorsal hippocampus of Rln(+/-) mice. Ovariectomy (OVX) had no effect in WT controls, but caused a significant decrease in BDNF expression in the VHP of Rln(+/-) mice to the levels of intact WT controls. The high expression of BDNF was restored in OVX Rln(+/-) mice by 17?-estradiol treatment, suggesting that Rln(+/-) mice respond differently to an altered estradiol state than WT controls. In addition, while OVX had no significant effect on TrkB or ERK expression/phosphorylation, OVX + estradiol treatment markedly increased TrkB and ERK1 phosphorylation in Rln(+/-) and, to a lesser extent in WT controls, compared to intact genotype-matched controls. These data may provide a better understanding of the interaction of Reelin and BDNF in the hippocampus, which may be involved in schizophrenia. PMID:23414458

Hill, Rachel A; Wu, Yee-Wen Candace; Gogos, Andrea; van den Buuse, Maarten

2013-03-24

326

Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60-79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60-79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble ?-amyloid (A?). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble A?. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD.

Rosario ER; Chang L; Head EH; Stanczyk FZ; Pike CJ

2011-04-01

327

Symptomatic meningioma induced by cross-sex hormone treatment in a male-to-female transsexual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transsexualism is defined as a strong conviction of belonging to the opposite sex in individuals without any physical intersex condition. Cross-sex hormone therapy is an important component of medical treatment of transexuals but it is not exempt from adverse effects. We report a case of a meningioma in a male-to-female transsexual patient treated with estrogens and cyproterone acetate for the past 4 years. He claimed recently severe headache and visual impairment. Blood tests showed normal results. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a mass in the tuberculum sellae consistent with a meningioma. Treatment was discontinued and tumor resection was performed. Histologic diagnosis confirmed strongly progesterone receptor-positive and estrogen negative meningioma. After surgery, the patient rejected the possibility of continuing with the treatment of estrogens and cyproterone, and so triptorelin (GnRH agonist) was initiated. At 1-year follow-up the patient's symptoms had ameliorated and a MRI scan revealed no recurrence of the tumor. This is the third case reported in the literature of a meningioma after treatment with estrogens and cyproterone acetate. We consider extremely important a long-term follow-up observation of male-to-female transsexual undergoing cross-sex hormone therapy in order to detect as soon as possible the adverse effects that can be derived from this therapy. PMID:23022362

Bergoglio, Marina T; Gómez-Balaguer, Marcelino; Almonacid Folch, Elena; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

2012-09-27

328

Adherence to Diaphragm Use for Infection Prevention: A Prospective Study of Female Sex Workers in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To assess adherence to and acceptability of the diaphragm among 140 female sex workers in Kenya in a 6-month prospective study. Methods. At baseline and bimonthly visits, participants were interviewed on diaphragm knowledge, attitude, and practices. We used principal component analysis and logistic regression to identify predictors of consistent use. Results. At 50% of 386 bimonthly visits, women reported consistently using a diaphragm with all partners during the preceding 2 weeks. Consistent use was significantly higher at the 6-month than the 2-month visit. Women reported less covert use with “helping” (regular sex partners to whom she could go for help or support) than with “other” partners. Perceptions that diaphragms are easier to use than condoms and that their lack of coital interruption is important were associated with consistent diaphragm use with both partner types. Partner support of diaphragm use is correlated with consistent use with “helping” partners only while higher parity, consistent condom use, and perceived lack of need of condoms as a benefit of diaphragms were associated with consistent use with “other” partners. Conclusions. Diaphragm acceptance among female sex workers in Nairobi was high. Future studies should distinguish between partner types when evaluating diaphragm adherence.

Elizabeth A. Bukusi; Maria F. Gallo; Anjali Sharma; Betty Njoroge; Denise J. Jamieson; Rosemary Nguti; April J. Bell; David A. Eschenbach

2009-01-01

329

Promoting female condoms in the sex industry in 4 towns of Southern China: context matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual and contextual reasons need to be explored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multitime users, 1-time users, and nonusers among women in the sex industry of 4 study sites in China. METHODS: A standardized 1-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two 6-month intervention phases. RESULTS: A total of 445, 437, and 290 eligible women were interviewed at 3 cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second postintervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than nonusers in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second postintervention survey, P < 0.01). Polytomous logistic regression showed that both 1-time and multitime users were more likely to come from one particular site (approximately 3 times more than the reference site). Higher intervention scores (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8-4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4) were associated with FC use. CONCLUSIONS: Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments.

Nie L; Liao S; Weeks MR; Wang Y; Jiang J; Zhang Q; Zhou Y; He B; Li J; Dunn J

2013-03-01

330

Female-Released Sex Pheromones Mediating Courtship Behavior in Lysiphlebus testaceipes Males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Ethological aspects and chemical communication at close-range between the sexes of Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have been investigated through behavioral bioassays and chemical analysis. The attractiveness toward males of whole-body extracts of females and males in hexane and acetone was evaluated, adopting male fanning behavior as a key behavioral component. Also, the activity of polar and nonpolar fraction of female-body extract in hexane obtained using solid-phase extraction technique was investigated. In order to identify cuticular compounds, male and female whole-body extracts with hexane and acetone were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that males exhibit a behavior including 4 phases when exposed to virgin females: premount, mount, copulation, and post-copulation. A preliminary courtship of the male included wing fanning, an extension and vibration of the wings for 1 to 2 seconds. Also, some original aspects not described for other species were carried out. The average duration of the entire sequence of events was 138.80 ± 19.51 sec. Also, males displayed significantly more wing fanning behavior in response to female whole-body hexane extracts (70.83%) than female whole-body acetone extracts (33.3%). Furthermore, males did not respond to male-body extracts or to the control (pure hexane and acetone), suggesting that the sex pheromone is composed of cuticular hydrocarbons that are also involved in the male courtship behavior. When hexane extracts of whole females were fractionated on silica gel and exposed to males, more activity was recorded for the nonpolar fraction (50.0%) than the polar fraction (27.7%), but no significant statistical difference was found. Significant differences were detected comparing the control (not fractionated extract) with the polar fraction, but not with the nonpolar fraction. A homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths from C19 to C30 carbon atoms was identified and quantified in the solvent extracts of wasp males and females. Between male and female extracts, there was a statistically significant difference in the average quantity of some of these hydrocarbons, such as C27, C28, and C29. PMID:23906069

Pinto, Mirella Lo; Cangelosi, Benedetta; Colazza, Stefano

2013-06-01

331

Female-Released Sex Pheromones Mediating Courtship Behavior in Lysiphlebus testaceipes Males.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Ethological aspects and chemical communication at close-range between the sexes of Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have been investigated through behavioral bioassays and chemical analysis. The attractiveness toward males of whole-body extracts of females and males in hexane and acetone was evaluated, adopting male fanning behavior as a key behavioral component. Also, the activity of polar and nonpolar fraction of female-body extract in hexane obtained using solid-phase extraction technique was investigated. In order to identify cuticular compounds, male and female whole-body extracts with hexane and acetone were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that males exhibit a behavior including 4 phases when exposed to virgin females: premount, mount, copulation, and post-copulation. A preliminary courtship of the male included wing fanning, an extension and vibration of the wings for 1 to 2 seconds. Also, some original aspects not described for other species were carried out. The average duration of the entire sequence of events was 138.80 ± 19.51 sec. Also, males displayed significantly more wing fanning behavior in response to female whole-body hexane extracts (70.83%) than female whole-body acetone extracts (33.3%). Furthermore, males did not respond to male-body extracts or to the control (pure hexane and acetone), suggesting that the sex pheromone is composed of cuticular hydrocarbons that are also involved in the male courtship behavior. When hexane extracts of whole females were fractionated on silica gel and exposed to males, more activity was recorded for the nonpolar fraction (50.0%) than the polar fraction (27.7%), but no significant statistical difference was found. Significant differences were detected comparing the control (not fractionated extract) with the polar fraction, but not with the nonpolar fraction. A homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths from C19 to C30 carbon atoms was identified and quantified in the solvent extracts of wasp males and females. Between male and female extracts, there was a statistically significant difference in the average quantity of some of these hydrocarbons, such as C27, C28, and C29.

Pinto ML; Cangelosi B; Colazza S

2013-06-01

332

Condom negotiations among female sex workers in the Philippines: environmental influences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. METHODS: Female bar/spa workers (N?=?498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. RESULTS: Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR?=?12.92, 95% CI?=?3.34-49.90), economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR?=?1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30), policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR?=?2.58, 95% CI?=?1.49-4.48), and individual risk--substance use (AOR?=?2.36, 95% CI?=?1.28-4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. CONCLUSIONS: Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation for FSWs trafficked/coerced into their work, substance using, and impacted by economic conditions and policies that do not support condom availability.

Urada LA; Morisky DE; Pimentel-Simbulan N; Silverman JG; Strathdee SA

2012-01-01

333

Sexual behaviour, structural vulnerabilities and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe differences in individual and structural vulnerabilities faced by female sex workers (FSWs) in Pakistan between 2006 and 2011, and to characterise risk factors for inconsistent condom use and HIV prevalence in this population. METHODS: To describe differences in vulnerabilities, we analysed behavioural data from serial cross-sectional surveys conducted across nine cities in 2006 and 2011. Using data from 12 cities in 2011, we used logistic regression to characterise risk factors for (a) inconsistent condom use in the past month (N=6987), and (b) HIV (N=4301). RESULTS: Compared to FSWs in 2006, FSWs in 2011 were significantly more likely to solicit clients via cell phones, and to report a larger client volume and anal sex with clients, but also consistent condom use with clients (30.0% vs 23.6% in 2006). In 2011, independent risk factors for inconsistent condom use with clients included: recent sexual violence, recent sex with a person who injects drugs, and absence of programme exposure. HIV prevalence was 0.63% (95% CI 0.43% to 0.92%) in 2011, and was associated with a recent history of injection drug use and absence of programme exposure. CONCLUSIONS: While condom use with clients was higher in 2011, protective behaviours remained low and vulnerabilities related to sex work may have risen. HIV is emerging in this population and an adaptive HIV prevention programme that addresses different vulnerabilities and the intersection of sexual networks with injection drug use is needed.

Mishra S; Thompson LH; Sonia A; Khalid N; Emmanuel F; Blanchard JF

2013-09-01

334

Syphilis infection among female sex workers in Nagaland, Northeast India: analysing their vulnerability to the infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the sex work characteristics and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur district of high HIV prevalence Indian state, Nagaland. The study recruited 426 FSWs in 2006 using respondent-driven sampling. The prevalence of syphilis was 21.1% and HIV prevalence was 11.7%. Approximately half were under 25 years of age. Clients were solicited mainly in public places (32.7%), while hotels/lodges/rented rooms were the most common places of entertainment (57.2%). Condom use during the last sex was 36.5% with occasional and 27% with regular clients. Being married, being widowed/divorced/separated, being illiterate or having a history of drug use increased the likelihood of syphilis infection. Entertaining clients in bars/booze joints decreased the probability of syphilis. FSWs who moved between soliciting in public places or bars/booze joints and then entertaining in hotels/lodges/rented rooms had a higher vulnerability to syphilis. In summary, we found that the vulnerability to syphilis among mostly young FSWs in Dimapur varied according to their sex work characteristics, marital and educational status and drug use habits. They may be more vulnerable to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) due to the low rate of condom use. The findings have direct implications for HIV/STI prevention programmes in Northeast India.

Medhi GK; Mahanta J; Hazarika I; Armstrong G; Adhikary R; Mainkar M; Paranjape RS

2013-03-01

335

Clients of female sex workers: a population-based survey of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The control of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a challenge in China, with female sex workers (FSW) and male clients suspected as bridge groups. This study used a 2006 national probability survey of 2,707 adult men. Among men 15-49 years old, the prevalence of FSW contacts last year was 4.2% (95% CI, 3.3-5.2) overall, with 7.2% (CI, 5.9-8.7) in urban and 1.8% (CI, 1.0-3.3) in rural areas. In urban areas, the men most at risk for FSW were high income, often traveled, engaged in business entertaining, ages 25-39, and had early sex histories. When compared to men with only wife or stable sex partner, those most likely to report STI last year also reported FSW sex of any type (aOR,13.10; CI, 5.87-29.42). Additionally, when compared to men reporting consistent condom use with FSW, men with inconsistent condom use had elevated STI (aOR, 3.71; CI, 1.18-11.66). Additional efforts are needed for high income men in urban areas, and on consistent condom use with FSW.

Pan S; Parish WL; Huang Y

2011-12-01

336

Syphilis infection among female sex workers in Nagaland, Northeast India: analysing their vulnerability to the infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the sex work characteristics and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur district of high HIV prevalence Indian state, Nagaland. The study recruited 426 FSWs in 2006 using respondent-driven sampling. The prevalence of syphilis was 21.1% and HIV prevalence was 11.7%. Approximately half were under 25 years of age. Clients were solicited mainly in public places (32.7%), while hotels/lodges/rented rooms were the most common places of entertainment (57.2%). Condom use during the last sex was 36.5% with occasional and 27% with regular clients. Being married, being widowed/divorced/separated, being illiterate or having a history of drug use increased the likelihood of syphilis infection. Entertaining clients in bars/booze joints decreased the probability of syphilis. FSWs who moved between soliciting in public places or bars/booze joints and then entertaining in hotels/lodges/rented rooms had a higher vulnerability to syphilis. In summary, we found that the vulnerability to syphilis among mostly young FSWs in Dimapur varied according to their sex work characteristics, marital and educational status and drug use habits. They may be more vulnerable to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) due to the low rate of condom use. The findings have direct implications for HIV/STI prevention programmes in Northeast India. PMID:23514833

Medhi, G K; Mahanta, J; Hazarika, I; Armstrong, G; Adhikary, R; Mainkar, M; Paranjape, R S

2013-03-20

337

Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. METHODS: Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. RESULTS: The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one's family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs' decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

Phrasisombath K; Faxelid E; Sychareun V; Thomsen S

2012-01-01

338

Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.

Pando, Maria A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, Maria M.

2013-01-01

339

Violence as a barrier for HIV prevention among female sex workers in Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. RESULTS: Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. CONCLUSION: The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.

Pando MA; Coloccini RS; Reynaga E; Rodriguez Fermepin M; Gallo Vaulet L; Kochel TJ; Montano SM; Avila MM

2013-01-01

340

SSRIs and the female brain - potential for utilizing steroid-stimulating properties to treat menstrual cycle-linked dysphorias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One unexpected property of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is their ability, at doses well below those that effect 5-HT systems, to raise brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids such as the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone. In women, rapid withdrawal from allopregnanolone when progesterone secretion drops sharply in the late luteal phase precipitates menstrual cycle-linked disorders such as premenstrual syndrome and catamenial epilepsy. Short-term, low-dose fluoxetine during the late luteal phase has the potential to prevent the development of such disorders, by raising brain allopregnanolone concentration. In female rats, withdrawal from allopregnanolone, as ovarian progesterone secretion falls rapidly in the late diestrus phase (similar to late luteal phase in women), induces upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on GABAergic neurons in brain regions involved in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. The functional consequence of this receptor plasticity is disinhibition of principal neurons, hyperexcitable neuronal circuitry and increased behavioral responsiveness to anxiogenic stress. These withdrawal responses were prevented by short-term treatment with fluoxetine during the late diestrus phase, which raised brain allopregnanolone concentration, so blunting the rapid physiological fall. The steroid-stimulating properties of fluoxetine offer untapped opportunities for developing new treatments for menstrual cycle-linked disorders in women, which are precipitated by abrupt falls in brain concentration of allopregnanolone.

Lovick T

2013-05-01