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Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models ofcerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 17ß-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

Dra?a Sanja



The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

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AbstractObjective(s)Gastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 g...

Zakieh Keshavarzi; Mohammad Khaksari Hadad; Mohammad Javad Zahedi; Abbas Bahrami



Absence of daily cycles in plasma sex steroids in male and female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and the effects of acute capture stress on females. (United States)

The possible existence of daily cycles in plasma concentrations of sex steroids was examined in wild male and female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Samples were collected from freshly captured animals at dusk, middle of the night, dawn, and middle of the day in January (summer) and July (winter). Males showed daily cycles in mean body temperature (Tb) in both seasons but no daily cycle in mean plasma testosterone concentration in either season. Vitellogenic female tuatara in January and females in mixed reproductive condition in July also showed significant daily variation in Tb. However, there were no daily cycles in mean plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, or progesterone in either group of females. Vitellogenic female tuatara subjected to an acute capture stress (3-hr confinement) in January had mean plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone that did not differ from those of free-roaming females. However, progesterone and Tb were significantly higher in captives than in free-roaming females. The elevation in progesterone may result from physical confinement, the difference in Tb, or both. These data suggest that seasonal fluctuations in circulating concentrations of plasma sex steroids in tuatara can be determined using samples collected at different times of the 24-hr cycle. However, the effects of acute capture stress and/or changes in Tb on plasma progesterone concentrations need to be considered in future studies on this and possibly other female reptiles. PMID:2354772

Cree, A; Guillette, L J; Cockrem, J F; Brown, M A; Chambers, G K



Plasma concentrations of vitellogenin and sex steroids in female tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus punctatus) from northern New Zealand. (United States)

Vitellogenesis in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Stephens Island, New Zealand, at the southern (coolest) end of the geographical range of this species involves a prolonged period of about 3 years of the average 4-year reproductive cycle. These studies used a semiquantitative electrophoretic assay for vitellogenin (Vg). In the present study an ELISA was used to measure plasma levels of Vg in 138 female northern tuatara (S.p. punctatus) on 11 islands at the warmest end of the tuatara's range. Blood samples were collected in late summer-early autumn, just prior to the expected time of ovulation in those females that would nest the following spring. Plasma Vg levels ranged from nondetectable to 2.9 mg/ml but were not significantly correlated with plasma estradiol, testosterone, or progesterone levels. There was also no significant correlation among the three sex steroids. Plasma Vg and hormone levels were further examined as to whether females were ovulating. Incipient ovulation was inferred using endocrinological criteria derived from studies of tuatara on Stephens Island (i.e., elevated plasma testosterone). Plasma levels of Vg differed significantly between inferred ovulators and nonovulators when data for all islands were combined, although similar ranges were observed in the two groups of females (inferred ovulators: nondetectable to 2382 micrograms/ml, mean = 505 +/- 75; inferred nonovulators: nondetectable to 2864 micrograms/ml, mean = 460 +/- 63). Plasma levels of estradiol, but not progesterone, differed significantly between inferred ovulators and nonovulators when data for all islands were combined. Mean levels in inferred ovulators were: estradiol, 157 +/- 16 pg/ml (vs. 34 +/- 5 pg/ml in inferred nonovulators); progesterone, 1.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (vs. 0.7 +/- 0.1 ng/ml in inferred nonovulators); and testosterone, 5.6 +/- 0.5 ng/ml (vs. 0.2 +/- 0 ng/ml in inferred nonovulators). Only 37% of the females sampled met the minimum hormonal criteria indicative of ovulation. This suggests that, as in S. punctatus on Stephens Island, female S.p. punctatus on northern islands do not ovulate each year. PMID:7958750

Brown, M A; Cree, A; Daugherty, C H; Dawkins, B P; Chambers, G K



Expression of hypothalamic arginine vasotocin gene in response to water deprivation and sex steroid administration in female Japanese quail. (United States)

Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is a neurohypophyseal hormone involved in reproductive function and control of osmoregulation in birds. In view of the dual function of AVT, the present experiment was designed to observe the effect of water deprivation (WD) and sex steroid [estradiol benzoate (EB) and testosterone propionate (TP)] treatment independently, as well as simultaneously, on the profile/activity of the hypothalamic AVT system. WD resulted in a significant increase in plasma osmolality, sodium ion concentration and AVT concentration, but administration of sex steroids had no significant influence on these parameters. By contrast, the amount of hypothalamic AVT transcript (northern analysis) and the size of immunoreactive vasotocin (ir-AVT) neurons and hybridization signals (in the form of silver grains), representing AVT mRNA in corresponding neurons of paraventricular nuclei (PVN), increased significantly in all the treated groups compared with controls. Our findings indicate that although sex steroid administration has no effect on plasma osmolality and AVT concentration, unlike water deprivation, it may stimulate the profile/activity of AVT neurons of PVN, supporting the possibility of sex steroid receptors on these neurons. It is concluded that in quail, osmotic stress not only upregulates the expression of the AVT gene in existing neurons but also recruits many more neurons to increase the rate of AVT synthesis and secretion, while sex steroids appear to have a stimulatory effect only on the existing number of neurons and only at the level of transcription/translation and hence may influence/modulate hypothalamic AVT gene expression in response to osmotic stress. This study also suggests an interrelationship between reproduction and AVT system/function in birds. PMID:15277557

Seth, R; Köhler, A; Grossmann, R; Chaturvedi, C M



Sex steroids in intersexual fishes. (United States)

Studies of thein vitro gonadal steroidogenesis in intersexual fishes, using labelled testosterone as precursor, showed large species variation. The protogynousMonopterus albus produced predominantly 5?-reduced metabolites while the protandrousRhabdosargus sarba produced mainly 5?-reduced products. Both fishes synthesized 11-oxotestosterone; the synthesis of which appeared to mediate mainly through adrenosterone inM. albus butvia 11?-hydroxytestosterone inR. sarba.When the plasma levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol among the male, intersexual and female phase of the same species were compared, available data showed that either there was no obvious difference among the different sexual phases or the differences could be accounted for by the seasonal reproductive activities of the animal.Except for androstenedione, there are no marked changes in plasma testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels in the intersexual phase compared with the female and male, it is unlikely that these classical sex steroids act as a primary trigger of natural sex reversal in these fishes; the role of androstenedione awaits further elucidation. PMID:24221776

Chan, S T; Yeung, W S



Sex steroids and the thyroid. (United States)

Thyroid function is modulated by genetic and environmental causes as well as other illnesses and medications such as gonadal or sex steroids. The latter class of drugs (sex steroids) modulates thyroid function. Gonadal steroids exert their influence on thyroid function primarily by altering the clearance of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). While oestrogen administration causes an increase in serum TBG concentration, androgen therapy results in a decrease in this binding protein. These effects of gonadal steroids on TBG clearance and concentration are modulated by the chemical structure of the steroid being used, its dose and the route of administration. Despite the gonadal steroids-induced changes in serum TBG concentrations, subjects with normal thyroid glands maintain clinical and biochemical euthyroidism without changes in their serum free thyroxine (T4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In contrast, the administration of gonadal steroids to patients with thyroid diseases causes significant biochemical and clinical alterations requiring changes in the doses of thyroid medications. Similarly, gonadal steroid therapy might unmask thyroid illness in previously undiagnosed subjects. It would be prudent to assess thyroid function in subjects with thyroid disease 6-8 weeks after gonadal steroid administration or withdrawal. PMID:19942152

Tahboub, Rundsarah; Arafah, Baha M



Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas / Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A) e 20 com prole (grupo B). Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatori [...] amente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%), hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%), atipia sem proliferação (35%), hiperplasia leve (32,5%), atividade secretora (20%) e hiperplasia severa (5%). Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B) and 20 had no offspring (Group A). After four weeks, th [...] ese rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%), hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%), epithelial atypia (35%), mild hyperplasia (32.5%), secretory activity (20%) and severe hyperplasia (5%). In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu, Vicelli; Maria Salete Costa, Gurgel; Marcelo, Alvarenga.


Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted of 40 castrated female non-pubertal rats, 20 had given birth (Group B and 20 had no offspring (Group A. After four weeks, these rats were randomly allocated to subgroups: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Steroids were given to subgroups as follows: A1 and B1 - estradiol benzoate; A2 and B2 - medroxyprogesterone acetate; A3 and B3 - estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate; A4 and B4 - tibolone; A5 and B5 - placebo. After 10 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their mammary glands were analyzed. Histologic parameters evaluated were: epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cells with secretory activity; and cell atypia in terminal duct units and buds or terminal alveoli. The association between microscopic analysis and diverse therapeutic regimens were analyzed by calculating the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Histologic changes were observed in 29 rats: moderate hyperplasia (52.5%, hyperplastic alveolar nodule (42.5%, epithelial atypia (35%, mild hyperplasia (32.5%, secretory activity (20% and severe hyperplasia (5%. In rats with no offspring when compared to the control, 1.3 times more hyperplastic alveolar nodules were found in the group treated with estradiol, the same was true for moderate hyperplasia in the rats that received medroxyprogesterone acetate, hyperplastic alveolar nodules and epithelial atypia in the group treated with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. In the rats with offspring 1.3 times more secretory activity was found with estradiol. CONCLUSION: Epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial atypia with no proliferation are strongly associated to combined therapy with estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, mainly in the rats without offspring.

José Tadeu Vicelli



Sex steroids and libido. (United States)

The effects of steroidal hormones on sexual desire and motivation are a question still under debate. This paper reviews up-to-date knowledge regarding physiological imprinting and activation by endogenous hormones of central nervous system areas involved in libido during intrauterine life and puberty. The endocrine environment probably continues to play a role during fertile life and the postmenopausal period, but this effect is often overridden by psychological and social factors. The impairment of sexual interest during estrogen-progestin treatment is an infrequent but relevant side-effect whose possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Both endocrine and psychorelational elements may interact. From the biological point of view, androgen and oxytocin level modification and loss of estrogen fluctuations have been considered, but also the history of hormone-related mood changes could be a risk factor. On the psychological side, both the profound repercussions of the contraceptive choice and consequent responsibility, as well as the high value attributed to sexual experience are probably facilitating elements in the loss of libido under treatment. PMID:9678082

Dei, M; Verni, A; Bigozzi, L; Bruni, V



Age-related changes in ovarian characteristics, plasma sex steroids and fertility during pubertal development in captive female Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii. (United States)

Age-related changes in ovarian development characteristics and plasma sex steroids in female Murray cod were examined throughout their second, third and fourth years of life to better understand the physiological and endocrine processes associated with puberty in this species in captivity. Spawning performance of 2+ and 3+ year old females was also assessed to identify ontogenetic differences in egg fertility. Puberty was acquired in 38% of 1+ year old females and 100% of age 2+ females. By age 3+, all females had developed full (adult) reproductive function. Ovarian development in pubertal fish was characterised by a rapid transition between cortical alveoli and lipid droplet oogenic phases, coinciding with significantly lower plasma 17beta-oestradiol in age 2+ females (pMurray cod exhibited both vitellogenic and ovulatory capacities, yet functional abnormalities during secondary oocyte growth are likely to have contributed to poor egg fertility and consequently, evaluations of age-at-first maturity based on the presence of advanced ovarian stages may overestimate the reproductive potential of younger broodstock populations. PMID:18562230

Newman, Dane M; Jones, Paul L; Ingram, Brett A



The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats  

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Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 ?g and 10 ?g/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 ?g/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK))


In vivo effects of oLH and LHRH-analog on sex reversal and plasma sex steroid profiles in the female Monopterus albus. (United States)

The effects of ovine-luteinizing hormone (oLH) or a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Des-Gly10[S-Ala6]-LHRH ethylamide acetate salt (LHRH-A), on the female phase of the protogynous Monopterus albus were investigated, and the plasma levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), 11-oxotestosterone (KT), 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone were determined. In the postspawning stage, oLH induced precocious sex reversal in the gonad from female to male and increased plasma levels of Ad, T, KT and OHT. However, such oLH effects in M. albus females were slight at the early prespawning stage, and no significant signs of precocious sex reversal were found either in gonadal structure or in plasma hormones as those in postspawning treatment. After LHRH-A treatment of M. albus females in both postspawning and early prespawning stages, the gonadal structure remained "female type" with no sign of proliferation of either Leydig cells or male germ cells. The plasma levels of E2 were greatly increased after the treatment. PMID:8504919

Yeung, W S; Chen, H; Chan, S T




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Full Text Available To understand the steroidogenic activities in Caspian brown trout, female and male broodstocks were injected with three different GnRHa in combination with two different dopamine antagonists and we examined changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the experiments. In four separate experiments, female and male received two injections (at 0 day and 4 day in total volume 0.5 and 0.25 ml per kg-1 body weight respectively. Control group received only propylene glycol (Vehicle only. The final concentrations of GnRHa and metoclopramide (MET were 20 µg GnRHa kg-1 body weight (BW and 10 mg kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively. Each injection, received half dose of hormone. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 5 and 7 days, and blood plasma was retained for analysis of steroid levels. In female, plasma levels of estradiol-17? (E2 and testosterone (T showed significant decreases in fish treated with GnRHa plus Dopamine antagonist compared to control group. Plasma 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P levels abruptly increased at the 2nd day post-injection in all treated groups, reached peak levels at the 5th day, and the elevated levels slightly decreased by the 7th day. In male, all experimental treatments showed lower blood plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT levels relative to control. Treatment in all hormonal groups resulted in significant decrease in blood plasma 17,20?P levels compared to control group except fish treated with mGnRHa in combination with metoclopramide at 2nd post injection. Mean blood plasma T levels displayed a marked increase between 2nd and 5thyad . Changes in plasma T levels showed no significant change at the 7th day post injection.

Seyed Ehsan Mousavi



Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer: An Overview  

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Full Text Available Sex steroids, also known as sex hormones are synthesized naturally by the gonads (ovaries or testes. The two main classes of sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are crucial hormones for the proper development and function of the body; they regulate sexual differentiation, the secondary sex characteristics, and sexual habits. They are also well known to influence many common cancers, especially hormonally driven cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. In this report, we review the association of sex steroids with cancer and the potential use of endocrine manipulation in cancer therapy as well as the limitations and challenges faced in this field.

Zeina Nahleh



Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism.  

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Paracetamol metabolism was investigated in eight healthy males, eight healthy females and eight healthy females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Paracetamol clearance was 22% greater in males compared to the control female group. This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex-related differences in the sulphation or oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. Paracetamol clearance in females using OCS was 49% greater tha...

Miners, J. O.; Attwood, J.; Birkett, D. J.



Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing factor in pituitary stalk blood from female rats: sex steroid modulation of response to electrical stimulation of preoptic area or median eminence. (United States)

The effects of sex steroid hormones on the responsiveness of the neural mechanism responsible for the secretion of LH-RF have been examined in the female rat. Responsiveness was determined at pro-oestrus by measuring the increments in immunoreactive LH-RF of pituitary stalk blood produced by electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic area or median eminence. Ovariectomy on the morning of dioestrus reduced the LH-RF response to preoptic stimulation while oestradiol benzoate (OB) or testosterone propionate (TP) administered immediately after ovariectomy significantly augmented the response. The facilitatory effect of TP was possibly due to its conversion to an aromatized derivative since 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone monobenzoate was ineffective. Progesterone did not facilitate preoptic responsiveness, and, when administered to animals ovariectomized at 12.00 h of pro-oestrus, reduced the LH-RF response at 18.00 h the same day. Stimulation of the median eminence produced a significantly greater increment in LH-RF than stimulation of the preoptic area. The facilitatory action of OB on the LH-RF response was less marked for median eminence compared with preoptic stimulation. The administration of ICI 46474 at 17.00 h of dioestrus did not reduce preoptic responsiveness on the morning of the next day, suggesting that this compound does not act as an 'antioestrogen' at the level of the preoptic area. PMID:789804

Sherwood, N M; Chiappa, S A; Fink, G



Sex steroid actions in male bone. (United States)

Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-? in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

Vanderschueren, Dirk; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E; Ohlsson, Claes



Sex steroid content and metabolism in Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda). (United States)

Testosterone, progesterone and cholesterol were found in mixed sexes of the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats, according to thin-layer, gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure of these steroids was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Melting points of the worms' steroids were similar to authentic standards of the steroids. Estradiol was not detected in worms from either goat sex. Cholesterol was about 0.08% of the worms' dry weight in helminths from either sex of host. Testosterone was 0.02% of the dry weight when worms were taken from male goats, but only 0.005% from female goats. Progesterone was not detected in worms from male goats, but was 0.005% of the dry weight of helminths from female hosts. Incubation of a worm preparation with tritiated steroids showed that progesterone was converted to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, based on retention during radioactive thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography, and co-crystallization. Testosterone, cholesterol and 17-beta-estradiol were not metabolized. PMID:3734997

Chung, W L; Parish, E J; Bone, L W



Steroid abuse in female athletes. (United States)

Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

Honour, J W



Sex steroids and glucose metabolism (United States)

Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference) is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain. PMID:24457840

Allan, Carolyn A



Sex steroids in Sjögren's syndrome. (United States)

The purpose of the review is to consider pathomechanisms of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which could explain the female dominance (9:1), the most common age of onset (40-50 years) and targeting of the exocrine glands. Estrogens seem to specifically protect secretory glandular acinar cells against apoptosis whereas lack of estrogens during menopause and climacterium specifically leads to increased apoptosis of the exocrine secretory cells. Male gonads produce testosterone and convert it in exocrine glands to dihydrotesterosterone (DHT), which is anti-apoptotic and protects against acinar cell apoptosis. Estrogen-deficient women need to produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal glands and convert it to DHT in exocrine glands in a complex and branching reaction network in which individual enzymatic reactions are catalyzed in forward and backward directions by a myriad of different isoforms of steroidogenic enzymes. Tailoring DHT in peripheral tissues is much more complex and vulnerable in women than in men. In SS the intracrine steroidogenic enzyme machinery is deranged. These endo-/intracrine changes impair acinar remodeling due to impaired integrin ?1?1 and integrin ?2?1 expression so that the intercalated duct progenitor cells are unable to migrate to the acinar space, to differentiate to secretory acinar cells upon contact with laminin-111 and laminin-211 specifically found in the acinar basement membrane. The disarranged endo-/intracrine estrogen/androgen balance induces acinar cells to release microparticles and apoptotic bodies and to undergo apoptotis and/or anoikis. Membrane particles contain potential autoantigens recognized by T- (TCRs) and B-cell receptors (BCRs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In membrane particles (or carrier-complexes) antigen/adjuvant complexes could stimulate professional antigen capturing, processing and presenting cells, which can initiate auto-inflammatory and autoimmune cascades, break the self-tolerance and finally lead to SS. PMID:22300712

Konttinen, Yrjö T; Fuellen, Georg; Bing, Yan; Porola, Pauliina; Stegaev, Vasily; Trokovic, Nina; Falk, Steffi S I; Liu, Yi; Szodoray, Peter; Takakubo, Yuya



Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action (United States)

This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)



Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure. (United States)

The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids. PMID:24189140

Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A



Influence of sex steroids on inflammation and bone metabolism. (United States)

Sex steroids are central to sexual development and reproduction, exerting pleiotropic effects on multiple tissues and organs throughout the lifespan of humans. Sex steroids are fundamental to skeletal development, bone homeostasis and immune function. The composite effect of sex-specific genetic architecture and circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones closely parallels differences in the immune response and may account for corresponding sex-related differences in risk for chronic periodontitis, with men exhibiting greater susceptibility than women. Age-associated reductions in sex steroids also provide insight into apparent temporal increases in susceptibility to periodontitis and alveolar bone loss, particularly among women. Chronic infection and inflammatory conditions, such as periodontal disease, provide a unique platform for exploring the interface of sex steroids, immunity and bone metabolism. PMID:24320957

Shiau, Harlan J; Aichelmann-Reidy, Mary E; Reynolds, Mark A




Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...


Endocrine effects in female weight lifters who self-administer testosterone and anabolic steroids. (United States)

It appears that the self-administration of testosterone and anabolic steroids is increasingly practiced by women in sports where strength and endurance are important. We recently evaluated endocrine parameters in nine female weight lifters using steroids and seven not using these agents. Of the nine anabolic steroid users, seven took multiple anabolic steroids simultaneously. Thirty-fold elevations of serum testosterone were noted in the women injecting testosterone. In three of these women serum testosterone levels exceeded the upper limits for normal male testosterone concentrations. A significant compensatory decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin and a decrease in thyroid-binding proteins were noted in the women steroid users. Also, a 39% decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was noted in the steroid-using weight lifters. Most of the subjects in this study used anabolic steroids continuously, which raises concern about premature atherosclerosis and other disease processes developing in these women. PMID:1835565

Malarkey, W B; Strauss, R H; Leizman, D J; Liggett, M; Demers, L M



The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture


Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones  

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Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

Elvar Theodorsson



Sex and androgenic steroid receptor expression in hepatic adenomas. (United States)

Sex hormones and anabolic-androgenic steroids are implicated in the development and progression of hepatic adenomas (HA). We studied the expression of their receptors in HA and adjacent liver. Archival tissue sections of 27 HA (16 resections, four needle biopsies, seven aspirations) from 18 patients, and the adjacent liver, were immunostained with monoclonal antibody to estrogen receptor (ER, 1/80) (Dako, Carpinteria, CA), progesterone receptor (PR, 1/50) (BioGenex, San Ramon, CA), and androgen receptor (AR, 1/80) (BioGenex). An avidin-biotin complex technique was used with microwave antigen retrieval. Nuclear expression was assessed as 1+ to 3+ intensity, with semiquantitation of the percentage of nuclei immunopositive. Five percent or more nuclei immunopositive was regarded as positive. The 18 patients included 16 females of 34 years mean age (range, 16 to 49) with an available history of oral contraceptives in five; the two men were 24 and 30 years, with no history of androgenic steroids. ER, PR, and AR were present in seven (26%) (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 10% of nuclei) of HA, seven (26%) (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 30% of nuclei) and nine (33%) (1+/-3+ intensity, 5% to 80% of nuclei), respectively. In the adjacent liver in 11 cases, there were one (9%) ER, (2+ intensity, 5% of nuclei), four (36%) PR (1+/-2+ intensity, 5% to 20% of nuclei), and two (18%) AR (2+/-3+ intensity, 10% of nuclei). Receptors are present and may mediate the action of sex hormones or androgenic steroids on HA and adjacent liver, but in less than one third of patients. This may have therapeutic implications. PMID:9865828

Cohen, C; Lawson, D; DeRose, P B



The plasma sex steroid profiles in the freshwater, sex-reversing teleost fish, Monopterus albus (Zuiew). (United States)

The plasma levels of both the free and conjugated forms of six sex steroids (androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were determined by radioimmunoassay combined with Celite chromatography in different sexual phases of the protogynous Monopterus albus throughout the reproductive cycle. The amounts of 11-oxotestosterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found to be very low and variable in all the specimens investigated. No conjugated 17 beta-estradiol or free estrone was detected. Female individuals showed a prespawning rise of androstenedione which subsequently dropped to a low level in the spawning period. The estrogen levels in the female phase were found to be higher than those in all other sexual phases during the spawning period, but the testosterone level remained constant throughout the reproductive cycle in the female phase. The level of androstenedione was highest in the early intersexual and mid-intersexual phases during the postspawning/inactive period. Compared with the female specimens in the same reproductive period, the early intersexual individuals showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol, while the mid-intersexual animals showed a higher level of testosterone in the postspawned/inactive period. In the mid-intersexual phase, the levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and estrone dropped progressively in relation to the seasonal reproductive cycle. The male fish had a constant level of androstenedione, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol. However, the level of testosterone increased as the spawning period approached. The hormonal profile in the late intersexual phase was essentially similar to that in the male phase. The changes in the plasma levels of sex steroids in M. albus apparently were related to the maturation of the female and male sex tissues and to their seasonal reproductive cycle. PMID:3817447

Yeung, W S; Chan, S T



The Effects of [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]-LHRHa and LHRHa + Pimozide on Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Adult Female Seabream (Sparus aurata  

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Full Text Available The present study examined changes in the concentrations of plasma testosterone (T, progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17ß (E2 to determine changes in serum hormone profiles during the functional female phases in Sparus aurata. The fish were treated with [D-Ala6 Pro9 NEt]- luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa alone, LHRHa plus pimozide (PIM and Physiological Saline (PS alone to stimulate gonadal development and sexual maturation. All fish were sampled and plasma levels of oestradiol (E2 Testosterone (T and progesterone (P4 were measured by radioimmuno assay. LHRHa treatment alone, or in combination with PIM, elevated serum E2 and T concentrations (p<0.05 at 6, 24, 48 h after treatments while plasma P4 concentrations were unaffected by the treatments (p>0.05. Vitellogenesis was also stimulated by a combined LHRHa and PIM treatment. Responses to treatment with LHRHa plus PIM were comparable to those treated with LHRHa alone (p>0.05, suggesting that dopamine receptor antagonist, pimozide may not inhibit dopamine secretion in S. aurata.

Sehriban Cek



Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease  

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Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.




Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease  

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Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.



DHHC-7 and -21 are palmitoylacyltransferases for sex steroid receptors. (United States)

Classical estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors (ERs, PRs, and ARs) localize outside the nucleus at the plasma membrane of target cells. From the membrane, the receptors signal to activate kinase cascades that are essential for the modulation of transcription and nongenomic functions in many target cells. ER, PR, and AR trafficking to the membrane requires receptor palmitoylation by palmitoylacyltransferase (PAT) protein(s). However, the identity of the steroid receptor PAT(s) is unknown. We identified the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins as conserved PATs for the sex steroid receptors. From DHHC-7 and -21 knockdown studies, the PATs are required for endogenous ER, PR, and AR palmitoylation, membrane trafficking, and rapid signal transduction in cancer cells. Thus the DHHC-7 and -21 proteins are novel targets to selectively inhibit membrane sex steroid receptor localization and function. PMID:22031296

Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Deschenes, Robert J; Levin, Ellis R



Actin cytoskeleton remodelling by sex steroids in neurones. (United States)

Cell morphology and its interaction with the extracellular environment are integrated processes involving a number of intracellular controllers orchestrating cytoskeletal proteins and their interaction with the cell membrane and anchorage proteins. Sex steroids are effective regulators of cell morphology and tissue organisation, and recent evidence indicates that this is obtained through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Intriguingly, many of these regulatory actions related to cell morphology are achieved through the rapid, nonclassical signalling of sex steroid receptors to kinase cascades, independently from nuclear alteration of gene expression or protein synthesis. The identification of the mechanistic basis for these rapid actions on cell cytoskeleton has special relevance for the characterisation of the effects of sex steroids under physiological conditions, such as for the development of neurone/neurone interconnections and dendritic spine density. This is considered to be critical for gender-specific differences in brain function and dysfunction. Recent advancements in the characterisation of the molecular basis of the extranuclear signalling of sex steroids help to clarify the role of oestrogen and progesterone in the brain, and may turn out to be of relevance for clinical purposes. This review highlights the regulatory effects of oestrogens and progesterone on actin cytoskeleton and neurone morphology, as well as recent progresses in the characterisation of these mechanisms, providing insights and working hypotheses on possible clinical applications for the modulation of these pathways in the central nervous system. PMID:22103470

Sanchez, A M; Flamini, M I; Polak, K; Palla, G; Spina, S; Mannella, P; Genazzani, A D; Simoncini, T



Social environment and steroid hormones affect species and sex differences in immune function among voles. (United States)

Testosterone has bipotential effects on male fitness; that is, it both suppresses immune function and maintains characteristics important for reproductive success. Presumably, these effects of testosterone may be more pronounced among polygynous species because testosterone concentrations are generally higher among polygynous than monogamous males. The present study examined sex and species differences in cell-mediated immunity among four arvicoline rodents. The role of mating system and sex steroids in sex differences in immune function was examined in individually housed polygynous meadow (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and montane (M. montanus) voles and monogamous prairie (M. ochrogaster) and pine (M. pinetorum) voles in Experiment 1. No sex differences in splenocyte proliferation were observed among the four species and circulating testosterone concentrations did not correlate with immune function of individuals within each species. The contribution of social isolation to these results was examined in Experiment 2, in which meadow and prairie voles were housed individually, or with same- or opposite-sex conspecifics in either pairs or groups of four per cage for 28 days. Overall, prairie voles exhibited more robust immune responses than meadow voles when housed in pairs or in same-sex groups. Sex differences in immune function were also apparent; male meadow voles had higher immune responses than female conspecifics when housed in pairs, whereas female prairie voles had higher responses than male conspecifics when housed in same-sex pairs. Circulating sex steroid hormones and corticosterone appear to mediate some, but not all, of the changes in immune function evoked by differential housing conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that social factors have significant effects on immunity and should be considered in studies of sex differences in immunity at both proximate and ultimate levels. PMID:9344689

Klein, S L; Hairston, J E; Devries, A C; Nelson, R J



Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro. (United States)

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C



Effects of sex steroid hormones on sertoli cells metabolic pathways  

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Developing germ cells use lactate, derived from glucose metabolism of Sertoli cells (SCs), as their main energy source. Androgens and estrogens have been implicated in the modulation of testicular cells energy metabolism, particularly in SCs. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the effects of sex steroid hormones on glucose metabolic pathways in rat SCs. The mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and lactate dehydrogenase cha...

Martins, Ana Catarina Dias



Regulation by Gonadal Steroids of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Along the Reproductive Tract in Female Lambs  

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Full Text Available The regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR expression by estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 in the oviduct, uterus and cervix of female lambs was studied. The animals received three intramuscular injections of E2, P4 or vehicle with an interval of 24 h and they were slaugthered 24 h after the third injection. Determinations of ER and PR were performed by binding assays and mRNAs of ER? and PR by solution hybridization. High levels of ER and PR in both cervix and oviduct were found in the female lamb, differing from other mammalian species. No significant effects by either E2 or P4 treatment on ER and PR levels in the cervix and oviduct could be observed. E2 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR more than 3-fold in the cervix, while P4 treatment increased the mRNA levels of ERa and PR in the uterus. The results show differential effects of gonadal steroids on sex steroid receptor expression along the reproductive tract in female lambs, suggesting that steroid target tissues can modulate responses to the same circulating levels of steroid hormones.

Rodríguez-Piñón M



Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)of estrogens in males.(author)


Serum sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostatic hyperplasia  

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Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH develops in elderly males when serum androgens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but it is not well understood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia. It is also uncertain whether there is any change in sex steroid levels in males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males is often discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens on prostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatic hyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significant change in these hormones after the age of 40 years. Subjects and Methods: We studied healthy males of age 240 years with (n=92 or without (n=93 clinical prostatic hyperplasia. Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were compared. The hormones and SHBG were also correlated with age. Results: No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases with prostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significant age-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negative correlation (P< .003 with age was found. Conclusions: Serum sex steroids and SHBG remained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except for estradiol there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone, gonadotrophins and SHBG in healthy males after the fourth decade. More studies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.

Ansari Mohammad Abdul



The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation. (United States)

Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.



Effects of Supraphysiological Doses of Sex Steroids on Wheel Running Activity in Mice (United States)

The regulatory mechanisms of physical activity are postulated to include environmental and biological/genetic factors. In particular, the sex steroids appear to have profound effects on wheel running in rodents. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of 17?-estradiol and testosterone on wheel running distance, duration, and speed in male and female C57BL/6J mice. The mice (N=46) were provided free access to running wheels interfaced with computers to track daily running distance, duration, and speed. Activity was assessed at baseline in intact mice, after surgical gonadectomy, and after replacement with either 17?-estradiol or testosterone. Upon removal of the gonads, physical activity levels were significantly reduced in both males and females. Distance (10–30% of baseline) and duration (20–47% of baseline) measures were most affected by the loss of endogenous steroids, while running speed (60–77% of baseline) though significantly reduced-decreased by a much lower magnitude. Testosterone replacement fully recovered running distance, duration, and speed to pre-surgical levels in both sexes (100% of baseline). Distance (30–42% of baseline) and duration (43–47% of baseline) were partially recovered by 17?-estradiol, but not to baseline levels. Speed (100% of baseline) was fully recovered by 17?-estradiol replacement in males and females. This study suggests that physical activity in mice is affected by endogenous steroids and can be altered by exogenous steroid replacement. The differences in the recovery abilities of 17?-estradiol and testosterone suggest that both estrogenic and androgenic pathways may be involved to variable degrees in activity regulation.

Bowen, Robert S; Knab, Amy M; Hamilton, Alicia Trynor; McCall, Jennifer R; Moore-Harrison, Trudy L; Lightfoot, J Timothy



Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal (United States)

Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca



Female Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Chicken  

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During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription ...

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.



Consistent sex ratio bias of individual female dragon lizards.  

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Sex ratio evolution relies on genetic variation in either the phenotypic traits that influence sex ratios or sex-determining mechanisms. However, consistent variation among females in offspring sex ratio is rarely investigated. Here, we show that female painted dragons (Ctenophorus pictus) have highly repeatable sex ratios among clutches within years. A consistent effect of female identity could represent stable phenotypic differences among females or genetic variation in sex-determining mech...

Uller, T.; Mott, B.; Odierna, G.; Olsson, M.



Sex differences and steroid modulation of cardiac iron in a mouse model of iron overload. (United States)

Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in transfusional iron overload, and men have twice the mortality of women. Because the prevalence of cardiac iron overload increases rapidly during the second decade of life, we postulated that there are steroid-dependent sex differences in cardiac iron uptake. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated sex steroids in mice with constitutive iron absorption (homozygous hemojuvelin knockout); this model mimics the myocyte iron deposition observed in humans. At 4 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and male mice were castrated (OrchX). Female mice received an estrogen implant (OVX + E) or a cholesterol control (OVX), whereas male mice received an implant containing testosterone (OrchX + T), dihydrotestosterone (OrchX + DHT), estrogen (OrchX + E), or cholesterol (OrchX). All animals received a high-iron diet for 8 weeks. OrchX, OVX, and OVX + E mice all had similar cardiac iron loads. However, OrchX + E males had a significant increase in cardiac iron concentration compared with OrchX mice (P < 0.01), whereas the OrchX + T and OrchX + DHT groups only trended higher (P < 0.06 and P < 0.15, respectively). Hormone treatments did not impact liver iron concentration in either sex. When data were pooled across hormone therapies, liver iron concentration was 25% greater in males than females (P < 0.01). In summary, we found that estrogen increased cardiac iron loading in male mice, but not in females. Male mice loaded 25% more hepatic iron than female mice regardless of the hormone treatment. PMID:24018182

Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C



Sex steroid hormones, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. (United States)

The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become the new epidemic of this century. Although its associated pathologies may vary, the most common are hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia, low High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), high Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and type-2 diabetes. Several others can be present, such as hypertriglyceridemia, cardiopathies, atherosclerosis, altered levels of sex hormones, hypogonadism in men and nephropathy. Several factors such as gender, age, race, lifestyle and diet may contribute to modify its prevalence: men develop cardiovascular diseases at an earlier age than pre-menopausal women, who seem to be protected by the antioxidant properties of estrogens. The present review offers information, mostly from 2008 to the present, as well as our own work on a rat model of MS, which was developed by the administration of sucrose in drinking water. Sex steroid hormones play an important role in the appearance and development of the MS and of cardiovascular diseases. Variations in the levels of sex hormones, whether normal or pathological, may have significant influence in the onset of several diseases, metabolic syndrome components included, as well as in the behavior of tissues and organs. These are just some of the non-reproductive actions of sex hormones. PMID:21745183

Baños, G; Guarner, V; Pérez-Torres, I



Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones (United States)

We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang



Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. (United States)

Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed. PMID:23240944

Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael



Regulation of mouse liver flavin-containing monooxygenases 1 and 3 by sex steroids. (United States)

Based on enzyme activity, protein levels, and mRNA levels, we have previously demonstrated the female-predominant, female-specific, and gender-independent expression in mouse liver of FMO forms 1, 3, and 5, respectively. This study investigated the roles of testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and progesterone in the regulation of hepatic FMOs. FMO expression was examined in gonadectomized CD-1 mice, normal CD-1 mice receiving hormonal implants, and gonadectomized mice receiving various hormonal treatments. Following castration of males, hepatic FMO activity levels were significantly increased and serum testosterone levels significantly decreased; however, administration of physiological levels of testosterone to castrated animals returned FMO activity and testosterone concentrations to control levels. When sexually intact and ovariectomized female mice were treated with testosterone, their hepatic FMO activity levels were reduced to those of their male counterparts, concomitant with high serum testosterone levels. In males, castration dramatically increased FMO3 and FMO1 expression, and testosterone replacement to castrated males resulted in ablation of FMO3 expression. In addition, testosterone administration to females (sexually intact and gonadectomized animals) reduced FMO1 expression and obviated FMO3 expression. In females, ovariectomy alone slightly reduced FMO activity, indicative of a possible stimulatory role of female sex steroids; however, female FMO isozyme expression was relatively unchanged, and hormone replacement therapy to ovariectomized females had no discernible effect. In males and females, FMO5 levels were unaffected by gonadectomy or hormone administration, thus indicating a sex hormone-independent mechanism of regulation for this isoform. Interestingly, FMO1 protein levels were increased in sexually intact males following treatment with 17 beta-estradiol; however, only a slight increase in FMO3 protein level was observed. No positive hormone effectors of female FMO expression were identified. PMID:9186481

Falls, J G; Ryu, D Y; Cao, Y; Levi, P E; Hodgson, E



Disparate changes in kisspeptin and neurokinin B expression in the arcuate nucleus after sex steroid manipulation reveal differential regulation of the two KNDy peptides in rats. (United States)

Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their regulated expression by sex steroids are still not well understood. In this study, detailed examination of NKB and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the rat ARC was carried out, including comparison between sexes, with and without sex steroid replacement. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and NKB were more prominent in the caudal ARC of females, whereas neurons expressing NKB, but not kisspeptin, were the most abundant in the male. Sex steroid manipulation revealed differential regulation of kisspeptin and NKB; although kisspeptin immunoreactive (ir) cells increased in response to gonadectomy, NKB remained unchanged. Furthermore, the number of NKB-ir cells increased upon sex steroid replacement compared with gonadectomy, whereas kisspeptin did not, suggesting that sex steroids differently regulate these peptides. In addition, only in females did the density of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir fibers in the ARC increase upon sex steroid replacement in relation to sham and ovariectomy, respectively, suggesting sex-specific regulation of release. In conclusion, our observations reveal sex differences in the number of kisspeptin- and NKB-ir cells, which are more prominent in the caudal ARC. The divergent regulation of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons. PMID:25051440

Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D



Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5?-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also stve effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED


High progesterone during avian meiosis biases sex ratios toward females  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence of altered primary sex ratios in birds shows that mothers can manipulate the sex of their offspring before oviposition. In birds, females are the heterogametic sex (ZW) and males are homogametic (ZZ). Sex is determined in the first meiotic division, when one sex chromosome is retained in the oocyte and the other segregates to the polar body. Altered primary sex ratios suggest that birds may be capable of biasing the segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis I. During the time of ...

Correa, Stephanie M.; Adkins-regan, Elizabeth; Johnson, Patricia A.



Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken. (United States)

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis. PMID:19461881

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M



Steroids (United States)

... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...


Sex and stress steroid modulation of GABA mediated chloride ion flux in rat CNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Sex and stress steroids are metabolized to 3a-hydroxy-pregnane-steroid metabolites such as allopregnanolone (Allo) and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). Allo and THDOC are neuroactive steroids that are metabolized in the brain and act in brain as potent positive GABAA receptor function modulators. Allo as well as THDOC levels increase during stress. Allo has been associated with a number of symptoms and malfunctions such as impaired memory function and negative mood symptoms ...

Stro?mberg, Jessica



The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus). (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W



Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents (United States)

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.



Stereotypes and steroids: using a psychobiosocial model to understand cognitive sex differences. (United States)

To further our understanding of cognitive sex differences, we studied the relationship between menstrual phase (via serum estradiol and progesterone levels) and cognitive abilities and cognitive performance in a sample of medical students in eastern Turkey. As expected, we found no sex differences on the Cattell "Culture Fair Intelligence Test" (a figural reasoning test), with females scoring significantly higher on a Turkish version of the Finding A's Test (rapid word knowledge) and males scoring significantly higher on a paper-and-pencil mental rotation test. The women showed a slight enhancement on the Finding A's Test and a slight decrement in Cattell scores during the preovulatory phase of their cycle that (probably) coincided with a rise in estrogen. There were also small cycle-related enhancements in performance for these women on the mental rotation test that may reflect cyclical increases in estrogen and progesterone. Additional analyses showed an inverted U-shaped function in level of estradiol and the Cattell Test. Finally, for women who were tested on Day 10 of their menstrual cycle, there was a negative linear relationship between their Cattell scores and level of progesterone. Stereotypes about the cognitive abilities of males and females did not correspond to performance on the mental rotation or Finding A's Test, so the sex-typical results could not be attributed to either stereotype threat or stereotype activation. For practical purposes, hormone-related effects were generally small. Variations over the menstrual cycle do not provide evidence for a "smarter" sex, but they do further our understanding of steroidal action on human cognitive performance. PMID:11305881

Halpern, D F; Tan, U



Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women. (United States)

Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood sample in 1989 to 1990. We calculated adjusted geometric mean estrogen and androgen levels for each category of analgesic use and calculated the P value for trend with increasing frequency of use. There was no association between days of use per month of aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, or acetaminophen in 1990 and hormone levels (all P(trend) > or = 0.09). However, we observed significant inverse trends between the estimated number of aspirin tablets per month in 1988 and concentrations of estrone (P(trend) = 0.04) and estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03). In analyses of total (aspirin and nonaspirin) NSAID use in 1990, women who used NSAIDs at least 15 days per month had significantly lower levels of estradiol compared with women with no NSAID use (P(trend) = 0.03). Frequency of use of all analgesics (aspirin, nonaspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) in 1990 was inversely associated with concentrations of estradiol (P(trend) = 0.001), free estradiol (P(trend) = 0.01), estrone sulfate (P(trend) = 0.03), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (P(trend) = 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, regular users of aspirin and other analgesics may have lower estrogen levels than nonusers, which could contribute to a decreased risk of breast or ovarian cancer among analgesic users. PMID:20332258

Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E



Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters. (United States)

This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others



Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids. (United States)

Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others



Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. (United States)

Sex steroid hormones released from the gonads play an important role in mediating social behavior across all vertebrates. Many effects of these gonadal hormones are mediated by nuclear steroid hormone receptors, which are crucial for integration in the brain of external (e.g., social) signals with internal physiological cues to produce an appropriate behavioral output. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni presents an attractive model system for the study of how internal cues and external social signals are integrated in the brain as males display robust plasticity in the form of two distinct, yet reversible, behavioral and physiological phenotypes depending on the social environment. In order to better understand where sex steroid hormones act to regulate social behavior in this species, we have determined the distribution of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor mRNA and protein throughout the telencephalon and diencephalon and some mesencephalic structures of A. burtoni. All steroid hormone receptors were found in key brain regions known to modulate social behavior in other vertebrates including the proposed teleost homologs of the mammalian amygdalar complex, hippocampus, striatum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area. Overall, there is high concordance of mRNA and protein labeling. Our results significantly extend our understanding of sex steroid pathways in the cichlid brain and support the important role of nuclear sex steroid hormone receptors in modulating social behaviors in teleosts and across vertebrates. PMID:20575061

Munchrath, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A



Sex steroids and neuroprotection in spinal cord injury: a review of preclinical investigations. (United States)

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects motor, sensory and autonomic functions. Subsequent to the first mechanical trauma, secondary events, which include inflammation and glial activation, exacerbate tissue damage and worsen functional deficits. Although these secondary injury mechanisms are amenable to therapeutic interventions, the efficacy of current approaches is inadequate. Further investigations are necessary to implement new therapies that can protect neural cells and attenuate some of the detrimental effects of inflammation while promoting regeneration. Studies on different animal models of SCI indicated that sex steroids, especially 17?-estradiol and progesterone, exert neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, ameliorate tissue sparing and improve functional deficits in SCI. As sex steroid receptors are expressed in a variety of cells including neurons, glia and immune system-related cells which infiltrate the injury epicenter, sex steroids could impact multiple processes simultaneously and in doing so, influence the outcomes of SCI. However, the translation of these pre-clinical findings into the clinical setting presents challenges such as the narrow therapeutic time window of sex steroid administration, the diversity of treatment regimens that have been employed in animal studies and the lack of sufficient information regarding the persistence of the effects in chronic SCI. The current review will summarize some of the major findings in this field and will discuss the challenges associated with the implementation of sex steroids as a promising treatment in human SCI. PMID:24440641

Elkabes, Stella; Nicot, Arnaud B



From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers (United States)

The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises



Cardiovascular risk factors in men : The role of gonadal steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very--low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides). In quartile analyses after adjustment for confounders (age, body mass index [BMI], alcohol consumption, and smoking), SHBG and E2 were positively associated with HDL, while FAI was negatively associated with HDL. T and SHBG were negatively associated with VLDL and triglycerides, while FAI was positively associated with VLDL and triglycerides. T and SHBG were negatively associated with BMI and BF, while FAI and E2 were positively associated with BMI and BF. E2 was negatively associated with LVM. No hormone varied with total cholesterol, LDL, BP, and aortic compliance in the adjusted analyses. In multiple regression analyses, SHBG was the main predictive variable of HDL, VLDL, and triglycerides explaining 12%, 17%, and 17% of the variation, respectively. No other hormones were selected as predictive variables for VLDL and triglycerides, but E2, T, and FAI were selected in the HDL regression, explaining 3%, 2%, and less than 1%, respectively. Our regression analyses illustrate the diverging results when investigating associations between gonadal steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should be performed.

Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L



Effects of sex steroids and estrogen receptor agonists on the expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the principal division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female rats. (United States)

Estrogen actions on neurons of the principal division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) are essential for the regulation of female sexual behavior. However, little is known about the effects of estradiol and progesterone (P) on estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression in this nucleus. To study this subject, we used stereological methods to estimate the total number of ER?-immunoreactive (ER?-ir) neurons in the BNSTpr of female rats at each stage of the estrous cycle and of ovariectomized rats after administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) and/or P. To ascertain the percentage of ER?-positive neurons in the BNSTpr, the total number of neurons in this nucleus was also estimated. In order to identify the specific role played by the selective activation of each ER in the expression of ER?, ovariectomized rats were injected with the ER? agonist, propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT), or the ER? agonist, diaryl-propionitrile (DPN). Data show that ER? is expressed in 40-60% of the BNSTpr neurons and that the number of ER?-ir neurons is lowest at proestrus. This value is paralleled by the administration of EB. The number of ER?-ir neurons was not modified by P. PPT induced no changes in the number of ER?-ir neurons. Contrariwise, DPN induced a decrease in the total number of ER?-ir neurons to values similar to those of EB-treated rats. These results show that P has no effect in the modulation of ER? expression and demonstrate that estradiol regulation of ER? in BNSTpr neurons is mediated by activation of ER?. PMID:25087654

Leite, Cláudia; Madeira, M Dulce; Sá, Susana Isabel



2d:4d, sex steroid hormones and human psychological sex differences. (United States)

Studies on 2d:4d, the ratio between the second and the fourth digit, as a possible indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, have failed to produce consistent results. This paper analyzes the relation between 2d:4d, sex steroids and well-documented sex differences in characteristics such as depression, dominance, and aggressive (ART) and non-aggressive adolescent risk-taking (NART) in a comparatively large sample of adolescent boys (N=301, mean age: 14.4 years) and girls (N=298, mean age: 14.3 years). Boys had on average a lower 2d:4d than girls (F=42.15; p<0.001). With respect to boys, controlling for age and pubertal development (PD), a small but marginally significant positive association was found between 2d:4d and total testosterone (TT) (r=0.11; p<0.05). In girls a significant association was found between 2d:4d and SHBG (r=0.18; p<0.01). However, relationships between 2d:4d and hormones depended on the phase of the menstrual cycle, with 2d:4d being negatively associated with FT (B=-0.013; p<0.05) once a positive association between 2d:4d and FT for girls in the mid-cycle group (B=0.019; p<0.01) is taken into account. With respect to sex differences in characteristics, we found evidence of a relationship between 2d:4d and depression in boys (r=-0.14; p<0.05) but not between 2d:4d and dominance, ART or NART. No relationships were found between 2d:4d and any of these variables in girls. PMID:18440537

Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J



Sex steroids and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In healthy adults insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient (GHD) women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. These data suggest a resistance to GH in women, which in healthy subjects is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy postmenopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GHD lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to achieve IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at other levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.

JØrgensen, Jens O L; Christensen, Jens Juel



Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders. (United States)

Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

Elliot, Diane L.; And Others



The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels.

Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders



Steroid binding sites in liver membranes: interplay between glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones. (United States)

Steroid hormones activate target cells through specific receptors that discriminate among ligands based upon recognition of distinct structural features. For most known steroids, membrane and nuclear receptors co-exist in many target cells. However, while the structure of the nuclear receptors and their function as transcriptional activators of specific target genes is generally well understood, the identity of the membrane receptors remains elusive. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we are beginning to characterize receptors for glucocorticoids and anabolic-androgenic steroids in male rat liver membranes. Male rat liver endoplasmic reticulum contains two steroid binding sites which are functionally related and associated with a 90-134 kDa oligomeric protein: (1) the low-affinity glucocorticoid binding site (LAGS), composed at least in part of two peptides (37 and 53 kDa) that bind glucocorticoids and (2) the stanozolol binding protein (STBP), composed at least in part of three peptides (22, 31, and 55 kDa) that bind the synthetic androgen stanozolol. These steroid binding proteins have many properties different from those of classical nuclear receptors, with the salient differences being a failure to recognize "classical" ligands for nuclear receptors together with marked differences in biochemical properties and physiological regulation. The mechanism of interaction of glucocorticoids with the LAGS can be clearly distinguished from that with STBP. Moreover, STBP shows an extremely narrow pharmacological profile, being selective for ST and its analog, danazol, among more than 100 steroids and non-steroidal compounds that were assayed, including those that are able to displace glucocorticoids from the LAGS. The level of LAGS activity undergoes dramatic variations following changes from the physiological serum levels of thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, GH, vitamin A, and E2. However, neither thyroid hormones nor GH have a critical role on STBP activity. The STBP is functionally related to LAGS. We have suggested a novel mechanism for STBP whereby membrane-associated glucocorticoid binding activity is targeted by stanozolol (and 16beta-hydroxylated stanozolol): stanozolol modulates glucocorticoid activity in the liver through negative allosteric modulation of the LAGS resulting in an effective increase in classical GR-signaling by increasing glucocorticoid availability to the cytosolic GR. PMID:18430567

Fernández-Pérez, L; Flores-Morales, A; Chirino-Godoy, R; Díaz-Chico, J C; Díaz-Chico, B N



Sex steroids and their relationship to binding proteins in the serum of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). (United States)

A sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) similar to human SHBG was identified in marmoset serum based on its gel electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and steroid binding properties. Levels of serum SHBG were measured in immature and mature males, immature females and females during the luteal phase and pregnancy; serum progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), testosterone, oestradiol-17 beta and oestrone were also measured. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) concentrations of SHBG in immature males (336 +/- 19 nmol/l) were higher (P less than 0.01) than those in mature males (251 +/- 13 nmol/l), whereas values in the groups of females were similar (359 +/- 12, 395 +/- 17, 397 +/- 39 nmol/l in immature, non-pregnant and pregnant females respectively). There was an inverse relationship between SHBG and the levels of testosterone (r = -0.67) and 5 alpha-DHT (r = -0.86) in males, but the correlation was significant (P less than 0.05) only for 5 alpha-DHT. There was no correlation between levels of SHBG and oestrogens in males or between levels of SHBG and any of the steroids measured in females. Equilibrium dialysis was used to assess the percentage of steroid in serum in the unbound form. Mean percentage values for unbound testosterone and 5 alpha-DHT were lower in immature males than in mature males (P less than 0.01) and negatively correlated with levels of SHBG (r = -0.78, testosterone; r = -0.56, 5 alpha-DHT). PMID:6403644

Hodges, J K; Eastman, S A; Jenkins, N



Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

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As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center




The present study was designed in order to determine if exposure to the weakly estrogenic pesticide Chlordecone during a critical period of behavioral sex differentiation of the brain could masculinize and defeminize the behavior of female hamsters....


Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

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Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts...

McPherson Sam; Gutierrez Juan; Anil, Kumar G.; Dandona Lalit; Dandona Rakhi; Samuels Fiona; Bertozzi Stefano M.



Self-Perceived Sex Role and Female Involvement in Sport. (United States)

Since the mid 1970s, studies measuring self-perceived sex roles of athletes and nonathletes have, in general, supported the notion of androgyny, and have found that female athletes who have engaged competitively in sports have not necessarily lost their perceived femininity. Subjects for this survey were 657 females older than 15 years who were…

Clark, E. K.; And Others


The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes  

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Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.




The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes (United States)

From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds. PMID:25177264

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko



Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia. (United States)

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P



Health behavior among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway  

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In a public health perspective there has been a strong focus on HIV/AIDS and STDs when addressing the health of sex workers. However, a more holistic approach to the topic of sex work and health has been called for, both in terms of research, interventions and services. This project is a contribution to the somewhat neglected research issue of sex work and health in a Norwegian context. This study explores the health behaviour among female migrant sex workers in Oslo, Norway. Through a quali...

Hafskjold, Benedicte Næss



Sex steroid hormone-mediated functional regulation of microglia-like BV-2 cells during hypoxia. (United States)

17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective hormones in different neurological disorders and in particular under hypoxic conditions in the brain. Both hormones dampen brain-intrinsic immune responses and regulate local glial cell function. Besides astrocytes which are functionally regulated in a manifold and complex manner, especially microglial cells are in the focus of steroid-mediated neuroprotection. In previous studies using a transient brain artery occlusion model, we demonstrated that microglial characteristics are critically modified after the administration of either E2 or P. We here studied the influence of sex steroids on the murine BV-2 microglia cell line under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia changed the cell morphology from an amoeboid-like phenotype with processes to a rounded shape of secreting cell type. BV-2 cells expressed both estrogen receptor-? and progesterone receptors under each condition. Oxygen deprivation increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and up-regulated selected cytokines and chemokines. Both hormones selectively prevented the induction of pro-inflammatory iNOS, interleukin IL-1ß, and chemokine ligand CCL5, whereas anti-inflammatory IL-10 and protective TREM 2 were up-regulated by sex steroids. Sex hormones abrogated hypoxia-dependent reduction of BV-2 phagocytic activity. We demonstrate that BV-2 microglia cells respond to hypoxia by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduced phagocytic activity. This effect is prevented by sex steroids resulting in a switch of BV-2 cells from a pro-inflammatory to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. Anti-inflammatory effects of gonadal steroids might directly be mediated through hormone-microglia interactions in addition to known effects via astroglial regulation. PMID:23792783

Habib, Pardes; Dreymueller, Daniela; Ludwig, Andreas; Beyer, Cordian; Dang, Jon



No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy (United States)

The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.



Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. (United States)

Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited previous studies have evaluated circulating androgens and the risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one of the previous studies. Furthermore, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histological subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations and the histological subtypes of EOC. We identified 1052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Associations between hormones and EOC differed with respect to tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors; however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with approximately 40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% increased risk of mucinous tumors. The risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher E2 concentrations (OR: 1.89 (1.20-2.98)). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva



Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (United States)

Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All Rights reserved.

Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.



[Molecular mechanisms of sex steroid-induced growth of cancer cells]. (United States)

Recent studies have suggested that the growth of sex steroid-dependent cancer is mediated through sex steroid-induced growth factors in an autocrine manner. In order to prove the hypothesis, estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 have been used by many investigations. However, these studies have been unable to prove the hypothesis, since estrogen-dependent growth system in serum-free medium could not be established. We established in 1987 an androgen-dependent growth system in a serum-free medium using androgen-dependent mouse mammary cancer cells (SC-3). By use of this androgen-dependent growth system in serum-free medium, we could demonstrate that androgen-dependent growth of SC-3 cells is mediated via an androgen-induced new growth factor in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family (AIGF; 8th member of FGF family) in an autocrine mechanism. PMID:8297810

Matsumoto, K



Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain. (United States)

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús



Biology and physiology of Calbindin-D9k in female reproductive tissues: Involvement of steroids and endocrine disruptors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this gene and its protein are not clearly understood. Uterine CaBP-9k may be involved in controlling myometrial activity related with intracellular calcium level and is not under the control of vitamin D despite the presence of vitamin D receptors. But, it is under the control of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen (E2 and progesterone (P4, in female reproductive systems including the uterus and placenta. Thus, in this review, we summarize recent research literature in regards to the expression and regulation of CaBP-9k in mammals and introduce the research data of recent studies by us and others.

Jeung Eui-Bae



Anal sex, vaginal sex and HIV risk among female sex workers in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

Female sex workers (FSW) are considered one of the key affected populations in Papua New Guinea at risk of acquiring HIV. An integrated bio-behavioral survey of sex workers in Port Moresby was conducted to determine the nature and extent of this risk. About half (51.1 %) of the 411 FSW who reported having any sexual intercourse with clients had engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients in the last 6 months. In spite of having poorer HIV knowledge (OR95 % CI = 0.14-0.34), FSW who had anal intercourse with clients were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse with a client (OR95 % CI = 1.04-2.87). Similarly, FSW who had anal intercourse with regular and casual partners were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse. Those who engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients had similar condom use for both vaginal and anal intercourse, with the majority (78.1 %) using a condom at the last occasion for both vaginal and anal intercourse. These FSW may have different risk and protective factors that affect their use of condom during sexual intercourse. Further research is needed to investigate this difference between those who practice anal intercourse and those who do not in order to provide evidence for better programming. PMID:24264727

Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kupul, Martha; Worth, Heather; Shih, Patti; Man, Wing Young Nicola



Augmented transport and metabolism of sex steroids in lymphoid neoplasia in the rat  

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Sex steroid hormones have been shown to influence a number of biological properties of lymphoid neoplastic tissue. Receptor occupancy is a function of the pool size of cellular exchangeable hormone therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating hormone transport from the microcirculation and hormone metabolism. In this study, steroid hormone transport and metabolism were investigated in control and neoplastic lymph nodes after transplanting control rats with the WR-6 leukemic line. Steroid hormone transport and metabolism were studied after pulse labeling the nodal tissue in vivo with arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone. Residual vascular radioactivity was monitored by simultaneously injecting 113m indium chelated to bovine transferrin. Both testosterone and estradiol were partially available for transport through the capillary barriers of control and neoplastic lymph nodes from the circulating albumin-bound pool. Estradiol was readily available for transport from the circulating sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in both control and neoplastic lymph nodes. Testosterone was not available for transport from the sex hormone-binding globulin-bound pool in control lymph nodes, but was readily available for transport in metastatic lymph nodes. Thaw-mount autoradiography and physiological measurements showed that plasma proteins such as albumin or transferrin were confined to the microcirculation compartment. The transport of protein-bound hormones into lymph node represents a mechanism of enhanced steroid hormone dissociation from the binding protein without the plasma protein per se significantly exiting the microcirculation compartment. Metabolic studies showed no measurable metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the control lymph nodes by 60 sec after arterial injection.

Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.



Body image, disordered eating and anabolic steroid use in female bodybuilders. (United States)

Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating practices are common among sports and activities that require low body fat or low body weight for enhanced performance. Competitive Bodybuilding is a sport that requires participants to be exceptionally lean and mesomorphic, thus participants may be vulnerable to developing unhealthy eating and weight control practices, as well as using anabolic steroids. This study compares competitive female bodybuilders (CFBBs) and recreational female weight-training controls (RFWTs) on a broad scope of eating related and general psychological characteristics. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, body modification practices (including anabolic steroids), lifetime rates of eating disorders, and general psychological characteristics, were completed by 20 CFBBs and 25 RFWTs. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, bulimic practices, and anabolic steroid use were reported among CFBBs, and to a lesser degree, RFWTs. Differences between groups on general psychological factors were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. CFBBs appear to share many eating-related features with women with bulimia nervosa but few psychological traits. Longitudinal research is needed to ascertain whether women with disordered eating or a history of bulimia nervosa disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuilding, and/or whether competitive bodybuilding fosters body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, bulimia nervosa, and anabolic steroid use. PMID:19391019

Goldfield, Gary S



Steroids (United States)

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration;)



Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

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The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.



Hippocampal Synthesis of Sex Steroids and Corticosteroids: Essential for Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity (United States)

Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass-spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (CORT), are 5–15?nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomically but also rapidly/non-genomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ER? or ER?), while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ER? or ER?. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 change rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ER?, but not ER?, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT) and CORT also increase the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ER? and androgen receptor. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation. PMID:22701110

Hojo, Yasushi; Higo, Shimpei; Kawato, Suguru; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Ooishi, Yuuki; Murakami, Gen; Ishii, Hirotaka; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Mukai, Hideo; Kimoto, Tetsuya



Associations of adipokines & insulin resistance with sex steroids in patients with breast cancer (United States)

Background & objectives: Several studies have suggested an important, but conflicting and controversial role for adipose tissue mass in breast cancer risk. Factors such as insulin-like growth factors, sex steroids, adipokines and obesity-related inflammatory markers have been postulated as potential effectors of the mechanisms by which obesity and associated metabolic disorders influence breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated the associations between obesity indices, insulin resistance, circulating adipokines, sex steroids and breast cancer. Methods: Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA-IR), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), LH and FSH were determined in 144 newly-diagnosed histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 77 controls. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the associations of these variables with each other, indices of obesity and with breast cancer. Results: BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and leptin were significantly (P<0.001) higher in patients than in controls. Adiponectin level was also significantly (P<0.05) higher in patients compared to controls. Adiponectin and leptin showed significant correlations with insulin and HOMA-IR but only adiponectin was significantly correlated with estradiol and SHBG. Logistic regression analyses showed that factors associated with breast cancer were BMI [OR (95% CI) =2.8 (1.4-5.5), P=0.004]; high levels of adiponectin [5.1 (2.2-11.5), P<0.001); hyperinsulinaemia [1.1 (1.0-1.1), P=0.01], leptin [3.1 (1.7-5.7), P<0.0001], estradiol [2.5 (1.3-4.7), P=0.005] and testosterone [1.3 (1.03-1.7), P=0.03]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings confirm that adipokines, insulin resistance and sex steroids are associated with breast cancer. The paradoxical association of increased adiponectin with breast cancer is a novel finding that deserves further investigation. PMID:22664497

Al Awadhi, Shafika A.; Al Khaldi, Rasha M.; Al Rammah, Tahani; Kapila, Kusum; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A.



Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles (United States)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.



Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) (United States)

A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.




RTD-03-031 Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press). Abstract Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...


The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

Basaria Shehzad



Fecal Steroid Profile of Female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch Maintained in Pairing-Typed Cage  

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Full Text Available Estrone conjugate (E1C and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG were predominant steroid metabolites of estrogen and progesterone in feces of most primates and could be used to evaluate ovarian function. These metabolites were determined along with records of genital swelling throughout 3-4 months period from three female Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch maintained in pairing-typed cage at Schmutzer Primate Center, Jakarta (Ullah and at Taman Margasatwa Taman Sari, Bandung (Donna and Citah. Following methanolic extraction of lyophilized fecal powder, samples were analyzed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for E1C and PdG. In all of the three females observed, both hormone profiles did not indicate any regular cycle of ovarian function even though genital swellings were sometimes observed. In one female (Donna the hormone patterns showed clear signs of cycle irregularities with extended luteal phase of 40 days and erratic pattern of follicular phase. Of the other two females, no ovarian cycle was found. The data indicate that the fecal steroids analysis is a practical and valuable diagnostic tool for providing reliable information on ovarian function in Javan Gibbon. Factors affected reproductive hormonal profile should be taken in consideration in trying to achieve success in captive breeding program for this species.




Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats. (United States)

Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces similar endocrine-mediated effects. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or PBDE-99 (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight, daily during gestational days 10-18). For comparison, we also included a group exposed to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (30 mg/kg body weight, daily). PBDE exposure resulted in pronounced decreases in circulating sex steroids in male offspring at weaning and in adulthood. Female offspring were less affected. Anogenital distance was reduced in male offspring. Puberty onset was delayed in female offspring at the higher dose level, whereas a slight acceleration was detected in low-dose males. The number of primordial/primary ovarian follicles was reduced in females at the lower dose, whereas decline of secondary follicles was more pronounced at the higher dose. Sweet preference was dose-dependently increased in PBDE-exposed adult males, indicating a feminization of this sexually dimorphic behavior. Aroclor 1254 did not alter sweet preference and numbers of primordial/primary and secondary follicles but it did affect steroid concentrations in males and sexual development in both sexes. PBDE concentrations in tissues of dams and offspring were highest on gestational day 19. These results support the hypothesis that PBDEs are endocrine-active compounds and interfere with sexual development and sexually dimorphic behavior. PMID:16451854

Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Härer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E



Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

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Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology



Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish  

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Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 ?-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was coned at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish


Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Required for Sex Steroid Receptor Trafficking to and Functioning at the Plasma Membrane ?  

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Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ER...

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R.



The steroid hormone ecdysone functions with intrinsic chromatin remodeling factors to control female germline stem cells in Drosophila  

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Steroid hormones are known systemic regulators of multiple normal and cancerous tissues; however, whether or how they impact the fate and function of adult stem cells is unclear. In the Drosophila ovary, insulin signals modulate the proliferation and self-renewal of germline stem cells (GSCs), yet despite evidence that additional systemic factors control GSC activity, these have remained largely unknown. Here, we report that ecdysone, a steroid hormone structurally related to mammalian sex st...

Ables, Elizabeth T.; Drummond-barbosa, Daniela



Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India. (United States)

Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's ? coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (? = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (? = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G



Female Sex Bias in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (United States)

The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combining the results of all PGD-derived HESC lines published to date (148) and all normal karyotyped HESC lines derived from spare in vitro fertilization embryos worldwide (397). Further, gender determination of embryos demonstrated that this difference originates from the actual derivation process rather than from unequal representation of male and female embryos. It can therefore be concluded that the clear-cut tendency for female preponderance is attributed to suboptimal culture conditions rather than from a true gender imbalance in embryos used for derivation of HESC lines. We propose a mechanism in which aberrant X chromosome inactivation and/or overexpression of critical metabolic X-linked genes might explain this sex dimorphism. PMID:21585244

Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-Raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat



Epidermal growth factor directs sex-specific steroid signaling through Src activation. (United States)

Estrogens and androgens exert many biological effects that do not require interactions of their receptors with chromosomal DNA. However, it has been a long-standing question how the sex steroid receptors provoke signal transduction outside the nucleus. Here we have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) directs sex-specific steroid signaling through Src activation. We have revealed that estrogen (E2)-induced Src activation takes place in, not only plasma, but also endomembranes. This was found ascribed to the existence of EGF and the occurrence of EGF receptor (EGFR)-involved endocytosis of estrogen receptor together with Src. EGFR, estrogen receptor, and Src were found to form a complex upon E2 stimulation. The cell growth of breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells was found to remarkably increase through the above EGF-involved estrogen-signaling process. In contrast, the androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced Src activation occurs only in the plasma membrane free from the interaction of EGFR with androgen receptor, irrespective of EGF. The cell growth occurred only moderately as a result. The spatial difference in Src activation between E2 and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone may be responsible for the different extent of observed cell growth. PMID:17284441

Hitosugi, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuki; Sato, Moritoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Umezawa, Yoshio



Unprotected sex with their clients among low-paying female sex workers in southwest China. (United States)

China has been experiencing a rapid increase in the HIV epidemic for decades. Commercial sex plays a critical role in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Limited studies suggested that low-paying female sex workers (FSWs) faced a higher risk of HIV infection. Low-paying FSWs are women who usually encounter their clients on the street or small establishments in rural or less-developed areas, or who charge low fees for each sexual service. A total of 720 low-paying FSWs from 130 commercial sex venues/locations in southwest China were included in the data analysis. Multivariate regression models were employed to examine the associations of unprotected sex with a number of exploratory variables among the study sample. About 33.9 and 61.5% of low-paying FSWs reported unprotected sex with clients in the last sex act and in the last month, respectively. After controlling for confounders, women's HIV knowledge, risk perception, experience of police arrest, and venue types were significantly associated with unprotected sex among low-paying FSWs. Low-paying FSWs are at an alarmingly high risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention programs are urgently needed to address risk factors posit in both individual and contextual levels among this most-at-risk population in order to curb the HIV epidemic in China. PMID:23062062

Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Stanton, Bonita



The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids. (United States)

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, Preceiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163. PMID:24148221

Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H



Sex and exercise interact to alter the expression of anabolic androgenic steroid-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the mouse. (United States)

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711

Onakomaiya, Marie M; Porter, Donna M; Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P



Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.



HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace. (United States)

OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues. PMID:25119937

Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de



Uterine expression of sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 3 and its regulation by sex-steroid hormones during the estrous cycle of rats. (United States)

Plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchangers are an important component of intracellular calcium homeostasis and electrical conduction. NCKX3 (gene SLC24A3), a potassium-dependent sodium-/calcium exchanger, plays a critical role in the transport of one intracellular calcium and potassium ion across the cell membrane in exchange for four extracellular sodium ions. NCKX3 transcripts are most abundant in the brain and smooth muscle, but many other tissues, in particular, the uterus, aorta and intestine, also express this gene at lower levels. However, the expression and physiological roles of NCKX3 in the uterus of rats during the estrous cycle are unknown. Thus, we examined the uterine expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein at different stages of the estrous cycle in mature and immature female rats in the absence or presence of the sex-steroid hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4). During the estrous cycle, uterine expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein was enhanced up to 4.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively, at proestrus compared to during estrus and diestrus. To examine the effect of sex steroids on NCKX3 regulation in the uterus, immature female rats were treated with E2 (40?µg/kg body weight; BW), P4 (4?mg/kg BW), or E2 plus P4 for 3 days. The expression of NCKX3 mRNA and protein was induced by E2, whereas P4 antagonized E2-induced NCKX3 expression. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed that uterine NCKX3 protein was abundantly localized in the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells throughout the estrous cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that uterine NCKX3 is abundantly expressed in the uterus and that its expression is regulated by the steroid hormones, E2 and P4. These findings suggest that NCKX3 may be involved in reproductive function during the estrous cycle in female rats. PMID:21104767

Yang, Hyun; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae



A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.  

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Ad; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, Kl; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, Nc; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.



A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...



A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation  

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, Andrea D.; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtima?ki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-moret, N. Charlotte; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei



A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation  

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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an ...

Coviello, A. D.; Haring, R.; Wellons, M.; Vaidya, D.; Lehtima?ki, T.; Keildson, S.; Lunetta, K. L.; He, C.; Fornage, M.; Lagou, V.; Mangino, M.; Onland-moret, N. C.; Chen, B.; Eriksson, J.; Garcia, M.



Anabolic Steroids (United States)

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...


Changes in the serum sex steroids, IL-7 and RANKL-OPG system after bone marrow transplantation: influences on bone and mineral metabolism. (United States)

This study prospectively investigated the changes of the serum levels of the sex steroids, IL-7, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. This study also examined whether the changes of these cytokine levels and sex steroids actually influence bone turnover and post-BMT bone loss by correlation analysis. Data were analyzed from 39 patients (33.6+/-6.4 years, 19 men and 20 women) who had DXA performed before BMT and at 1 year after BMT. The bone turnover markers, sex steroids and the cytokine levels were measured before BMT and serially after BMT. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine and the total proximal femur was 5.9% (P estradiol levels declined at 1 week after BMT, and they did not recover to the basal levels. For the male recipients, the testosterone levels decreased at 1 week and then it increased to its baseline level. The IL-7 levels reached their maximum at 1 week and then declined to baseline level by 3 months. The serum sRANKL, OPG levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio showed their peak at post-BMT 3 weeks. The mean daily dose of steroid was associated with suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption and increased sRANKL levels. The IL-7 levels were also noted to be either positively correlated with the levels of ICTP or they were negatively correlated with the levels of osteocalcin at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur was influenced by the decreased sex steroids and increased IL-7 levels. During the observation period, the IL-7 levels showed positive correlations with the sRANKL levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio. For the female patients, the serum IL-7 levels were negatively associated with the estradiol levels at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. All these findings suggest that IL-7 plays an important role for post-BMT bone loss, and this possibly happens via the RANKL pathway. These data also suggest that the up-regulation of IL-7 during the early post-BMT period may result from a deficiency of estrogen. PMID:16905375

Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Tae, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kim, Chun Choo; Kang, Moo Il



Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

McPherson Sam



Sex-specific development of spatial orientation is independent of peripubertal gonadal steroids. (United States)

Prenatal exposure to androgens has been shown to modulate brain development, resulting in changed behavioral attitudes, sexual orientation and cognitive functions, including processing of spatial information. Whether later changes in gonadotropic hormones during puberty induce further organizational effects within the brain is still insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to assess development of spatial orientation before and after the time of normal pubertal development, in an ovine model where half of the animals did not undergo typical reproductive maturation due to the pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) signaling. The study formed part of a larger trial and utilized 46 pairs of same sex Scottish Mule Texel Cross twins (22 female and 24 male). One twin remained untreated throughout (control) while the other received a subcutaneous GnRH agonist (GnRHa: Goserelin-Acetate) implant every fourth week. GnRHa treatment began at eight and 28 weeks of age, in males and females respectively, because the timing of the pubertal transition is sexually differentiated in sheep as it is in humans. Spatial orientation was assessed at three different time points: eight weeks of age, before puberty and treatment in both sexes; 28 weeks of age, after 20 weeks GnRHa treatment in males and before puberty and GnRHa treatment in females; and at 48 weeks of age, which is after the normal time of the pubertal transition in both sexes. Spatial orientation was tested in a spatial maze with traverse time as the main outcome measure. GnRHa treatment did not affect spatial maze performance as no significant differences in traverse time between treated and untreated animals were observed at any time-point. Adolescent females (48 weeks of age) traversed the maze significantly faster than adolescent males, whereas no sex differences in traverse time were seen at earlier developmental stages (eight and 28 weeks). Development of sex differences in spatial orientation was independent of exposure to pubertal hormones since puberty-blocked and control animals both showed the same pattern of spatial maze performance. This result demonstrates the prenatal nature of spatial orientation development. Furthermore, the unexpected finding that female animals outperformed males in the spatial orientation task, underscores the importance of the testing context in spatial orientation experiments. PMID:23477973

Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold



Relationship of alcohol intake and sex steroid concentrations in blood in pre- and post-menopausal women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

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Objective: Women with a moderate intake of alcohol have higher concentrations of sex steroids in serum, and higher risk of developing breast cancer, compared to non-drinkers. In the present study, we investigate the relationships between alcohol consumption and serum levels of sex steroids and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 790 pre- and 1,291 post-menopausal women, who were part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Serum levels of testos...

Rinaldi, S.; Peeters, Phm; Bezemer, Id; Dossus, L.; Biessy, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Berrino, F.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Khaw, Kt; Bingham, S.; Allen, Ne; Key, T.; Jensen, Mk



Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 ?g/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F



Sex-dependent selection on an autosomal melanic female ornament promotes the evolution of sex ratio bias. (United States)

Sex-dependent selection often leads to spectacularly different phenotypes in males and females. In species in which sexual dimorphism is not complete, it is unclear which benefits females and males derive from displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex. In barn owls (Tyto alba), females exhibit on average larger black eumelanic spots than males but members of the two sexes display this trait in the same range of possible values. In a 12-year study, we show that selection exerted on spot size directly or on genetically correlated traits strongly favoured females with large spots and weakly favoured males with small spots. Intense directional selection on females caused an increase in spot diameter in the population over the study period. This increase is due to a change in the autosomal genes underlying the expression of eumelanic spots but not of sex-linked genes. Female-like males produced more daughters than sons, while male-like females produced more sons than daughters when mated to a small-spotted male. These sex ratio biases appear adaptive because sons of male-like females and daughters of female-like males had above-average survival. This demonstrates that selection exerted against individuals displaying a trait that is typical of the other sex promoted the evolution of specific life history strategies that enhance their fitness. This may explain why in many organisms sexual dimorphism is often not complete. PMID:20337696

Roulin, Alexandre; Altwegg, Res; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Schaub, Michael




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani



Ovarian steroidogenesis and the role of sex steroid hormones on ovarian growth and maturation of the Japanese eel. (United States)

Three sex steroid hormones, estradiol-17? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), are well established as primary estrogen, androgen, and progestin, respectively, in teleost fish. Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, would be a suitable candidate to study ovarian steroid physiology of fish because the ovarian growth and steroidogenesis is dormant under laboratory condition but can be induced by administration of exogenous gonadotropic reagents. In this review, we summarized our work on the function and production of sex steroid hormones in the ovary of the Japanese eel during ovarian growth and oocyte maturation artificially induced by treatment with extract of salmon pituitary. In vitro and in vivo assays suggest that 11-KT and E2 play primary roles in previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of oocytes, respectively, whereas DHP is essential for induction of final oocyte maturation. We also reviewed the correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis to produce these sex steroid hormones, serum titers and gene expression. PMID:21414407

Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Ijiri, Shigeho; Adachi, Shinji



Serum insulin-like growth factor I levels in growth hormone-deficient adults: influence of sex steroids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations remains the single most important tool in the evaluation of growth hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient adults, and the therapeutic goal is to maintain the level within the age-adjusted normal range. In healthy adults, IGF-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous GH secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men, and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. Put together, these data suggest resistance to GH in women, which in healthy individuals is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy post-menopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GH deficiency lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to obtain IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at further levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production, and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in adult women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.

JØrgensen, Jens O L; Christensen, Jens Juul



Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17? enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17?-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased dels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17?,20?-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes


Phylogenetic comparisons implicate sex hormone-binding globulin in "masculinization" of the female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). (United States)

Exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). Because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma SHBG regulates their access to tissues, we compared the Shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant hyenids. We found the hyenid Shbg genes (>95% identical) and mature protein sequences (98% identical) are highly conserved. As in other mammals, the hyenid SHBG all bind 5?-dihydrotestosterone with high affinity (K(d) = 0.62-1.47 nm), but they also bind estrone and dehydroepiandrosterone with similarly high affinity, and this unusual property was attributed to specific amino acids within their SHBG steroid-binding sites. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicated that the spotted hyena SHBG precursor uniquely lacks two leucine residues and has a L15W substitution within its secretion signal polypeptide, the reduced size and hydrophobicity of which markedly decreases the production of SHBG and may therefore explain why serum SHBG concentrations in male and female spotted hyenas are approximately five times lower than in other hyenids. This is important because low plasma SHBG concentrations in spotted hyenas will increase exposure to biologically active androgens and estrogen as well as to their precursors (dehydroepiandrosterone and estrone), which may contribute to the masculinized external genitalia of female spotted hyenas and to female social dominance over males. PMID:22253421

Hammond, Geoffrey L; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Yalcinkaya, Tamer M; Underhill, Caroline; Place, Ned J; Glickman, Stephen E; Drea, Christine M; Wagner, Aaron P; Siiteri, Pentti K



New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. c our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient method to produce and release male-only sterile insects. (author)


Relationship between female sex workers and gatekeeper: The impact on female sex worker's mental health in China. (United States)

Global literature suggests that gatekeepers exert enormous influences on lives of female sex workers (FSWs). However, virtually no available studies have examined the FSW-gatekeeper relationship (F-G relationship) and its impact on FSW's mental health. The current study was conducted in 2008-2009 in two cities of southwest China. A total of 1022 FSW were recruited through community outreach from nine different types of commercial sex establishments. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to depict the association between F-G relationship and measures of FSW's mental health. Findings of the current study revealed that FSW with a close relationship with their gatekeepers reported a better mental health status. After adjusting for demographics and potential confounders of mental health, F-G relationship was positively associated with hopefulness (?? = .09, 95% CI = .01, .16), but negatively associated with perceived stigma (?? = -.25, 95% CI = -.44, -.07), suicidal intention or attempt (aOR = .90, 95% CI = .83, .99), and loneliness (?? = -.29, 95% CI = -.47, -.12). F-G relationship is an independent predictor of mental health of FSW over and above potential confounders including partner violence and substance use. Future health promotion programs targeting FSW need to recognize the role of gatekeepers in the life of FSW and engage them in a socially and legally acceptable way in safeguarding or improving mental health status of FSW in China. PMID:24345341

Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Su, Shaobing; Zhou, Yuejiao



Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh. (United States)

Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim



Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions (United States)

Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

Strickland, Susan M.



Studies of controlled release of sex steroids hormones by radiation induced polymerization of glass forming monomers. [Gamma radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous long-term systemic administration of steroid hormones to rats was attempted by the capsules. Glass capsules containing sex hormone were made by low-temperature radiation-induced polymerization. Testosterone was eluted at a constant speed up to the 120th day in vitro, and could be administered up to the 56th day in vivo. The amount of testosterone released in vitro up to the 120th day was only 10% of the content.

Nakai, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Imai, K. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)



Influence of the lunar cycle on plasma melatonin, vitellogenin and sex steroids rhythms in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis  

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The effect of the moon light cycle on plasma melatonin rhythms was examined in Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) exposed to natural outdoor or artificial indoor lighting conditions. Furthermore, in a second experiment, the effect of the lunar cycle on vitellogenin and sex steroids (Testosterone, T; Estradiol, E2; 11-ketotestosterone, 11kt) was studied using mature individuals during reproductive season. In the first experiment, during full moon, plasma melatonin peaked at night in covered ...

Oliveira, Catarina R.; Duncan, Neil; Pousa?o-ferreira, P.; Man?ano?s, Evaristo L.; Sa?nchez-va?zquez, F. J.



Females make tough neighbors: sex-specific competitive effects in seedlings of a dioecious grass. (United States)

If males and females of a species differ in their effect on intraspecific competition then this can have significant ecological and evolutionary consequences because it can lead to size and mortality disparities between the sexes, and thus cause biased population sex ratios. If the degree of sexual dimorphism of competitive effect varies across environments then this variation can generate sex ratio variation within and between populations. In a California population of Distichlis spicata, a dioecious grass species exhibiting extreme within-population sex ratio variation (spatial segregation of the sexes), I evaluated the intraspecific competitive effects of male and female D. spicata seedlings in three soil types. The sex of seedlings was determined using a RAPD-PCR marker co-segregating with female phenotype. Distichlis spicata seedlings, regardless of sex, were six times larger when grown with male versus female conspecific seedlings in soil from microsites where the majority of D. spicata plants are female, and this sexual dimorphism of competitive effect was weaker or did not occur in other soil types. This study suggests that it is not just the higher costs of female versus male reproduction itself that cause spatial segregation of the sexes in D. spicata, but that differences in competitive abilities between the sexes--which occur as early as the seedling stage--can generate sex ratio variation. PMID:16341552

Eppley, Sarah M



Better prepared than synthesized: Adolf Butenandt, Schering Ag and the transformation of sex steroids into drugs (1930-1946). (United States)

This paper follows the trajectory of sex steroids in 1930s Germany as a way to investigate the system of research which characterized the development of these drugs. Analyzing the changing relationship between the pharmaceutical company Schering and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute für Biochemie headed by Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt, the paper highlights the circulation of materials, information and money as much as the role of patents in shaping the study of sex steroids. Semi-synthetic analogs and metabolic pathways thus emerged as shared bio-industrial assets. This collaborative work participated in a more general 'internalization' of biology, which took place in pharmaceutical firms during the 1920s and 1930s as a strategy to standardize and develop biologicals. The construction of the hormone market was also based on Schering's collaboration with a selected group of clinicians who worked out the wide-range of indications associated with these 'natural' drugs. The paper finally shows how the wartime scientific and industrial mobilization in Nazi Germany marginalized the study of sex steroids and led to the dismantling of the KWIB-Schering network. PMID:16337554

Gaudillière, Jean-Paul



Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors (United States)

Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.



[Profile of sex steroids in healthy volunteers' urine during experiment in isolated object]. (United States)

The quantitative determination a number of endogenous steroids and their metabolites in urine of healthy volunteers by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was performed. The dynamic of steroid profile of healthy individuals as well as possible ranges of several endogenous steroid parameters have been investigated. Samples were obtained during 105-days experiment with 6 volunteers in isolated on ground modules where were modeling the main life conditions which could influence the steroid profile: meal volume and composition, water consumption, motion activity, air composition and temperature, rate sleep - wakefulness and emotional tension. The parameters of urine steroid profile of healthy volunteer which were affected by life conditions in isolated object were revealed. The parameters of individual and group variability of steroid profile and its dependence from definite experiment conditions - change of salt consumption periods, autonomy of vital activity were detected. PMID:21950090

Larina, I M; Kochnova, E A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Rodchenkov, G M; Nosovski?, A M; Nikolaev, E N



Comparing performance among male and female candidates in sex-specific clinical knowledge in the MRCGP (United States)

Background Patients often seek doctors of the same sex, particularly for sex-specific complaints and also because of a perception that doctors have greater knowledge of complaints relating to their own sex. Few studies have investigated differences in knowledge by sex of candidate on sex-specific questions in medical examinations. Aim The aim was to compare the performance of males and females in sex-specific questions in a 200-item computer-based applied knowledge test for licensing UK GPs. Design and setting A cross-sectional design using routinely collected performance and demographic data from the first three versions of the Applied Knowledge Test, MRCGP, UK. Method Questions were classified as female specific, male specific, or sex neutral. The performance of males and females was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance after adjusting for sex-neutral score and demographic confounders. Results Data were included from 3627 candidates. After adjusting for sex-neutral score, age, time since qualification, year of speciality training, ethnicity, and country of primary medical qualification, there were differences in performance in sex-specific questions. Males performed worse than females on female-specific questions (–4.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = –5.7 to –2.6) but did not perform significantly better than females on male-specific questions (0.3%, 95% CI = –2.6 to 3.2%. Conclusion There was evidence of better performance by females in female-specific questions but this was small relative to the size of the test. Differential performance of males and females in sex-specific questions in a licensing examination may have implications for vocational and post-qualification general practice training. PMID:22687238

Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Irish, Bill; Asghar, Zahid B; Dixon, Hilton; Milne, Paul; Neden, Catherine; Richardson, Jo; Blow, Carol



Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants (United States)

Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit



Variation in sex steroids and phallus size in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from 3 sites within the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage in Florida (USA). (United States)

This 3-year study was designed to examine variation in plasma sex steroids, phallus size, and the standard error (S.E.) associated with these endpoints in juvenile alligators collected from 3 sites within the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage (Florida, USA) with varying concentrations of sediment organochlorine contaminants. We hypothesized that decreased plasma sex steroid concentrations and phallus size would be observed in the higher contaminant site when compared to the intermediate and lower contaminant sites. Furthermore, we hypothesized that greater S.E. associated with these endpoints would be observed for the populations from more contaminated sites. We found that differences existed with females from the higher contaminant site exhibiting lower plasma estradiol-17beta (E2) and testosterone (T) concentrations. Males from the higher contaminant site exhibited smaller phallus sizes than males from the intermediate and lower contaminant sites. Smaller phallus size in this case differed from that reported in Lake Apopka male alligators [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 116 (1999) 356] in that a significant positive relationship between body size and phallus size existed. No difference among sites was observed in plasma T for males. Lower S.E. was associated with E2 and T concentrations in females from the higher contaminant site and in phallus size in males from the higher contaminant site. This pattern was opposite to what we had hypothesized. We concluded that variation in plasma E2 and T concentrations, phallus size, and the S.E. associated with these endpoints exists among the 3 sites with the patterns matching the patterns of organochlorine contamination, although S.E. patterns were opposite to what was predicted. PMID:15183995

Gunderson, Mark P; Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Bryan, Teresa A; Degala, Satish; Edwards, Thea M; Kools, Stefan A E; Milnes, Matthew R; Woodward, Allan R; Guillette, Louis J



Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic  

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Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India.Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis...

Shahmanesh, M.; Wayal, S.; Cowan, F.; Mabey, D.; Copas, A.; Patel, V.



Ecdysteroid-Induced Programmed Cell Death Is Essential for Sex-Specific Wing Degeneration of the Wingless-Female Winter Moth (United States)

The winter moth, Nyssiodes lefuarius, has a unique life history in that adults appear during early spring after a long pupal diapause from summer to winter. The moth exhibits striking sexual dimorphism in wing form; males have functional wings of normal size, whereas females lack wings. We previously found that cell death of the pupal epithelium of females appears to display condensed chromatin within phagocytes. To provide additional detailed data for interpreting the role of cell death, we performed light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assay. We consequently detected two modes of cell death, i.e., dying cells showed both DNA fragmentation derived from epithelial nuclei and autophagic vacuole formation. To elucidate the switching mechanism of sex-specific wing degeneration in females of N. lefuarius, we tested the effects of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on pupal diapause termination and wing morphogenesis in both sexes. When 20E (5.4 µg) was injected into both sexes within 2 days of pupation, wing degeneration started 4 days after 20E injection in females, whereas wing morphogenesis and scale formation started 6 days after 20E injection in males. We discuss two important findings: (1) degeneration of the pupal wing epithelium of females was not only due to apoptosis and phagocytotic activation but also to autophagy and epithelial cell shrinkage; and (2) 20E terminated the summer diapause of pupae, and triggered selective programmed cell death only of the female-pupal wing epithelium in the wingless female winter moth. PMID:24558499

Niitsu, Shuhei; Toga, Kouhei; Tomizuka, Shigekazu; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Machida, Ryuichiro; Kamito, Takehiko



Functional impact of silencing the Helicoverpa armigera sex-peptide receptor on female reproductive behaviour. (United States)

Female Helicoverpa armigera sex pheromone production is under the control of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). After mating, females undergo suppression of sex pheromone production and enhanced oviposition as a result of the transfer of male-derived seminal peptides. In a previous study we identified a putative H. armigera sex-peptide receptor (HeaSP-R) and demonstrated a significant up-regulation in gene expression levels of this receptor in brains and pheromone glands of mated females, thereby implicating a regulatory role for sex peptide in the reproductive behaviour of H. armigera. In the present study, we show that virgin females injected with Drosophila melanogaster SP (DrmSP), in addition to inhibition of pheromone production, also exhibited a suppression of calling behaviour and a significant reduction in the gene expression levels of the PBAN-receptor. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of the HeaSP-R expression by 50-60% prevented DrmSP-suppression of pheromone production and calling behaviour. Moreover, mated, silenced females failed to increase their oviposition rates as is normally observed in mated females, and their behaviour did not differ from that of virgin females. However, sex pheromone production by mated, silenced females remained low, comparable to mated, normal females, thereby indicating the probable involvement of additional factors in the suppression of sex pheromone production after mating. PMID:22171674

Hanin, O; Azrielli, A; Applebaum, S W; Rafaeli, Ada



Doing Marriage and Love in the Borderland of Transnational Sex Work. : Female Thai Migrants in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article analyses how the subject positions of wife, sex worker and female migrant intersect in the narratives of love of female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark. To a certain extent, the borders between migration, sex work and marriage are fluid. I argue that such narratives of love are highly relevant in studies of transnational sex work if we want to grasp the complexity of female migrants’ selling sexual services. In this connection, conditions such as the Danish migration policy, according to which a non-EU migrant can only be granted a residence permit by marrying a Danish citizen, become relevant. The article analyses the many meanings ascribed to love by female Thai migrants selling sex in Denmark.

Spanger, Marlene



Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pre-diagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence towards the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor (estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using HRT at blood donation. 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest versus lowest tertile=2.91 (95%CI:1.62-5.23), Ptrend0.002; testosterone OR=2.27 (95%CI:1.35-3.81), Ptrend=0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR=2.11 (95%CI:1.00-4.46), Ptrend =0.05; testosterone OR= 2.06 (95%CI:0.95-4.46), Ptrend=0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor negative as well as receptor positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.

James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin



Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men. (United States)

Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend vitamin D concentration below the median (vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis. PMID:25270590

Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S



Sites of production of sex steroids: secretion of steroids from x-irradiated and polycystic ovaries of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ovaries of immature rats and PMS-induced pregnant rats were unilaterally x-irradiated. Ten days later, the concentrations of pregnane compounds in the ovarian venous plasma were measured. LH (2 ?g) was injected iv 30 min before bleeding. A comparison of steroid levels in the ovarian venous effluent of rats with and without destruction of selected tissue components by irradiation of the ovaries suggests that the follicles contribute to the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one in the presence of interstitial gland tissue. Because it is known that follicular tissue is involved in the production of estrogens, we studied the interrelationship between the secretion of the two progesterone metabolites and estrogens in follicular polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized rats. Normal ovaries of diestrus-2 rats were used as controls for the polycystic ovaries. The injection of LH greatly increased the secretion of 5?-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one within 1 h in normal ovaries, but the response of polycystic ovaries was low, suggesting low 5?-reductase activity in the cystic ovary. The polycystic ovaries exhibited a marked increase in the secretion of estrogens in response to LH, whereas normal ovaries showed no significant change. These results suggest that low 5?-reductase activity may be causally related to the high level of estrogen secretion in polycystic ovaries of androgen-sterilized ratsrilized rats


Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.



Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In South Africa, information on sex workers' characteristics, sexual behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers and their clients. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of [...] female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. METHODS:Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010. Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. RESULTS: Trained sex worker-research assistants interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.6 - 5.3; p

M, Richter; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; S, Luchters.


Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females (United States)

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause) is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate new and improved diagnostic and treatment strategies that could change the course of cognitive-behavioral disorders such as ADHD. PMID:24744721

Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Berger, Itai



Heat shock protein 27 is required for sex steroid receptor trafficking to and functioning at the plasma membrane. (United States)

Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and promotes palmitoylation of the SR. Hsp27-induced acylation occurred on the ERalpha monomer and augmented caveolin-1 interactions with ERalpha, resulting in membrane localization, kinase activation, and DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells. Oligomerization of Hsp27 was required, and similar results were found for the trafficking of endogenous progesterone and androgen receptors to the PMs of breast and prostate cancer cells, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Hsp27 prevented sex SR trafficking to and signaling from the membrane. These results identify a conserved and novel function for Hsp27 with potential as a target for interrupting signaling from membrane sex SRs to tumor biology in hormone-responsive cancers. PMID:20439495

Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R



Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study  

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Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n?=?310), in-depth interviews (n?=?11), key informant interviews (n?=?5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical l...

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina



Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system. (United States)

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete



Female philopatry in a heterogeneous environment: ordinary conditions leading to extraordinary ESS sex ratios  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We use a simulation-based model to study the impact of female philopatry and heterogeneity of habitat quality on the evolution of primary sex ratio. Results We show that these conditions may lead to strongly biased ESS habitat-dependent sex ratios, under two kinds of density-dependent population regulation. ESS sex ratios are always biased towards females in good habitats, towards males in poor habitats, and are generally equilibrated considering the whole population. Noticeably, the predicted bias of sex ratio usually increases with decreasing female philopatry. Conclusion The selection forces responsible for these results are fully described. This study provides a new perspective on the evolutionary significance of temperature sex determination. We discuss the case of turtles by comparing our theoretical results with field observations.

Guillon Jean-Michel



The association of smoking with clinical indicators of altered sex steroids--a study of 50,145 women.  

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This study was designed to test the association of smoking with four clinically apparent conditions that may be related to altered sex steroids: natural and induced menopause, infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hirsutism. Data were obtained from the personal inventories of 50,145 women ages 20-59 years in TOPS, a weight reduction program. The age-adjusted odds ratios of each condition for heavy smokers compared with nonsmokers were 1.59 for natural menopause, 1.49 for induced menopause, 1.35 fo...

Hartz, A. J.; Kelber, S.; Borkowf, H.; Wild, R.; Gillis, B. L.; Rimm, A. A.



Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India. (United States)

A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

Dasgupta, Satarupa



Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. (United States)

Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 ?g kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 ?g + 4 mg, 30 ?g + 8 mg and 40 ?g + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 ?m. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. PMID:22365698

Sharaf, S M



Correlates of Current Transactional Sex among a Sample of Female Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, MD  

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Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers’ sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, ...

Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G.



Relevance of Stress and Female Sex Hormones for Emotion and Cognition  

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There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions ...

Ter Horst, J. P.; Kloet, E. R.; Scha?chinger, H.; Oitzl, M. S.



Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

Zhang Miaoxuan



Cyclic changes in the circulating and urinary levels of ovarian steroids in the adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)  

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Circulating levels of oestrone and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 5 female owl monkeys on 60 consecutive days. Both steroids exhibited cyclic fluctuations and based on nadir to nadir intervals the ovarian cycle was estimated to be 15.92 +- 0.26 days. Levels of oestrone and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide were also measured in daily urine samples. The fluctuations of urinary steroids reflected those observed in plasma. Ketamine sedation had no effect on the length of the cycle. Peak values of plasma progesterone and oestrone were 250.48 +- 11.37 and 3.59 +- 0.066 ng/ml respectively. There was no clear hormonal distinction between the follicular and luteal phase of the cycle in these owl monkeys. (author)


Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones. (United States)

Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions. To date, only very few studies conducted have fulfilled these criteria. Herein, we introduce tropical infectious diseases, including amebiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, in which hormones are suspected to play a role in disease processes. We summarize the most recent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and from hormone replacement studies in animal models, as well as data regarding the influence of hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the diseases. PMID:24966190

Bernin, Hannah; Lotter, Hanna



Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles. (United States)

An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli. PMID:19016319

Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora



Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals. PMID:12662266

Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W



Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming



Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA (United States)

We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower specific catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in their blood and spleen tissues compared with gonadectomised males. To further study the oxidative stress response in P. berghei ANKA-infected gonadectomised mice, nitric oxide levels were assessed in the blood and spleen, and MDA levels were assessed in the spleen. Intact, sham-operated, and gonadectomised female mice exhibited higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood and spleen compared with male mice. MDA levels were higher in all of the female groups. Finally, gonadectomy significantly increased the oxidative stress levels in females but not in males. These data suggest that differential oxidative stress is influenced by oestrogens that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in malaria. PMID:25243182

Mosqueda-Romo, Nestor Aaron; Rodriguez-Morales, Ana Laura; Buendia-Gonzalez, Fidel Orlando; Aguilar-Sanchez, Margarita; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha



A study to correlate histopathology, biochemical marker and immunohistochemical expression of sex-steroid receptors in prostatic growth (United States)

Prostate gland is a fibromusculoglandular structure situated at the neck of urinary bladder. So, enlargement or growth of prostate due to nodular hyperplasia (NHP) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or adenocarcinoma may give rise to bladder outlet obstruction. Malignant growth i.e., PIN or adenocarcinoma cases are associated with increased blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and increased expression of different sex-steroid receptors because the growth is dependent on the interactions of androgen, progesterone and estrogen. The aim of our study is to correlate the histopathology, PSA levels and expression of different sex-steroid receptors by immunohistochemistry in different prostatic growth lesions. Among the total 50 cases received, inclusive of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and radical prostatectomy, 34 cases were diagnosed as NHP, 4 cases as PIN and 12 cases as adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Serum PSA values above 10 ng/ml were seen in 2 cases of PIN and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and none of NHP. Estrogen receptor (ER) () expressions were negative in all cases. Progesterone receptor (PR) expressions were strongly positive in 35% cases of both NHP and adenocarcinoma, whereas androgen receptor (AR) expressions were strong among all cases of adenocarcinoma and only in four cases of NHP. By observing these findings it can be suggested that antiandrogen and antiprogesterone therapy simultaneously will do better than antiandrogen alone in treating prostatic growth lesions. PMID:25006283

Naskar, Sukla; Kundu, Soumya Kanti; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pranab Kumar; Kundu, Anup Kumar



HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts  

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Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority repo...

Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.



Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)  

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Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths


Sex chromosome pairing and heterochromatin body appearance in Cydia pomonella females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important insect pest of apple worldwide. Sterile insect and inherited sterility techniques are considered important components of an approach to control populations of C. pomonella. Previous investigations with medfly have shown that the SIT would be more effective if only males were released in the target area. A genetic sexing system has been developed for only for one lepidopteran species, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, all current SIT programmes against Lepidoptera depend on rearing, sterilising and releasing of both sexes which increases costs and makes the possibility of released males and females mating with each other very high. Our objective in the current project was to construct a balanced lethal strain in CM similar to that of E. kuehniella. It is known that to construct such an isolation of translocated females T (W; Z) is very essential. However, no visible Z-linked markers in C. pomonella for isolation of T (W; Z) translocations are available. Therefore, it would be very important to study the possibility of using W chromatin body as a cytogenetic marker to isolate the required translocations. Cytological studies, which monitor sex chromatin body and sex chromosome bivalent, could be an essential requirement to initiate such genetic method. Most lepidopteran females are the heterogametic sex (WZ sex chromosome mechanism), while the males are themosome mechanism), while the males are the homogametic sex (ZZ sex chromosome mechanism). In lepidopteran species with a WZ chromosome mechanism, a female-specific heterochromatin body called 'sex chromatin or W chromatin' can be detected in somatic cells. Like most lepidopteran females, C. pomonella females have a WZ sex chromosome system. Since our main objective is to isolate T (W; Z) translocated females, the appearance of W chromatin in Malpighian tubule cells in females' progenies of normal C. pomonella females, irradiated at two different doses (20 and 30 Gy), was detected. The analysis of sex chromosome bivalents was carried out by using spread preparations of pachytene oocytes. Our observations showed that when highly polyploidy nuclei of F1 normal (control) females' larvae (or adults) were inspected, each nucleus had a single spherical W chromatin body. Sex-heterochromatin bodies were not observed when highly polyploid nuclei of normal male larvae were examined. Regardless of applied dose, polyploid nuclei of F1 females manifested various shapes of W chromatin body. Single normal and abnormal W chromatin bodies could be seen in Malpighian tubule nuclei depending on the applied dose of gamma irradiation. Therefore, according to the appearance of W chromatin, F1 females were classified into five different lines: normal, elongated, small and fragmented and absent lines. The results indicated that the percentage of females with normal W bodies was not reduced as the dose was increased, whereas percentage of those with elongated and fragmented ones was increased. At 20 Gy, 12% of C. pomonella females had small W bodies and 9% without W bodies. However, at 30 Gy females without W bodies and those contained small bodies were not observed. The results showed that in normal female (control) pachytene set the sex chromosome bivalent ZW was easily distinguished in all pachytene chromosome sets; and it was very similar to that of E. kuehniella. The W chromosome forms a deeply stained heterochromatic thread, while the Z chromosome displays a chromomere/interchromomere pattern. The Z chromosome was longer than the W chromosome and in some cases it was twisted along the W axis


Sex ratios of Dirofilaria immitis in naturally infected dogs show female bias at low worm intensities. (United States)

Sex ratios in invertebrates commonly deviate from parity (1:1). Various genetic and epigenetic factors distort sex ratios to favor males or females. We examined sex ratios in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) obtained from naturally-infected dogs. Dirofilaria from 84 naturally-infected pound-source dogs were extracted at necropsy, counted and sexed. Dogs had a median worm intensity of 15 filariae. Overall, sex ratios equaled 1. However, at low worm intensities, dogs were more likely to have female than male worms. Of eight unisex infections, seven were all-female (range 1-11 worms), while only one dog had a single male worm. Similarly, in mixed-sex infection at worm intensities<20 worms, dogs were more likely to have more female worms than male worms. Our results suggest that sex disequilibrium exists in D. immitis at lower worm intensities, but disappears with higher worm intensities. Reasons for this disequilibrium are unknown, but presumably confer a species survival advantage. PMID:22819731

Rishniw, Mark; Schukken, Ynte; Greiner, Ellis



HIV risk and social networks among male-to-female transgender sex workers in Boston, Massachusetts. (United States)

Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N =11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD =72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority reported at least one episode of unprotected anal sex. Qualitative themes included (a) sexual risk, (b) motivations for engaging in sex work, (c) consequences of sex work, (d) social networks (i.e., "trans mothers," who played a pivotal role in initiation into sex work), and (e) potential intervention strategies. Results suggest that interventions with transgender male-to-female sex workers must be at multiple levels and address the psychosocial and environmental contexts in which sexual risk behavior occurs. PMID:19732696

Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A



Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. (United States)

Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). PMID:23763724

Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng



Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. METHODS: Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapol...

Vandepitte, J.; Lyerla, R.; Dallabetta, G.; Crabbe?, F.; Alary, M.; Buve?, A.



Spontaneous serial fractures of metatarsal bones in female patient with rheumatoid arthritis on long-term steroid therapy. (United States)

Low-dose oral steroid therapies are very effective in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), reducing disease activity in acute crisis either while waiting for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to take effect or if it was slow in response to DMARDs. However, long-term steroid therapies are associated with serious side effects, such as osteoporotic reduction of bone mass and frequent fractures. This paper reports a female patient who has suffered RA treated with low-dose oral steroid therapy in a long-term period. Suddenly, she developed severe pain and oedema of forefeet during home distance level walking, with no history of trauma. The diagnosis of spontaneous serial fractures of the 2nd to 4th metatarsal (MT) bone bilaterally was performed by feet radiography. Furthermore, in widening the diagnostic approaches the authors had performed diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound to exclude metatarsophalangeal joint effusion and exacerbation of RA. They also made a static analysis of feet on the electronic baropodometer system in order to register biomechanical changes in bipedal standing. One year after, the same diagnostic procedures were done, on which occasion the healing of fractures were verified, with better results in biomechanical static analysis of the feet but without complete regression of static disbalance. This could lead to further disturbances during level walking and daily activities. This paper reports a unique case of the RA patient on long-term low-dose steroid therapy with previously unreported sites of spontaneous metatarsal fractures of feet which causes further static disbalance; consequently the patient might experience problems in every-day life activities. PMID:20977115

Avancini-Dobrovi?, Viviana; Vrbani?, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Kukuljan, Melita; Stamenkovi?, Doris; Cicvari?, Tedi; Jurdana, Harry; Dobrovi?, Dubravko



Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year s...

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J. H.



Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared HIV-1 strains in incident and prevalent infections in a cohort of men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) near Mombasa, Kenya and conducted a cross-sectional study of viral isolates from a sample of HIV-1-infected MSM and FSW in Kilifi, Coast Province, Kenya. RNA extracted from plasma of 13 MSM, 9 FSW, and one heterosexual male was amplified by nested RT-PCR and the products were directly sequenced. HIV-1 strains from 21 individuals were characterized with one o...

Tovanabutra, S.; Sanders, Ej; Graham, Sm; Mwangome, M.; Peshu, N.; Mcclelland, Rs; Muhaari, A.; Crossler, J.; Price, Ma; Gilmour, J.; Michael, Nl; Mccutchan, Fm



Assessment of the effect of sex steroids on the sexual behavior of the rat at late periods of observation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of sexual behavior of male rats exposed to prolonged (4 months) metandrostenolone (MAS) inhalations at the level Limch spec as of the effect of methyltestosterone (MT) on sexual behavior of the progeny following drug applications to the skin of pregnant rats in a dose at the level Limac spec. Methodological approaches to the appraisal of sexual behavior of rats are described. MAS (0.01 mg/m3) did not produce any deviations in sexual behavior of males. MT (1 mg/kg) applied during pregnancy had a masculinizing effect on the progeny females, that manifested in anatomical disorders of the urogenital area, thereby giving rise to alterations in sexual behavior of the progeny females and in that of their partners--intact males. The conclusion is made about high risk of the manifestations of specific effects of sexual steroids applied to the skin in the doses approximating the Limac spec.

Golubeva, M.I.; Shashkina, L.F.; Neugodova, O.P.


Government crackdown of sex work in China: Responses from female sex workers and implications for their health. (United States)

The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming



Sex-role stereotyping by high school females in science (United States)

Although the participation by females in upper-level occupations and positions has expanded considerably in recent years, science is still considered a masculine career field. The results of this study show that only the physical sciences in particular (not science in general) are clearly viewed as masculine academic areas. Furthermore, the results suggest that the perception by girls of the physical sciences as masculine is much more likely to occur in coed classes than in all-female classes. The results can best be explained by two factors: (1) the attitudes conveyed by teachers and by society may predispose students toward a greater acceptance of women in biology than in the physical sciences; and (2) when girls perceive themselves as a deviant minority in physical science classes, their performance and preference for the physical sciences is reduced, perhaps because of competition and comparison with males. In all-female classes, however, girls are not a deviant minority, and therefore they are able to perform and develop preferences without inhibition.

Vockell, Edward L.; Lobonc, Susan


Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught. (United States)

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng



Neuroanatomical localization of sex steroid-concentrating cells in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): autoradiography with [3H]-testosterone, [3H]-estradiol, and [3H]-dihydrotestosterone. (United States)

Steroid autoradiography was undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which might be involved in the activation of steroid-sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Male and female quail were either surgically gonadectomized or photically regressed and implanted with androgen or estrogen to restore normal sexual and courtship behavior. After gonadectomy or implant removal, each quail was injected with 250 microCi of [3H]-testosterone (3H-T), [3H]-estradiol (3H-E2), or [3H]-dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT), sacrificed, processed for autoradiography, and the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon were examined for labelled cells. Following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography, labelled cells were found in nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus paraventricularis (PVN), regio lateralis hypothalami (LHy), nucleus inferior hypothalami (IH), nucleus infundibuli (IN), nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), substantia grisea centralis (GCt), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the reticular formation near nucleus motorius nervi trigemini (MV). In addition, following 3H-E2 autoradiography, labelled cells were found around nucleus accumbens (Ac). Following 3H-DHT autoradiography, labelled cells were found only in SL, PVN, Tn, LHy, ICo, and CGt. No labelled cells were found in Ac, POM, IH, IN, or MV even after long exposure times. These results suggest that the nuclei labelled following 3H-E2 but not 3H-DHT administration bind exclusively the aromatized metabolites of T. Since quail show a sex difference in male-typical copulatory behavior in response to E2, labelled cells were counted in POM, LHy, IH, and Tn of male and female quail following 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography. No sex differences in the number of labelled cells were found in POM, LHy, or IH. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in Tn. These results show that sex differences in male-typical copulatory behavior are not due to sex differences in the number of cells binding estrogens in POM. The results reported here constitute the most neuroanatomically extensive report of steroid binding cells to date for a galliform brain, the first comparison in a galliform bird of the distributions of cells labelled following injection of 3H-T, 3H-E2, and 3H-DHT and the first analysis of sex differences in numbers of estrogen-binding cells in four nuclei in the avian brain. PMID:2716950

Watson, J T; Adkins-Regan, E



Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong. (United States)

The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. PMID:25082156

Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum



A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation. (United States)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained ~15.6% and ~8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance. PMID:22829776

Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B



Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (United States)

The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru



Influence of mesonephros on foetal and neonatal rabbit gonads. I. Sex-steroid release by the testis in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The experiments were performed to study the influence of mesonephros on gonadal sex hormone release. Foetal and neonatal rabbit testes were cultured for 5 days, with and without their mesonephric tissue. The culture media were harvested every day and analyzed by RIA for the content of testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol. The development of the tissues were evaluated microscopically after culturing. The results show that between day 20 pc and day 1 pp the mesonephric tissue lowered the amounts of testosterone in co-cultures with testis. This effect disappears when the mesonephric derived cells develop the capacity to synthesize a meiosis inducing substance (MIS). A relationship between decrease of testosterone and secretion of MIS is discussed. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis.

Grinsted, Jacob Peter; Byskov, A G



Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a histo...

Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.



Increased neurokinin B (Tac2) expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is an early marker of pubertal onset with differential sensitivity to sex steroid-negative feedback than Kiss1. (United States)

At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E(2)) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E(2)-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E(2). Low levels of E(2) significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E(2) levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E(2). Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

Gill, John C; Navarro, Víctor M; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K; Carroll, Rona S; Steiner, Robert A; Kaiser, Ursula B



Female sex pheromone suppression and the fate of sex-peptide-like peptides in mated moths of Helicoverpa armigera. (United States)

Insect males produce accessory gland (MAG) factors that are transferred in the seminal fluid to females during copulation, and elicit changes in the mated female's behavior and physiology. Our previous studies showed that the injection of synthetic Drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide (DrmSP) into virgin females of the moth Helicoverpa armigera causes a significant inhibition of pheromone production. In this and other moth species, pheromone production, correlated with female receptivity, is under neuroendocrine control due to the circadian release of the neuropeptide PBAN. In this study, we show that PBAN, present in the hemolymph during the scotophase in females, is drastically reduced after mating. We also identify 4 DrmSP-like HPLC peaks (Peaks A, S1, S2, and B) in MAGs, with increasing levels of DrmSP immunoreactivity during the scotophase, when compared to their levels observed during the photophase. In H. armigera MAGs, a significant reduction in the pheromonostatic peak (Peak B) was already evident after 15 min of copulation, and depletion of an additional peak (Peak S2) was evident after complete mating. Peak A is also detected in female brains, increasing significantly 1 h after mating, at which time inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis also occurs. However, changes corresponding to the other MAG peaks were not detected in mated female tissues. PMID:17294422

Nagalakshmi, V K; Applebaum, S W; Azrielli, A; Rafaeli, A



Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.



Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of [3H]testosterone or [3H]estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of [3H]TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane [73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively] was significantly greater than extraction of [3H]albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane


Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones. (United States)

Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684

Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N



Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. (United States)

Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A



Control of Sertoli cell metabolism by sex steroid hormones is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes. (United States)

Sertoli cells (SCs) glucose metabolism is crucial for spermatogenesis since developing germ cells consume lactate produced by SCs as their main energy source. Recently, androgens and estrogens have been implicated in SCs energy metabolism modulation, although the molecular mechanisms remained undisclosed. Here, we report the effect of sex steroid hormones on key points of cultured rat SCs glycolytic pathway. We used primary cultures of immature rat SCs treated with 17?-estradiol (E2) or 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The transcript levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1) and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH C) were analyzed after 25 and 50 h of culture by qPCR. Protein levels of GLUTs, PFK-1, LDH and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) after 25 and 50 h were determined by western blot and LDH activity was also assessed. Our results show that both E2 and DHT downregulated the transcript levels of PFK-1, GLUT1 and GLUT3 after 50 h. However, only DHT-treated cells presented a downregulation of LDH C transcript levels. Interestingly, the protein levels of these enzymes and transporters remained unaltered except in DHT-treated cells that presented a significant decrease on GLUT1 protein levels evidencing a possible site for the regulation of SCs glucose metabolism by androgens. Taken together, our results provide evidence that sex steroid hormones action in SCs energy metabolism is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes, particularly at the transcriptional level. DHT decreased GLUT1 protein levels and increased LDH activity after 25 h, evidencing key points for this hormone action in the regulation of SCs metabolism. PMID:24057877

Martins, Ana D; Alves, Marco G; Simões, Vera L; Dias, Tânia R; Rato, Luís; Moreira, Paula I; Socorro, Sílvia; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F




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Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna



HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea  

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Full Text Available Eunice Bruce1, Ludwina Bauai2, Mathias Sapuri3, John M Kaldor4, Christopher K Fairley1, Louise A Keogh51Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Central Papua Mission (CPM of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, Pacific Adventist University, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 3Pacific International Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 4National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Centre for Women's Health, Gender and Society, School of Public Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174 were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142 through focus group discussions and (n = 32 individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms 'sometimes', almost one-sixth 'never' used condoms, only a fraction used condoms 'always' with clients, and none used condoms 'always' with regular sexual partners (RSPs. Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.Keywords: HIV knowledge, risk perception, safer sex practices, female sex workers, clients, regular sexual partners

Eunice Bruce



Absorption in imaginings, sex-role orientation, and the recall of dreams by males and females. (United States)

Questionnaire measures of dream recall frequency, number of sensory qualities in dreams and emotion in dreams were correlated with several imaginal ability and personality variables in male and female college students. Absorption (i.e., subjects' degree of involvement in such activities as daydreaming, watching a movie, etc.) was the most important predictor of dream variables in females. In males sex-role orientation contrary to stereotype (i.e., femininity) was the only variable significantly related to a dream variable (i.e., frequency of dream recall). The implications of these sex differences for research on dream recall are discussed. PMID:16366937

Spanos, N P; Stam, H J; Radtke, H L; Nightingale, M E



Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse. (United States)

In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P



Lived experiences of street-based female sex workers in Kathmandu: implications for health intervention strategies. (United States)

The lived experiences of women sex workers illustrate that sex work is frequently a manifestation of limited access to education, resources and jobs due to violence, oppression and patriarchy. However, some Nepalese sex workers reconstitute sex work as a viable form of work that provides food and shelter for their families and allows fulfillment of their duties as mothers. Through a culture-centred approach to research, which emphasis the voices of the marginalised and their own articulations of how marginalised spaces are negotiated, this paper offers an entry point to locating sex workers as active participants in their day-to-day lives. Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with street-based female sex workers. Thematic analysis revealed the following three themes: (1) surviving through sex work, (2) financial security in sex work and (3) surviving sex work stigma. These findings have implications for health promotion involving members of this population. Lived experiences illustrate the need to move away from traditional, top-down, linear behaviour-change health campaigns to reconstitute health interventions within a participatory bottom-up approach that includes the voices of participants and is situated within their own context and needs. PMID:24938825

Basnyat, Iccha



Non-homologous sex chromosomes in two geckos (gekkonidae: gekkota) with female heterogamety. (United States)

Evaluating homology between the sex chromosomes of different species is an important first step in deducing the origins and evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in a clade. Here, we describe the preparation of Z and W chromosome paints via chromosome microdissection from the Australian marbled gecko (Christinus marmoratus) and their subsequent use in evaluating sex chromosome homology with the ZW chromosomes of the Kwangsi gecko (Gekko hokouensis) from eastern Asia. We show that the ZW sex chromosomes of C. marmoratus and G. hokouensis are not homologous and represent independent origins of female heterogamety within the Gekkonidae. We also show that the C. marmoratus Z and W chromosomes are genetically similar to each other as revealed by C-banding, comparative genomic hybridization, and the reciprocal painting of Z and W chromosome probes. This implies that sex chromosomes in C. marmoratus are at an early stage of differentiation, suggesting a recent origin. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25227445

Matsubara, Kazumi; Gamble, Tony; Matsuda, Yoichi; Zarkower, David; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Ezaz, Tariq



Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru (United States)

While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; pFSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID:24949112

Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon



Sex reversal in female Betta splendens as a function of testosterone manipulation and social influence. (United States)

In Experiment 1, female Betta given daily injections of testosterone (T) for 9 weeks acquired anatomical features characteristic of males as indicated by changes in fin length, body coloration, and gonadal morphology. These findings suggested that a potential for sex reversal exists in females of this species. In Experiment 2 we measured changes in aggressive behavior during testosterone-induced anatomical changes. Aggression decreased toward females and increased toward males as treatment with T progressed. The final displays of aggressive behavior and anatomical characteristics of fish injected with T resembled those of typical males. In Experiment 3, female Betta primed with T injections for 3 or 6 weeks and permitted to interact socially with females continued to display characteristics of sex reversal after T supplementation ceased. Sex reversal in isolated fish injected with T for 3 or 6 weeks was not sustained, and fish receiving only the control vehicle showed negligible change in both the isolated and community conditions. We discuss the results in terms of similarities with the sex change process found in isolated communities of coral reef fish. PMID:3180734

Badura, L L; Friedman, H



Effects of natural, synthetic, aromatizable, and nonaromatizable androgens in inducing male sex differentiation in genotypic female chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). (United States)

The relative potency of several androgens to induce the male phenotype in sexually undifferentiated genotypic female chinook salmon were compared in two separate experiments. The aromatizable and nonaromatizable androgens testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and the synthetic aromatizable and nonaromatizable androgens 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) and 17 alpha-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) were administered to newly hatched alevins in a single 2-hr immersion treatment at doses ranging from 3.2 micrograms/liter to 10 mg/liter. The influence of these treatments on sex differentiation was evaluated by the histological examination of the resulting gonads 6 and 11 months later. In the control group, which was not exposed to exogenous steroids, no males or intersex fish were observed. In contrast, essentially 100% masculinization occurred in groups exposed to MDHT at dosages of 400 micrograms/liter and higher. Treatment with the aromatizable androgen MT resulted in a dose-dependent masculinization, with the production of 100% males at 400 micrograms/liter. However, higher doses resulted in fewer males. 11-KT and T were less potent than the synthetic androgens. The number of males produced after treatment with 11-KT followed a dose-dependent pattern while T showed virtually no masculinizing effect in inducing male phenotype in these studies. The resultant AD50 dosage levels (dosage at which 50% of the genotypic females were sex-reversed into phenotypic males) after a single 2-hr immersion treatment were: 30, 60, and 500 micrograms/liter for MDHT, MT, and 11-KT, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8405891

Piferrer, F; Baker, I J; Donaldson, E M



Comparisons of female and male early adolescent sex role attitude and behavior development. (United States)

This study contrasted female and male early adolescent sex role attitude and behavior development in an ecological context as defined by Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a state-wide survey of early adolescents and their parents. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test both sex role attitude development and behavior development models. Only the models for attitude development were significant. The level of traditionalism of female sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by maternal employment, the level of traditionalism of the father's sex role attitudes in interaction with the amount of time he spent with his daughter, and chronological age. In contrast, the level of traditionalism of male sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by the level of traditionalism of the mother's sex role attitudes in interaction with the level of closeness to the mother that was reported by the son, and both mother's and father's perception of pubertal age. The implications of the findings for human development theory, early adolescence as a stage of development, and sex role theory and research are discussed. PMID:2333796

Nelson, C; Keith, J



Predictors of unprotected sex among female sex workers in Madagascar: comparing semen biomarkers and self-reported data. (United States)

Research on the determinants of condom use and condom non-use generally has relied on self-reported data with questionable validity. We identified predictors of recent, unprotected sex among 331 female sex workers in Madagascar using two outcome measures: self-reports of unprotected sex within the past 48 h and detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biological marker of recent semen exposure. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that self-reported unprotected sex was associated with three factors: younger age, having a sipa (emotional partner) in the prior seven days, and no current use of hormonal contraception. The sole factor related to having PSA detected was prevalent chlamydial infection (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-10.1). Differences in predictors identified suggest that determinants of unprotected sex, based on self-reported behaviors, might not correlate well with risk of semen exposure. Caution must be taken when interpreting self-reported sexual behavior measures or when adjusting for them in analyses evaluating interventions for the prevention of HIV/STIs. PMID:20625928

Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Weaver, Mark A; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Van Damme, Kathleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio



Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) increase weight gain, advance puberty, and induce changes in gene expression associated with steroid hormones and obesity in female zebrafish. (United States)

In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway: one mixture with high levels and one mixture with background levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane metabolites (DDT). The concentration of POP measured in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish from Lake Mjøsa to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations, indicating that the experimental fish were exposed to concentrations comparable with wild fish. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included earlier onset of puberty, increased male/female sex ratio, and differences in body weight at 5 mo of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling showed changes in regulation of genes involved in endocrine signaling and growth. The transcriptomics changes include key regulator genes for steroid hormone functions (ncoa3), and growth (c/ebp, ncoa3). The effects observed in the experimental zebrafish model raise the question whether chemical pollution represents a risk to reproductive health of wild fish inhabitating the freshwater system. PMID:20526952

Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Almaas, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik



Association of sex steroids, gonadotropins, and their trajectories with clinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly men from the Framingham Heart Study (United States)

Background Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggests that low sex steroid concentrations in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. The impact of longitudinal trajectory patterns from serial sex steroid and gonadotropin measurements on the observed associations is unknown to date. Methods We prospectively evaluated 254 elderly men (mean age: 75.5 years) of the Framingham Heart Study with up to four serial measurements of serum total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total estradiol (EST); and constructed age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models relating baseline hormone concentrations and their mean, slope, and variation over time (modelled as continuous and categorized into quartiles) to the incidence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality at 5-years and 10-years of follow-up. Results We observed no association between baseline concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotropins, and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD over 5-years and 10-years follow-up, respectively. Although higher baseline TT concentrations were associated with lower mortality risk at 5-years (hazard ratio per quartile increment, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 – 0.98), correction for multiple statistical testing (p <0.005) rendered this association statistically non-significant. Repeat analyses at the 10-year follow-up time point also demonstrated no significant association between sex steroids, gonadotropins, or their trajectories and mortality. Conclusion Investigating longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotropin measurements, the present study found no consistent associations with incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men in the community. PMID:22901104

Haring, Robin; Teng, Zhaoyang; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Coviello, Andrea; Sullivan, Lisa; Bhasin, Shalender; Murabito, Joanne M.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Vasan, Ramachandran S.




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During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing th...

Zapartidis, I.; Nikolaidou, M. E.; Vareltzis, I.; Kororos, P.



The sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster: Female post-mating responses analyzed by using RNA interference  

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Mating induces profound changes in female insect behavior and physiology. In Drosophila melanogaster, mating causes a reduction in sexual receptivity and an elevation in egg production for at least 5 days. Injection of the seminal fluid sex peptide (SP) induces both responses in virgin females, but only for 1–2 days. The role of SP in eliciting the responses to mating remains to be elucidated. Functional redundancy between seminal fluid components may occur. In addit...

Chapman, Tracey; Bangham, Jenny; Vinti, Giovanna; Seifried, Beth; Lung, Oliver; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Smith, Hazel K.; Partridge, Linda



Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW and non-sex workers (non-SW in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506 comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

Browne Felicia A



Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality. (United States)

Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species. PMID:23137881

Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A



The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients  

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Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases


Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.



Changes in plasma concentrations of reproductive steroids in female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) raised on long or short photoperiods. (United States)

Plasma concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and estrone were measured by radioimmunoassay in female Japanese quail 22 to 70 days of age. The birds were raised on long (16 hr light per day) or short (8 hr light per day) photoperiods. Only the birds raised on the long photoperiod layed eggs, starting between 42 and 49 days of age. The concentration of each reproductive steroid increased between 28 and 35 days of age, but the increases were more substantial in the birds raised on long days than in the birds raised on short days. Changes in plasma progesterone and testosterone concentrations showed similar trends: the concentrations increased before the onset of lay and were maintained at a high level in the laying birds. In contrast, plasma concentrations of estradiol and estrone increased to a peak at 35-42 days and declined once egg laying became established. The short-day birds also showed increased plasma estrogen levels, maximal at 35-42 days, with estrone being at a higher concentration than estradiol. The increases in plasma steroid levels occurred during the period of rapid growth of the ovaries and oviducts in the long-day birds, although in the short-day birds the growth of these organs was much less substantial. PMID:3366353

Brain, P C; Onagbesan, O M; Peddie, M J; Taylor, T G



Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition. (United States)

Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females. PMID:19386653

Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P



HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: outputs, cost and efficiency  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. Methods Detailed output and cost data for the 2002–2003 fiscal year were obtained using standardised methods at 15 HIV prevention programmes for female sex worker in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. The services provided and their relation to the total and unit economic costs were analysed using regression techniques. The trends for the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes since inception up to fiscal year 2004–2005 were examined. Results The 15 programmes provided services to 33941 sex workers in fiscal year 2002–2003 (range 803–6379, median 1970. Of the total number of contacts with sex workers, 41.6% were by peer educators and 58.4% by other programme staff. The number of sex worker contacts in a year by peer educators varied 74-fold across programmes as compared with a 2.7-fold variation in sex worker contacts by other programme staff. The annual economic cost of providing services to a sex worker varied 6-fold between programmes from Indian Rupees (INR 221.8 (US$ 4.58 to INR 1369 (US$ 28.29 with a median of INR 660.9 (US$ 13.66 and mean of INR 517.8 (US$ 10.70. Personnel salaries made up 34.7% of the total cost, and recurrent goods made up 38.4% of which 82.1% was for condoms. The cost per sex worker provided services had a significant inverse relation with the number of sex workers provided services by a programme (p 2 = 0.75; power function. There was no correlation between the full time equivalents of programme staff and the number of sex workers provided services by the programmes, but there was a modest inverse correlation between the number of sex workers served and the average time spent with each sex worker in the year adjusted for the full-time equivalents of programme staff (p = 0.011, R2 = 0.40; exponential function. The average number of sex workers provided services annually by the first batch of 7 programmes started in early 1999 plateaued after the fourth fiscal year to 3500, whereas the 8 second-batch programmes started in late 2000 reached an average of 2000 sex workers in 2004–2005 with an increasing trend up to this fourth fiscal year. Conclusion The HIV prevention efforts in this Indian state would benefit from standardisation of the highly variable services provided by peer educators, who form an important part of the sex worker programmes. The cost per sex worker served decreases with increasing number of sex workers served annually, but this has to be weighed against an associated modest trend of decrease in time spent with each sex worker in some programmes.

Someshwar M



Sex Differences in Object Location Memory: The Female Advantage of Immediate Detection of Changes (United States)

Object location memory has been considered the only spatial ability in which females display an advantage over males. We examined sex differences in long-term object location memory. After participants studied an array of objects, they were asked to recall the locations of these objects three minutes later or one week later. Results showed a…

Honda, Akio; Nihei, Yoshiaki



Experience of HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers in Delhi, India. (United States)

This paper describes the effect of HIV prevention intervention among female sex workers in Delhi. Over a 2-year period we found a marked increase in condom use with little increase in HIV seroprevalence. The prevalence of HIV infection did not increase during the study period (1 positive among 701 in 1988 vs 1 positive in 600 in 1990). PMID:8142530

Singh, Y N; Malaviya, A N



Does Sex (Female versus Male) Influence the Impact of Class Attendance on Examination Performance? (United States)

The "conventional wisdom" is that grades are related to class attendance, i.e., students who attend classes more frequently obtain better grades and class attendance dramatically contributes to enhanced learning. However, the influence of sex (female vs. male) on this relationship is understudied. Furthermore, there have been several studies…

Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.



Sexual Subjectivity, Relationship Status and Quality, and Same-sex Sexual Experience among Emerging Adult Females  

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Full Text Available Sexual subjectivity (SS includes sexual body-esteem, entitlement to self-pleasure and pleasure from a partner,sexual self-efficacy, and reflection about sexual behavior. The objectives of this study were to examine iffemales' SS was associated with their romantic experience, including status, length, quality, and same-sex sexualexperience. Participants were 251 females with a mean age of 19.6 years. In simple group comparisons, femaleswith steady partners were higher in sexual body esteem, self-efficacy and self-reflection, and those in longerromantic relationships (> 1.5 years had higher sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy, but lower self-reflection.Females with a history of same-sex sexual experience were higher in sexual entitlement, self-efficacy andself-reflection. In multiple regression, females with a steady partner and who reported more positive romanticquality had greater sexual body-esteem. Females in longer relationships were higher in sexual self-efficacy butlower in self-reflection. Same-sex sexual experience was associated with greater entitlement to self-pleasure. Forsexual self-efficacy and self-reflection, having a steady partner and a history of same-sex sexual experience wereuniquely associated. The developmental, theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

Marie-Aude Boislard P.



Novel galanin receptors in teleost fish: Identification, expression and regulation by sex steroids. (United States)

In fish, the onset of puberty, the transition from juvenile to sexually reproductive adult animals, is triggered by the activation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion and its timing is influenced by external and internal factors that include the growth/adiposity status of the animal. Kisspeptins have been implicated in the activation of puberty but peripheral signals coming from the immature gonad or associated to the metabolic/nutritional status are also thought to be involved. Therefore we hypothesize the importance of the galinergic system in the brain and testis of pre-pubertal male sea bass as a candidate to translate the signals leading to activation of testicular maturation. Here, the transcripts for four galanin receptors (GALR), named GALR1a, 1b, 2a and 2b, were isolated from European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the previously reported duplication of GALR1 in teleost fish, and unravelled the duplication of GALR2 in teleost fish and in some tetrapod species. Comparison with human showed that the key amino acids involved in ligand binding are present in the corresponding GALR1 and GALR2 orthologs. Transcripts for all four receptors are expressed in brain and testes of adult fish with GALR1a and GALR1b abundant in testes and hardly detected in ovaries. In order to investigate whether GALR1 dimorphic expression was dependent on steroid context we evaluated the effect of 11-ketotestosterone and 17?-estradiol treatments on the receptor expression in brain and testes of pre-pubertal males. Interestingly, steroid treatments had no effect on the expression of GALRs in the brain while in the testes, GALR1a and GALR1b were significantly up regulated by 11KT. Altogether, these results support a role for the galaninergic system, in particular the GALR1 paralog, in fish reproductive function. PMID:25016048

Martins, Rute S T; Pinto, Patrícia I S; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V M



Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). (United States)

There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio. PMID:24816221

Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres



Environmental, biological, and social factors influencing fecal adrenal steroid concentrations in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). (United States)

The ability to determine hormonal profiles of primate populations using non-invasive techniques can help to monitor physical fitness, stress, and physiological responses to environmental changes. We investigated fecal glucocorticoids (fGC) and DHEAS concentrations in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in relation to environmental, biological, and social factors. The subjects were female Japanese monkeys from 4 months to 31 years old housed in captivity (27 in social groups and 12 in single cages). Fecal samples were collected from all females, and behavioral data from the social groups during the mating season and the following birth season. Hormonal concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Our results revealed that both fGC and fecal DHEAS concentrations are higher in females housed indoors in single cages than in those living outdoors in social groups. We also found that fGC concentrations were higher in the cycling females during the mating (winter) season than the lactating females in the birth (spring) season. Age was negatively associated to both fGC and fecal DHEAS levels, but the relationship between age and fecal DHEAS was more evident in females housed indoors in single cages than in females housed in outdoor social groups. We did not observe any association of dominance rank with either fecal DHEAS or fGC. This study showed that measurement of fecal DHEAS and fGC can be a good method to assess stress in Japanese macaques. These findings provide insights about the physiology of these two adrenal hormones in female Japanese macaques, which can be applied to wild populations and is fundamental for captive management and conservation biology. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1084-1093, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24839268

Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Huffman, Michael A; Mouri, Keiko; Garcia, Cécile; Rigaill, Lucie; Shimizu, Keiko



Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior. (United States)

Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M



Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats  

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Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

Lo?fgren, Magnus



Sex-steroids associated with the reproductive cycle in male and female bolson tortoise, Gopherus flavomarinatus  

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Full Text Available Estudiamos los ciclos de esteroides sexuales de machos y hembras en estado silvestre de la tortuga del Bolsón en la Reserva de la Biósfera de Mapimí (Durango. Tomamos muestras de sangre por venipunción de la yugular a intervalos bisemanales durante un período de 14 meses, determinándose los niveles circulantes de esteroides por medio de radioinmunoensayos. Los niveles hormonales mostraron tendencias estacionales. En las hembras, la testosterona tuvo un valor máximo al salir de la brumación, en asociación con el incremento en la receptividad sexual, y el nivel de estradiol aumentó después de la emergencia asociado con la maduración folicular. El nivel de estos dos esteroides se incrementó con las lluvias estacionales, cuando ocurrieron el crecimiento folicular y la vitelogénesis. La progesterona mostró niveles bajos a la emergencia, los cuales aumentaron con el incremento de la duración del dia y la temperatura, llegando al máximo antes del pico de la oviposición. La caída en los niveles de las tres hormonas estuvo asociada con la oviposición. Las hembras probablemente almacenan esperma durante parte del otoño y el invierno para usarlo en la siguiente estación reproductiva. Los machos salieron de la hibernación con bajos niveles de testosterona, pero exhibieron conductas reproductivas poco después. Junto con un incremento de la testosterona, el cortejo y la frecuencia de apareamientos se incrementaron con estímulos ambientales, prolongándose hasta principios del otoño. Los niveles de testosterona y la actividad reproductiva disminuyeron conforme se aproximaba el inicio de la hibernación. Los niveles máximos de testosterona en machos de esta especie son mayores que los conocidos para cualquier otro vertebrado.

Rolando Gonz\\u00E1lez Tr\\u00E1paga



Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60% had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%. Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively, but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively, more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively. Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

Khan Sharful I



Regulation of onset of female mating and sex pheromone production by juvenile hormone in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates timing of female reproductive maturation in most insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, JH plays roles in both mating and egg maturation. However, very little is known about the molecular pathways associated with mating. Our behavioral analysis of females genetically lacking the corpora allata, the glands that produce JH, showed that they were courted less by males and mated later than control females. Application of the JH mimic, methoprene, to the allatectomized females just after eclosion rescued both the male courtship and the mating delay. Our studies of the null mutants of the JH receptors, Methoprene tolerant (Met) and germ cell-expressed (gce), showed that lack of Met in Met(27) females delayed the onset of mating, whereas lack of Gce had little effect. The Met(27) females were shown to be more attractive but less behaviorally receptive to copulation attempts. The behavioral but not the attractiveness phenotype was rescued by the Met genomic transgene. Analysis of the female cuticular hydrocarbon profiles showed that corpora allata ablation caused a delay in production of the major female-specific sex pheromones (the 7,11-C27 and -C29 dienes) and a change in the cuticular hydrocarbon blend. In the Met(27) null mutant, by 48 h, the major C27 diene was greatly increased relative to wild type. In contrast, the gce(2.5k) null mutant females were courted similarly to control females despite changes in certain cuticular hydrocarbons. Our findings indicate that JH acts primarily via Met to modulate the timing of onset of female sex pheromone production and mating. PMID:24145432

Bilen, Julide; Atallah, Jade; Azanchi, Reza; Levine, Joel D; Riddiford, Lynn M




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Full Text Available During adolescence, performance of males shows, on average, marked improvements in motor performance tests, while performance of females shows a slight improvement in some motor performance tests and a plateau in others. Research interest lies on the issue of sex differences in performance in the context of training protocols with same frequency and training load, for young male and female athletes, who have similar performance demands and training experience. This study aimed at comparing the motor abilities of 214 male and 238 female handball players from four age groups (12-12.9, 13-13.9, 14-14.9, and 15-15.9 years. Five motor abilities tests were administered: a ball throwing velocity, b standing long jump, c 30-m running speed, d 20-m shuttle run and e sit-and-reach flexibility. ANCOVA was used to test for sex differences by age group with age, height and weight as covariates. Results showed that in the 12-12.9 age group males and females had similar performances in standing long jump and aerobic capacity. In the older age groups, and besides having the same performance demands and training experience, males performed better than females in motor abilities that are important for handball. It appears that sport-specific training is not sufficient to attenuate sex differences in motor performance of young handball players.

I. Zapartidis



Is female sex an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether female sex is a factor independently related to in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Of 600 consecutive patients (435 males and 165 females with acute myocardial infarction, we studied 13 demographic and clinical variables obtained at the time of hospital admission through uni- and multivariate analysis, and analyzed their relation to in-hospital death. RESULTS: Females were older (p70 years (p<0.001, the presence of previous coronary artery disease (p=0.0004, previous myocardial infarction (p<0.001, infarction in the anterior wall (p=0.007, presence of left ventricular dysfunction (p<0.001, and the absence of thrombolytic therapy (p=0.04. Through the multivariate analysis of logistic regression, the following variables were associated with in-hospital mortality: female sex (p=0.001, age (p=0.008, the presence of previous myocardial infarction (p=0.02, and left ventricular dysfunction (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for all risk variables, female sex proved to be a variable independently related to in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction.

Pimenta Lúcia



HIV risk behaviours differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele  

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Full Text Available Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc. intead of stable (bar, brothel, and hotel. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results. Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (Conclusions. Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes.

Kimberly C. Brouwer



IGF-I, EGF, and sex steroids regulate autophagy in bovine mammary epithelial cells via the mTOR pathway. (United States)

Mammary gland growth and involution are based on a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells (MEC). The main type of cell death responsible for bovine mammary gland involution is apoptosis, but MEC also exhibit morphological features of autophagy. The present study has been undertaken in order to examine factors, which are responsible for the regulation of autophagy in bovine MEC. We used a model of in vitro mammary gland involution known to be dependent on fetal bovine serum (FBS) deficiency in the culture of bovine BME-UV1 cells. We investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, as well as sex steroids and rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, kinase) on autophagy in the MEC line BME-UV1. Our main focus was on the role of mTOR in the regulation of autophagy by growth factors and hormones. Laser scanning cytometry, electron microscopy, Western-blot analysis, GFP-LC3 reporter-based expression analysis, and LysoTracker Green-related fluorescence were used to determine the activity of autophagy in BME-UV1 cells. We found that FBS deficiency induced both autophagy and apoptosis with the highest intensity of both processes after 48h of MEC exposure to the deficient medium (0.5% FBS). Addition of IGF-I or/and EGF to the FBS-deficient medium clearly diminished autophagy. We also show that IGF-I and EGF are involved in the activation of mTOR in bovine MEC, whereas inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin abrogated the suppressive effects of IGF-I and EGF on autophagy. This suggests that mTOR links IGF-I and EGF signaling in inhibiting the autophagy pathways. Contrary to IGF-I and EGF, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone exerted stimulatory effects on autophagy in bovine MEC. At the same time we observed a suppressive effect of both steroids on mTOR activation/phosphorylation. In conclusion, autophagy in bovine MEC undergoes complex regulation, where its activity is controlled by survival pathways dependent on IGF-I and EGF, which are involved in suppression of autophagy, and by pregnancy steroids, which act as inducers of the process. PMID:19013662

Sobolewska, Agnieszka; Gajewska, Malgorzata; Zarzy?ska, Joanna; Gajkowska, Barbara; Motyl, Tomasz



Dynamic functional evolution of an odorant receptor for sex-steroid-derived odors in primates. (United States)

Odorant receptors are among the fastest evolving genes in animals. However, little is known about the functional changes of individual odorant receptors during evolution. We have recently demonstrated a link between the in vitro function of a human odorant receptor, OR7D4, and in vivo olfactory perception of 2 steroidal ligands--androstenone and androstadienone--chemicals that are shown to affect physiological responses in humans. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro function of OR7D4 in primate evolution. Orthologs of OR7D4 were cloned from different primate species. Ancestral reconstruction allowed us to reconstitute additional putative OR7D4 orthologs in hypothetical ancestral species. Functional analysis of these orthologs showed an extremely diverse range of OR7D4 responses to the ligands in various primate species. Functional analysis of the nonsynonymous changes in the Old World Monkey and Great Ape lineages revealed a number of sites causing increases or decreases in sensitivity. We found that the majority of the functionally important residues in OR7D4 were not predicted by the maximum likelihood analysis detecting positive Darwinian selection. PMID:19955411

Zhuang, Hanyi; Chien, Ming-Shan; Matsunami, Hiroaki



Destabilising Sex work and Intimacy? : Gender Performances of Female Thai Migrants Selling Sex in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denne ph.d.-afhandling, der består af fire artikler, undersøger, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters sexkøb konstruerer kvindelighed forankret i en række subjektpositioner som mor, hustru og sexarbejder i forhold til allerede eksisterende subjektpositioner konstrueret inden for det danske politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og ’intimitet’? Den anden del består af fire artikler. Den første artikel analyserer forandringerne inden for prostitutionspolitikfeltet med fokus på handlingsplanerne for bekæmpelse af menneskehandel. Den anden artikel trækker på litteratur om globale omsorgskæder, medborgerskab og transnational migration. Artiklen analyserer, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranter konstruerer transnationalt og lokalt moderskab i forhold til, hvordan moderskab konstrueres inden for det sociale arbejde og i forhold til dansk politik om familiesammenføring. Den tredje artikel undersøger, hvordan kategorierne ægtefælle, sexarbejder og kvindelig migrant sammenflettes i kvindelige thailandske sexarbejderes fortællinger om romantisk kærlighed. Den sidste artikel anvender Butlers kønsteori og teori om rum. Artiklens formål er at analysere, hvordan kvindelige thailandske migranters kønsfremførelser afhænger af rum.

Spanger, Marlene



Effects of sex steroids on muscarinic sties in the rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of binding sites for [3H]scopolamine in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala (but not elsewhere in the brain) is modified by hormonal status. In females, there is an inverse relation between the level of sites and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P) concentration. Binding is high in metoestrous (Met) and in ovariectomized (Ovx) animals but low in proestrous (Pro). Hormone replacement in ovariectomized animals lowers the level of the sites. Castration (Cast) of males reduces the level of sites but subsequent testosterone (T) treatment restores normal levels. The results support a role of hormones in sexual behavior via alteration in levels of muscarinic receptors: male hormone increases and female hormones decrease receptor levels


Dangerous women of Hong Kong? Media construction of stigma in female sex workers  

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This study used a cultural model analysis to examine the Hong Kong print media’s social construction of stigma in respect to female sex workers. An analysis was conducted on captions and main headlines of two newspaper (Chinese and English) median in Hong Kong, 2003-2006. A total of 591 articles on sex workers were recruited in the analysis with 422 located from the Ming Pao and 169 articles the SCMP. A total of Sixty seven articles on health issues were identified. In Hong Kong, as in else...

Fong, T.; Holroyd, Ea; Wong, Wcw



Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy. (United States)

The aim of this study was to characterize the stromal and epithelial distribution of AR, ER? and ER? reactivities in the different accessory sex glands of elderly rats and during strong hormonal changes. Ten month old male rats were divided into six senile groups and submitted to treatment: Senile/Control group (SC); Senile/Testosterone group (ST): Senile/Estrogen group (SE); Castrated group (CA); Castrated/Testosterone group (CT); Castrated/Estrogen group (CE). After a 30-day treatment, the prostatic ventral lobe (VL), dorsal lobe (DL) and coagulating gland (CG) samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed that AR immunoreactivity was characterized in the epithelium of VL and DL in senile/control rats and senile rats submitted to exogenous hormonal therapy. AR reactivity in the coagulating gland was verified predominantly in the stromal cells in the different experimental groups. ER? reactivity occurred predominantly in the stromal compartment in all accessory sex glands. In the DL and CG, ER? immunoreactivities were intense in the groups which received testosterone (ST) and estrogen (SE). ER? immunoreactivity in the CG was verified in the stromal compartment in the different experimental groups, showing a positive response to both increased testosterone and estrogen levels. ER? reactivity, in the DL, was intensified in the stroma of senile rats with higher serum testosterone levels, and in senile rats with increased serum estrogen levels, especially in the glandular epithelium. Thus, the results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence, especially in the prostate dorsal lobe and coagulating gland, which is a fundamental factor due to the fact that major prostatic diseases occur in a later period of life. PMID:22541803

Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Montico, Fabio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves



Age and sex steroid-related changes in glucocorticoid sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production after psychosocial stress. (United States)

Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. This might be caused by dysregulations of the endocrine system with increased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and decreased levels of sex steroids. Therefore, we investigated the stress-response of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in elderly men, compared to testosterone-treated elderly men and young controls. Stress-induced increases in cortisol did not differ significantly between experimental groups (F=2.10; p>0.10), but GC sensitivity increased significantly in young controls and testosterone-treated elderly men, while a decrease was found in untreated elderly men (F=5.28; p<0.01). We conclude that the increase in GC sensitivity after stress serves to protect the individual from detrimental increases of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a mechanism that is disturbed in elderly men and partly restored by testosterone treatment. PMID:12020958

Rohleder, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wolf, Jutta M; Kirschbaum, Clemens



An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that tumor cervical cells evade normal growth control by sex steroid hormones while synchronously abnormal regulatory mechanisms acquire control of the cell cycle.

Nikolaou Marinos



Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella  

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Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

Claire Duménil



High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs, and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7% had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2% reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73, no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98, being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04, and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70 were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9% had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8% had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection as compared with brothel-based FSWs. With their high vulnerability, the success of expansion of HIV prevention efforts will depend on achieving and sustaining an environment that enables HIV prevention with the non-brothel based FSWs.

McPherson Sam



Prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda  

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Background. The importance of Mycoplasma genitalium in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-burdened sub-Saharan Africa is relatively unknown. We assessed the prevalence and explored determinants of this emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) in high-risk women in Uganda.Methods. Endocervical swabs from 1025 female sex workers in Kampala were tested for Mycoplasma genitalium using a commercial Real-TM polymerase chain reaction assay. Factors associated with prevalent Mycoplasma genitaliu...

Vandepitte, J.; Muller, E.; Bukenya, J.; Nakubulwa, S.; Kyakuwa, N.; Buve?, A.; Weiss, H.; Hayes, R.; Grosskurth, H.



Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

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Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of service...

van Teijlingen Edwin R; Smith W; Ghimire Laxmi



Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers  

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OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% C...

Juarez-figueroa, L.; Uribe-salas, F.; Conde-glez, C.; Hernandez-avila, M.; Olamendi-portugal, M.; Uribe-zuniga, P.; Calderon, E.



Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

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Key messages 1. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and HIV among the participating female sex workers (FSW) accounted for 8.5%, 1.8%, 1.8%, 4.6%, and 0.2%, respectively. 2. Alcohol consumption, place of origin, a history of termination of pregnancy, higher education level, having multiple partners, and being a non-smoker were risk factors of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among asymptomatic FSWs. 3. Inconsistent use of ...

Wong, Wcw; Yim, Yl; Leung, Tn; Lynn, H.; Ling, Dc



Sexual selection on female ornaments in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli). (United States)

Understanding how selection acts on traits individually and in combination is an important step in deciphering the mechanisms driving evolutionary change, but for most species, and especially those in which sexual selection acts more strongly on females than on males, we have no estimates of selection coefficients pertaining to the multivariate sexually selected phenotype. Here, we use a laboratory-based mesocosm experiment to quantify pre- and post-mating selection on female secondary sexual traits in the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), a sexually dimorphic, sex-role-reversed species in which ornamented females compete for access to choosy males. We calculate selection differentials and gradients on female traits, including ornament area, ornament number and body size for three episodes of selection related to female reproductive success (number of mates, number of eggs transferred and number of surviving embryos). Selection is strong on both ornament area and ornament size, and the majority of selection occurs during the premating episode of selection. Interestingly, selection on female body size, which has been detected in previous studies of Gulf pipefish, appears to be indirect, as evidenced by a multivariate analysis of selection gradients. Our results show that sexual selection favours either many bands or larger bands in female Gulf pipefish. PMID:25292365

Flanagan, S P; Johnson, J B; Rose, E; Jones, A G



"One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

Griffiths Sian



Sex Determination and Female Reproductive Development in the Genus Schistosoma: A Review  

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Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Schistosoma were among the first metazoans to develop separate sexes, which is chromosomally determined in the fertilized egg. Despite the occurrence of specific sex chromosomes, the females of most Schistosomatidae species do not complete their somatic development and reach no sexual maturity without the presence of males. Indeed, the most controversial and at the same time most fascinating aspect about the sexual development of Schistosoma females lies on discover the nature of the stimulus produced by males that triggers and controls this process. Although the nature of the stimulus (physical or chemical is a source of controversy, there is agreement that mating is a necessary requirement for maturation to occur and for migration of the female to a definitive final site of residence in the vascular system of the vertebrate host. It has also been proposed that the stimulus is not species-specific and, in some cases, not even genus-specific. Despite a vast literature on the subject, the process or processes underlying the meeting of males and females in the circulatory system have not been determined and as yet no consensus exists about the nature of the stimulus that triggers and maintains female development. In the studies about their role, Schistosoma males have been considered, at times pejoratively, the brother, the muscles or even the liver of females. Indeed, it still remains to be determined whether the stimulus responsible for female maturation involves the transfer of hormones, nutrients, neuromediators, mere tactile stimulation or a combination of chemotactic and thigmotactic factors




HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana  

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Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.

Carter Keith H.



Sex-specific visual performance: female lizards outperform males in motion detection (United States)

In animal communication, complex displays usually have multiple functions and, male and female receivers often differ in their utilization and response to different aspects of these displays. The perceptual variability hypothesis suggests that different aspects of complex signals differ in their ability to be detected and processed by different receivers. Here, we tested whether receiver male and female Sceloporus graciosus lizards differ in visual motion detection by measuring the latency to the visual grasp response to a motion stimulus. We demonstrate that in lizards that largely exhibit complex motions as courtship signals, female lizards are faster than males at visually detecting motion. These results highlight that differential signal utilization by the sexes may be driven by variability in the capacity to detect different display properties. PMID:19656865

Nava, Saul S.; Conway, Mirela; Martins, Emilia P.



Correlates of current transactional sex among a sample of female exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD. (United States)

Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers' sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2) to examine the role of the club environment in these behaviors, and (3) to examine correlates of currently exchanging sex. From June 2008 to February 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study among women who were aged 18 years or older and reported exotic dancing within the past 3 months (n?=?98). The survey ascertained socio-demographic characteristics, personal health, medical history, sexual practices, drug use, and employment at clubs on the block. Bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify correlates of current sex exchange. Participants were a median of 24 years old, and were 58% white; 43% had not completed high school. Seventy-four percent reported ever having been arrested. Twenty-six percent reported having injected heroin and 29% reported having smoked crack in the past 3 months. Fifty-seven percent reported using drugs in the club in the past 3 months. Sixty-one percent had ever engaged in transactional sex, and 67% of those did so for the first time after beginning to dance. Forty-three percent reported selling any sex in the club in the past 3 months. In multiple Poisson regression, factors associated with current sex exchange included: race, ever having been arrested, and using drugs in the club. High levels of both drug use and transactional sex among this sample of exotic dancers were reported. These findings indicate that there are a number of drug- and sex-related harms faced by exotic dancers in strip clubs, implicating the environment in the promotion of HIV/STI risk-taking behaviors. Prevention and intervention programs targeting this population are needed to reduce the harms faced by exotic dancers in this environment. PMID:21327548

Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G



Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan  

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Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)


Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities  

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Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ?18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed intere...

Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.



Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda. (United States)

The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations. PMID:23895629

Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe



Effect of ovariectomy and female sex hormones administration upon gastric ulceration induced by cold and immobility restraint stress.  

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The estrogen and progesterone administration prevents the stress that caused decrease in the levels of mucus and phospholipids, thus females are more resistant to gastric ulcer rather than males due to their sex hormones.

Dogan Kurt



Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters might be important in predisposing women to condom breakage.

Bradley Janet



Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India  

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Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercia...

Medhi Gajendra; Mahanta Jagadish; Kermode Michelle; Paranjape Ramesh S; Adhikary Rajatashuvra; Phukan Sanjib; Ngully P



Effect of high altitude (3685 meter) on the serum levels of female sex hormones (progesterone, estradiol)  

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Objective: To study the effect of high altitude hypoxia on the secretion of female sex hormones. Methods: Serum progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured with RIA in 738 women who were moved from plain to Lhasa (3685 meter) and stayed there for various years and 430 controls. Results: The serum P and E2 levels in the newly arrived subjects (within one year) were significantly lower than those in the controls. The levels gradually increased as acclimation occurred (up to 20 year) but dropped again later (probably due to advancing age). Conclusion: Hypoxia might be the cause of decreasing serum famale sex hormones levels in subjects moved to high altitude. (authors)


Female Sex Workers and Their Gatekeepers in China: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention. (United States)

Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention programs requires us to take advantage of the unique and crucial roles of gatekeepers. We conclude with a call for structural interventions to protect FSWs' occupational health and safety. PMID:25147221

Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Guo, Weigui



Subarachnoid hemorrhage and the female sex: analysis of risk factors, aneurysm characteristics, and outcomes. (United States)

Object The pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is unclear. Sex may play a role in the outcome of patients with aSAH. Methods The authors retrospectively identified 617 patients with aSAH (April 2005 to February 2010) and analyzed sex differences in risk factors (age, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and family history), admission-related factors (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade and admission delay), aneurysm characteristics (site, side, location, and multiplicity), and outcomes (treatment modalities [coiling/clipping/both/conservative], complications [vasospasm and hydrocephalus], length of stay, and modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months). Results The female patients with aSAH were older than the male patients (mean age 56.6 vs 51.9 years, respectively, p significant prognostic factors was 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.11, p > 0.05). Conclusions The overall outcomes after aSAH between women and men are similar. PMID:25216063

Hamdan, Alhafidz; Barnes, Jonathan; Mitchell, Patrick



The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males (United States)

Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed an evaluated decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010), which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors. Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors.

Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Schöpf, Veronika



Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). (United States)

A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product. PMID:24307127

Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H



Molecular biology of the honey bee : Complementary sex determination and female caste development  

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While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlying complementary sex determination remain an unresolved pussle and the link between dietary differences and female phenopypic plasticity has yet to be indentified. In the present PhD projekt different aspects of both types of development was explored using a combination of high throughourt sequencing and functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development

Munk, Kathe



Levels of alcohol use and history of HIV testing among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. (United States)

HIV testing is a critical first step to accessing HIV care and treatment, particularly for high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs). Alcohol use may be a barrier to accessing HIV services, including HIV testing. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 818 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, and estimated the association between different levels of alcohol use and having never tested for HIV. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with having never tested for HIV (PR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.40). Future interventions should explore whether reducing harmful drinking improves HIV testing among FSWs. PMID:25040114

Bengtson, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; King'ola, Nzioki



Male Use of Female Sex Work in India: A Nationally Representative Behavioural Survey  

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Heterosexual transmission of HIV in India is driven by the male use of female sex workers (FSW), but few studies have examined the factors associated with using FSW. This nationally representative study examined the prevalence and correlates of FSW use among 31,040 men aged 15–49 years in India in 2006. Nationally, about 4% of men used FSW in the previous year, representing about 8.5 million FSW clients. Unmarried men were far more likely than married men to use FSW overall (PR?=?8.0), ...

Gaffey, Michelle F.; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Dhingra, Neeraj; Khera, Ajay; Kumar, Rajesh; Arora, Paul; Nagelkerke, Nico; Jha, Prabhat



Depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among female sex workers in China  

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This study examines the association between depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among 278 female sex workers (FSW) in Guangxi, China. About 62% of these FSW had a high level of depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ? 16). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that FSW with high level of depressive symptoms were less likely to use condoms consistently (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.89) or use condoms properly (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.20–0.99). The findings suggested tha...

Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran



Attraction and Sex Symbol of Males in the Eyes of Malaysian Male-to-Female Transsexuals  

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Full Text Available Male-to-female transsexual issues, especially their sexual orientation, has become complicated due to their tendency to regard themselves as women, and are exclusively attracted to men. This paper explores one group in male-to-female transsexuals, which is homosexual transsexuals, and their attraction towards homosexual and heterosexual men. The objective of this paper is to identify aspects of sexual attraction in the body or nature of the men that attract homosexual transsexuals to develop romantic relationship with them. Qualitative methods were used in gathering the data. This includes in-depth interviews that have been carried out on six homosexual transsexuals, which were selected using purposive and snowball sampling. The location of the fieldwork was Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The result shows that facial appearance, specific body parts such as chest, calves and buttocks, and specific social behaviors, especially caring and affectionate, have been regarded as men’s sex symbols.

Amran Hassan



Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand. (United States)

Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada



Safety and adherence to intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African men who have sex with men and female sex workers.  

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BACKGROUND: Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose p...

Mutua, G.; Sanders, E.; Mugo, P.; Anzala, O.; Haberer, Je; Bangsberg, D.; Barin, B.; Rooney, Jf; Mark, D.; Chetty, P.; Fast, P.; Priddy, Fh



Study of dentate gyrus granule cells of female rats neonatally treated with sex hormones  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of rats, and to explore the possibility that this process is regulated by the activation of sex hormones. The proliferation of hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells was investigated using 80 nC; 3H thymidine incorporation in the first group andin the second grouph 80 ?Ci3H - thymidine and 1mg estrogene dipropionae. We proved the existence of a stronger proliferation of granule cells in SGZ GD in female rats. The third group of newborn female Wistar rats was treated at 4 and 8 a days of ageold with a single dose of 2 mg of testosterone propionate. We proved the existence of minor damages of granule cells in SGZ GD. In the fourth group treated at 15 days of age, a single dose of 4 mg testosterone propionate and sacrificed when 60 days old, we proved the existence of minor damages of granular cells in SGZ GD. Our results suggest a differential effect of sex hormones on dentate gyrus granule cells proliferation through early life in rats.

Dreki? Dmitar M.



Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity. (United States)

The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities. PMID:21774603

Sobo?an, Ana Marija



Cryopreservation of semen from functional sex-reversed genotypic females of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

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Full Text Available Cryopreservation of semen from sex-reversed females of rainbow trout aims at rationalizing the production of stocks composed by 100% females. Semen from normal males (M and two types of genotypic females (R and G, sex-reversed by the oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone, were used. R was obtained by the fertilization of normal eggs with semen of sex-reversed females while G via gynogenetic reproduction. Semen was diluted in an extender solution (glucose 5,4 g, egg yolk 10 ml, dimetil sulfoxide 10 ml, water 80 ml at 1:3 ratio (semen/extender, stored in straws of 0.5 ml and freezed in a dry container Cryopac CP-65, at -180ºC. Thawing was performed with water at 70ºC for 3 seconds. There were no significant fertilization rate differences (P>0.05 among thawed semen groups (M = 73.1±11.5%; R = 67.2±23.6%; G = 64±5.8%, confirming that the freezing methodology used was efficient to cryopreserve semen of all three trout groups.A criopreservação do sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas de truta arco-íris tem como objetivo a racionalização do processo de produção de estoques 100% femininos. Para tal, foi coletado sêmen de machos normais (M e de dois tipos de fêmeas genotípicas (R e G, masculinizadas pela administração oral de 17alfa-metiltestosterona. R foi obtido pela fertilização de ovócitos normais com sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas enquanto G foi através de reprodução ginogenética. O sêmen foi diluído em uma solução crioprotetora (glicose 5,4 g, gema de ovo de galinha 10 ml, dimetil sulfóxido 10 ml, água destilada 80 ml na razão de 1:3 (sêmen/diluidor, envasado em palhetas de 0,5 ml e congelado em um "container" tipo "seco" Cryopac CP-65, à temperatura de -180ºC. A descongelação foi feita em água a 70ºC por 3 segundos. As taxas de fertilização obtidas, não revelaram diferença estatística significativa (P<0.05 entre os três grupos de sêmen descongelados (M = 73,1±11,5%; R = 67,2±23,6%; G = 64±5,8%, indicando que a metodologia de congelação utilizada foi eficaz, tanto na criopreservação do sêmen das trutas normais como para o das masculinizadas.

Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira



Cryopreservation of semen from functional sex-reversed genotypic females of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A criopreservação do sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas de truta arco-íris tem como objetivo a racionalização do processo de produção de estoques 100% femininos. Para tal, foi coletado sêmen de machos normais (M) e de dois tipos de fêmeas genotípicas (R e G), masculinizadas pela administração oral de 17 [...] alfa-metiltestosterona. R foi obtido pela fertilização de ovócitos normais com sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas enquanto G foi através de reprodução ginogenética. O sêmen foi diluído em uma solução crioprotetora (glicose 5,4 g, gema de ovo de galinha 10 ml, dimetil sulfóxido 10 ml, água destilada 80 ml) na razão de 1:3 (sêmen/diluidor), envasado em palhetas de 0,5 ml e congelado em um "container" tipo "seco" Cryopac CP-65, à temperatura de -180ºC. A descongelação foi feita em água a 70ºC por 3 segundos. As taxas de fertilização obtidas, não revelaram diferença estatística significativa (P Abstract in english Cryopreservation of semen from sex-reversed females of rainbow trout aims at rationalizing the production of stocks composed by 100% females. Semen from normal males (M) and two types of genotypic females (R and G), sex-reversed by the oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone, were used. R [...] was obtained by the fertilization of normal eggs with semen of sex-reversed females while G via gynogenetic reproduction. Semen was diluted in an extender solution (glucose 5,4 g, egg yolk 10 ml, dimetil sulfoxide 10 ml, water 80 ml) at 1:3 ratio (semen/extender), stored in straws of 0.5 ml and freezed in a dry container Cryopac CP-65, at -180ºC. Thawing was performed with water at 70ºC for 3 seconds. There were no significant fertilization rate differences (P>0.05) among thawed semen groups (M = 73.1±11.5%; R = 67.2±23.6%; G = 64±5.8%), confirming that the freezing methodology used was efficient to cryopreserve semen of all three trout groups.

Alexandre, Ninhaus-Silveira; Fausto, Foresti; Yara Aiko, Tabata; Marcos Guilherme, Rigolino; Rosicleire, Veríssimo-Silveira.



Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. Results All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority.

Degenhardt Louisa



Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

Phrasisombath Ketkesone



Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems (United States)

The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubi?ka, Lukáš; Landová, Eva



Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness. (United States)

Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve. PMID:24316208

Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E



Sterilization by irradiation of Cadra coutella (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) males increased by female sex pheromone. (United States)

Sterilization by irradiation was studied in 0-24 hour old males of Cadra cautella (Ephestia cautella) exposed to 40 Krad of gamma radiation from a 60 cobalt source at a rate of 2250-2200 rad/minute in the presence of female sex pheromone. This radiation dose failed to induce the desired degree of sterility in the absence of pheromone. Pheromone was extraced from the virgin females and applied to filter paper at doses of .1, .5, and 1 female equivalent which was then introduced into containers containing 15-18 males 3 minutes prior to irradiation. Excitation and increased activity of the insects was observed when compared to the controls without the pheromone. The proportion of low percentage hatch increased with increased pheromone presence. The difference between absence and presence of pheromone was marked. It is concluded that these results are evidence of the value of this approach of preconditioning to irradiation when induction of sterility is the objective. PMID:4406964

Calderon, M; Gonen, M



High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda  

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Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing for HIV-1/2, HSV-2 and pregnancy, and BED-CEIA and Avidity Index (AI) to identify recent infections among HIV-infected women. Results: Prevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and pregnancy w...



Impact of photoperiod manipulation on day/night changes in melatonin, sex steroids and vitellogenin plasma levels and spawning rhythms in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis. (United States)

Photoperiod and temperature are known as the main synchronizers of seasonal reproduction in fish. This paper studied the role of photoperiod on the synchronization of F1 Senegal sole reproduction rhythms. Fish were maintained under constant short-photoperiod (9L:15D) from the winter solstice onwards (experimental group) or under naturally-changing photoperiod (control group), and water temperature naturally oscillated in both groups. Blood samples were collected during the reproduction season at pre-spawning (March), spawning (April) and post-spawning (May) to determine the endocrine status. Spawning events and egg quality parameters were also monitored. The results revealed a significant increase in nocturnal melatonin concentration from March to May in the control group, while in the experimental group such seasonal change did not occur. As to plasma levels of vitellogenin, testosterone, estradiol and 11keto-testosterone, differences between groups were found mostly in March, while in April and May levels were often similar. Spawning was observed in both groups, although the experimental group started slightly earlier and also finished earlier than the control group, perhaps as a result of the increase in sex steroids and VTG observed at pre-spawning. Briefly, reproduction rhythms persisted in the absence of the natural lengthening of photoperiod, although photoperiod manipulation altered the seasonal modulation of melatonin, increased sex steroids and vitellogenin at pre-spawning, and slightly advanced the timing of spawning. PMID:21466857

Oliveira, Catarina; Mañanós, Evaristo; Ramos, Jesus; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier



The sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster: female post-mating responses analyzed by using RNA interference. (United States)

Mating induces profound changes in female insect behavior and physiology. In Drosophila melanogaster, mating causes a reduction in sexual receptivity and an elevation in egg production for at least 5 days. Injection of the seminal fluid sex peptide (SP) induces both responses in virgin females, but only for 1-2 days. The role of SP in eliciting the responses to mating remains to be elucidated. Functional redundancy between seminal fluid components may occur. In addition, mating with spermless males results in brief (1- to 2-day) post-mating responses, indicating either that there is a "sperm effect" or that sperm act as carriers for SP or other seminal fluid components. Here we used RNA interference to suppress SP expression, to determine whether SP is required to elicit full post-mating responses, the magnitude of responses due to other seminal fluid components, and whether SP accounts for the "sperm effect." Receptivity was higher and egg production lower in females mated to SP knock-down males than in controls. Comparison with virgins showed that the responses were brief. SP is therefore required for normal magnitude and persistence of postmating responses. Sperm transfer and use were normal in mates of SP knock-down males, yet their post-mating responses were briefer than after normal matings, and similar to those reported in mates of spermless son-of-tudor males. The prolonged "sperm effect" on female receptivity and egg production is therefore entirely attributable to SP, but sperm are necessary for its occurrence. PMID:12893873

Chapman, Tracey; Bangham, Jenny; Vinti, Giovanna; Seifried, Beth; Lung, Oliver; Wolfner, Mariana F; Smith, Hazel K; Partridge, Linda



Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year] and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8% FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7% reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32 and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97. Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships.

Deering Kathleen N



Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

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Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data ...

Verma Ravi K; Battala Madhusudana; Saggurti Niranjan; Swain Suvakanta N; Jain Anrudh K



Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers (United States)

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine



An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users. (United States)

This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection. PMID:1478552

Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S



[Morphological and functional changes of organs of female and male reproductive systems at change of sex]. (United States)

The aim of the study was to identify the effects of virilizing and feminizing hormone replacement therapy on the morphology and function of the male and female reproductive systems in the application of technology for change of sex. The results of the pathomorphorogic examination of the uterus with appendages, testes, the corpora cavernosa, and biopsies of the prostate and mammary glands at different times of treatment in transsexual patients aged from 22 to 43 years are presented. It was found that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of exogenous hormones in the women and men significantly increases the risk of tumors and tumor-like processes, such as endocervicosis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, metaplasia of the endometrium, endocervical and endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, proliferative processes in tubular epithelium, ovarian polycystic disease, mammary tumors, hyperplasia and metaplasia of the ductal epithelium of the prostate gland. PMID:23987043

Mikha?lichenko, V V; Fesenko, V N; Khmelnitski?, N V; Ozhiganova, I N; Novikov, A I; Korolev, V V; Vasil'ev, V S



Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar. (United States)

Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi



The HIV care cascade and antiretroviral therapy in female sex workers: implications for HIV prevention. (United States)

To achieve viral suppression and fully benefit from antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is important that individuals with HIV know that they are HIV infected, link to and remain in HIV care, start and remain on ART and adhere to treatment. In HIV epidemics where female sex workers (FSWs) are key drivers of HIV transmission, the extent to which FSWs use ART and engage in the HIV care cascade could have a considerable impact on HIV transmission from FSWs to the wider population. In this article we review the spectrum of FSW engagement in the HIV care cascade, look at the impact of the HIV care cascade and ART use among FSWs on population-level HIV transmission and discuss HIV prevention for FSWs in the context of ART and the HIV care cascade. PMID:25174997

Mountain, Elisa; Pickles, Michael; Mishra, Sharmistha; Vickerman, Peter; Alary, Michel; Boily, Marie-Claude



Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India. (United States)

Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H



Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases. Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P?=?0.075. Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period.

Richter Marlise




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Full Text Available This study analyzed some conversations in the male, female and male-female groups of some university students. Using McCarthy's classification of topics, the results show that 'Persons' is the typical topic in the female group, while 'Objects/ belongings' is the most favorite topic in the male group. In the mixed-sex group, it is interesting to see how both sexes negotiated the topics by proposing the typical topics of the other sex group.

Shierly Agustin



HIV seroprevalence and high-risk sexual behavior among female sex workers in Central Brazil. (United States)

Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention. PMID:24617659

Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C



Barriers of condom use among female sex workers in Tehran, a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available   Background and aim: In Iran, HIV prevalence in sex workers is reaching to an epidemic, but still consistent use of condoms is low. This qualitative study aimed to assess barriers to condom use in female sex workers (FSWs.   Materials and Methods: We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 40 FSWs and 12 partners in the year 2010 in Tehran. The FSWs were purposefully selected from four different groups based on the level of socioeconomic status and history of using substance. Findings were extracted and coded manually and the responses of the groups were categorized and compared.   Results: Almost all FSWs had not used condoms regularly in the past six months. The main barriers of condom use were: lack of awareness of the modes of transmission of HIV and prognosis of the disease, doubt on the role of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, fear of violence or rejection by male customers, reluctance of sexual partners to use condoms due to diminution of sexual pleasure, and believing in health of some customers.   Conclusions: Increasing awareness of the FSWs through education about HIV, ways to prevent the disease and empowering them on negotiating skills to use condoms as part of harm reduction programs are recommended .

Zahra Malery khah Langeroudi



Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players. (United States)

Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime. PMID:24495052

Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M



Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes  

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Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed


A genetically female brain is required for a regular reproductive cycle in chicken brain chimeras. (United States)

Sexual differentiation leads to structural and behavioural differences between males and females. Here we investigate the intrinsic sex identity of the brain by constructing chicken chimeras in which the brain primordium is switched between male and female identities before gonadal development. We find that the female chimeras with male brains display delayed sexual maturation and irregular oviposition cycles, although their behaviour, plasma concentrations of sex steroids and luteinizing hormone levels are normal. The male chimeras with female brains show phenotypes similar to typical cocks. In the perinatal period, oestrogen concentrations in the genetically male brain are higher than those in the genetically female brain. Our study demonstrates that male brain cells retain male sex identity and do not differentiate into female cells to drive the normal oestrous cycle, even when situated in the female hormonal milieu. This is clear evidence for a sex-specific feature that develops independent of gonadal steroids. PMID:23340412

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sakurai, Miyano; Yamashita, Yuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Yoshioka, Hidefumi; Murakami, Shizuko; Tadano, Ryo; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Tomonari, Kohei; Oka, Takao; Ohara, Ken; Maeda, Teruo; Bungo, Takashi; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko



Role of endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones in arthritis and osteoporosis development in B10.Q-ncf1*/* mice with collagen-induced chronic arthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA is an often-used murine model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Earlier studies have shown potent anti-arthritic effects with the female sex hormone estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM raloxifene in CIA in DBA/1-mice. B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice are B10.Q mice with a mutated Ncf1 gene. In B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice, CIA develops as a chronic relapsing disease, which more accurately mimics human RA. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids and raloxifene in the course of this model of chronic arthritis. We also examined whether treatment would prevent the development of inflammation-triggered generalized osteoporosis. Methods Female B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized, and CIA was induced. 22 days later, when 30% of the mice had developed arthritis, treatment with raloxifene, estradiol or vehicle was started, and the clinical disease was evaluated continuously. Treatment was continued until day 56 after immunization. At termination of the experiment (day 73, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed, paws were collected for histological examination, and sera were analyzed for markers of cartilage turnover and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Raloxifene and estradiol treatment, as well as endogenous estrogen, decreased the frequency of arthritis, prevented joint destruction and countered generalized osteoporosis. These effects were associated with lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Conclusions This is the first study to show that raloxifene and estradiol can ameliorate established erosive arthritis and inflammation-triggered osteoporosis in this chronic arthritis model. We propose that treatment with raloxifene could be a beneficial addition to the treatment of postmenopausal RA.

Gjertsson Inger



Female sex pheromone of a lichen moth Eilema japonica (Arctiidae, Lithosiinae): components and control of production. (United States)

Seven candidates for components of the female sex pheromone of Eilema japonica (Arctiidae, Lithosiinae) were detected in an extract of pheromone glands with a gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector. The compounds were identified as (Z,Z)-6,9-icosadiene (D20), (Z,Z)-6,9-henicosadiene (D21), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene (T21), (Z,Z)-6,9-docosadiene (D22), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-docosatriene (T22), (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene (D23), and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (T23). Assays using synthetic lures in a wind tunnel showed that D21 (proportion, 0.39), T21 (0.08), D22 (0.27), and T22 (0.26) are important for evoking full behavioral responses from the males. Titers of the pheromone components did not show clear temporal fluctuations. Moreover, decapitation of the female moth had no effect on the titers of pheromone components in the pheromone gland, suggesting that cephalic endocrine factors such as pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) are not involved in the control of pheromone biosynthesis in this species. PMID:20826159

Fujii, Takeshi; Nakano, Ryo; Takubo, Yoshiko; Qian, Shuguang; Yamakawa, Rei; Ando, Tetsu; Ishikawa, Yukio



Sex-specific defence behaviour against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation. (United States)

Nest protection against intruders is an indispensable component of avian parental care. In species with biparental care, both mates should evolve nest defence behaviour to increase their reproductive success. In most host-parasite systems, host females are predicted to have more important roles in nest defence against brood parasites, because they typically are primarily responsible for clutch incubation. Male antiparasitic behaviour, on the other hand, is often underestimated or even not considered at all. Here we investigated sex-specific roles in four aspects of great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) nest defence against a brood parasite-the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), namely (1) mobbing, (2) nest attendance/guarding, (3) nest checking and (4) egg ejection. Using dummy experiments, simulating brood parasitism and by video-monitoring of host nests we found that males took the key roles in cuckoo mobbing and nest guarding, while females were responsible for nest checking and egg ejection behaviours. Such partitioning of parental roles may provide a comprehensive clutch protection against brood parasitism. PMID:19154783

Pozgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel



Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

Hernandez Brenda Y



Problems of Birds Sex Determination  

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Full Text Available Sex determination system in birds is characterized by a homo-(Neognatae and heteromorphic (Paleognatae sex chromosomes. Heterogametic sex is female (ZZ/ZW system. DMRT1 gene is a gene regarded as a main male sex determining factor in this group of animals. The question remains about the participation of other factors (HEMOGEN, AMH etc. in appearance of testis, and the role of steroid hormones in formation of ovaries. Complete sex inversion is not typical for species with genotypic sex determination (GSD, although the effect of estrogen metabolites is noted for birds. For birds epigenetic mechanisms of regulation (methylation of DNA and non-coding RNA have been described for sex controlling genes such as CYP19A1 and DMRT1.

Antonina V. Trukhina



Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae. (United States)

The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae. PMID:19459010

Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R



Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine. (United States)

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (pfemales presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu



Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons. (United States)

Some women have negative mood symptoms, caused by progestagens in hormonal contraceptives or sequential hormone therapy or by progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which may be attributed to metabolites acting on the GABA-A receptor. The GABA system is the major inhibitory system in the adult CNS and most positive modulators of the GABA-A receptor (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, alcohol, GABA steroids), induce inhibitory (e.g. anesthetic, sedative, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic) effects. However, some individuals have adverse effects (seizures, increased pain, anxiety, irritability, aggression) upon exposure. Positive GABA-A receptor modulators induce strong paradoxical effects including negative mood in 3%-8% of those exposed, while up to 25% have moderate symptoms. The effect is biphasic: low concentrations induce an adverse anxiogenic effect while higher concentrations decrease this effect and show inhibitory, calming properties. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is also 3%-8% among women in fertile ages, and up to 25% have more moderate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Patients with PMDD have severe luteal phase-related symptoms and show changes in GABA-A receptor sensitivity and GABA concentrations. Findings suggest that negative mood symptoms in women with PMDD are caused by the paradoxical effect of allopregnanolone mediated via the GABA-A receptor, which may be explained by one or more of three hypotheses regarding the paradoxical effect of GABA steroids on behavior: (1) under certain conditions, such as puberty, the relative fraction of certain GABA-A receptor subtypes may be altered, and at those subtypes the GABA steroids may act as negative modulators in contrast to their usual role as positive modulators; (2) in certain brain areas of vulnerable women the transmembrane Cl(-) gradient may be altered by factors such as estrogens that favor excitability; (3) inhibition of inhibitory neurons may promote disinhibition, and hence excitability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain. PMID:21600269

Bäckström, T; Haage, D; Löfgren, M; Johansson, I M; Strömberg, J; Nyberg, S; Andréen, L; Ossewaarde, L; van Wingen, G A; Turkmen, S; Bengtsson, S K



Sex steroid binding protein exerts a negative control on estradiol action in MCF-7 cells (human breast cancer) through cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and protein kinase A.  

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Estradiol is considered to be a critical factor in the growth induction of some breast cancer cells, like MCF-7 cell line. Among other compounds involved in the control of neoplastic mammary cell growth, cAMP has been suggested, on the other hand, to exert an antiproliferative effect. Sex steroid binding protein (SBP) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for both androgens and estradiol, recognizes a specific receptor located on membranes of estrogen- and androgen-sensitive...

Frairia, Roberto; Berta, Laura Adelaide Angela



Activism on the medicalization of sex and female genital cosmetic surgery by the New View Campaign in the United States. (United States)

The New View Campaign is a grassroots initiative begun in 1999 to challenge the over-medicalization of sex in the wake of publicity following the release of Viagra. This paper describes the history of the campaign and its activities, which started with analysing the construction of female sexual dysfunction, and moved on to develop a critical understanding of sexuality as a market for the pharmaceutical industry to exploit. The campaign has also had much to say about a positive model for sexuality, sex education, treatment of sex problems, and sex research. From 2006, we began to look at the new female cosmetic genital surgery industry. In 2008, we wrote letters to many government and medical professional groups expressing our concerns about female cosmetic genital surgery and asking for support. We also organised a demonstration outside the office of a New York surgeon who was doing this surgery and developed a webpage as a resource for students, scholars, journalists and activists. In 2009, we held an event in an art gallery that celebrated artists who support and encourage female sexual diversity. Supporters and colleagues of the campaign have published books and articles, and created visual and training materials, including a project called Vulvagraphics. PMID:20541084

Tiefer, Leonore



Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy. (United States)

A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.



Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.

Dahal Rashmi



Temporal dynamics of oocyte development, plasma sex steroids and somatic energy reserves during seasonal ovarian maturation in captive Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii. (United States)

The temporal dynamics of oocyte growth, plasma sex steroids and somatic energy stores were examined during a 12 month ovarian maturation cycle in captive Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii under simulated natural photothermal conditions. Ovarian function was found to be relatively uninhibited in captivity, with the exception that post-vitellogenic follicles failed to undergo final maturation, resulting in widespread pre-ovulatory atresia. Seasonal patterns of oocyte growth were characterised by cortical alveoli accumulation in March, deposition of lipids in April, and vitellogenesis between May and September. Two distinct batches of vitellogenic oocytes were found in Murray cod ovaries, indicating a capacity for multiple spawns. Plasma profiles of 17beta-oestradiol and testosterone were both highly variable during the maturation period suggesting that multiple roles exist for these steroids during different stages of oocyte growth. Condition factor, liver size and visceral fat stores were all found to increase prior to, or during the peak phase of vitellogenic growth. Murray cod appear to strategically utilise episodes of high feeding activity to accrue energy reserves early in the reproductive cycle prior to its deployment during periods of rapid ovarian growth. PMID:17904884

Newman, Dane M; Jones, Paul L; Ingram, Brett A



A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (United States)

Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17?years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-? diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50?years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-? diol G levels compared to other profiles (p30?kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei



Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

Sjoerd M. Euser



Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil. (United States)

River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete



Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan. (United States)

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of sub-lethal nitrite exposure on sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol), cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) of Labeo rohita juveniles. Fishes previously fed with normal or elevated levels of vitamin E (VE) and tryptophan for 60 days were exposed to sub-lethal nitrite for another 45 days with same feeding regime. There were nine treatment groups, viz. VE0TRP0-N, VE0TRP0+N, VE100TRP0-N, VE100TRP0+N, VE100TRP0.75+N, VE100TRP1.5+N, VE150TRP0+N, VE300TRP0+N and VE200TRP1+N. Except the groups VE0TRP0-N and VE100TRP0-N, all other groups were exposed to nitrite. At the end of the 45 days of nitrite exposure, serum samples were assayed for sex steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones. The serum T3 and T4 levels decreased to the extent of 84.5 and 94.06%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Dietary supplementation with additional amounts of VE and tryptophan appears to reduce the decline of the production of T4. The serum testosterone and estradiol decreased 97.31 and 92.86%, respectively, upon nitrite exposure. Supplementation with additional amounts of VE was found to reverse nitrite-induced inhibition of testosterone and estradiol production. Serum cortisol increased upon nitrite exposure and unexposed (VE100-N) group showed lower levels, which were comparable to groups fed with elevated levels of VE. The overall results of the present study revealed that environmental nitrites have a negative impact on steroidogenesis, which can be overcome by dietary supplementation of elevated amounts of VE (minimum of 150 mg VE Kg diet(-1)) and to a lesser extent by tryptophan (only at the level of 1.5% of the diet). PMID:23504103

Ciji, A; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Akhtar, M S



Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)  

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Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E1. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E1. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E1. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E1 and T/E2 ratios were elevated and the E1/E2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle


Alternative splicing of the D2 dopamine receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is modulated by activated sex steroid receptors in the MMQ prolactin cell line. (United States)

The two isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor are generated by alternative splicing of the exon 6 of the premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA), changing the length of the third cytoplasmic loop involved in the coupling to G proteins. In the MMQ PRL cell line, sex steroid hormones modulated the proportion of the two D2 receptor isoforms. Under controlled culture conditions, 17beta-estradiol (E2) strongly favored the production of the long isoform of D2 mRNA over the short one, whereas both isoforms were equally abundant when culture medium was hormone depleted. In the presence of progesterone (P), E2 action was inhibited, and equal amounts of each D2 receptor isoform were produced in the cells. Hormone treatments never modified either the total amount of D2 receptor mRNA and D2 receptor binding sites or D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Specific antagonists demonstrated that the activity of each hormone depended on their nuclear receptors. Inhibitors of gene transcription or translation also showed that their activity required protein synthesis. The expression of the short D2 receptor isoform was never prominent, even at the single cell level. Analysis of the intron sequence flanking alternative exon 6 showed that only the upstream intron presented two sequence tracts known to be targets for splicing factors. Taken together, these results provide converging evidence for a physiologically relevant mechanism by which sex steroid receptors could regulate the expression of a splicing factor favoring the production of the long dopamine D2 receptor isoform. PMID:9751502

Guivarc'h, D; Vincent, J D; Vernier, P



Significant role of female sex hormones in cardiac myofilament activation in angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive rats. (United States)

Ovariectomy leads to suppression of cardiac myofilament activation in healthy rats implicating the physiological essence of female sex hormones on myocardial contraction. However, the possible function of these hormones during pathologically induced myofilament adaptation is not known. In this study, sham-operated and ovariectomized female rats were chronically exposed to angiotensin II (AII), which has been shown to cause myocardial adaptation. In the shams, AII induced cardiac adaptation by increasing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Interestingly, this hypersensitivity was further enhanced in AII-infused ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy increased the phosphorylation levels of cardiac tropomyosin, which may underlie the mechanism of hypersensitivity. On the other hand, AII infusion did not alter maximal tension that was suppressed after ovariectomy. This finding coincided with a comparable increase in ?-isoform of myosin heavy chains in both ovariectomized groups. Together, it is conceivable that female sex hormones serve as predominant factors that regulate cardiac myofilament activation. Furthermore, they may prevent stress-induced myofilament maladaptation. PMID:24777837

Pandit, Sulaksana; Woranush, Warunya; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas



Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border. (United States)

Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A



The metabolism of ecdysone and its putative role as the female sex - pheromone in the green shore crab carcinus maenas L.  

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Both male and female crabs excrete large amounts of ecdysteroids and related metabolites during all major stages of the molting cycle. A sex-specific pattern in the metabolic pathways could not be established. These findings contradict the hypothesis that ecdysone functions as the female sex pheromone.

Buchholz, F.



Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

Shethwala Nimisha



Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo (United States)

Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8%) were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, P FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267) had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68) of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68) of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services. PMID:25404849

Schwartz, Sheree R.; Papworth, Erin; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Anato, Simplice; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Ketende, Sosthenes; Pitche, Vincent Palokinam



Outcomes of a behavioral intervention to reduce HIV risk among drug-involved female sex workers. (United States)

Although street-based female sex workers (FSWs) are highly vulnerable to HIV, they often lack access to needed health services and medical care. This paper reports the results of a recently completed randomized intervention trial for FSWs in Miami, Florida, which tested the relative efficacy of two case management interventions that aimed to link underserved FSWs with health services and to reduce risk behaviors for HIV. Participants were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to: a Strengths-Based/Professional Only (PO) or a Strengths-Based/Professional-Peer condition (PP). Follow-up data were collected 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Outcome analyses indicated that both intervention groups displayed significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors and significant increases in services utilization; the Professional-Peer condition provided no added benefit. HIV seropositive FSWs responded particularly well to the interventions, suggesting the utility of brief strengths-based case management interventions for this population in future initiatives. PMID:24558098

Surratt, Hilary L; O'Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Chen, Minxing



Types of female partners reported by black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and associations with intercourse frequency, unprotected sex and HIV and STI prevalence. (United States)

We used baseline data from a study of Black MSM/MSMW in 6 US cities to examine the association of female partnership types with disease prevalence and sexual behaviors among the 555 MSMW participants. MSMW reported more than three times as many total and unprotected sex acts with each primary as they did with each non-primary female partner. We compared MSMW whose recent female partners were: (1) all primary ("PF only", n = 156), (2) both primary and non-primary ("PF & NPF", n = 186), and (3) all non-primary ("NPF only", n = 213). HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly across groups but sexual behaviors did. The PF only group had the fewest male partners and was the most likely to have only primary male partners; the PF & NPF group was the most likely to have transgender partners. PF & NPF men reported the most sex acts (total and unprotected) with females; NPF only men reported the fewest. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are discussed. PMID:24523006

Harawa, N; Wilton, L; Wang, L; Mao, C; Kuo, I; Penniman, T; Shoptaw, S; Griffith, S; Williams, J K; Cummings, V; Mayer, K; Koblin, B



6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the anteromedial ventral striatum impair opposite-sex urinary odor preference in female mice. (United States)

Rodents rely upon their olfactory modality to perceive opposite-sex pheromonal odors needed to motivate courtship behaviors. Volatile and nonvolatile components of pheromonal odors are processed by the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory system (AOS), respectively, with inputs converging in the medial amygdala (Me). The Me in turn targets the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), the ventral pallidum (VP), medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesized that pheromone-induced dopamine (DA) release in the ventral striatum (particularly in the mAcb and mOT) may mediate the normal preference of female mice to investigate male pheromones. We made bilateral 6-OHDA lesions of DA fibers innervating either the mAcb alone or the mAcb+mOT in female mice and tested estrous females' preference for opposite-sex urinary odors. We found that 6-OHDA lesions of either the mAcb alone or the mAcb+mOT significantly reduced the preference of sexually naïve female mice to investigate breeding male urinary odors (volatiles as well as volatiles+nonvolatiles) vs. estrous female urinary odors. These same neurotoxic lesions had no effect on subjects' ability to discriminate between these two urinary odors, on their locomotor activity, or on their preference for consuming sucrose. The integrity of the dopaminergic innervation of the mAcb and mOT is required for female mice to prefer investigating male pheromones. PMID:25150042

DiBenedictis, Brett T; Olugbemi, Adaeze O; Baum, Michael J; Cherry, James A



Metabolic changes in serum steroids induced by total-body irradiation of female C57B/6 mice. (United States)

The short- and long-term effects of a single exposure to gamma radiation on steroid metabolism were investigated in mice. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to generate quantitative profiles of serum steroid levels in mice that had undergone total-body irradiation (TBI) at doses of 0Gy, 1Gy, and 4Gy. Following TBI, serum samples were collected at the pre-dose time point and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after TBI. Serum levels of progestins, progesterone, 5?-DHP, 5?-DHP, and 20?-DHP showed a significant down-regulation following short-term exposure to 4Gy, with the exception of 20?-DHP, which was significantly decreased at each of the time points measured. The corticosteroids 5?-THDOC and 5?-DHB were significantly elevated at each of the time points measured after exposure to either 1 or 4Gy. Among the sterols, 24S-OH-cholestoerol showed a dose-related elevation after irradiation that reached significance in the high dose group at the 6- and 9-month time points. PMID:24462676

Moon, Ju-Yeon; Shin, Hee-June; Son, Hyun-Hwa; Lee, Jeongae; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Kyu Hwan; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho




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Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propo...

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun




Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...


Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L



Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia (United States)

Background Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police Method FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Results Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45–3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03–2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53–13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43–2.92). Conclusion Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings also highlight heightened vulnerability to such violence among self-managed and substance abusing FSWs in this context. Structural interventions addressing police violence against FSWs may be useful to improve the health and safety of this population. PMID:23916802

Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita



Chemical communication in Schizocosa malitiosa: evidence of a female contact sex pheromone and persistence in the field. (United States)

Mate finding in many spider species is mediated, at least in part, by chemical cues. Although few have been characterized, most spider sex pheromones seem to be associated with the silk threads of adult females, attracting and/or triggering sexual behaviors in males. Schizocosa malitiosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a wolf spider common in dry environments in Southern Uruguay. Here, we report evidence for the occurrence of a female sex pheromone in the silk of virgin S. malitiosa females. The pheromone elicits typical courtship displays by conspecific males (palpal drumming and leg shaking), when it is applied to an artificial substrate. We also showed that this pheromone is quickly inactivated under field conditions, possibly due to the effect of dew, and that it is readily extracted from the silk by water, which renders the silk threads inactive. Preliminary chemical analyses by mass spectrometry suggest that the pheromone is a low molecular weight, highly oxygenated polar compound, present in a high concentration only in older virgin females. Quick inactivation in the field of the pheromone would allow males to discriminate between recent and old cues, thus facilitating mate searching and sexual meeting, by preventing males from following old cues for wandering females that could be distant in space and/or time. PMID:20563627

Baruffaldi, Luciana; Costa, Fernando G; Rodríguez, Alejandra; González, Andrés



From Female Infanticide To Female Foeiticide – A Case Study In A Low Sex Ratio Districts Of Tamil Nadu  

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Full Text Available Infanticide is the custom of killing girls at birth. The female child unborn and born was unwelcome to such an extent that parents were event willing to kill. Various methods like poisoning the milk, strangling , burning alive or even drowning were used to do away with female babies. In Tamil Nadu, the Kallar community were practising this evil. Even though they liberalized their womenfolk within the caste rules, they committed female infanticide due to the problem of poverty. This practice is not confined to the Kallars alone. Tribal people like the Todas have practiced female infanticide. The steady growth of this evil forced the British Administrators to take some preventive measures. Two regulations were passed by the Government to suppress infanticide, namely, Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804. During the first half of the Nineteenth Century, a few British Officials took an active role in abolition of female infanticide. In 1890, the Infanticide Act (Act III was passed which required for its working special police surveillance of the suspected. Statistics shows that in Madras in 19920 out of every thousand babies born as 199 die within the year of birth. The cause for such death rate are early marriage, poverty, low standard of living, bad nourishment, low vitality of mothers and overwork in the case of expectant mothers. This evil has occurred not only in several cultures across history, but is known to occur in contemporary societies as well. Female infanticide in India has been documented for period of British colonial rule by several scholars. In the period since infanticide, the gruesome practice has been reported as occurring in many parts of the country including Tamil Nadu, where the phenomenon is of recent origin, and was not known to exist before independence , except among the Todas

D. Elangovan



2,3-Hexanediols as Sex Attractants and a Female-produced Sex Pheromone for Cerambycid Beetles in the Prionine Genus Tragosoma (United States)

Recent work suggests that closely related cerambycid species often share pheromone components, or even produce pheromone blends of identical composition. However, little is known of the pheromones of species in the subfamily Prioninae. During field bioassays in California, males of three species in the prionine genus Tragosoma were attracted to 2,3-hexanediols, common components of male-produced aggregation pheromones of beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. We report here that the female-produced sex pheromone of Tragosoma depsarium “sp. nov. Laplante” is (2R,3R)-2,3-hex-anediol, and provide evidence from field bioassays and electro-antennography that the female-produced pheromone of both Tragosoma pilosicorne Casey and T depsarium “harrisi” LeConte may be (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol. Sexual dimorphism in the sculpting of the prothorax suggests that the pheromone glands are located in the prothorax of females. This is the second sex attractant pheromone structure identified from the subfamily Prioninae, and our results provide further evidence of pheromonal parsimony within the Cerambycidae, in this case extending across both subfamily and gender lines. PMID:22923142

Barbour, James D.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Moreira, Jardel A.; Swift, Ian; Wright, Ian M.; Zunic, Alenka; Mitchell, Robert F.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Alten, Ronald L.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Hanks, Lawrence M.



Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

van Teijlingen Edwin R



Discriminating Males and Unpredictable Females: Males Differentiate Self-Similar Facial Cues More than Females in the Judgment of Opposite-Sex Attractiveness (United States)

Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance) and dissimilar (other-resemblance) images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50%) of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance) and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0%) rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness. PMID:24594644

Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Zhang, Sen; Xu, Jing; Hu, Die



Control of the level of unusual estrogen-binding protein in rat liver by sex steroids and the pituitary  

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This paper studies the role of sex steriods and the pituitary in regulation of the unusual estrogen-binding protein (UEBP) level in male rat liver. The concentration of E2-binding sites of UEBP in the liver cytosol was determined by measuring binding of a minimal addition of 2,4,6,7-tritium-E2, with specific radioactivity of 98-100 Ci/mmole. Data on the effect of hypophysectomy on the UEBP level in the liver of different groups of rats are presented. The presence of comparable quantities of E2 and androgens in rats of both sexes is evidence of the existence of a fine mechanism of combined regulation of the UEBP concentration under natural conditions that reflect changes in the absolute E2 or androgen levels or in the ratio between them


Estimating the number of people who inject drugs, female sex workers, and men who have sex with men, Unguja Island, Zanzibar: results and synthesis of multiple methods. (United States)

To determine the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Unguja Island, Zanzibar in 2011/2012, we applied several, practical population size estimation methods including literature review, unique object multiplier, recapture from the 2007 survey, wisdom of the crowds and service multiplier. We synthesized findings and presented them to a panel of experts in order to determine plausible estimates for each population. The estimates adopted by a panel of experts as being most plausible were 3,000 for PWID, 3,958 for FSW and 2,157 for MSM. We learned that no one method could be concluded to be the standard for all three populations. The estimates we found, though still not perfect, are useful for the HIV programmes serving these populations. PMID:23709254

Khalid, Farhat J; Hamad, Fatma M; Othman, Asha A; Khatib, Ahmed M; Mohamed, Sophia; Ali, Ameir Kh; Dahoma, Mohammed J U



The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness. (United States)

Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness. PMID:21900597

Sun, Tong; Oh, William K; Jacobus, Susanna; Regan, Meredith; Pomerantz, Mark; Freedman, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W



HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amo...

La, Swe; Rashid A.



HIV risk among female sex workers in Miami: The impact of violent victimization and untreated mental illness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Street-based female sex workers constitute a vulnerable population for HIV, as they are often enmeshed in chronic patterns of substance use, sexual risk, homelessness, and violent victimization. This study examined the specific contributions of victimization history and abuse-related traumagenic factors to mental health functioning and sexual risk behaviors, while considering the impact of environmental risk factors as well. Using targeted sampling strategies, we enrolled 562 Miami-based fema...



Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before a...

Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Remedios Lozada; Gudelia Rangel, M.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.



Female-biased sex ratios in marine pelagic copepods: Comment on Gusmao et al. (2013)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gusmao et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 482:279-298) review causes of sex ratio skew in pelagic copepods and in doing so repeatedly dispute the paper of Hirst et al. (2010) ‘Does predation control adult sex ratios and longevities in marine pelagic copepods?’ Here we respond to some important errors in their citation of our paper and briefly highlight where future work is needed in order to attribute the causes of strong sex ratio skew seen in some copepod families

Hirst, Andrew G.; Bonnet, D



B Chromosomes Have a Functional Effect on Female Sex Determination in Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, w...

Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro



Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study (United States)

Background Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18–25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Result Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR?=?2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR?=?2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR?=?3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR?=?3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. Conclusion In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females. PMID:25028202



Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove


Do sex differences in the brain explain sex differences in the hormonal induction of reproductive behavior? What 25 years of research on the Japanese quail tells us. (United States)

Early workers interested in the mechanisms mediating sex differences in morphology and behavior assumed that differences in behavior that are commonly observed between males and females result from the sex specificity of androgens and estrogens. Androgens were thought to facilitate male-typical traits, and estrogens were thought to facilitate female-typical traits. By the mid-20th century, however, it was apparent that administering androgens to females or estrogens to males was not always effective in sex-reversing behavior and that in some cases a "female" hormone such as an estrogen could produce male-typical behavior and an androgen could induce female-typical behavior. These conceptual difficulties were resolved to a large extent by the seminal paper of C. H. Phoenix, R. W. Goy, A. A. Gerall, and W. C. Young in (1959, Endocrinology 65, 369-382) that illustrated that several aspects of sexual behavior are different between males and females because the sexes have been exposed during their perinatal life to a different endocrine milieu that has irreversibly modified their response to steroids in adulthood. Phoenix et al. (1959) therefore formalized a clear dichotomy between the organizational and activational effects of sex steroid hormones. Since this paper, a substantial amount of research has been carried out in an attempt to identify the aspects of brain morphology or neurochemistry that differentiate under the embryonic/neonatal effects of steroids and are responsible for the different behavioral response of males and females to the activation by steroids in adulthood. During the past 25 years, research in behavioral neuroendocrinology has identified many sex differences in brain morphology or neurochemistry; however many of these sex differences disappear when male and female subjects are placed in similar endocrine conditions (e.g., are gonadectomized and treated with the same amount of steroids) so that these differences appear to be of an activational nature and cannot therefore explain sex differences in behavior that are still present in gonadectomized steroid-treated adults. This research has also revealed many aspects of brain morphology and chemistry that are markedly affected by steroids in adulthood and are thought to mediate the activation of behavior at the central level. It has been explicitly, or in some cases, implicitly assumed that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior driven by early exposure to steroids concerns primarily those neuroanatomical/neurochemical characteristics that are altered by steroids in adulthood and presumably mediate the activation of behavior. Extensive efforts to identify these sexually differentiated brain characteristics over the past 20 years has only met with limited success, however. As regards reproductive behavior, in all model species that have been studied it is still impossible to identify satisfactorily brain characteristics that differentiate under early steroid action and explain the sex differences in behavioral activating effects of steroids. This problem is illustrated by research conducted on Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), an avian model system that displays prominent sex differences in the sexual behavioral response to testosterone, and in which the endocrine mechanisms that control sexual differentiation of behavior have been clearly identified so that subjects with a fully sex-reversed behavioral phenotype can be easily produced. In this species, studies of sex differences in the neural substrate mediating the action of steroids in the brain, including the activity of the enzymes that metabolize steroids such as aromatase and the distribution of steroid hormone receptors as well as related neurotransmitter systems, did not result in a satisfactory explanation of sex differences in the behavioral effectiveness of testosterone. Possible explanations for the relative failure to identify the organized brain characteristics responsible for behavio PMID:9047287

Balthazart, J; Tlemçani, O; Ball, G F



Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) confirmed by a molecular sexing technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris p [...] uede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como control. Analizamos muestras de DNA de 190 individuos. Los tamaños de los productos del PCR fueron identificados como 350 pares de bases (pb) para CHD-Z y 388 pb para CHD-W. Pudimos confirmar que las hembras adultas presentan iris rojo y las hembras jóvenes iris marrón. También pudimos distinguir machos jóvenes de hembras, que presentan el mismo color de iris y plumaje. Abstract in english The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be us [...] ed to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp) for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.

Denise, Monnerat Nogueira; Maria Alice, S. Alves.


Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs' income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs' health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

Gaines, Tommi L; Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L



Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention (United States)

Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita



Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty. (United States)

There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergi